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Concept of Health and Illness

Stress
By Hans Selye
Is a non-specific response of the
body to any demand placed upon
it.
General Adaptation Syndrome
(GAS)
Local
Adaptation
Syndrome
(LAS)
General Adaptation Syndrome
Involves two (2) body systems:
Nervous System
Endocrine System
Nervous System involves:
Sympathetic Nervous System
Parasympathetic Nervous system
Endocrine System involves:
Adrenal Glands
The Adrenal Gland is composed of:
Adrenal Medulla
Adrenal Cortex
Adrenal Medulla releases Adrenalins
or Fight or Flight Hormones:
Epinephrine
Norepinephrine
Effects of Adrenalins
Increases Cardiac Rate
Response to increased metabolic
rate and oxygen demand
Increases Respiratory Rate
Response to increased metabolic
rate and oxygen demand
Bronchodilation
Vasoconstriction
Increased Peripheral Resistance
Increased Cardiac Workload
Increased Blood Pressure
Decreased Renal Perfusion

Decreased Renal Output


Pale, Cool, Clammy Skin
Adrenal Gland is composed of:
1. Adrenal Medulla
Releases adrenalins
2. Adrenal Cortex
Releases the following:
Mineralocorticoids
o Aldosterone
Glucocorticoids
Cortisol
o A
potent
vasoconstrictor
Mineralocorticoids
Increased Aldosterone levels
Increases sodium retention and
water retention
Increases
circulating
blood
volume
Increases cardiac workload (due
to vasoconstriction)
Glucocorticoids
Increased
hyperglycemia
(transient)
Increased glycogenolysis
Increased neogenesis
Increases blood sugar
Increases osmotic pressure
Increases fluid retention (glucose
is a colloid which attracts water
and adheres to it)
Increases cardiac workload
Concept:
Complications of Stress:
Cerebrovascular Attack
Increased Diabetic Ketoacidosis
(if patient is diabetic)
Hypertension leading to cardiac
arrest

1
The R.A Gapuz Review Center Inc. makes no representations about the accuracy, authenticity, and reliability of this compilation. It declaims any and all
responsibility or liability for plagiarism, copyright infringement and violation of related laws in connection with the contents of the materials. It had no
participation and compilation thereof such being sole responsibility of the reviewer concerned. This disclaimer serves as a notice to the public that R. A.
Gapuz Review Center Inc. shall not be liable for any complaints, actions or suits in connection with the contents of the materials of this compilation.

Local Adaptation Syndrome


Also known as non-specific
inflammatory response
Bradykinin
o Activates
inflammatory
response
o Activates histamine
Histamine
o Activates the following:
Prostaglandin
Serotonin
Concept:
Bradykinin,
Histamine,
Prostaglandin, and Serotonin all
increase swelling
Key Concept!
Hans Selye
o Author
of
Physiologic
Response to Stress
Lazarus
Stress is a transaction
Stress resulted from interaction of
man with his environment and
fellowman
Therefore, Lazarus describes the
SOCIAL ASPECT OF STRESS
Also an adopted PHYSIOLOGIC
RESPONSE
Key Concept!
The
most
comprehensive
concept of stress is the stress
concept of LAZARUS as it
combines Physiologic and Social
aspects of stress.
Statements about Stress
Stress is NOT a nervous energy
Man, whenever he encounters
stress, tends to adopt
Are you going around all stress?
ANSWER IS NO!!! because
stress is not always to be avoided

and stress is not always


undesirable
Stress may lead to another stress
A single stress does not lead to a
disease
Concepts:
Adaptation to stress comprises of
adjustments made in order to
cope with a stressor
Man is holistic in his adaptation to
stress
It involves the totality of man:
o Physiologic
o Psychologic
o Social
Illness Behavior and Stages of Illness
Illness Behavior
Pertains
to
any
activity
undertaken by a person who
feels ill in order to
Define his state of health
Discover a suitable remedy
IGUN Eleven stages of Illness and
Health-seeking Behaviors
1. Symptom Experience
Client realizes there is a problem
Client responds emotionally
2. Self-medication / Self-treatment (if not
effective)
3. Communication to others
4. Assessment of symptoms
Purpose is to verify the veracity
of the complaint
5. Sick-Role Assumption
6. Concern Stage
7. Efficacy of treatment
Assess sources of treatment
Assess potential effectiveness of
treatment
8. Selection of Treatment Stage
Availability
Cost of Treatment

The R.A Gapuz Review Center Inc. makes no representations about the accuracy, authenticity, and reliability of this compilation. It declaims any and all
responsibility or liability for plagiarism, copyright infringement and violation of related laws in connection with the contents of the materials. It had no
participation and compilation thereof such being sole responsibility of the reviewer concerned. This disclaimer serves as a notice to the public that R. A.
Gapuz Review Center Inc. shall not be liable for any complaints, actions or suits in connection with the contents of the materials of this compilation.

9. Treatment Proper
10. Assessment of Effectiveness of
Treatment
May go back to stage 7 (Efficacy
of Treatment) if treatment is not
effective
May go to next stage if treatment
is effective
11. Recovery and Rehabilitation
Compliance
Adherence
advice

to

professionals

Factors Affecting Compliance


Client motivation
Degree of required change in
lifestyle
Perceived severity of health
problem
Difficulty
of
understanding
instructions
Belief about the effectiveness of
the therapy
Nature of the therapy itself
o Adverse effects
o Cost
Cultural influences
Degree of satisfaction with the
relationship with health care
providers
Suggested Nursing Actions in case of
Non-compliance

Assess the reasons


Correct the misconception
Demonstrate a caring attitude
Encourage and provide positive
reinforcement
o Focusing on the positive
rather than on the negative
o Focus on things patient
can still do and not on
what the patient can no
longer do
Establish
a
therapeutic
relationship of freedom and
mutual responsibility
o Make patient realize he is
also responsible for his
recovery
o He is a partner with the
health care team
o He is an active participant

Guidelines to Enhance Compliance


Be sure patient understand
procedure by giving information
Make sure patient is capable of
performing activity
o Set realistic goals
Ensure that he is a WILLING
participant
o Look for buying signals
Looking at wound
Looking at materials
needed

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The R.A Gapuz Review Center Inc. makes no representations about the accuracy, authenticity, and reliability of this compilation. It declaims any and all
responsibility or liability for plagiarism, copyright infringement and violation of related laws in connection with the contents of the materials. It had no
participation and compilation thereof such being sole responsibility of the reviewer concerned. This disclaimer serves as a notice to the public that R. A.
Gapuz Review Center Inc. shall not be liable for any complaints, actions or suits in connection with the contents of the materials of this compilation.