Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 111

PAUT,TOFD,AUT

In Lieu of RT

Pars Leading Inspection Co.


Presented By: Behrouz Piranfar

9/10/2013

Techniques

Time Of Flight Diffraction


(TOFD)

Contents

How it works
Typical TOFD Display
Defect Analysis
Defect Example
Application
Advantage

Principle of TOFD

Transmitter

Receiver
Lateral wave
Upper tip
Lower tip

Back-wall reflection
Time-Of-Flight Diffraction (TOFD) relies on the diffraction of
ultrasonic energies from 'corners' and 'ends' of internal
structures (primarily defects) in a component being tested
using a set of two probes.

How it works

DEFECT

PROBE

Reflection

Back

How it works

DEFECT

PROBE

Diffraction

How it works

Rx

Tx

DEFECT

Diffraction

How it works

Practically

Rx

Tx

How it works

Rx

Tx

Lateral wave
+ Pos

Amplitud
dB

Tiemper ms

- Neg

How it works

Rx

Tx

Signal
Diffracted

+ Pos

Amplitud
dB

Tiemper ms

- Neg

How it works

Rx

Tx

Reflection
From Back
wall

+ Pos

Amplitud
dB

Tiemper ms

- Neg

How it works

Data Collection
6
5
4
3
2
1
Rx

Tx

How it works

Phase Reversal
+ Pos

Amplitude
dB

- Neg

Time = seconds
or
Millimetres

How it works

Greyscale Image Presentation

Depth

Lenght

Typical TOFD Display

Defect Analysis with Cursors

Use of cursors on top and bottom of defect to size the defect

Example NearSurface Breaking Defect

Lateral wave blocked


Sizing by measuring crack tip

Example Mid-wall Defect


No break in lateral wave or back wall
Top and bottom signals visible (if defect deep enough)
Can measure lengths using hyperbolic cursors

Example Lack of Root Penetration

Sometimes see
break in back
wall signal
Defect can be
sized using
time-of-arrival
Similar to other
root defects

Example Lack of Sidewall Fusion

Should see no
perturbations
in lateral wave
or Back wall
In this case,
top signal is
buried in
lateral (OD)
wave
Can size easier
if signals are
clear.

Example - Porosity

Multiple small reflectors, each with hyperbolic tails. Usually


can characterize, but sizing difficult.

Example Transverse Cracks

Transverse cracks are rare, and similar to porosity, No


perturbation of lateral or back wall

Example Internal Lack of Fusion

Strong signal but height


measurement difficult

Applications
Critical plant items in construction and in-service
Pressure Systems Vessels, pipelines, pipe-work
Storage facilities Tanks, spheres
Tube Vessels - Boilers, Heat Exchangers, Condensers
High Temperature Inspection Up to 480C

Service induced defects & structural damage


Corrosion/erosion profiling - especially weld root erosion
Thick wall components > 300mm
Clad/lining interface bond/cracking

TOFD Advantages

Excellent POD for mid-wall defects

Good detection of miss oriented defects

Can characterize surface-breaking defects

Excellent sizing for defects in transverse

Tolerable sizing for defects in linear mode

Works very well in conjunction with pulse-echo

Rapid (and relatively low cost) inspections

Permanent Record of All Parameters

Offline Interpretation and Measurement

Excellent Repeatability.

Challenges

Dead zone of ~3mm at outer surface

Additional B-scans necessary for transverse positioning

Hard to interpret

Difficult to apply to thin materials (<6mm)

Combine with MUT for exact location of defect

Techniques

Phased Array Ultrasonic Test


(PAUT)

Contents

How it works
Scan view
Sectorial scan
Electronic scan
Scan plane
Software
Indication example
Application
Advantage
Code
Equipments

How it works
A NEW ultrasound NDT technology borrowed
from medical
An Array of transducers elements in which
the timing of elements excitation can be
individually controlled to produce certain
desired effects, such as steering the beam
axis or focusing the beam
Each element has its own connector, time
delay circuit and A/D converter
Elements are acoustically insulated from each
other

Elements are pulsed in groups with precalculated time delays for each element;
Phasing

How it works
Transmission (Tx)
Elements pulsed at controlled time intervals
Control of beam direction and focusing
The delays are known as Tx Focal Laws

Beam
Steering

Beam
Focusing

How it works

Reception (Rx)
RF waveforms received by each element are delayed, then
averaged
Delays used to align the signals = Rx Focal Laws

Ultrasound reflects from defect


Elements receive ultrasound at different times due to the
different beam paths
Signals then aligned by electronic circuitry

Scan view

Sectorial scan

Multiple Focal Laws

Beam is swept through many angles


Wide coverage of the specimen
Side Drilled
Holes

Back
wall

Electronic scanning
Each PRF cycle
Aperture moves through the length of the array
No raster movement required
Full volumetric coverage achieved

scanning

Physical scan movement in one axis only


Full axial weld coverage achieved

Scan Plane

Definition of specimen and weld geometry, coverage assessment


using linear scan PAUT and representation of a typical PAUT and
TOFD combination

Software
A-Scan, E-Scan, and C-Scan, END View

Software
Sectorial Scan, Top view , TOFD

Flaw Volumetric Position Overview


Flaw volumetric position is defined as the position of the flaw
relative to the weld or component.
For weld inspection it is typically expressed as negative or positive
in relation to the weld centerline or weld reference, and either
embedded, connected to the ID, or connected to the OD.
The flaw volumetric position is a
key indicator for determining what
SWLF flaw on weld overlay
type of defect has been detected.
(Slag, porosity, IP, LOF, ext.)
Knowledge of the weld bevel and
weld process is extremely helpful.
In a V weld, IP would occur in the
Sk90 (-)
Sk270 (+)
bottom root area, obviously. In a X
weld IP would occur in the weld
center.
Regardless if volumetric position
Weld
is a requirement of the referencing
Centerline
code, knowing the volumetric
position is necessary to make the
repair. Where to excavate and how
deep and long?

Flaw Volumetric Position - Overlay


Weld overlays are the primary indicator for determining volumetric flaw
position.
Using the part and weld wizard almost any symmetrical or
asymmetrical weld can be created and displayed on the S-scan.

The weld overlays should be considered close approximations when


used to determine flaw location. The overlay is dependent on the
scanner or manual probe position being maintained or entered with a
high level of precision for them to be useful.
Slag

Inadequate penetration

OD connected crack

Root crack

Porosity

Inclusion

Lack of root fusion

Case Study
Present day NDT methodology utilizes radiography is the main
method with a double wall double image technique to check the
integrity of these weld joints.
Natural weld defects were included in 3
pipes of 44.5 mm of diameter and 5 mm
thickness with a single V configuration
such as:
(i) toe crack and lack of incomplete
penetration in Pipe-1
(ii) root crack and lack of side wall
fusion in Pipe-2
(iii) an individual porosity and cluster
porosities were introduced in Pipe-3
The three pipe samples were subjected
to radiography and the results were
analyzed
The samples were also inspected
utilizing the COBRA Phased Array system

Case Study

The defects are

Toe Crack

Toe crack
Incomplete penetration
Incomplete
penetration

Case Study

Root Crack

These defects are


Root crack
Lack of side wall fusion

LOF

Case Study

The defects are


isolated porosity
Cluster of porosities
Cluster Porosity

Applications
Pressure vessels
Pipelines
Portable weld inspections
Raw material production: ingots, billets, bars

Aircraft: civil and defence: In-Service Inspection


Military Pre-Service Inspection & In-Service Inspection
Power Generation: nuclear & fossil fuel: In-Service Inspection
Petrochemical: pipeline construction welds
Applications can be on anything currently applying pulse-echo testing

Corrosion Mapping

Compatible with Phased array


Detection of corrosion, erosion,
pitting, etc.
2 in long array probe for fast
acquisition

A scans acquisition
Use of water box
couplant efficiency

improves

Pressure Vessels
Low cost and easy to use
Can use conventional or PA
Uses TOFD and pulse-echo
Good approach for very thick walls

Need allowance for operator error


Simplest mechanical solution
No safety hazard, no delays
Can use magnetic wheel scanner

Pipelines

AUT gives much better inspection: better detection, better resolution


MUT is significantly worse, due to
unfocused beams and inappropriate
angles

RT and MUT would reject many


more welds

Austenitic Piping
PA instrument, two 5MHz 16
element probes using a
splitter/umbilical, and a mechanical
scanner.

1.5mm hole on near side of the weld

High Temperature Inspection

Inspection with specific probe and


wedge can be carried out at high
temperature in many situations.
Detection and sizing up to 400C

Phased array weld inspection

Sample calibration Block

Construction Welding
Sample crack and S-scan image

Corner Crack
Inspection with 40- to 70-degree refracted angle
Real-time display of S-scan and A-scan

Bolts
PA Probe
Threads

15 Degree
Beam
15 Degree Beam

Notch #1

Notch #1
0 Degree
Beam
360 Groove

360 Groove

Mode
Conversions
Notch #2

Notch #2
End of Bolt
0 Degree Beam

End of Bolt

PA Sectorial Scan

Boiler

High Volume Typically


large number of welds to
inspect
Many different
configurations (diameter,
thickness, etc)

Advantages

One probe covers many angles


Can produce compression and shear wave
No radiation hazard, chemicals and films, equipment inside pipe

Great resolution
High speed inspection
Instantaneous recording and evaluation of results
Provides immediate feedback to the welders
Reproducibility

Codes
Some quick comments
ASME is the most widely used code.
Specifically accepts phased arrays (as do most codes) as a
technology, but the techniques and procedures need to be developed.
Normal procedure is to demonstrate these through a Performance
Demonstration, e.g. Appendix 14 or CC 2235 in the case of ASME.

Codes
Three manual code cases: CC 2451for single angle scanning,
CC 2557 for manual S-scans, manual E-scans (2558)
Two code cases for encoded linear scans:
linear E-scans (2599), and
linear S-scans (2600).

Codes
A Standard Guide for setting up PA is available (E-2491-06)
This SG requires full angular compensated gain (ACG) and TCG over the
side-drilled hole calibration range for S-scans.

Equipments
TD-Handy Scan

Veo-Sonatest

OmniScan MX 2

Equipments
OmniScan MX 2
With hundreds of units being used throughout the world, the
OmniScan MX is Olympus NDTs most successful portable and
modular phased array and eddy current array test instrument. The
OmniScan family includes the innovative phased array and eddy
current array test modules, as well as the conventional eddy
current and ultrasound modules, all designed to meet the most
demanding NDT requirements. The OmniScan MX offers a high
acquisition rate and powerful software featuresin a portable,
modular instrumentto efficiently perform manual and automated
inspections.

Equipments
Veo-Sonatest
The veos robust design, intuitive user interface
and extensive online help brings the power of
Phased Array to the field based technician. The
powerful veo platform unlocks a new level of
performance in a portable instrument. The
Inspection Plan shows the operator in 2D and
3D where probes are positioned on the test
part, simplifying the inspection setup and
providing an inspection reference for reporting.
Multiple scans from different probes may be
displayed and evaluated at the same time.
Multiple Sectorial scans, top, side and end view
extractions plus C scans are all supported by
the veo. TOFD and Phased array inspections
can be carried out in tandem at full scanning
speed and with up to 2GB data files large areas
can be inspected more efficiently. Full
resolution waveform data is stored directly to a
removable USB data key for ease of back up
and transfer to PC.

Equipments
TD-Handy Scan

TD-Handy scan Is a new hand-held multifunction advanced ultrasonic


used system, the TD-Handy scan is most successful portable phased
array and TOFD test instrument. The TD-Handy scan allow the phased
array and TOFD test simultaneously, and also possible to have strip
chart scan which is not available by other portable equipments, all
designed to meet the most demanding NDT requirements. The TDHandy scan offers a high acquisition rate and powerful software
features in a portable to efficiently perform manual and automated
inspections.
Although the TD Handy-Scan is a small hand-held instrument
weighing only 3.3 kilograms, it sports an impressive battery of
features and capability.

Reporting

Techniques

Automated Ultrasonic Test


(AUT)

Contents

What is AUT?
History
Calibration Block
TOFD
Phased Array
Mapping
Zone Discrimination
Equipment
AUT Advantage
AUT In Iran
Codes and standards
Conclusion

What is AUT?

The AUT system is used for weld


inspection as a combination of two
or three different techniques. It
provides detailed information on the
position, size, and orientation of
defects. Using either a conventional
multi-probe, or phased array setup,
the system scans a weld in a single
pass. The operator is then able to
view the results in a graphical
presentation.

What is AUT?

The weld thickness is divided into a number of depth zones

Inspection concept is related to the weld bevel configuration


Full weld inspection coverage is achieved by placing an
ultrasonic probe set on both sides of the weld, each probe
within the set examines a layer within the weld.

History

Initial AUT design Mid 1960 s

History

AUT Go-NoGo presentation Mid 1970 s

AUT paperchart recorder Mid 1980 s

AUT with PC presentation begin 1980 s

History

AUT paperchart recorder Mid 1980 s

Computerized AUT Mid 1990 s

Computerized AUT end 1990 s

Zone Discrimination

Zone 1
Zone 2
Zone 3
Zone 4
Zone 5
Zone 6

Weld zoned - inspect with focused waves from both sides.


(Up/Down stream)
Fast, reliable weld inspection (ASME/ASTM/API compliant)
Mechanics simpler & more reliable
Conventional UT = 1 probe per zone
Phased Array = 1 probe covers all zones

Zone Discrimination

Tandem probe application

angle variation
focussing
tandem

Zone 2

Zone Discrimination

F5
F4
F3
F2
F1

F1

F2

F3

F4

F5

76

Scan Plane

Calibration Block
A calibration plate, made of an original piece of the pipeline
material to be inspected, is prepared with artificial defects
such as flat bottom holes and or notches, which represent
actual flaws.
Artificial defects are present in each depth-zone.

Calibration Block

Calibration Block

Calibration Block

Calibration Block

Calibration Block

Capabilities

For application of the AUT, it is


good practice to operate strictly
according to a mutually agreed
inspection procedure. To judge the
results, the procedure always
contains clear acceptance/rejection
criteria. These criteria may be
based on an Engineering Critical
Assessment or Good Workmanship
Standards.

Using 3 main methods (TOFD,


Phased Array, Mapping) together to
achieve better and more accurate
results.

TOFD

A-scan

Indication

Lateral
wave

Back-wall

Phased array

Probe angle

Flat bottom hole


focus

Mapping
The mapping feature enables the system to visualise the
presence of the geometrical welding features such as the
position of the weld cap and root penetration, which minimises
the possibility of the system generating false calls. Furthermore
this feature enables the system to cope with most existing UT
procedures and acceptance criteria, because of its capability to
detect and, to a certain extent, quantify volumetric defects.

Mapping

Mapping

Advantages of mapping:

Increase of inspection
integrity
Reducing of false calls
Characterization of
defects
Can be combined with
pulse-echo technique

TOFD , Phased array

TOFD , Phased array


Phased array inspection techniques are often complimented with TOFD.
TOFD is particularly beneficial for increased length and depth sizing
accuracy to compliment amplitude based pulse-echo inspections.
Data displayed in Tomoview 2.9 for offline analysis. Volume merge C-scan and TOFD B-scan.

Zone Discrimination
Phased array, ToFD, Pulse echo
Easy UT set-up and configuration
Configure for code complience
Meets requirements of EN 1712, API 1104, DNV 2000 FS101, ASTM
E1961
Automated or manual data evaluation
Built in reporting

Zone Discrimination

Recording Threshold

Shaded area
shows TOF

Colours indicate
Above / Below
Acceptance thresholds

Amplitude Data

Data from
Up-stream Channels

Data from

Threshold

Down-stream channels

breaking defects.

Calibration Block

LOP

LOF

Porosity

TOFD

AUT Advantages
Can be used On and Offshore
No radiation hazard, No chemicals and films
No equipment inside pipe
Hot and cold operating temperatures
>100 welds/day onshore and>150 welds/day offshore
Digital and real-time results, final report on a DVD

High speed inspection, High POD


Instantaneous recording and evaluation of results
Provides immediate feedback to the welders

AUT Advantages

AUT Equipments

PipeWizard V4

TD-Handy Scan

AUT in Iran
2004
Siri offshore pipeline by Saipem, 83 Km
SP 4&5 offshore pipeline by Saipem, 190 Km
2006
Salman (EPC 3) offshore pipeline by IOEC, ~30 Km
SP 8 offshore pipeline by Sadra/DOT, 100 km
2007
SP 9&10 offshore pipeline by IOEC, ~190 Km
2008
Siri-Asaluyeh offshore pipeline by IOEC, 282 Km
2009
SP 15 offshore pipeline by IOEC, ~80 Km
2010-2011-2012
SP 12 offshore pipeline by IOEC, ~440 Km
Reshadat in field , ~120 Km
Forozan in field , ~120 Km
SP 15,16 offshore pipeline by IOEC, ~130 Km
SP 15 offshore pipeline by IOEC, ~260 Km

AUT in Iran
2013
SP 19 offshore pipeline by IOEC, ~260 Km
SP 20,21 ~ In progress

Total installation of pipelines using AUT in lieu of RT:


~2200 Km
Range of diameters:
4 To 56
Range or Thickness:
6mm to 38mm
Working hours/shift:
Shifts/day: 2

12

Record per shift: 107 welds (32 main line and 4 piggy
back)

Codes and standards

In 1998, the ASTM published the E-1961-98 code


(reapproved in 2003), which covers key elements of AUT of
girth welds zone discrimination, rapid data interpretation,
specialized calibration blocks, and configuration procedures.
The E-1961 code is designed for ECA. Similarly, in 1999, the
American Petroleum Institute (API) published the 20th
edition of Standard 1104, which covers mechanized
ultrasonic testing and radiography of girth welds.
Other codes:

DNV OS-F101, BS 4515-1 2009

TOFD Acceptance codes:


European norms: BS7706 and EN583_6
ASTM E-2373-04
ASME CC 2235-1

RT compare with AUT

RT compare with AUT

Reporting

Thanks for your time!

Please do not hesitate to ask


for further information

Contact us for more information at:


Mailing Address:

Unit 7, No 1, Allay 1, Fiyat St,

Ekbatan-Tehran
Tel/Fax:

+98-21-44694583

E-mail:

Info@parsinspection.com

Internet:

www.parsinspection.com