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ESDEP WG 10
COMPOSITE CONSTRUCTION

Lecture 10.7: Composite Slabs


OBJECTIVE/SCOPE
To describe the design of one-way spanning composite slabs,
formed using profiled steel sheeting and a concrete topping,
including consideration of ultimate and serviceability limit state
design according to Eurocode 4: Part 1 [1] for building structures.
PREREQUISITES
Lecture 9.1: Thin-walled Members and Sheeting
Lecture 10.1: Composite Construction - General
Lecture 10.6.1: Shear Connection I
RELATED LECTURES
All other lectures in Group 10.
RELATED WORKED EXAMPLES
Worked Example 10.4: Design of a Composite Slab
SUMMARY
Descriptions of composite slabs, typical profiled sheeting and means
of ensuring composite behaviour are given. Design criteria are
identified in terms of loads, design resistance and serviceability
limits. Analysis of continuous slabs is based on elastic or plastic
theories. The resistances of critical cross-sections are calculated
considering all possible modes of failure. The design for the ultimate
limit state design consists of checking that slab resistance is
sufficient to withstand maximum predicted forces; design for the
serviceability limit state is performed to limit concrete cracking and
slab deflections, taking into account creep and shrinkage of the
concrete. The above methods are illustrated by Worked Example
10.4.

1. INTRODUCTION

1.1 Definition
A composite slab consists of a cold-formed profiled steel sheet
covered with a concrete slab containing reinforcement (Figure 1).
Such slabs are generally used in frame structures, with steel floor
beams, as discussed previously in Lecture 10.1. They can also be
used in combination with other materials.

In this type of construction the profiled sheet has several functions:

it provides a working platform for construction.


it acts as formwork for the concrete slab.
it constitutes bottom reinforcement for the slab.

The present lecture is mainly concerned with composite slabs when


the steel-concrete bond has been formed, i.e. after hardening of the
concrete. Design for the construction stage, when the profiled steel
sheet supports the weight of wet concrete, is only considered
briefly.

1.2 Types of Profiled Sheet

There are many types of profiled sheet used for the construction of
composite slabs (Figure 2). These types vary in form, rib depth, rib
spacing, sheet size, style of lateral over-lapping; in the methods of
stiffening the flat elements of the profile; and in the methods of
mechanical connection which ensure bond between the steel sheet
and concrete slab.

The thickness of the sheets can vary from 0,75 mm to 1,5 mm but
in normal practice it lies between 0,75 and 1,0 mm.
The height of the profiled sheets can vary from 38 mm to 80 mm.
Whatever the particular requirements for a steel framed building, it
is probable that they can be met by using a profiled sheet from this
range, as the typical criteria for sound insulation, fire protection,
maximum span and maximum load can easily be met.

1.3 Steel-Concrete Connection

The bond between the concrete slab and the profiled sheet must be
capable of transmitting longitudinal shear at the steel-concrete
interface.
This connection can be made in one or more of the following ways,
as shown in Figure 3 (which has been taken from Fig. 7.1 of
Eurocode 4 [1]):

by the re-entrant shape of the ribs creating bond by friction


(Figure 3a,b).
by embossments on the flanges or ribs of the sheet (Figure
3c).
by anchorages situated at the ends of the slab, consisting of
stud connectors welded through the sheet (Figure 3d), shotfired shear connectors (Figure 3e), or by deformation of the
ribs (Figure 3f).

2. DESIGN PRINCIPLES
2.1 Design Situations
When designing composite slabs two distinct structural states must
be checked: firstly, the temporary state of execution, when only the
sheeting resists the applied loads; secondly, the permanent state,
after the concrete is bonded to the steel giving composite action.

Relevant limit states and load cases are considered for both design
situations.
a) Profiled sheeting as shuttering
Verifications at the ultimate limit state and the serviceability limit
state are required, with respect to the safety and serviceability of
the profiled sheeting acting as formwork for the wet concrete. The
effects of any temporary props used during execution, must be
taken into account in this design situation.
b) Composite slabs
Verifications at the ultimate limit state and the serviceability limit
state are required, with respect to the safety and the serviceability
of the composite slab after composite behaviour has commenced
and any props have been removed.

2.2 Actions
The loads and other actions to be considered, for the ultimate and
serviceability limit state, are given in the relevant Eurocodes.
For the situation where the profiled sheeting acts as formwork, the
following loads should be considered in the calculations, taking into
account any propping effects:

self-weight of the profiled sheeting.


weight of the wet concrete.
execution loads.
temporary storage load, if applicable.

The execution loads represent the weight of the operatives, any


loads due to placing the concrete, and also take into account any
impact or vibration likely to occur during execution. In accordance
with Eurocode 4 [1], a representative value of execution loads
(including any excess of concrete) can be taken to be 1,5kN/m2,
distributed on an area 3m x 3m (or the span of the sheeting, if less)
and 0,75kN/m2 on the remaining formwork surface.
For the situation where the steel and the concrete act compositely,
the loads acting on the slab should comply with Eurocode 1 [2].

self-weight of the slab (profiled sheeting and concrete)


weight of floor finishes
imposed loads

For the serviceability limit state, long duration values of the loads
are required for the calculation of deformations taking into account
creep and shrinkage of the concrete.

2.3 Material Properties


Profiled sheeting
Steel used for the fabrication of profiled sheeting has a minimum
nominal yield strength of 220N/mm2. In general, however,
composite slabs are fabricated from profiled steel sheeting
manufactured from galvanised steel of grades 280 to 350, according
to European Standard pr EN 10147 [3]. The respective nominal
values of yield strength for these steels are:
Steel grade 280 : fyb = 280 N/mm2
Steel grade 350 : fyb = 350 N/mm2
The characteristic yield strength fyap, is equal to the nominal yield
strength of the basic material fyb quoted above for calculating
ultimate resistance.
Concrete
Concrete used for composite slabs can be made with normal or
lightweight aggregate.
The most commonly used grades of concrete (grading according to
Eurocode 2 [4]) are given in Table 1, which also gives the following
properties: characteristic cylinder 28 days compressive strength,
fck; mean tensile strength, fctm, which is associated with the shear
strength Rd; and the secant modulus of elasticity, Ecm.
Reinforcement
All reinforcing steels used in composite slabs should conform to the
requirements of Eurocode 2 [4]. The types concerned are
essentially ribbed bars and ribbed wires, including welded mesh,
fabricated from steels of classes of ductility A or B. Class A is
recommended for negative moment reinforcement and fire
resistance reinforcement.
Characteristic values for the most commonly used reinforcing steels
are given in Table 2.

2.4 Deflection Limits

a) Deflection during execution (construction stage)


During execution, deflection of the profiled sheeting under loads due
to self-weight and wet concrete, must not exceed a limiting value.
For example, Eurocode 4 [1], sets this limit at l/180 or 20 mm,
where l is the span of the sheeting between supports. In the case of
propped profiled sheeting, props are considered as supports. In
situations where greater deflection can be tolerated, calculation for
the ultimate limit state should take into account the weight of
additional concrete due to the deflection (the "ponding" effect).
b) Deflection in the composite state (permanent state)
Deflections in the composite state must be limited, in order that the
slab may fulfil its intended function and that any other elements in
contact with it (false ceilings, pipework, screens, partitions) will not
be damaged. Deflection limits should, therefore, be considered
relative to the use of the slab, the execution procedure and
architectural aspects (aesthetics).
The values recommended by Eurocode 3 [5], for floors and roofs in
buildings, are as follows:
max l/250
(l is the span of the composite slab)
2 l/300
where
max is the total deflection of the floor or roof, including any precamber and any variation of the deflection due to the permanent
loads immediately after loading, and including 2.
2 is the variation of the deflection due to variable loading acting on
the slab plus any time-dependent deformations due to the
permanent loads.
If the composite slab supports brittle elements (cement floor
finishes, non-flexible partitions, etc), 2 must be limited to l/350.

2.5 Verification Conditions


Two verifications are necessary to ensure that safety and
serviceability requirements are met:

verification at the ultimate limit states


verification at the serviceability limit states

a) Verification conditions for the ultimate limit states


The resistance of the profiled sheeting (execution stage) or the
composite slab (permanent state) must be sufficient to resist the
exterior loads. Each section or member must be capable of resisting
the internal forces determined by the analysis of the structure.
When considering a limit state of rupture or excessive deformation,
it shall be verified that
Sd Rd
where
Sd is the design value of load effects
Rd is the design value of the resistance
The load combinations required for design, and the calculation of
their effects (moments, shears, etc.) are not discussed in this
lecture; for further information reference should be made to the
relevant Eurocodes or to National Codes.
Calculation of the resistance of critical sections of composite slabs is
given in Section 4.
b) Verification conditions for the serviceability limit states
The behaviour of the profiled sheeting, under its self-weight and the
weight of the wet concrete, must fall within accepted limits.
The following verifications should be made:

deflection within the permissible limit (appearance, ponding


effect).
marks on the sheet due to the temporary construction props
should not be visible.

The behaviour of the composite slab under permanent loads and


variable service loads must fall within accepted limits.
The following states should be verified:

Concrete cracking restricted to a limited width (corrosion of


reinforcement, appearance).

Deflection, or variation of deflection, within the permissible


limit (use of slab, damage of non-structural elements,
appearance, etc).
Vibrations not exceeding a limiting value (this limit state is
not treated in this lecture).

3. BEHAVIOUR AND ANALYSIS


3.1 Behaviour of Profiled Sheeting
During execution when the concrete is wet, the profiled sheeting
alone resists the exterior loads. Its behaviour is then comparable to
the behaviour of profiles used for roof decking.
The profiled sheeting is subjected mainly to bending and shear;
compression due to bending may arise in either the flanges or the
web; shear occurs essentially near the supports. The thin-plate
elements, which make up the profiled sheeting, may buckle prior to
yield under these compressive and shear stresses, thereby reducing
the resistance and stiffness of the sheeting.
Current design procedures rely on the concept of effective width, as
described in Lecture 9.1, to provide a method for the calculation for
this type of thin-walled member. Clearly, the effective width of the
compression flange depends upon the maximum stress imposed on
the flange, which in turn depends on the location of the neutral axis
of the cross-section. As the ineffective area of the flange increases
under increasing bending moment, the neutral axis of the profile is
lowered and the extreme fibre stresses change accordingly.
Iterative design calculations, therefore, become necessary both for
resistance and deflection.

3.2 Behaviour of Composite Slabs


The behaviour of composite slabs is somewhat different from that of
other similar forms of composite construction, such as reinforced
concrete slabs or composite beams of steel and concrete. Composite
action is achieved in reinforced concrete by the bond of the concrete
to the reinforcement due to the special profile of the bars used. This
bond, verified by tests, is the same as the ultimate resistance of the
reinforcement in tension assuming always that the slab can develop
full resistance to bending. In composite beams, composite action is
achieved by connectors fixed to the top flange of the steel beam.
The design of these connectors may be based on the assumption
that the beam attains ultimate bending resistance (full connection).
If the number of connectors is smaller than that required for full
connection then the connection is partial. In this case the ultimate

resistance to bending depends essentially on the number of


connectors, the slope of the load-slip diagram for the connectors,
the span of the beam, and the method of construction, i.e.
execution.
The composite slab with profiled sheeting is half-way between these
two systems. On the one hand sheeting with embossments or
anchorages is comparable to reinforcement, whereas, on the other
hand, sheeting is an element with bending rigidity similar to steel
beams. The difference results from the fact that profiled sheeting,
and similarly the embossments, can be deformed under load. Also,
unlike reinforcement, profiled sheeting does not benefit from being
totally embedded in concrete. The numerous parameters involved,
therefore, make the analysis of the actual behaviour of composite
slabs very complicated.
Recent theoretical and experimental studies have identified different
parameters and revealed two behaviour modes. These modes are
based on the analysis of load-deflection curves which can be
obtained, for example, when bending tests are performed on
composite slabs on two supports subjected to two concentrated
loads (Figure 4).

Mode 1
The characteristic of this mode is an initial linear curve, as in Figure
5, which corresponds to the behaviour of a homogeneous material
held together by surface effects (chemical bond and friction) and
mechanical effects (embossments and anchorages). No significant
relative slip between the steel and the concrete takes place; as the
load increases, the rigidity decreases because of the cracks which
form in the concrete in tension. Shear stresses between the steel
and concrete increase in the zone between the concentrated load
and the support. At a certain point the relative slip is such that the
bond is broken and the load suddenly decreases. All the shear force
must therefore be taken up by friction and by any embossments;
the amount of load decrease is therefore dependent on the quality
of the mechanical bond. With further deformation of the slab the
load increases again slightly without ever reaching the level of the
initial phase. This means that the mechanical bond is incapable of

achieving a composite effect superior to that of simple surface


bond. It should be noted that the decrease in the load is not due to
the sudden opening of tension cracks in the concrete, because this
is prevented by the sheeting, but by relative slip between the
concrete and the sheeting.

Mode 2
This mode is characterised by an initial phase similar to that of
mode 1. However, the second phase is different: after a decrease in
load, corresponding to failure of the steel-concrete bond in the
sheared zone, the load increases again up to a higher level. This
increase shows that the mechanical connection is capable of
transferring the shear force until failure occurs by bending,
corresponding to full shear connection, or by longitudinal shear,
corresponding to partial shear connection.
The two modes described above represent brittle (or non-ductile)
behaviour (mode1), and ductile behaviour (mode 2), see Figure 5.

3.3 Analysis of Composite Slabs


The analysis of a composite slab may be made in accordance with
one of the following methods:

linear elastic.
linear elastic with moment redistribution.

plastic according to the theory of plastic hinges.


a higher order analysis which takes into account non-linear
material behaviour and slip between the profiled sheeting and
the concrete slab.

a) Analysis for the ultimate limit states


In most cases analysis of composite slabs, continuous over several
spans, is performed according to the elastic method, for a slab of
unit width (1m), comparable to a beam of constant inertia (Figure
6, line (1)). The assumed inertia is that of the uncracked section.

It is possible to take concrete cracking into account in several ways:

Arbitrarily reduce the moment at the supports (maximum


reduction 30%) and consequently increase the span moments
(Figure 6, line (2)).

Totally neglect reinforcement over the supports and consider


the slab as a series of simply supported beams (Figure 6, line
(3)). Minimum reinforcement must always be placed over
intermediate supports for serviceability reasons.
Consider that the slab is a beam with variable inertia,
depending on the reinforcement. The assumed inertia is that
of the cracked section.

The analysis will use one of the above statical models in conjunction
with the design loads determined, as discussed earlier in Section
2.2.
Worked Example 10.4 illustrates how the actual stresses and strains
are determined and how the internal forces and moments (M, N, V)
are calculated for the structural system chosen.
b) Analysis for the serviceability limit states
An analysis of the composite slab, for calculating deflection, may be
made with the following assumptions:

The slab is comparable to a continuous beam of constant


inertia, equal in value to the average inertia of the cracked
and uncracked section.
Long-term loading effects on the concrete are taken into
account using a variation in the modular ratio Ea/Ec. For
simplification, Eurocode 4 recommends an average value of
Ea/Ec for both long and short term effects.

Possible slip between the profiled sheeting and concrete slab must
be taken into account at the serviceability limit states. Slip may
occur in the span and greatly influence deflection. It is necessary,
therefore, to fully understand the behaviour of composite slabs
through approved testing.
To eliminate excessive slip it is possible to place anchorages, for
example welded studs or shot-fired connectors, at the ends of the
spans (see Figure 3d and e).

4. RESISTANCES OF SECTIONS
According to Section 3, the critical sections which should be verified,
are as follows (Figure 7):

Section I : ultimate moment of resistance failure for positive


bending.

Section II : ultimate moment of resistance failure for negative


bending.
Section III-IV : ultimate resistance to vertical shear failure.
Section V : ultimate resistance to longitudinal shear failure.

4.1 Positive Bending Resistance


The ultimate moment of resistance of a section, Mpc, may be
determined by assuming a plastic distribution of stresses (Figure 8).
For an under-reinforced* section, the position of the plastic neutral
axis is given by:
x = [Aap.fyap/ap]/[b.0,85fck/c]

(1)

where:
Aap is the area of the profiled sheet section.
fyap is the characteristic yield strength of the sheet steel.
ap is the partial safety factor for steel sheeting.
b is the width of the slab (b = 1000 mm).
fck is the characteristic compressive strength of the concrete.
c is the partial safety factor for concrete.

If the neutral axis is situated above the profiles of the sheeting (x


hc) the design positive bending resistance has the value:
M+p,Rd = Aap.fyap[dc - x/2]/ap

(2)

All commonly used profiled sheeting (ha 60 mm), in conjunction


with a concrete slab of minimum thickness hc = 50 mm, have a
plastic neutral axis situated above the profiles. For deeper sheets,
the neutral axis may be situated within the height of the profiled
sheeting.
In this case, the positive bending resistance of a section may be
calculated as follows, by neglecting the concrete in the troughs
(Figure 9):
M+p,Rd = Mcz+ + Mpa,r
z+ = ht - dc/2 - ep + (ep - e)Nc/[Aap.fyap/ap]
Nc = hc.0,85fck/c
Mpa,r = 1,25Mpa [1 - Nc/(Aap.fyap/ap)] Mpa

(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)

where
e is the distance from the centroid of the effective area of the
sheeting to its underside.

ep is the distance from the plastic neutral axis of the effective area
of sheeting to its underside.
Mpa is the plastic moment resistance of the effective cross-section of
the sheeting.

4.2 Negative Bending Resistance


The section of a continuous composite slab at a support can be
compared to a reinforced concrete section. As a simplification, the
contribution of the profiled sheet is neglected. The design section
and the distribution of stresses at the ultimate limit state are shown
in Figure 10.

The design negative bending resistance is given by yielding of the


reinforcement at the support (under-reinforced slab):

M+p,Rd = As.fysz-/s

(7)

where
As is the area of reinforcement
fys is the yield strength of the reinforcement
s is the partial safety factor for the reinforcement
z- is the lever-arm of the internal forces Nc and Nt.
The condition of equilibrium between these forces allows the
determination of z-:
Nc- = bcx0,85fck/c= As.fys/s= Ntx = [As.fys/s][bc0,85fck/c]

(8)
(9)

= ds - x/2 (10)
where
bc is the width of the concrete in compression, taken as the width of
the troughs over 1m for simplicity (bc = bo).
ds is the effective depth

4.3 Vertical and Punching Shear Resistance


In general the vertical and the punching shear resistances are
assumed to be given by the concrete section since the contribution
of the steel sheeting is neglected.
The vertical shear design resistance, over a width equal to the
distance between centres of ribs has the value:
Vv,Rd = bo ds c (11)
where
c is the limiting shear stress appropriate for composite slabs (c
included).
c = Rd k1 k2
where

k1 = 1,6 - ds 1,0 (ds in m)


k2 = 1,2 + 40 po
o = As/bo ds < 0,02
As is the area of reinforcement in tension provided in order to
distribute cracking. In positive bending regions, As is to be replaced
by Aap.
Rd is the basic shear strength (see Table 1).
The punching shear resistance Vp,Rd of a composite slab at a
concentrated load should be determined from:
Vp,Rd = Cp hc c (12)
where
Cp is the critical perimeter determined as shown in Figure 11.

hc is the thickness of the concrete slab (above the ribs).


c is the limiting shear stress given above.

4.4 Longitudinal Shear Resistance


Resistance to longitudinal shear in composite slabs is due to the
steel-concrete bond at the interface of these two materials,
established by friction, embossments or connectors placed at the
ends of the spans (see Section 3). The ultimate resistance of these
connections can only be determined by testing, as described in
Section 10.3 of Eurocode 4 [1].
a) Empirical "m-k" method
The most commonly used method for calculating ultimate
longitudinal shear was developed in the United States [6]. This
method is used in many codes of practice, including Eurocode 4. It
is based on at least six tests of simply supported composite slabs,
which determine two coefficients m and k (see Figure 12), for the
test profile.

The longitudinal shear resistance of a composite slab, consisting of


the same type of profiled sheet as that tested, is then given by the
following maximum design vertical shear:
Vl,Rd = bds[(mAsp/bls) + k]/vs
where
ls is the shear span.

(13)

vs is the appropriate partial safety factor for longitudinal shear only.


For a uniformly loaded slab, ls = l/4; for simply supported beams, l
is the span, whereas for continuous beams l is the equivalent simple
span between points of contraflexure; for end spans, the full
exterior span length is used in design (see Figure 13 which has
been taken from Fig. 7.10 of Eurocode 4 [1]).

If the connection provided by friction (due to the rib shape) or by


embossments is not sufficient, it is possible to place anchorages
(generally steel-concrete connectors) at the ends of the span.
The ultimate resistance of such anchorages is generally governed by
the pull-out resistance of the sheet. For a stud, this resistance is
given by the following expression:
Nt,ap = k3 dw t fyap/ap (14)
k3 = 1 + a/dw 4,0
where
dw is the diameter of weld around the stud.

a is the distance between the axis of the stud and the extremity of
the profiled sheet (a 2dw).
b) Partial shear connection method
The fact that composite slabs fail by longitudinal shear in most
cases, allows this structural system to be compared to a composite
steel beam and concrete slab with partial shear connection. It is
also possible to represent the resistance of such slabs by a diagram
giving MSd/MRd as a function of Nc/Ncf. This diagram is different to
that given for composite beams due to the fact that the degree of
partial shear connection Nc/Ncf is not a function of the number of
connectors, but of the shear length ls and of the distribution of
longitudinal shear stresses over this length. The relative slip s
between the profiled sheeting and the concrete also plays a more
important role.
The determination of such diagrams for design is therefore
complicated since one of the following is necessary:
a) non-linear analysis of the resistance and behaviour of slabs
combined with shear tests on specimens representative of the
connection.
b) many tests of composite slabs, with measurements taken of the
normal force Nc, transferred over the shear length.
Studies are being undertaken at present to try to establish a
simplified method based on scientific research. Eurocode 4 [1] gives
such an alternative method in Appendix E, based on research
conducted recently in Germany. This alternative method will not be
described further in this lecture.

4.5 Elastic Properties of Cross-sections


The deflection of a composite slab is calculated using elastic theory.
a) Cracked section
The second moment of area Ibc of the cracked section can be
obtained from:
Ivc = [bx3/3n] + Aap(ds - x)2 + Iap
where x is the position of the elastic neutral axis:
x = [nAap/b]{[1 + (2bds/nAap)] - 1} (21)

(20)

where
Iap is the unreduced second moment of area of the sheet based
upon the net sheet thickness
b) Uncracked section
The second moment of area Ibu of the uncracked section can be
obtained from:

Ibu =
(22)
where
bc is the total average rib width over a slab width of 1 m.
xu is the position of the elastic neutral axis:

xu =

(23)

5. VERIFICATIONS
This lecture has given a brief introduction to composite slabs
constructed with profiled steel sheeting. The basic design principles
have been given, which allow a schematic structural arrangement
and statical system to be determined. The procedure for analysing
the slab under the external loads to find the internal stresses and
strains has then been considered. Now, various verifications are
necessary to show that structural safety (resistance, stability) and
serviceability (deflection, vibration) requirements are met.

5.1 Verification of the Ultimate Limit States


For composite slabs, this check generally consists of showing that
the design internal shear forces and moments at critical sections are
smaller than the design resistances of the cross-sections.
a) Positive bending (Section 4.1 and Section I of Figure 7)

This check is made at the section of maximum positive moment,


generally in the external span of a continuous slab. The condition
can be expressed as:
(24)
where
is the design value of the bending moment.
is the design value of the positive bending resistance.
b) Negative bending (Section 4.2 and Section II of Figure 7)
The negative moment, at the supports, is checked (see Section 3).
The condition can be expressed as:
(25)
where
is the design value of the negative bending moment.
is the design value of the negative bending resistance.
c) Vertical shear (Section 4.3 and Sections III or IV of Figure 7)
This check is rarely critical; however, it may be critical in the case
of deep slabs with loads of relatively large magnitude. This condition
may occur at end supports where the bending moment is zero, or at
intermediate supports; in the latter case, no interaction between M
and V is assumed. The condition is expressed as:
VSd Vv,Rd (26)
where
VSd is the design value of the vertical shear.
Vv,Rd is the design value of the vertical shear resistance.
d) Longitudinal shear (Section 4.4 and Section V of Figure 7)
This check is often the determining factor for composite slabs with
profiled sheeting but no anchorage. It implies that overall failure of

the slab occurs by failure of the shear bond. The bending resistance
at section I cannot then be attained.
If the empirical "m-k" method is used, the condition can be
expressed as:
VSd Vl,Rd (27)
where
VSd is the design value of the vertical shear (equivalent span, see
Figure 13).
VlRd Is the design value of the shear resistance.

5.2 Verification of the Serviceability Limit State


The following verifications should be made concerning the
serviceability of the composite slab:
a) Deformations
Vertical deflections must not exceed the limiting values (see Section
2.4b).
If the slenderness (span/effective depth) of the slab does not
exceed the limiting values given in Eurocode 2 [4], this deflection
check is not essential. For one way continuous slabs, with lightly
stressed concrete, the limit is:

(28)
b) Crack width
Given that there is a profiled sheet on the lower surface of the
concrete slab, only concrete cracking at the supports must be
verified. Such verifications should be made according to the
established rules for reinforced concrete, given in Eurocode 2 [4].
In normal circumstances when, for example, the slab is designed as
a series of simply supported beams, minimum reinforcement placed
at the supports is sufficient. Normal circumstances are: no exposure
to aggressive physical or chemical environments; no damage other
than cracking; no requirements regarding water proofing of the
slab; and no special requirements regarding appearance.

The amount of minimum reinforcement is given by the following:

min =

for slabs propped at the time of concreting:

(29)
for slabs unpropped at the time of concreting:

min = 0,2% (30)

6. CONCLUDING SUMMARY

The design of a composite slab must consider the


performance of the profiled steel sheeting, when it acts as
shuttering for the wet concrete during execution, as well as
the composite performance of the steel and hardened
concrete under the imposed floor loading.
At the execution stage, the profiled steel sheeting acts as a
thin-walled member. Its design must take into account the
possibility of local buckling.
The design of the composite slab must consider the resistance
to positive and negative moments and also to vertical and
longitudinal shear.
The resistance to longitudinal shear at the steel/concrete
interface is largely derived from embossments in the steel
sheet or from connectors placed at the ends of the spans.
Empirical methods are used to ensure adequate shear
resistance.

7. REFERENCES
[1] Eurocode 4: "Design of Composite Steel and Concrete
Structures": ENV 1994-1-1: Part 1.1: General rules and rules form
buildings, CEN (in press).
[2] Eurocode 1: "Basis of Design and Actions on Structures", CEN
(in preparation).
[3] prEN 10147, "Continuous Hot Dip Zinc Coated Carbon Steel
Sheet of Structural Quality", European Standard, 1979.
[4] Eurocode 2: "Design of Concrete Structures": ENV 1992-1-1:
Part 1.1: General rules and rules form buildings, CEN, 1992.
[5] Eurocode 3: "Design of Steel Structures": ENV 1993-1-1: Part
1.1: General rules and rules form buildings, CEN, 1992.

[6] Porter, M L and Eckberg, C E Jr, "Design Recommendations for


Steel Deck Floor Slabs", ASCE Journal of the Structural Division,
New York, Vol. 102, no 11, 1976, pp2121-2136.

8. ADDITIONAL READING
1. Patrick, M, "A New Partial Shear Connection Strength Model
for Composite Slabs", The Broken Hill Proprietary Company
Limited, Melbourne Research Laboratories, Report
MRL/PS64/90/016, Mulgrave, Victoria, Australia, March 1990.
2. Daniels, B, "Behaviour and Load Carrying Capacity of
Composite Slabs: Mathematical Modelling and Experimental
Studies", Doctoral thesis No 895, Ecole polytechnique fdrale
de Lausanne, ICOM-Construction mtallique, Lausanne, 1990.
Concrete grade

C20/25

C25/30

C30/37

C35/45

fck [N/mm2]

20

25

30

35

fctm [N/mm2]

2,2

2,6

2,9

3,2

Rd [N/mm2]

0,26

0,30

0,34

0,37

Ecm [kN/mm2]

29

30,5

32

33,5

Table 1: Concrete grades and associated properties used for


composite slabs
Steel grade

S 500

S 550

(ribbed bars)

(welded mesh)

fsk [N/mm2]

500

550

ftk [N/mm2]

550-600

580

(ft /fsk)k (minimum)

1,1

1,05

Es [kN/mm2]

210

210

Table 2 Reinforcing steel grades and associated properties


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