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Composite structures

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498 просмотров29 страницComposite structures

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ESDEP WG 10

COMPOSITE CONSTRUCTION

OBJECTIVE/SCOPE

To describe the design of one-way spanning composite slabs,

formed using profiled steel sheeting and a concrete topping,

including consideration of ultimate and serviceability limit state

design according to Eurocode 4: Part 1 [1] for building structures.

PREREQUISITES

Lecture 9.1: Thin-walled Members and Sheeting

Lecture 10.1: Composite Construction - General

Lecture 10.6.1: Shear Connection I

RELATED LECTURES

All other lectures in Group 10.

RELATED WORKED EXAMPLES

Worked Example 10.4: Design of a Composite Slab

SUMMARY

Descriptions of composite slabs, typical profiled sheeting and means

of ensuring composite behaviour are given. Design criteria are

identified in terms of loads, design resistance and serviceability

limits. Analysis of continuous slabs is based on elastic or plastic

theories. The resistances of critical cross-sections are calculated

considering all possible modes of failure. The design for the ultimate

limit state design consists of checking that slab resistance is

sufficient to withstand maximum predicted forces; design for the

serviceability limit state is performed to limit concrete cracking and

slab deflections, taking into account creep and shrinkage of the

concrete. The above methods are illustrated by Worked Example

10.4.

1. INTRODUCTION

1.1 Definition

A composite slab consists of a cold-formed profiled steel sheet

covered with a concrete slab containing reinforcement (Figure 1).

Such slabs are generally used in frame structures, with steel floor

beams, as discussed previously in Lecture 10.1. They can also be

used in combination with other materials.

it acts as formwork for the concrete slab.

it constitutes bottom reinforcement for the slab.

the steel-concrete bond has been formed, i.e. after hardening of the

concrete. Design for the construction stage, when the profiled steel

sheet supports the weight of wet concrete, is only considered

briefly.

There are many types of profiled sheet used for the construction of

composite slabs (Figure 2). These types vary in form, rib depth, rib

spacing, sheet size, style of lateral over-lapping; in the methods of

stiffening the flat elements of the profile; and in the methods of

mechanical connection which ensure bond between the steel sheet

and concrete slab.

The thickness of the sheets can vary from 0,75 mm to 1,5 mm but

in normal practice it lies between 0,75 and 1,0 mm.

The height of the profiled sheets can vary from 38 mm to 80 mm.

Whatever the particular requirements for a steel framed building, it

is probable that they can be met by using a profiled sheet from this

range, as the typical criteria for sound insulation, fire protection,

maximum span and maximum load can easily be met.

The bond between the concrete slab and the profiled sheet must be

capable of transmitting longitudinal shear at the steel-concrete

interface.

This connection can be made in one or more of the following ways,

as shown in Figure 3 (which has been taken from Fig. 7.1 of

Eurocode 4 [1]):

(Figure 3a,b).

by embossments on the flanges or ribs of the sheet (Figure

3c).

by anchorages situated at the ends of the slab, consisting of

stud connectors welded through the sheet (Figure 3d), shotfired shear connectors (Figure 3e), or by deformation of the

ribs (Figure 3f).

2. DESIGN PRINCIPLES

2.1 Design Situations

When designing composite slabs two distinct structural states must

be checked: firstly, the temporary state of execution, when only the

sheeting resists the applied loads; secondly, the permanent state,

after the concrete is bonded to the steel giving composite action.

Relevant limit states and load cases are considered for both design

situations.

a) Profiled sheeting as shuttering

Verifications at the ultimate limit state and the serviceability limit

state are required, with respect to the safety and serviceability of

the profiled sheeting acting as formwork for the wet concrete. The

effects of any temporary props used during execution, must be

taken into account in this design situation.

b) Composite slabs

Verifications at the ultimate limit state and the serviceability limit

state are required, with respect to the safety and the serviceability

of the composite slab after composite behaviour has commenced

and any props have been removed.

2.2 Actions

The loads and other actions to be considered, for the ultimate and

serviceability limit state, are given in the relevant Eurocodes.

For the situation where the profiled sheeting acts as formwork, the

following loads should be considered in the calculations, taking into

account any propping effects:

weight of the wet concrete.

execution loads.

temporary storage load, if applicable.

loads due to placing the concrete, and also take into account any

impact or vibration likely to occur during execution. In accordance

with Eurocode 4 [1], a representative value of execution loads

(including any excess of concrete) can be taken to be 1,5kN/m2,

distributed on an area 3m x 3m (or the span of the sheeting, if less)

and 0,75kN/m2 on the remaining formwork surface.

For the situation where the steel and the concrete act compositely,

the loads acting on the slab should comply with Eurocode 1 [2].

weight of floor finishes

imposed loads

For the serviceability limit state, long duration values of the loads

are required for the calculation of deformations taking into account

creep and shrinkage of the concrete.

Profiled sheeting

Steel used for the fabrication of profiled sheeting has a minimum

nominal yield strength of 220N/mm2. In general, however,

composite slabs are fabricated from profiled steel sheeting

manufactured from galvanised steel of grades 280 to 350, according

to European Standard pr EN 10147 [3]. The respective nominal

values of yield strength for these steels are:

Steel grade 280 : fyb = 280 N/mm2

Steel grade 350 : fyb = 350 N/mm2

The characteristic yield strength fyap, is equal to the nominal yield

strength of the basic material fyb quoted above for calculating

ultimate resistance.

Concrete

Concrete used for composite slabs can be made with normal or

lightweight aggregate.

The most commonly used grades of concrete (grading according to

Eurocode 2 [4]) are given in Table 1, which also gives the following

properties: characteristic cylinder 28 days compressive strength,

fck; mean tensile strength, fctm, which is associated with the shear

strength Rd; and the secant modulus of elasticity, Ecm.

Reinforcement

All reinforcing steels used in composite slabs should conform to the

requirements of Eurocode 2 [4]. The types concerned are

essentially ribbed bars and ribbed wires, including welded mesh,

fabricated from steels of classes of ductility A or B. Class A is

recommended for negative moment reinforcement and fire

resistance reinforcement.

Characteristic values for the most commonly used reinforcing steels

are given in Table 2.

During execution, deflection of the profiled sheeting under loads due

to self-weight and wet concrete, must not exceed a limiting value.

For example, Eurocode 4 [1], sets this limit at l/180 or 20 mm,

where l is the span of the sheeting between supports. In the case of

propped profiled sheeting, props are considered as supports. In

situations where greater deflection can be tolerated, calculation for

the ultimate limit state should take into account the weight of

additional concrete due to the deflection (the "ponding" effect).

b) Deflection in the composite state (permanent state)

Deflections in the composite state must be limited, in order that the

slab may fulfil its intended function and that any other elements in

contact with it (false ceilings, pipework, screens, partitions) will not

be damaged. Deflection limits should, therefore, be considered

relative to the use of the slab, the execution procedure and

architectural aspects (aesthetics).

The values recommended by Eurocode 3 [5], for floors and roofs in

buildings, are as follows:

max l/250

(l is the span of the composite slab)

2 l/300

where

max is the total deflection of the floor or roof, including any precamber and any variation of the deflection due to the permanent

loads immediately after loading, and including 2.

2 is the variation of the deflection due to variable loading acting on

the slab plus any time-dependent deformations due to the

permanent loads.

If the composite slab supports brittle elements (cement floor

finishes, non-flexible partitions, etc), 2 must be limited to l/350.

Two verifications are necessary to ensure that safety and

serviceability requirements are met:

verification at the serviceability limit states

The resistance of the profiled sheeting (execution stage) or the

composite slab (permanent state) must be sufficient to resist the

exterior loads. Each section or member must be capable of resisting

the internal forces determined by the analysis of the structure.

When considering a limit state of rupture or excessive deformation,

it shall be verified that

Sd Rd

where

Sd is the design value of load effects

Rd is the design value of the resistance

The load combinations required for design, and the calculation of

their effects (moments, shears, etc.) are not discussed in this

lecture; for further information reference should be made to the

relevant Eurocodes or to National Codes.

Calculation of the resistance of critical sections of composite slabs is

given in Section 4.

b) Verification conditions for the serviceability limit states

The behaviour of the profiled sheeting, under its self-weight and the

weight of the wet concrete, must fall within accepted limits.

The following verifications should be made:

effect).

marks on the sheet due to the temporary construction props

should not be visible.

variable service loads must fall within accepted limits.

The following states should be verified:

reinforcement, appearance).

limit (use of slab, damage of non-structural elements,

appearance, etc).

Vibrations not exceeding a limiting value (this limit state is

not treated in this lecture).

3.1 Behaviour of Profiled Sheeting

During execution when the concrete is wet, the profiled sheeting

alone resists the exterior loads. Its behaviour is then comparable to

the behaviour of profiles used for roof decking.

The profiled sheeting is subjected mainly to bending and shear;

compression due to bending may arise in either the flanges or the

web; shear occurs essentially near the supports. The thin-plate

elements, which make up the profiled sheeting, may buckle prior to

yield under these compressive and shear stresses, thereby reducing

the resistance and stiffness of the sheeting.

Current design procedures rely on the concept of effective width, as

described in Lecture 9.1, to provide a method for the calculation for

this type of thin-walled member. Clearly, the effective width of the

compression flange depends upon the maximum stress imposed on

the flange, which in turn depends on the location of the neutral axis

of the cross-section. As the ineffective area of the flange increases

under increasing bending moment, the neutral axis of the profile is

lowered and the extreme fibre stresses change accordingly.

Iterative design calculations, therefore, become necessary both for

resistance and deflection.

The behaviour of composite slabs is somewhat different from that of

other similar forms of composite construction, such as reinforced

concrete slabs or composite beams of steel and concrete. Composite

action is achieved in reinforced concrete by the bond of the concrete

to the reinforcement due to the special profile of the bars used. This

bond, verified by tests, is the same as the ultimate resistance of the

reinforcement in tension assuming always that the slab can develop

full resistance to bending. In composite beams, composite action is

achieved by connectors fixed to the top flange of the steel beam.

The design of these connectors may be based on the assumption

that the beam attains ultimate bending resistance (full connection).

If the number of connectors is smaller than that required for full

connection then the connection is partial. In this case the ultimate

connectors, the slope of the load-slip diagram for the connectors,

the span of the beam, and the method of construction, i.e.

execution.

The composite slab with profiled sheeting is half-way between these

two systems. On the one hand sheeting with embossments or

anchorages is comparable to reinforcement, whereas, on the other

hand, sheeting is an element with bending rigidity similar to steel

beams. The difference results from the fact that profiled sheeting,

and similarly the embossments, can be deformed under load. Also,

unlike reinforcement, profiled sheeting does not benefit from being

totally embedded in concrete. The numerous parameters involved,

therefore, make the analysis of the actual behaviour of composite

slabs very complicated.

Recent theoretical and experimental studies have identified different

parameters and revealed two behaviour modes. These modes are

based on the analysis of load-deflection curves which can be

obtained, for example, when bending tests are performed on

composite slabs on two supports subjected to two concentrated

loads (Figure 4).

Mode 1

The characteristic of this mode is an initial linear curve, as in Figure

5, which corresponds to the behaviour of a homogeneous material

held together by surface effects (chemical bond and friction) and

mechanical effects (embossments and anchorages). No significant

relative slip between the steel and the concrete takes place; as the

load increases, the rigidity decreases because of the cracks which

form in the concrete in tension. Shear stresses between the steel

and concrete increase in the zone between the concentrated load

and the support. At a certain point the relative slip is such that the

bond is broken and the load suddenly decreases. All the shear force

must therefore be taken up by friction and by any embossments;

the amount of load decrease is therefore dependent on the quality

of the mechanical bond. With further deformation of the slab the

load increases again slightly without ever reaching the level of the

initial phase. This means that the mechanical bond is incapable of

bond. It should be noted that the decrease in the load is not due to

the sudden opening of tension cracks in the concrete, because this

is prevented by the sheeting, but by relative slip between the

concrete and the sheeting.

Mode 2

This mode is characterised by an initial phase similar to that of

mode 1. However, the second phase is different: after a decrease in

load, corresponding to failure of the steel-concrete bond in the

sheared zone, the load increases again up to a higher level. This

increase shows that the mechanical connection is capable of

transferring the shear force until failure occurs by bending,

corresponding to full shear connection, or by longitudinal shear,

corresponding to partial shear connection.

The two modes described above represent brittle (or non-ductile)

behaviour (mode1), and ductile behaviour (mode 2), see Figure 5.

The analysis of a composite slab may be made in accordance with

one of the following methods:

linear elastic.

linear elastic with moment redistribution.

a higher order analysis which takes into account non-linear

material behaviour and slip between the profiled sheeting and

the concrete slab.

In most cases analysis of composite slabs, continuous over several

spans, is performed according to the elastic method, for a slab of

unit width (1m), comparable to a beam of constant inertia (Figure

6, line (1)). The assumed inertia is that of the uncracked section.

reduction 30%) and consequently increase the span moments

(Figure 6, line (2)).

the slab as a series of simply supported beams (Figure 6, line

(3)). Minimum reinforcement must always be placed over

intermediate supports for serviceability reasons.

Consider that the slab is a beam with variable inertia,

depending on the reinforcement. The assumed inertia is that

of the cracked section.

The analysis will use one of the above statical models in conjunction

with the design loads determined, as discussed earlier in Section

2.2.

Worked Example 10.4 illustrates how the actual stresses and strains

are determined and how the internal forces and moments (M, N, V)

are calculated for the structural system chosen.

b) Analysis for the serviceability limit states

An analysis of the composite slab, for calculating deflection, may be

made with the following assumptions:

inertia, equal in value to the average inertia of the cracked

and uncracked section.

Long-term loading effects on the concrete are taken into

account using a variation in the modular ratio Ea/Ec. For

simplification, Eurocode 4 recommends an average value of

Ea/Ec for both long and short term effects.

Possible slip between the profiled sheeting and concrete slab must

be taken into account at the serviceability limit states. Slip may

occur in the span and greatly influence deflection. It is necessary,

therefore, to fully understand the behaviour of composite slabs

through approved testing.

To eliminate excessive slip it is possible to place anchorages, for

example welded studs or shot-fired connectors, at the ends of the

spans (see Figure 3d and e).

4. RESISTANCES OF SECTIONS

According to Section 3, the critical sections which should be verified,

are as follows (Figure 7):

bending.

bending.

Section III-IV : ultimate resistance to vertical shear failure.

Section V : ultimate resistance to longitudinal shear failure.

The ultimate moment of resistance of a section, Mpc, may be

determined by assuming a plastic distribution of stresses (Figure 8).

For an under-reinforced* section, the position of the plastic neutral

axis is given by:

x = [Aap.fyap/ap]/[b.0,85fck/c]

(1)

where:

Aap is the area of the profiled sheet section.

fyap is the characteristic yield strength of the sheet steel.

ap is the partial safety factor for steel sheeting.

b is the width of the slab (b = 1000 mm).

fck is the characteristic compressive strength of the concrete.

c is the partial safety factor for concrete.

hc) the design positive bending resistance has the value:

M+p,Rd = Aap.fyap[dc - x/2]/ap

(2)

with a concrete slab of minimum thickness hc = 50 mm, have a

plastic neutral axis situated above the profiles. For deeper sheets,

the neutral axis may be situated within the height of the profiled

sheeting.

In this case, the positive bending resistance of a section may be

calculated as follows, by neglecting the concrete in the troughs

(Figure 9):

M+p,Rd = Mcz+ + Mpa,r

z+ = ht - dc/2 - ep + (ep - e)Nc/[Aap.fyap/ap]

Nc = hc.0,85fck/c

Mpa,r = 1,25Mpa [1 - Nc/(Aap.fyap/ap)] Mpa

(3)

(4)

(5)

(6)

where

e is the distance from the centroid of the effective area of the

sheeting to its underside.

ep is the distance from the plastic neutral axis of the effective area

of sheeting to its underside.

Mpa is the plastic moment resistance of the effective cross-section of

the sheeting.

The section of a continuous composite slab at a support can be

compared to a reinforced concrete section. As a simplification, the

contribution of the profiled sheet is neglected. The design section

and the distribution of stresses at the ultimate limit state are shown

in Figure 10.

reinforcement at the support (under-reinforced slab):

M+p,Rd = As.fysz-/s

(7)

where

As is the area of reinforcement

fys is the yield strength of the reinforcement

s is the partial safety factor for the reinforcement

z- is the lever-arm of the internal forces Nc and Nt.

The condition of equilibrium between these forces allows the

determination of z-:

Nc- = bcx0,85fck/c= As.fys/s= Ntx = [As.fys/s][bc0,85fck/c]

(8)

(9)

= ds - x/2 (10)

where

bc is the width of the concrete in compression, taken as the width of

the troughs over 1m for simplicity (bc = bo).

ds is the effective depth

In general the vertical and the punching shear resistances are

assumed to be given by the concrete section since the contribution

of the steel sheeting is neglected.

The vertical shear design resistance, over a width equal to the

distance between centres of ribs has the value:

Vv,Rd = bo ds c (11)

where

c is the limiting shear stress appropriate for composite slabs (c

included).

c = Rd k1 k2

where

k2 = 1,2 + 40 po

o = As/bo ds < 0,02

As is the area of reinforcement in tension provided in order to

distribute cracking. In positive bending regions, As is to be replaced

by Aap.

Rd is the basic shear strength (see Table 1).

The punching shear resistance Vp,Rd of a composite slab at a

concentrated load should be determined from:

Vp,Rd = Cp hc c (12)

where

Cp is the critical perimeter determined as shown in Figure 11.

c is the limiting shear stress given above.

Resistance to longitudinal shear in composite slabs is due to the

steel-concrete bond at the interface of these two materials,

established by friction, embossments or connectors placed at the

ends of the spans (see Section 3). The ultimate resistance of these

connections can only be determined by testing, as described in

Section 10.3 of Eurocode 4 [1].

a) Empirical "m-k" method

The most commonly used method for calculating ultimate

longitudinal shear was developed in the United States [6]. This

method is used in many codes of practice, including Eurocode 4. It

is based on at least six tests of simply supported composite slabs,

which determine two coefficients m and k (see Figure 12), for the

test profile.

the same type of profiled sheet as that tested, is then given by the

following maximum design vertical shear:

Vl,Rd = bds[(mAsp/bls) + k]/vs

where

ls is the shear span.

(13)

For a uniformly loaded slab, ls = l/4; for simply supported beams, l

is the span, whereas for continuous beams l is the equivalent simple

span between points of contraflexure; for end spans, the full

exterior span length is used in design (see Figure 13 which has

been taken from Fig. 7.10 of Eurocode 4 [1]).

embossments is not sufficient, it is possible to place anchorages

(generally steel-concrete connectors) at the ends of the span.

The ultimate resistance of such anchorages is generally governed by

the pull-out resistance of the sheet. For a stud, this resistance is

given by the following expression:

Nt,ap = k3 dw t fyap/ap (14)

k3 = 1 + a/dw 4,0

where

dw is the diameter of weld around the stud.

a is the distance between the axis of the stud and the extremity of

the profiled sheet (a 2dw).

b) Partial shear connection method

The fact that composite slabs fail by longitudinal shear in most

cases, allows this structural system to be compared to a composite

steel beam and concrete slab with partial shear connection. It is

also possible to represent the resistance of such slabs by a diagram

giving MSd/MRd as a function of Nc/Ncf. This diagram is different to

that given for composite beams due to the fact that the degree of

partial shear connection Nc/Ncf is not a function of the number of

connectors, but of the shear length ls and of the distribution of

longitudinal shear stresses over this length. The relative slip s

between the profiled sheeting and the concrete also plays a more

important role.

The determination of such diagrams for design is therefore

complicated since one of the following is necessary:

a) non-linear analysis of the resistance and behaviour of slabs

combined with shear tests on specimens representative of the

connection.

b) many tests of composite slabs, with measurements taken of the

normal force Nc, transferred over the shear length.

Studies are being undertaken at present to try to establish a

simplified method based on scientific research. Eurocode 4 [1] gives

such an alternative method in Appendix E, based on research

conducted recently in Germany. This alternative method will not be

described further in this lecture.

The deflection of a composite slab is calculated using elastic theory.

a) Cracked section

The second moment of area Ibc of the cracked section can be

obtained from:

Ivc = [bx3/3n] + Aap(ds - x)2 + Iap

where x is the position of the elastic neutral axis:

x = [nAap/b]{[1 + (2bds/nAap)] - 1} (21)

(20)

where

Iap is the unreduced second moment of area of the sheet based

upon the net sheet thickness

b) Uncracked section

The second moment of area Ibu of the uncracked section can be

obtained from:

Ibu =

(22)

where

bc is the total average rib width over a slab width of 1 m.

xu is the position of the elastic neutral axis:

xu =

(23)

5. VERIFICATIONS

This lecture has given a brief introduction to composite slabs

constructed with profiled steel sheeting. The basic design principles

have been given, which allow a schematic structural arrangement

and statical system to be determined. The procedure for analysing

the slab under the external loads to find the internal stresses and

strains has then been considered. Now, various verifications are

necessary to show that structural safety (resistance, stability) and

serviceability (deflection, vibration) requirements are met.

For composite slabs, this check generally consists of showing that

the design internal shear forces and moments at critical sections are

smaller than the design resistances of the cross-sections.

a) Positive bending (Section 4.1 and Section I of Figure 7)

generally in the external span of a continuous slab. The condition

can be expressed as:

(24)

where

is the design value of the bending moment.

is the design value of the positive bending resistance.

b) Negative bending (Section 4.2 and Section II of Figure 7)

The negative moment, at the supports, is checked (see Section 3).

The condition can be expressed as:

(25)

where

is the design value of the negative bending moment.

is the design value of the negative bending resistance.

c) Vertical shear (Section 4.3 and Sections III or IV of Figure 7)

This check is rarely critical; however, it may be critical in the case

of deep slabs with loads of relatively large magnitude. This condition

may occur at end supports where the bending moment is zero, or at

intermediate supports; in the latter case, no interaction between M

and V is assumed. The condition is expressed as:

VSd Vv,Rd (26)

where

VSd is the design value of the vertical shear.

Vv,Rd is the design value of the vertical shear resistance.

d) Longitudinal shear (Section 4.4 and Section V of Figure 7)

This check is often the determining factor for composite slabs with

profiled sheeting but no anchorage. It implies that overall failure of

the slab occurs by failure of the shear bond. The bending resistance

at section I cannot then be attained.

If the empirical "m-k" method is used, the condition can be

expressed as:

VSd Vl,Rd (27)

where

VSd is the design value of the vertical shear (equivalent span, see

Figure 13).

VlRd Is the design value of the shear resistance.

The following verifications should be made concerning the

serviceability of the composite slab:

a) Deformations

Vertical deflections must not exceed the limiting values (see Section

2.4b).

If the slenderness (span/effective depth) of the slab does not

exceed the limiting values given in Eurocode 2 [4], this deflection

check is not essential. For one way continuous slabs, with lightly

stressed concrete, the limit is:

(28)

b) Crack width

Given that there is a profiled sheet on the lower surface of the

concrete slab, only concrete cracking at the supports must be

verified. Such verifications should be made according to the

established rules for reinforced concrete, given in Eurocode 2 [4].

In normal circumstances when, for example, the slab is designed as

a series of simply supported beams, minimum reinforcement placed

at the supports is sufficient. Normal circumstances are: no exposure

to aggressive physical or chemical environments; no damage other

than cracking; no requirements regarding water proofing of the

slab; and no special requirements regarding appearance.

min =

(29)

for slabs unpropped at the time of concreting:

6. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

performance of the profiled steel sheeting, when it acts as

shuttering for the wet concrete during execution, as well as

the composite performance of the steel and hardened

concrete under the imposed floor loading.

At the execution stage, the profiled steel sheeting acts as a

thin-walled member. Its design must take into account the

possibility of local buckling.

The design of the composite slab must consider the resistance

to positive and negative moments and also to vertical and

longitudinal shear.

The resistance to longitudinal shear at the steel/concrete

interface is largely derived from embossments in the steel

sheet or from connectors placed at the ends of the spans.

Empirical methods are used to ensure adequate shear

resistance.

7. REFERENCES

[1] Eurocode 4: "Design of Composite Steel and Concrete

Structures": ENV 1994-1-1: Part 1.1: General rules and rules form

buildings, CEN (in press).

[2] Eurocode 1: "Basis of Design and Actions on Structures", CEN

(in preparation).

[3] prEN 10147, "Continuous Hot Dip Zinc Coated Carbon Steel

Sheet of Structural Quality", European Standard, 1979.

[4] Eurocode 2: "Design of Concrete Structures": ENV 1992-1-1:

Part 1.1: General rules and rules form buildings, CEN, 1992.

[5] Eurocode 3: "Design of Steel Structures": ENV 1993-1-1: Part

1.1: General rules and rules form buildings, CEN, 1992.

Steel Deck Floor Slabs", ASCE Journal of the Structural Division,

New York, Vol. 102, no 11, 1976, pp2121-2136.

8. ADDITIONAL READING

1. Patrick, M, "A New Partial Shear Connection Strength Model

for Composite Slabs", The Broken Hill Proprietary Company

Limited, Melbourne Research Laboratories, Report

MRL/PS64/90/016, Mulgrave, Victoria, Australia, March 1990.

2. Daniels, B, "Behaviour and Load Carrying Capacity of

Composite Slabs: Mathematical Modelling and Experimental

Studies", Doctoral thesis No 895, Ecole polytechnique fdrale

de Lausanne, ICOM-Construction mtallique, Lausanne, 1990.

Concrete grade

C20/25

C25/30

C30/37

C35/45

fck [N/mm2]

20

25

30

35

fctm [N/mm2]

2,2

2,6

2,9

3,2

Rd [N/mm2]

0,26

0,30

0,34

0,37

Ecm [kN/mm2]

29

30,5

32

33,5

composite slabs

Steel grade

S 500

S 550

(ribbed bars)

(welded mesh)

fsk [N/mm2]

500

550

ftk [N/mm2]

550-600

580

1,1

1,05

Es [kN/mm2]

210

210

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