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Environmental Law set of legal rules addressed specifically to activities which potentially

affect the quality of the environment, whether natural or man-made. It includes hard and soft
law; important tool of environmental management
Non-regression - norms which have already been adopted by States not be revised, if this
implies going backwards on the subject of standards of protection of collective and individual
Common but differentiated responsibility States have the common responsibility to protect
environmental resource or area but the historical differences in the contributions of
developed and developing States to global environmental problems, and differences in their
respective economic and technical capacity to tackle these problems are taken into account in
the discharge of such responsibilities
Intergenerational responsibility man has the right to use the earths resources but is also
duty bound to protect and improve the environment for present and future generations. Its
the basis of the right of the present generation to sue in its behalf and in behalf of the
succeeding generations for the protection of the environment.

Flexible Engagement - enhanced interaction among ASEAN members; It is meant to

encourage ASEAN to play a more pro-active role on issues that have the potential to affect the
region as a whole, whether those issues are international, regional or domestic
- when necessary, some sort of interference must be allowed
Equitable Utilization - entitles a watercourse State to an equitable and reasonable share of the
uses and benefits of the particular watercourse, and also creates the reciprocal obligation not
to deprive other States of their respective rights in this regard. Every riparian State has a right
to the utilisation of the watercourse which is qualitatively equal to the rights of the coriparians. However, this must not be mistaken for the right to an equal share of the uses and
benefits; nor does it imply that the water itself has to be divided into equal shares.
Functional Sovereignty specific uses of a resource rather than absolute and unlimited
jurisdiction within a geographic space; interdependence in the sustainable use of a resource
emphasizing that states are duty bound to cooperate with each other to promote
sustainability of the common environment

Environmental Unity/ Interconnectedness everything is connected to everything else

Permanent Sovereignty over Natural Resources the State can freely dispose of its natural
resources within its territory, has the correlative duty to properly manage such, and has the
right to pursue its own environmental policies

Stewardship man is the custodian rather than conqueror of nature

Wise Use maintenance of the ecological character of wetlands

Transboundary - crossing or existing across national boundaries; goes beyond traditional

limits for the functional enjoyment of the environment

Precautionary Approach - where there is a threat of significant reduction or loss of biological

diversity, precautionary measures should be taken even if some cause and effect relationships
are not fully established scientifically.

Multidisciplinary - using several specialized subjects or skills in environmental management

(i.e. science, law, agriculture, culture)
Cross-sectoral Approach - incorporation of various sectors in addressing environmental
management issues and programs (i.e. forestry, air, biological diversity, maritime and inland

Biopiracy - is a situation where indigenous knowledge of nature, originating with indigenous

peoples, is used by others for profit, without permission from and with little or no
compensation or recognition to the indigenous people themselves.

Ecosystem approach - a strategy for the integrated management of land, water and living
resources that promotes conservation and sustainable use in an equitable way (CBD)
- It recognises that humans are part of the ecosystem and that our activities both affect
the ecosystem and depend on it.
- the management of human activities, based on the best understanding of the ecological
interactions and processes, so as to ensure that ecosystems structure and functions are

Biotechnology any technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms, or
derivatives thereof, to make or modify products or processes for specific use.

Global Commons - refers to resource domains or areas that lie outside of the political reach of
any one nation State. Thus international law identifies four global commons namely: the High
Seas; the Atmosphere; Antarctica; and, Outer Space.
Sustainable Development development that meets the needs of the present without
compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs
Non-interference States must stay out of domestic matters of neighbouring states

Bioprospecting is the process of discovery and commercialization of new products based on

biological resources. Despite being intuitively helpful, bioprospecting has only recently begun
to incorporate indigenous knowledge in focusing screening efforts for bioactive compounds.
Biosafety is a term used to describe efforts to reduce and eliminate the potential risks
resulting from biotechnology and its products.
Synergy working of two things to produce an effect greater than the sum of the individual
effects (i.e. MEAs and local legislations)
Polluter Pays Principle is an environmental policy principle which requires that the costs of
pollution be borne by those who cause it.
Prior Informed Consent - an agreement may be reached only if there has been full disclosure

by both parties of everything each party knows which is significant to the agreement