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RTR TRANSMISSION TECHNIQUE

We are listing some of the very common topics based on different situations in RTR Transmission.
Its nearly impossible to cover all the situations but discussing some of the common topics.
In case, if question comes out of the topics discussed below. It is recommended for a candidate
to attend the question in examination by using standard phrases and standard
transmission technique. There are also few small situations which are discussed in
between of the topics listed below.
Disclaimer: The topic covered below is for RTR Transmission exams and
most of the situations are very different from the Real life transmission on-board an
aircraft. These notes are just to set a format in your mind and for standard practice for
RTR transmission examinations. In any case Author is not Responsible for any such
details given in this blog if quoted with any authority. And also it will not serve as a legal
document. Non of the charts, maps and other drawings given in this blog is for practical
purpose.All drawings, charts, maps are given as a sample for understanding.
However, these notes are prepared after the self-study done by author from different
government and non-government documents, books and other reading materials.
In any case readers are recommended to read content at there own risk.
Situations of RTR Transmission
1. Position Report
2. RVSM
a. Aircraft unable RVSM, in contact with ATC.
b. Aircraft flying on deviated track, no contact with ATC
c. Aircraft unable RVSM, re-established contact with ATC.
d. Non-RVSM approved aircraft, for RVSM Level.
3. Radio communication failure
4. Joining or crossing ATS Routes
5. AIRPROX on different situations
6. Traffic on reciprocal tracks, crossing each other climb or descend/
lateral separation/ longitudinal separation.
7. a. Weather deviation (In contact with ATC)
b. Weather deviation (no contact with ATC)
8. Wind shear report
9. Vehicle on Taxiway
10. Request to change ATS Route (Altering Route)
11. Urgency
12. Distress
a. Cabin decompression
b. Engine on fire
c. Aircraft entered in prohibited area.
13. Visual Approach
14. Standard Instrument Departures (SID`s charts)
15. Standard Terminal Arrival Route (STAR`s charts)
16. Holdings Over Fix or w.r.t. Fix.

1. Position Report
Example-

figure 1.1

-by ICA

Transmission Format
Station called
kings-way control
Station calling (with station freq.) Air India 131 on 118.1
Spoken word
POSITION
Reporting point time
ANR 1100
(Give fix name and then present time over that fix)
Flight level
FL330
EST. Next Reporting Point
EST. Blue Whale 1115
Reporting Point Ensuing
PM Next

Example-

figure 1.2

-by ICA

Transmissionkings way control on 118.1


Air India 131
POSITION
ANR 1100
FL 330
Est. Blue Whale 1115
BWN Next

Distance
by

should
using

be

reported with respect to VOR AND DME


word
"
TO"
and
"
FROM"

Example-

figure 1.3

Use word " ABEAM"


to its RIGHT or LEFT side.

- by ICA

when

aircraft

has

Nav-Aid

at

090

degrees

* If aircraft is overhead of any FIX (VOR, DR etc...).


Use only " Name of FIX" and give " PRESENT TIME" over
that fix, it`s better not to use word " OVERHEAD" in such case.
ExampleTransmission - AI-131 POSITION DPN 1100 FL320

2. RVSM
(Reduced Vertical Separation Minimums)
RVSM Airspace is from FL290 to FL410
Requirements to Fly RVSM # Airspace should be approved as RVSM airspace
# Aircraft should be certified to Fly RVSM
# pilot should be approved to FLY RVSM
Following Equipment should be fully serviceable# Two Primary Altimeter Settings
# Automatic Altitude Keeping Device
# Altitude Alerting Device
# Transponder with MODE- C
Separation in RVSM
# Aircraft in same direction, separation is of 2000 feet
# Aircraft in opposite direction, separation is of 1000 feet
Situation (a)
Aircraft becomes Non-compliant to RVSM, due any of the mandatory
equipment failure. In contact with ATC

ExampleTransmission [ chennai control VT-RGT, Unable RVSM due equipment.


POSITION, 60 DME Distance from MMV P628 FL310
Required FL270 ]
Important: In the above given example, a pilot cannot request FL 280.
Because its a east bound flight. please read " Semi-circular Rule "
for more details.
Golden Words: Do not forget to use hypothetical data whenever required,
but if it is given. Then use the data given in your question paper.
In the above given example there is no data given for DME, AIRWAY etc.

Transmission Pilot - chennai control VT-RGT unable RVSM due equipment.


POSITION, 60 DME Distance from MMV P628
FL310 REQUEST FL270
Chennai control- VT-RGT Descend to FL270
Pilot- Leaving FL310 for FL270, VT-RGT
Situation (b.)
Aircraft Unable to continue RVSM, Lost Contact with ATC.
If aircraft unable to continue RVSM and Lost contact with ATC.
First make right or left turn by 90 degrees and continue flying
till 15 nm. Once you are at 15 nm make a turn parallel to the assign ATS
Route and climb or descend by 500 feet. SWITCH ON all exterior lights.
" transmission for this situation is given below this figure"

Transmission Format
1. Pan-pan pan-pan pan-pan
2. All aircraft All aircraft
3. In the vicinity of (DME DISTANCE, NAME OF FIX AND ROUTE)
4. Aircraft identification
5. Type of aircraft
6. Unable RVSM due (EQUIPMENT, SEVERE TURBULENCE etc.)
7. Position of aircraft (DME DISTANCE, FIX AND ROUTE)
8. Flight level
9. What action you are taking (TURNING RIGHT/LEFT BY 90 DEGREES
- FOR 15 NM - WILL FLY FL+500
OR FL-500 FEET ON DEVIATED TRACK)
10. All exterior lights switched ON
11. Keep a look out

figure 1.6

-by ICA

ExampleTransmissionPilot- pan-pan pan-pan pan-pan


All aircraft All aircraft
In the vicinity of P628 VT-RGT AIRBUS,
Unable RVSM due EQUIPMENT
50 DME Distance from MMV
P628 FL310 Turning Right by 90 degrees
for 15 nm, will fly FL315 on Deviated Track.
All Exterior Lights Switched ON
Keep a Look Out
IN THE ABOVE TRANSMISSION: VT-RGT is an aircraft registration no.
P628 is Hypothetical AIRWAY
MMV is a fix (hypothetically)

Do not forget to transmit- type of Aircraft


* How to transmit while changing a Flight Levels on Cruise ?
Transmit- 1. while leaving a Level
2. passing a Level
3. Reaching a Level

Situation (c.)
Aircraft on Deviated track, an ATC contact Re-established.

figure 1.7

-by ICA

Transmissiion
Pilot- Chennai control VT-RGT when 50 DME
distance from MMV P628*. Lost contact with you,
were unable RVSM due equipment.
Present position 15 nm deviated track
crossing radial 140, 80 DME from MMV FL315
Request to Resume Normal Navigation (RNN) AND
FL 270
Chennai control- VT-RGT, Clear to RNN. Clear to descend FL270
Pilot- Returning to P628*,
Leaving FL315 for FL 270, VT-RGT
*(P628 is an Airway)

Situation (d.)
Non RVSM approved aircraft for RVSM level
TransmissionPilot- Mumbai control VT-RJP, FL270
required FL310. Negative RVSM
Mumbai control- VT-RJP climb to FL310

Pilot- Leaving FL270 for FL310


Negative RVSM, VT-RJP
Pilot- Mumbai control, VT-RJP maintaining
FL310 Negative RVSM

Situation (e.)
Aircraft becomes non-compliant to RVSM, due severe turbulence. Fails
to get ATC clearance.

figure 1.8

-by ICA

TransmissionPilot- pan-pan pan-pan pan-pan


all aircraft all aircraft
In the vicinity of P628
VT-RGT Airbus P628 FL310
Turning right by 90 degrees for 15 nm
due weather/ thunderstorm
will fly FL315 on deviated track
all exterior lights switched ON
keep a look-out

3. Radio Communication Failure(RCF)


In case of Radio communication failure1. Try to contact on alternate frequency
2. If above fails, try to contact appropriate ground station

3. If the above fails, try to contact with aircraft flying in vicinity on


appropriate frequency.
4. If the above fails, transmit you message on the frequency at which you
transmitted earlier at the first place.
MAKE THIS TRANSMISSION AS- "BLIND TRANSMISSION"
AND REPEAT IT TWICE.
The concept is given below-

Figure 1.9

-by ICA

In this given situation, an Airbus with Registration no. VT-LMC


initially cleared for FL160 for the separation from other traffic, later it
is suppose to climb for En-route on FL220 (two two zero) but
unable to contact the Facility due to Radio communication failure.
As per RCF procedure, pilot estimates the first reporting point
i.e. between DPN and IKABA at FL160. lets us say,
Pilot estimates-

IKABA @ 1210. Now as per RCF procedure, aircraft will


leave FL160 for its en-route climb exactly after 20 (two zero) minutes
from the first estimate (IKABA).
It will leave FL160 for FL220 @ 1230 [1210 + 0020 minutes]. Keep this in
mind that this is a Broadcast.
Transmission for the above given situation TransmissionPilot- Delhi Approach VT-LMC on 118.1 Airbus
Transmitting Blind
FL160, Est IKABA 1210 JJP 1225 GUDUM 1245
will leave FL160 1230 for FL220

will transmit again at 1210


" I SAY AGAIN "
Delhi Approach VT-LMC on 118.1 Airbus
Transmitting Blind
FL160, Est IKABA 1210 JJP 1225 GUDUM 1245
will leave FL160 1230 for FL220
will transmit again at 1210
(* keep broadcasting on each and every reporting point, give full compliance
until examiner asks you to attend next question)

Pilot- Delhi Approach VT-LMC on 118.1


transmitting blind Position
JJP 1225 Est. GUDUM 1245
IDOLA next.
will transmit again at 1230
" I SAY AGAIN"
Delhi Approach VT-LMC
transmitting blind Position
JJP 1225 Est. GUDUM 1245
IDOLA next.
will transmit again at 1230

Pilot- Delhi Approach VT-LMC


on 118.1 transmitting blind
leaving FL160 for FL220
will transmit again reaching FL220
" I SAY AGAIN"
Delhi Approach VT-LMC
on 118.1 transmitting blind
leaving FL160 for FL220
will transmit again reaching FL220
4. Joining or crossing ATS Routes

Transmission Format
1. Station called
2. Station calling
3. Type of aircraft
4. Weather conditions (IMC or VMC)
5. Position, level
6. Est. of joining point
7. Level of joining point

8. Route
9. Landing aerodrome after joining
10. T.A.S.
11. Request joining clearance or Crossing clearance

ExampleSituation- Aircraft Identity: VT-RJP


Route: Jodhpur to Delhi
FL210

Type of aircraft: ATR


Refer chart no. 1. (download charts from link given above)

TransmissionPilot- DELHI CONTROL VT-RJP ATR


IMC POSITION R085 60DME DISTANCE
FROM JJO FL210 EST. UKBAB 1215
FL210 W13N LANDING DELHI
TAS 310 KNOTS
REQUEST JOINING CLEARANCE
Situation- Aircraft Identity: VT-RJP Type of aircraft: Boeing
Route: VABP - VAUD via Pratapgarh
FL220
Refer chart no. 1.
1. At 60 nm from VABP, Nagpur changes you to Next ATC unit.
obtain crossing clearance.
Transmission- ASSUME PRESENT TIME: 0440
Pilot- AHEMDABAD CONTROL VT-RJP ON 134.2
BOEING IMC POSITION R285 60DME DISTANCE
FROM BPL FL220 A474 EST. PRA 0500
LANDING UDAIPUR TAS 340 KNOTS
REQUEST CROSSING CLEARANCE

5. Airprox
Word "AIRPROX" derived from Aircraft Proximity.
The situation classified by the level of Risks:
1. Risk of Collision - when there is a serious risk of collision has existed.
2. Safety not assured- when the safety of aircraft have been compromised.
3. No risk of collision- when there is no risk of collision has existed.
4. Risk not determined- when there is insufficient information available to determine
the risk involved, or in conclusion or conflicting evidence
precluded such determination.

figure 2.0

-by ICA

Transmission Format
Type of Incidence- Varanasi control " Airprox" Risk of collision
AI-131 Airbus Radial 290, 90 DME Distance TO BBN R594 TAS
480K FL330 Maintaining
Flying conditions- IMC/VMC
Time of Incidence- At Time 0315
Details- An Indian Air-force (IAF) fighter aircraft crossed flight
path by 3nm ahead in descending phase from left to right sighted
10 o` clock

ExampleGiven: Aircraft Registration: VT-PXQ


Route: VABP-VEJS, A791
Flight Level: 350

Type of Aircraft: AIRBUS


Refer Chart No. 2 (download charts from link given above)

Situation: You reached JAJB at 1815. An IAF Fighter aircraft crosses your flight
path from Left to Right in climbing phase approx. 3NM ahead. Transmit your
message
Transmission: NAGPUR CONTROL " AIRPROX " RISK OF COLLISION
VT-PXQ AIRBUS JJB1815 A791 TAS 360K FL350 IMC.
AT 1814 AN IAF FIGHTER AIRCRAFT CROSSED FLIGHT
PATH 3NM AHEAD IN CLIMBING
PHASE. SIGHTED 12 O`CLOCK.

6. Traffic on Reciprocal track

figure 2.1

-by ICA

# Clearance of climb or descent to other FL will be given by ATC after


Est. time to cross + 10 minutes.
# If traffic is in sight - TRANSMIT- " Traffic in sight (AI-131),
we cleared the traffic"
after that request climb/descend, so there is no need to wait
for 10 minutes after Est. time to cross because clearing of traffic is confirmed.

figure 2.2

-by ICA

7. Weather deviation

figure 2.3

-by ICA

Situation (a.) Aircraft in contact with ATC


case of weather deviation from ATS Route:
Format of TransmissionPilot: NAGPUR CONTROL VT-LMC
AIRBUS "WEATHER DEVIATION REQUIRED"
TO RIGHT BY 15 NM DUE BAD WEATHER
DURATION 10 MINUTES.
Nagpur control: VT-LMC 15NM DEVIATION TO RIGHT
Pilot: TURNING (DEVIATION) RIGHT, VT-LMC
[DO NOT REQUEST DEVIATION IN DEGREES, REQUEST IN DISTANCE (NM).
YOU CAN REQUEST FOR APPROPRIATE DISTANCE TO CLEAR OFF THE WEATHER]
Always Remember : Always avoid diversion to the direction where there is another
ATS Route is passing. Request/choose the opposite side in such case. There is a diversion

preference while crossing thunderstorm to your right hand side or left hand side
(starboard or port) which depends upon hemisphere where you are flying. This is not an
important situation considered in Transmission exam up till date. But it is a very important
factor in Real life Transmission. Refer meteorology for more details on this.

Situation: weather deviation denied by ATC.


TransmissionPilot: NAGPUR CONTROL VT-LMC WEATHER DEVIATION
REQUIRED 60 DME DISTANCE TO NNP FL330 REQ DEVIATION
TO RIGHT BY 15NM DUE BAD WEATHER DURATION 10 MINUTES
Nagpur control: VT-LMC UNABLE TO APPROVE DEVIATION RIGHT
DUE TRAFFIC SPICE-JET 191. AIRBUS. 25NM TO YOUR RIGHT
FL330 REQUEST INTENTION.
Pilot: FOR THE SAFTEY OF AIRCRAFT PASSENGER (PAX)
DEVIATING RIGHT CONTACTING TRAFFIC
--------------------------------- NO FUTHUR REPLY FROM Nagpur Control
Pilot: SPICE JET 191, VT-LMC AIRBUS 60 DME DISTANCE
TO NNP G450 FL330 DEVIATING TO
RIGHT BY 15NM (or less as long as you clear wx safely)
TO AVOID WEATHER DURATION 10 MINUTES
ALL EXTERIOR LIGHTS SWITCHED ON
KEEP A LOOK OUT
SpiceJet-191: VT-LMC WILL KEEP A LOOK OUT, SPICE JET-191

Situation (b.) Aircraft is not in contact with ATC

figure 2.4

-by ICA

When there is no contact with ATC, and weather deviation is necessary.


1. if flying easterly direction- While Turning Right, fly off the ATS
assigned route and climb by 300 feet at 10nm from ATS route. No need
to climb if you are taking diversion within 10 nm.

2. if flying easterly direction - While Turning left, fly off the ATS assigned
route and descend by 300 feet at 10nm from ATS route. No need to descend
if you are taking diversion within 10nm.
3. if flying wasterly direction - While Turning right, fly off the ATS assigned
route and descend by 300 feet at 10nm from ATS route. No need to descend
if you are taking diversion within 10nm.
4. if flying wasterly direction - While Turning left, fly off the ATS assigned
route and climb by 300 feet at 10nm from ATS route. No need to climb
if you are taking diversion within 10nm.

Transmission- Format for weather diversion if not in contact with ATC


Pilot: PAN-PAN PAN-PAN PAN-PAN
ALL AIRCRAFT ALL AIRCRAFT
IN THE VICINITY OF 70 DME DISTANCE NNP
G450 FL330. TURNING RIGHT BY 15NM
DUE BAD WEATHER
AT 10NM WILL CLIMB TO FL333 AND MAINTAIN
ON DEVIATED TRACK
ALL EXTERIOR LIGHTS SWITCHED ON
KEEP A LOOK OUT.
* climb or descend by 300 feet if you are diverting within 10nm.
if diversion distance is not given in question. better to take diversion
within 10nm so that there is no need to transmit unnecessary and
it will save lot of time.

8. Wind Shear Report


Transmission Format for wind shear report1. Station called
2. Station calling
3. "WIND SHEAR REPORT"
4. Time
5. Intensity
6. Height
7. Location
Example-1
Pilot: Delhi Twr VT-RJH
windshear report
time: 0915 Intensity Moderate
Height 700 Feet
In approach path

*Wind shear warning given by ATC to other aircraft:


Delhi Twr: VT-RJO wind shear warning
reported by arriving Boeing at time 0915
intensity moderate in approach path
runway 27 height 700 feet

9. Vehicle on Taxiway

figure 2.5

-by ICA

Informing ATC - Vehicle passes in front of you

Pilot: Delhi Ground VT-NOJ on Taxiway B (bravo) approaching


intersection taxiway B-C
A green car on taxiway C (charlie), from left to right.

10. Request to change ATS Route (Altering Route)


Given Situation: Aircraft Identity VT-LMC Route: VABB-VIDP, W13N
FL300
Refer chart no. 1. (download charts from link given above)
-Over DOTIP, you decided to change your route from APANO and proceed
to delhi via indore.
TransmissionPilot: MUMBAI CONTROL VT-LMC

POSITION DOTIP 1115


FL300, WILL ALTER COURSE FROM
APANO AND PROCEED VIA W10 FL310
IID W10, BPL W20N FL300
ESTIMATE APANO 1130
BODAR 1145 IID 1200
Golden Words: In this above given transmission. we changed our
Flight Level from FL300 to FL310 and again changed from FL310
to FL300. It is because we are changing our direction at those points
so applied changes according to the " semi-circular" Rule. please read
semi-circular rule for more details.

11. Urgency
The situation which do not require immediate assistance/attention: can be defined as " a condition
concerning the safety of an aircraft or other vehicle, or of some person on board or within sight which do not
require immediate assistance"
These situation cannot be defined and it is Pilot who decides the severity
of situation and transmits message as an Urgency call.
If there is an Urgency Situation, Transmit you message to the station with " PAN-PAN" call,
Time

Repeated Three

Transmission Format
Pan-Pan Pan-Pan Pan-Pan
Station called Station calling (on frequency)
Type of aircraftNature of emergencyPositionIntentionUseful information- (Total person on board= passenger on board +
crew+yourself,
-Fuel on board or endurance in Hour/Minutes)

12. Distress
The situation which require immediate assistance/attention: can be defined as " a condition of
being threatened by serious and/or imminent danger and of requiring immediate assistance "

These situation cannot be defined and it is Pilot who decides the severity
of situation and transmits message as an Urgency call.
some of the situation given below should be treated as Distress situation:
1. Cabin Pressure reduces.
2. Aircraft structural damage.
3. Aircraft enters in prohibited area.
4. Engine on fire ...etc
If there is a Distress Situation, Transmit you message to the station with " MAY-DAY" call, Repeated Three
Time

Transmission Format
May-Day May-Day May-Day
Station called Station calling (on frequency)
Type of aircraftNature of emergencyPositionIntentionUseful information- (Total person on board= passenger on board +
crew+yourself,
-Fuel on board or endurance in Hour/Minutes)
Important : In case of distress/urgency, transmit your message on the frequency
which is in use instead of emergency freq. 121.5mhz. switch to 121.5mhz only if
asked by Station.

Situation (a): Cabin Decompression


Aircraft Ident.: VT-LMC
Type of aircraft: Challenger
- you are 70nm to NNP(fix of nagpur) that cabin pressure reduces, take
necessary
action as you decide to continue flight to kolkata.
Transmission- Cabin Decompression
Pilot: May-Day May-Day May-Day

NAGPUR CONTROL VT-LMC ON 123.9 CHALLENGER


EXPERIENCING DECOMPRESSION
POSITION 70 DME DISTANCE TO NNP FL330
REQUEST IMMEDIATE DESCEND TO FL90
WILL CONTINUE FLIGHT TO KOLKATA
PASSENGER ON-BOARD 053
FUEL 1 TON
Nagpur control- VT-LMC ROGER YOUR MAY-DAY
DESCEND TO FL90
Pilot- LEAVING FL330 FOR FL90, VT-LMC

Situation (b): Engine on fire


Aircraft Reg.: VT-LMC

Type of Aircraft: Airbus


Route: VIDP-VABB
FL340

- That you are 80nm to VIJP, your left engine catches fire, you
decided to land at VIJP

Transmission-Engine on fire
Pilot: May-Day May-Day May-Day
DELHI CONTROL VT-LMC ON 123.9 AIRBIUS
ENGINE NO. 1 ON FIRE POSITION 80DME DISTANCE
TO JJP FL340 WILL MAKE FORCE LANDING
AT JAIPUR
EST. JAIPUR IN 10 MINUTES
REQUEST DESCEND LEVELS
PERSON ON BOARD 105
ENDURANCE 3 HOURS 45 MINUTES

Situation (c): Aircraft Entered on Prohibited Area


* If you enter in prohibited area, transmit "MAY-DAY" (three times) and come out
from the shortest way and land at the nearest aerodrome as soon as practical.

13.

Visual Approach

For visual approach* Aircraft should runway in sight.


* The pilot should ensure that he will be close to complete visual approach without loosing
sight of runway.
* The pilot should ensure that he will be able to complete visual approach without encountering
IMC
* If in case pilot looses sight of the runway, he should discontinue visual approach.
ExampleTransmissionPilot- MUMBAI TOWER VT-LMC ON 118.1
AIRBUS FL50 FROM MUMBAI RWY IN SIGHT
REQUEST VISUAL APPROACH

Mumbai tower- VT-LMC CLEARED FOR VISUAL APPROACH


DESCEND TO CIRCUIT ALTITUDE REPORT DOWNWIND
LEFT HAND CIRCUIT RWY27 QNH 1010
Pilot- CLEARED FOR VISUAL APPROACH
LEAVING FL50 FOR CIRCUIT ALTITUDE
WILL REPORT DOWNWIND LEFT HAND
CIRCUIT RWY27 QNH 1010

Mumbai tower- THAT IS CORRECT


Pilot- VT-LMC (do not forget to acknowledge)
Pilot- MUMBAI TOWER VT-LMC REPORTING DOWNWIND

Mumbai tower- MUMBAI TOWER

Pilot- MUMBAI TOWER VT-LMC


REPORTING BASE

Mumbai tower- MUMBAI TOWER


Pilot- MUMBAI TOWER, VT-LMC
REPORTING FINAL

Mumbai tower- CLEAR TO LAND WIND CALM


Pilot- CLEAR TO LAND

Example-Discontinuing visual approach


TransmissionPilot- MUMBAI TOWER, VT-LMC
DISCONTINUING/ABANDONING
VISUAL APPROACH DUE RUNWAY
NOT IN SIGHT. POSITION DOWNWIND CIRCUIT ALTITUDE.
REQUEST INSTRUCTIONS.

Mumbai tower- VT-LMC TURN RIGHT BY 90 DEGREES CLIMB TO FL 50


REACHING FL50 RETURN TO BBB EXPECT ILS APPROACH
RUNWAY 27
Pilot-TURNING RIGHT BY 90 DEGREES RETURN TO BBB UPON
REACHING FL50
EXPECT ILS APPROACH RUNWAY 27
Bonus situation: while taxing on taxiway you experienced hot Tyre indication, take action.
TransmissionPilot- DELHI TWR AI-131 GETTING HOT TYRE INDICATION POSITION TAXIWAY
MIKE STOPPING AIRCRAFT SLOWLY REQUEST FIRE TRUCK SERVICES FOR
VISUAL CHECK.

14. Standard Instrument Departure (SID`s)


Read the chart carefully before you start exercise. Read the highlighted fields.
you can copy and save these charts.
chart-1

SID 1.1

VIDP DELHI RWY27/28 (sample copy)

Example- Route: ALI 1E RWY 28 (refer chart given above for route- SID 1.1)
TransmissionPilot- DELHI TWR VT-RMC ON 118.1
5 DME DISTANCE (DPN) TURNING LEFT TRACK 175
Delhi Twr- ROGER

Pilot-DELHI TWR VT-RMC ON TRACK 175 TO INTERCEPT


R355 SKA TO MABER

Delhi Twr- VT-RMC ROGER, CONTACT DELHI APPROACH


ON 127.9
Pilot- SWITCHING TO DELHI APPROACH ON 127.9
Pilot- DELHI APPROACH ON 127.9 VT-RMC

ESTABLISHED ON R355 SKA TO

MABER

Delhi App.- ROGER


Pilot- DELHI TWR VT-RMC TURNING LEFT TO INTERCEPT R283 ALI
TO ALIGARH

Delhi App.- ROGER


Pilot- DELHI APPROACH VT-RMC ESTABLISHED ON R283 ALI TO ALIGARH
PASSING FL70 REQUEST FURTHER CLIMB TO FL270
GOLDEN WORDS: Do not Read-back the transmission from the chart or the given
clearance, use standard phraseology after reading the instructions from charts.

As you can see in above transmission, the transmission is


in standard form.
you will surly wont get any marks if it is a read back from the chart or clearance.
Dont forget to transmit if you intercept any Radial and after you established on
that Radial.
Instructions will be given on chart or if not given, it will be given by examiner
after you
Request for ATC clearance.
How to obtain ATC clearance ? for chart given above:
- suppose your route is DELHI TO LUCKHNOW

Transmission- for ATC clearance


Pilot- Delhi Tower, VT-RMC ON 118.1 REQUEST ATC CLEARANCE
(clearance will be given by examiner, after that give compliance to that
clearance)
Don`t change your frequency from tower/in use freq. to next facility until asked
by
tower/in use freq. no matter in what control area you are flying. But you can
request
to switch freq. to next facility if control area is indicated as per given chart, else
continue with same freq. in use to give further compliance.

Example- Route: PUMOT 1A RWY28 (Refer chart given above for route- SID 1.1)
TransmissionPilot- DELHI TWR VT-RMC ON 118.1 5DME DISTANCE (DPN)
TURNING LEFT TRACK 175 TO SOMAX
Delhi Twr- ROGER, DELHI TOWER
Pilot- DELHI TWR VT-RMC ON TRACK 175 DEGREES TO SOMAX
Delhi Twr- ROGER
Pilot- DELHI TOWER VT-RMC CROSSING R233 DPN
TURNING LEFT TO INTERCEPT R299 ALI
Delhi Twr- ROGER
Pilot- DELHI TWR VT-RMC ESTABLISHED ON R299 ALI TO RADOM
Delhi Twr- DELHI TOWER
Pilot- DELHI TWR VT-RMC 61.5 DME DISTANCE ALI TURNING TO ESTABLISH
R260 SSB
Delhi Twr- VT-RMC ROGER, DELHI TWR
Pilot- DELHI TWR VT-RMC ESTABLISH ON R260 (SSB) 112.4 DME DISTANCE
TO SSB FOR PUMOT

15. Standard Terminal Arrival Route(s) (STAR`s)


Read the chart carefully before you start exercise. Read the highlighted fields.
you can copy and save these charts.
chart-

STAR 1.2

VOMM CHENNAI VOR RUNWAY 07 (sample copy)

Example- Position: W20 R-342 IAF 14D


(Refer chart given above for route- STAR 1.2)
TransmissionPilot- CHENNAI TOWER VT-LMC R342 W20 14DME MMV LEAVING
FL50 FOR 4000 TURNING RIGHT FOR 12 DME ARC ILS APPROACH
RWY07
Chennai Twr- ROGER
Pilot- CHENNAI TOWER VT-LMC COMMENCING 12 DME ARC
CROSSING R318 LEAVING 4000 FOR 2300
Chennai Twr- CHENNAI TOWER

Pilot- CHENNAI TOWER VT-LMC CROSSING LEAD RADIAL 258


TURNING LEFT TO INTERCEPT LOCALIZER
Chennai Twr- CHENNAI TOWER
Pilot- CHENNAI TOWER VT-LMC ESTABLISHED ON LOCALIZER REQUEST
LANDING CLEARANCE
Chennai Twr- VT-LMC, CONTINUE APPROACH
Pilot- CONTINUE APPROACH, VT-LMC
Chennai Twr- VT-LMC, RUNWAY NOT CLEAR.
CONTINUE APPROACH
Pilot- CONTINUE APPROACH, VT-LMC
Pilot- CHENNAI TOWER VT-LMC CROSSING OUTER MARKER
REQUEST LANDING CLEARANCE
Chennai Twr- VT-LMC CLEAR TO LAND WIND CALM

Pilot- CLEAR TO LAND

GOLDEN WORDS: DO NOT FORGET TO REPORT WHILE


CROSSING MANDATORY RADIAL FOR REPORTING, WHILE
CHANGING LEVEL, AFTER ESTABLISHED ON ARC AND
WHILE CROSSING LEAD RADIAL. IF LANDING CLEARANCE
IS NOT OBTAINED. GET IT BEFORE OR ON OUTER-MARKER.
DO NOT LAND IF YOU DO NOT HAVE CLEARANCE, IN
THAT CASE COMMENCE MISS-APPROACH AND
READ THE MISS APPROACH PROCEDURE GIVEN IN
ABOVE CHART. GIVE COMPLIANCE WITH MISS APPROACH
PROCEDURE.

16. HOLDINGS OVER FIX / w.r.t. FIX


Holding can be done over VOR, NDB & G.P.S. WAY POINT
holding instructions may be given by ATC or if not given by ATC it should be followed by instructions
given in charts or AIP etc.
Holding clearance if given by ATC contains following elements1. Name of fix
2. Directions of inbound leg from the fix.
3. Radials / bearings that define the inbound leg.
4. Turn direction (if non-standard)
5. Leg length ( if non-standard. if not given; fly standard-each leg for one minute with standard rate of
turn )
6. Expect further clearance time (EFC)
7. Any applicable notes
Holding entries: (Good to know : Not applicable for RTR TRANSMISSION)
1. Direct
2. Parallel
3. Tear Drop
Begin slowing your airspeed not less than 3 minutes before holding fix.
MHS:
200: KIAS

MHA-6000 ft msl

230: KIAS

6001-14000 ft msl

265: KIAS

14001- msl and Above

The 5 T`s Pilot should remember


1. Turn
2. Time
3. Twist (OBS)
4. Throttle
5. Talk (Radio Communication)
Report Format:
1. Station calling
2. is Established
3. Holding altitude
4. Time (ex: 1340Z )
Required Reports:
1. Time and altitude when reaching a fix
2. Time leaving a holding fix
*Holding can be done OVER the fix or at some DME w.r.t. FIX
*Holding instruction may be given on chart or it might be asked by ATC to hold at any point
with complete instructions.

CHART 1.3 HOLDING PATTERN

ATC holding Instructions and Transmission for Holding at POINT (a.) given in chart

Example- Position: RWY 07 while commencing miss-approach when


- Aircraft fails to land. Read the miss approach procedure and follow the instructions.
Transmit according to instructions.
[ Refer chart-STAR 1.3 point (a.) ]
TransmissionPilot- CHENNAI TWR VT-LMC UNABLE TO
LAND (give reason: why unable to land) RWY 07
COMMENCING MISS-APPROACH
Twr- CHENNAI TWR
Pilot-CHENNAI TWR VT-LMC AT 2300 FEET RUNWAY HEADING
TURNING LEFT FOR MMV VOR HOLDING R269 AT 3000 FEET
EST. MMV 1350Z (TIME)

Twr-CHENNAI TWR
Pilot-CHENNAI TWR VT-LMC AT MMV 1350Z 3000 FEET
FOR VOR HOLDING R269
Twr-CHENNAI TWR
Pilot-CHENNAI TOWER VT-LMC
ON OUTBOUND LEG HOLDING MMV 3000 FEET
Twr-CONTINUE HOLDING
[ REPORT WHILE TURNING TO ESTABLISH OR AFTER ESTABLISHED
ON INBOUND LEG ]

Pilot-CHENNAI TWR VT-LMC TURNING INBOUND R269


HOLDING

Twr-CONTINUE HOLDING
[ REPORT ONLY FOR FIRST HOLD AT INBOUND AND OUTBOUND
LATER REPORT ONLY AT INBOUND OR OVER THE FIX OR 30-40
SECONDS BEFORE THE TIME, IF TIME FOR HOLD IS GIVEN BY ATC ]

Pilot-CHENNAI TWR VT-LMC INBOUND CONTINUE HOLDING


Twr-CHENNAI TWR
Pilot-CHENNAI TWR VT-LMC MMV 1355Z
CONTINUE HOLDING
Twr-CHENNAI TWR
Pilot-CHENNAI TWR VT-LMC MMV 1359Z
( you will reach over the fix and report with time after each hold
That takes standard time 1 min on each leg and total hold is for 4 min.
only applicable for standard holding )

Pilot-CHENNAI TWR VT-LMC INBOUND MMV R269 CONTINUE HOLDING


Twr-CHENNAI TWR
continue hold until advised further by ATC..................
ATC holding Instructions and Transmission for Holding at POINT (b.) given in chart

Example- Position: RWY 07 after miss-approach when


- Aircraft fails to land. ATC may give following Instructions to hold
at initial approach fix-IAF W22 R-091 AT 20D (20 DME)
[ Refer chart-STAR 1.3 point (b.) ]
TransmissionPilot- CHENNAI TWR VT-LMC UNABLE TO LAND

RWY 07. WILL CLIMB 2300 FEET RUNWAY HEADING


Chennai Twr- VT-LMC PROCEED DIRECT TO IAF W22 AT 4000 AND
HOLD R091 20 DME MMV HOLD AT FL65 TIME 3 MINUTES.
( check the minimum holding altitude in chart it`s MHA FL65, that means aircraft
cannot hold below the MHA but if instructed by ATC to hold below MHA
it should be followed instead of MHA given in chart )

(ATC MAY GIVE YOU THE LENGHT OF LEG IN NM`s TO


HOLD AND TO AVOID MORE NO OF TURNS AS WELL
AS DIRECTION TO MAKE TURN IN HOLDING IN CASE OF
NON-STANDARD HOLDING.
IF NO SUCH INSTRUCTION IS GIVEN THEN FOLLOW THE CHART
AND IF NOT GIVEN ON CHART THEN FOLLOW THE STANDARD TURN
TO RIGHT HAND SIDE AND KEEP LEG LENGHT FOR 1 MINUTE
ON EACH LEG)
Pilot- VT-LMC PROCEED DIRECT TO IAF W22 AT 4000 AND
HOLD R091 20 DME MMV HOLD AT FL60 TIME 3 MINUTES.
(GIVE COMPLIANCE TO GIVEN INSTRUCTIONS)

Pilot- CHENNAI TWR VT-LMC AT IAF 20D MMV FOR VOR HOLDING
R091 AT FL60 1350Z
Chennai Twr- CONTINUE HOLDING
Pilot- CHENNAI TWR VT-LMC ON OUTBOUND R091MMV HOLDING
Chennai Twr- CONTINUE HOLDING
Pilot- CHENNAI TWR AI-131 TURNING FOR INBOUND HOLDING
20 DME MMV
Chennai Twr- CONTINUE HOLD
Pilot- CHENNAI TWR VT-LMC HOLDING 091, 20DME MMV
( no further inbound/outbound reported after one inbound and one out bound report,
now report should be over the fix or on inbound leg just before reaching over the fix )

Chennai Twr- CONTINUE HOLD EXPECT VOR ILS 07 STAND


BY FOR FURTHER INSTRUCTIONS
Pilot- CHENNAI TWR VT-LMC CONTINUE HOLDING R091 20 DME MMV
REQ FURTHER INSTRUCTIONS TO LAND RWY 07 VOR ILS.
Don`t forget to Transmit time while leaving the hold
ATC MAY ASK YOU TO HOLD AT POINT (C.) INDICATED ON CHART.
INSTRUCTIONS MAY BE AS FOLLOWS CHENNAI TWR- VT-LMC FLY DIRECT TO IAF DCT TIRUPATI
AT FL 50 AND HOLD ON R-318 16 DME MMV HOLDING TO RIGHT (right hand pattern)
EXPECT FURTHER CLEARANCE AT 1350Z
In instructions given in transmission, time for hold and length of holding leg
is not given. So keep holding time as standard i.e. for 1 minute on each leg.

ELECTRONICS IN AVIATION COMMUNICATION - WPC


RTR
This section is focused on viva/theory applicable for Electronics In Aviation Communication:

ohm`s law: ohm`s law states that the current flowing through an electrical circuit is directly
proportional to the EMF and inversely proportional to its resistance at a constant
temperature.
I=E/R
where,

I = current (unit -ampere), E = EMF(unit- Volt) and R = resistance (unit- ohm)

Power: The product of current and EMF is known as Power.


watt is the unit of power.
1 kilowatt is power consumed in one hour.
W=IE
Battery: connecting a *primary cells (1.5 v) in series or parallel combination forms battery.
*primary cells cannot be recharged

Volt: The S.I.* unit of EMF. The Difference of potential that would carry one ampere of current
against one ohm resistance.
*SI UNITS: Systme International d'Units

(INTERNATIONAL SYSTEM OF UNITS)

Ampere: It is a unit of current. one ampere of current represents one coulomb of electric charge

moving past a specific point in one second.

EMF: The rate at which energy is drawn from the source when unit current flows
through the circuit measured in unit, Volts.
" e.m.f is not a force in classic physics sense because it is measured in Volts & not in Newton "

* For aircraft requiring a battery of 12v, 6 cells are connected in series. When the cells are connected in
parallel, the voltage of the battery remains the same as the single cell. however, the amount of current
that can be drawn from the battery will multiply depending upon number of cells in parallel.

Resistance: The force that oppose the flow of electron current in a conductor.
unit of resistance is ohm.
When resistance are connected in series, the total resistance of the circuit is equal to
Total Resistance, Rt = r1 + r2 + r3

When more than one resistance are connected in parallel (in circuit ), the total resistance
of the circuit is equal to :
Total Resistance: 1/R = 1/r1 + 1/r2 + 1/r3

Capacitance/capacitor: It is a passive electronic component that stores energy in a form


of an electrostatic field. unit of capacitance is farad.
* The insulating material used on capacitor plates called Di-Electric
C = Q/V
where,

C = capacitance in farad
Q = charge in coulomb
V = voltage (potential difference)

Eddy Current: An electric current induced within the body of a conductor when conductor
either moves through a non-uniform magnetic magnetic field or in the region
where there is a change in magnetic flux. It is sometimes called Foucault current.
Eddy current cause heat and electromagnetic force in current.
Eddy current is superficial phenomenon.

About EMF, Open & Close Circuit of Cells

"In cell, The EMF is close circuit & voltage at the terminal of cell that is
neither charging nor discharging is called the open circuit voltage and equals
the emf of the cell"

Kirchhoff`s law

Kirchhoff`s first law: The algebraic sum of current in network of conductors meeting at a point is zero.
(figure 1.)
In figure 1. given above, i1 + i4 = i2 + i3 (according to Kirchhoff circuit law)

Kirchhoff`s second law: The directed sum of the electronic potential differences
(voltage) around any close circuit is zero.
(figure 2.)
In figure 2. given above, V1 + V2 + V3 + V4 = 0

Formula to calculate electric fan RPM:


H.P. = (T N)/5252
where,
H.P. - horse power
T= torque
N= speed (RPM)

Transformers
Transformers is a device used in A.C. circuit either to step up or step down the voltage. It works on the principle of
mutual induction.

facts:
* A.C. supply is 50 to 60 times per second and is called 50 hz/ 60 hz A.C.

*In order to reduce the size of transformers/chokes etc in an aircraft. the A.C. supply is 400hz.

Generators/motors
"a machine which converts mechanical energy into electrical energy is called Generators whereas,
a machine which converts electrical energy into mechanical energy is called Motors"
A.C. GENERATOR - a generator designed to produce A.C. current is called A.C. generators or an alternator

D.C.GENERATOR - a generator producing D.C. energy is called D.C. generators. Both type (A.C. & D.C.) of
generators operated by inducing an A.C. voltage with the help of commutator the A.C. energy can be converted in to
D.C.

CHOKE

A choke is a coil of insulated wire often wound on a magnetic core, used as a passive inductor which blocks higher
frequency A.C. in an electric circuit while allowing to pass low frequency and direct current by having an impedance
largely determined by reactance.
IN SIMPLE WORDS: " CHOKE " MEANS BLOCKING.
Uses: Chokes are used in Radio Circuits are divided into two class 1. Designed to use with power and audio frequency.
2. For Radio frequency.