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Copyright2013byBentleySystems,Inc.Version7.

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1.0INTRODUCTION
1.1OVERVIEW
SACSIV,thegeneralpurposethreedimensionalstaticstructuralanalysisprogram,isthefocalpointforallprogramsintheSACSsystem.Itgivestheuserthecapabilityof
modelingalargearrayofstructuresfromsimpletwodimensionalspaceframeanalysestocomplexthreedimensionalfiniteelementanalyses.SACSIVcanalsobeusedfor
nonlinearstaticanalysiswhencoupledwithPSImoduleordynamicresponseanalysiswhencoupledwiththeDynpac,WaveResponseandDynamicResponsemodules.
SACSIVreferstothreeoftheprogrammodulesoftheSACSsystem,namelythepreprocessormodulePre,thesolvermoduleSolveandthepostprocessormodulePost.The
postprocessormodule,Post,canbeexecutedaspartofSACSIVorasanindividualanalysisstep.ThismanualaddressesthefeaturesandcapabilitiesofthePreandSolve
modulesandincludestheprocedureusedtorunPostaspartofSACSIV.ThePostmanualaddressestheexecutionofthepostprocessorasaseparatestepandincludesa
detaileddiscussionontheprogramcapabilities.
1.2PROGRAMFEATURES
SACSIVrequiresaSACSmodelfileoroutputstructuraldatafileforexecutionandcreatesacommonsolutionfilecontaininganalysisresults.
SomeofthemainfeaturesandcapabilitiesofSACSIVare:
1. Allowsspecificationofvariousinputoptions,analysisoptions,andoutputreportswithinthemodelfile.
2. AllowsspecificationofpostprocessoroptionswithinthemodelfileandcanautomaticallyexecutePOST.
3. CanaccessmemberpropertiesfromoneofvarioussectionpropertyfilesincludedwiththeSACSsystem,fromuserdefinedsectionpropertyfilesorfromsections
definedwithinthemodelfile
4. Supportsvariousbeamelementtypesincluding:

a. Tubular
b. Channel
c. Angle
d. Tee
e. PlateGirder
f. Prismatic
g. Cone
h. Box&StiffenedBox
i. StiffenedCylinder
j. LaunchRunner
k. JackupLeg
l. DoubleAngle
m. RectangularTube
n. DoubleWebPlateGirder
o. BoxedPlateGirder
p. BoxedPlateGirder
q. UnsymetricPlateGirder

5. Supportsvarioussixdegreeoffreedomtriangularandquadrilateralplateelementtypesincluding:
a. Isotropic
b. Membrane
c. Shear
d. Stiffened
e. Corrugated
6. Contains6,8and9nodetriangularandrectangularshellelements.
7. Containsthefollowingsolidelementsshapes:
a. 4nodetetrahedron
b. 5nodepyramid
c. 6nodewedge
d. 8nodebrick
8. Beamandfiniteelementoffsets.
9. Rotationalandtranslationalmemberreleases.
10. Springsupportstogroundincludingatobliqueangles.
11. Localandglobalelementloads.
12. Memberlinearandconcentratedloadsinlocalorglobalcoordinatesystem.
13. Jointloads.
14. Thermalloads.
15. Specifiedsupportdeflections.
16. Supportstaperedsections.
17. SupportstwoanalysistechniquesforplateelementsincludingDKTandtraditionalplatebeamstriptheory.
SomeofPostmodulefeatureswhichcanbespecifieddirectlyinthemodelfileare:
1. Membercheckcodeincluding:AISC,APIRP2A,Eurocode3,ISO,NorwegianPetroleumDirectorateandDanishOffshore,etc.
2. APIandDNVhydrostaticcollapseanalysis.
3. API2Uand2VBulletins
4. Eulerbucklingcheckforsegmentedmembers.
5. Automaticmemberredesign.
6. Allowablestressmodifiers.
7. Finiteelementcodecheckandstiffenerstressoutput.
Note:RefertothePostUser=sManualforadetaileddiscussionofthepostprocessormodulecapabilities.

1.3SACSIVMODELCOMPONENTS
TheSACSIVmodelfileisthestandardinputforalltypesofanalysesintheSACSSystem.Theuserneedgenerateonlyonestructuralmodelthatcanbeusedinanytypeof
analysis.

ThemodelfilecanbegeneratedbyvariousSACSprogrammodules.Precede,DataGeneratororatexteditorisusedtocreatetheanalysisoptions,modelgeometryanduser
definedloading.SeastateorWaveResponseisusedtogenerateenvironmentalloadingdataresultingfromwave,wind,current,deadweightandbuoyancy.Launch,Flotation
orTowisusedtogenerateloadsinducedbyajacketlaunch,upendingsequenceoftransportationrespectively.Themodelfileismadeupofthefollowing:
1. AnalysisOptions
2. PostProcessorOptions
3. MaterialandSectionPropertyData
4. ElementData
5. JointData
6. LoadData
1.4ANALYSISOPTIONS
AnalysisoptionsmaybespecifiedinthemodelfileormaybedesignatedwhencreatingtherunfileusingtheExecutive.Optionsspecifiedinthemodelfileareinputonthe
OPTIONSinputlineasfollows:
1. Unitsmustbespecifiedincolumns1415
a.ENEnglish
b.MNMetricwithKNforce
c.MEMetricwithKgforce
2. CreateSuperElement(column10)
3. ImportSuperElement(column9)
4. Consider/Ignorememberreleases(columns2122)
5. Include/Excludesheareffects(columns2324)
6. IncludePDeltaeffectsintheanalysis(columns1718)
ThefollowingsampleinputdesignatesEnglishunits,astandardanalysis(columns1920blank)andincludesheareffects:

Twoanalysistechniquesforplateelementsaresupported,,DKT(DiscreteKirchhofftheory)andtraditionalplatebeamstriptheory.Bydefault,DKTplatetheoryisused.
EnterNDincolumns3637tousethetraditionalbeamstripmethod.
Note:Forsomestructures,axialforcehasasignificanteffectonthelateralstiffnessoftheelements.ThePDeltaoptiongivesafirstorderapproximationoftheseeffects.
UsingthePDeltaoptionrequiresspecifyingPDeltaloadcases(ie.theloadcasesusedtodeterminetheaxialforceinthemember)usingtheLCSELlinewiththe>PD=
option.
Twoanalysistechniquesforsolidelementsaresupported,traditionalconstantstrain3degreeoffreedomsolidsandisoparametric6degreeoffreedomsolids.Bydefault,
constantstrain3DOFsolidsareused.Enter6incolumn71tousetheisoparametric6DOFsolids.
Solidjointorderinghastwooptionsaswell.Bydefault,solidsjointsareorderedsuchthatflatplanesinsolidelementsbecomesolidfaces.Amorerobustorderingscheme
whichallowssolidfacewarpagemaybespecifiedwithanRincolumn72.
1.5POSTPROCESSOROPTIONS
PostprocessoroptionsmaybespecifiedintheSACSmodelfilebutarenotrequired.ThepostprocessoroptionsspecifiedareusedasdefaultsbythePostandPostvue
programsandmaybemodifiedinthePostinputfile.
Note:APostinputfileisnotnecessaryifthepostprocessingoptionsspecifiedinthemodelfilearetobeused.
Thefollowingisabriefdiscussionofthepostprocessingoptionsthatmaybespecifiedinthemodelfile.ThePostUsersManualaddressesthesefeaturesindetail.
1.5.1MemberCheckCode
ThecodethatmemberstressesaretobecheckedwithrespecttoisspecifiedontheOPTIONSlineincolumns2526.
1.5.2MemberCheckLocations
ThelocationsatwhichtochecknonsegmentedandsegmentedmembersarespecifiedontheOPTIONSlineincolumns2930and3132respectively.
Fornonsegmentedmembers,thenumberofequallengthpiecesthememberistobedividedintoshouldbestipulated.Forsegmentedmembers,specifythenumberofpieces
eachsegmentofthememberistobedividedinto.Ineithercase,thememberischeckedatthebeginningandendofeachpiece.
1.5.3OutputReports
ThedesiredoutputreportsaredesignatedontheOPTIONSinputline.Formemberreports,whenPTisenteredintheappropriatecolumns,allmembersarereportedunless
SKappearsontheindividualMEMBERline.WhenSEisspecifiedforamemberdetailreport,onlymemberswithRPontheMEMBERlinearereported.
1.5.4RedesignParameters
Ifautomaticredesignisdesired,theparametersaredesignatedontheREDESIGNinputlines.
1.5.5HydrostaticCollapseParameters
HydrostaticcollapseparametersarespecifiedontheHYDROinputline.Fullhydrostaticcheckincludingactualmemberstressesduetoaxialforces,bendingandhoopstress
canbeperformedbythePostprogram.
1.5.6GroupingElementsbyUnityCheckRatio
Elementswithunitycheckratiosthatfallwithinadefinedrangecanbeprintedtogetherasareportgroup.UptothreerangesmaybedefinedusingtheUCPARTinputline.
Forexample,allelementswithunitycheckratiogreaterthan1.00canbereportedinthefirstreport,elementswithunitycheckratiobetween0.8and1.0inthesecondand
elementswithunitycheckratiobetween0.5and0.8inthethirdreport.
1.5.7AllowableStress/MaterialFactor
ForAPI/AISCworkingstressanalysis,thecalculatedallowablestressesforaloadcase(orloadcombination)canbemodifiedbyspecifyingtheloadcasenameandthe
appropriateallowablestressfactorontheAMODline.

ForNPDanalysis,thematerialfactorusedforallloadcasesisspecifiedusingtheAMODline.Onlyonematerialfactormaybespecifiedanditmustbedesignatedforthe
firstloadcaseinthemodel,althoughitwillbeusedforallloadcases.mE
ForDanishcodeanalysis,thefactorsmandEselectedontheGRUPlinecanbechangedforallmembersbyusingtheAMODline.Onlyonefactormaybespecifiedand
itmustbedesignatedforthefirstloadcaseinthemodel,anditwillbeusedforallloadcases.Thisisusefulforblastanalysis.
1.5.8ResistanceFactors
TheresistancefactorsindicatedbyAPIareusedbydefaultwhenselectingLRFDcodes.TheusercanspecifythatresistancefactorsindicatedforAISCorAPIseismiccodes
aretobeusedbyenteringCorSincolumn40ontheOPTIONSline.
Forexample,thefollowinglinespecifiesthatresistancefactorsindicatedbyAISCaretobeused.

1.5.9UserDefinedResistanceFactors
TheusercanmodifytheresistancefactorstobeusedforLFRDanalysesusingtheRFLRFDline.Theresistancefactorsforyield,axialcompression,axialtension,bending,
shearandhoopcapacitiesfortubularandnontubularmemberscanbeentered.
Forexample,thefollowinglinespecifiesthat1.0istobeusedforaxialcompressionandtensionforbothtubularandnontubularmembers.

Note:Whenspecifyingresistancefactors,thedefaultvaluesontheRFLRFDlineareusedforfieldsinwhichnooverridehasbeenspecified.
1.5.10EuroCodeCheckOptions
TheOPTIONSlinehasbeenupdatedtoincludethenewcodecheckoptionforEurocode3EN199311:2005enterE5atcolumn2526ofOPTIONSlineforthenew
code.Whenthiscodeisactivated,thenontubularmemberswillbecheckedforEurocode3:2005.Currently,thecrosssectionsofWideFlange,PlateGirder,WeldedBox,
RolledRectangularTube,DoubleWebPlateGirder,andBoxedPlateGirderaresupported.ThetubularandconicalmemberswillbecheckedaccordingtoNorsokN004
2004.ForEurocode3EN199311:v1992,theIDisstillECinOPTIONSlineasbefore.
TheCODEEClinecanbeusedtomodifythedefaultEurocodecheckoption,shearareaoption,theresistancefactorsM0valueandtheM1value.ForEurocode3:2005,the
methodforinteractionfactors,theoptionofnationalannexes,andthefactorofshearbucklingcanbemodifiedorselectedintheCODEline.Formoredetails,pleaserefer
tothelinedescriptioninthemanual.

1.5.11SpanDesignation
TheSPANinputlinecanbeusedtoidentifyanalyticalbeamelementsthatmakeupphysicalmembersforserviceabilityandcodecheckrequirementsbyenteringthejoints
inorderofoccurrenceinthespan.Anynumberofmemberscanbeincludedinacontinuousline.Cantilevermemberscanalsobeanalyzedbutmustbespecifiedbyentering
Cincolumn14oftheSPANline.Momentdiscontinuitiesandmomentmemberendreleasesareallowedalongthecontinuousmember,however,forceendreleasesarenot
allowed.
Note:ThebeamelementlocalxaxesofallelementsdefinedintheSPANlinearerequiredtobeactinginthesamedirection.
1.5.12AISC2005(13thEdition)Options
InusingAISC2005,theuserhastwooptionscorrespondingtoASDdesignandLRFDdesign.IfoptionAAisselectedincolumns2526onOPTIONSline,thiswill
activatecodecheckbyASDmethodofAISC2005fornontubularmembersandWSDmethodofAPIRP2A21steditionfortubularmembers.IfoptionALisselected
thenthiswillactivatecodecheckbyLRFDmethodofAISC2005fornontubularmembersandLRFDmethodofAPIRP2ALRFD1steditionfortubularmembers.
1.5.13PanelCodeCheckOptions
Column35oftheOPTIONSlinecanbeusedforselectingcodechecksforstiffenedorunstiffenedpanels.EnterAforAPIBULL2VorDforDnVRPC201.
CurrentlyonlyDnVRPC201codeofpracticeisimplemented
TheDnVRPC201platepanelcodecouldbeusedinaccordancetoeithertheLRFDorWSDstandardsbyspecifyingtheappropriatecodecheckoptionsincolumn2526of
OPTIONSline.
ThePCODEinputlineforDnVRPC201codeofpracticemaybeusedtoinputuserdefinedparameters.CurrentlyalltheoptionsinthislineareonlyapplicabletoDnV
RPC201codeofpractice.ThefollowinginputcanbedefinedonthePCODEline.
a.Column1419:materialfactorM(default1.15).
b.Column20:Methodselectionforeffectivewidthcalculationofgirdersinaccordancetosection8.4(Method2isthedefault).Thisoptionisonlyvalidfor
orthogonallystiffenedpanels.
c.Column2125:EnteranallowableusagefactoraccordingtoWSDstandardifthepaneltobecheckedinaworkingstressdesignstandard(WSD)(default
0.6).
Note:IftheWSD(sometimesalsoreferredtoasASD)codeisselectedincolumns2526ofOPTIONSline,thentheplatepanelwillbecheckinaccordance
WSDstandardusingtheuserspecifiedusagefactorfromthePCODEline.Ifcolumns2125ofPCODElineareleftblank,thenthedefaultusagefactorof0.6
willbeused.However,iftheLRFDcodeisselectedincolumns2526ofOPTIONSline,thentheplatepanelwillbecheckinaccordancetotheLRFD
standard.Inthiscase,theusagefactorfromcolumns2125ofPCODElinewillbeignoredevenifavaluehasbeenspecified.
d.Columns2631:Thealphalimitfornonrectangularpanels(default10degrees).Ifthislimitexceededforanypanelthentheprogramwillissueawarning
messagetoremindtheuserthatanequivalentrectangularpanelusingalargerdimensionsparalleltostiffener(s)ofthefirststiffenedplateinthepanel

willbeusedforthecodecheck.
e.Column3237:Limitforpanelcoplanarcheck(defaultto400,i.e.coplanarcheckwillbelimitedtopanellength/400andpanelwidth/400whicheverisless).

1.5.14ISOcodecheckoptions
ISO19902:2007codecheckontubularmembers,conicaltransitions,anddentedandgroutedmembershasbeensupported.IScodeoptioncanbeselectedonOPTIONS
line.ISO199013:2010containsrequirementsandguidancefortopsidesstructures.Inordertospecifytheassociatedcodecheckoptionfornontubularstructuralmembers,
CODEISlinemustbeused,whereusermaychooseEurocode3:2005,Eurocode3:1992,AISC13th2005LRFD,CanadianCSAS162009,andNS3472.Theresistance
factorsoftubularorconicalsectionsunderaxialtension,compression,bending,shearandhoopcompressioncanbemodifiedinCODEISline.Ifnecessary,the
correspondingresistancefactorsforEurocode3codescanbeenteredinCODEECline,forAISC13thLRFDcodeinRFLRFDline,andforCanadiancodeinRFLRFD
linetoo.NotethatthebuildingcodecorrespondencefactorKcinISO199013isnotsupportedincodecheckandstillunderinvestigation.Formoredetails,pleaserefertothe
associatedlinedescriptionincardimage.
1.5.15NorsokStandardN004codecheckoptions
NorsokStandardN004"Designofsteelstructures"specifiesguidelinesandrequirementsfordesignanddocumentationofoffshoresteelstructuresandhasbeenupdatedto
Rev3,2013.SACSsupportbothRev2,2004andRev3,2013intubularmembersandconicaltransitionscodecheck.EnterNSatcolumn2526ofOPTIONSlinefor
v2004and"NC"forthelatest2013code.ThenontubularmembersarecheckedbyNS3472for"NS"option,andbyEurocode3:2005for"NC"option.ForEurocode3code,
thecorrespondingresistancefactorscanbeenteredinCODEECline.
Note:SectionAnnexK.5.3GroutedconnectioninNorsokN004isnotsupportedinSACS.Forfatigueanalysis,pleaserefertoSACSFatiguemanualfordetails.Forsimple
tubularjointdesign,pleaserefertoSACSJointCanmanual.
1.5.16ALSloadcasesspecification
Ingeneral,ULS(ultimatelimitstate)isthedefaultstateinmembers'LRFDcodecheck.InordertodoALS(accidentallimitstate)analysis,userneedstomodifythe
associatedresistancefactorsandrunaseparatedpostprocessinganalysis.SACSnowsupportspecifyingloadcasesasULSorALSinonepostprocessingmembercode
check.ThisfeatureisperformedbyusingAMODlinesandworksonlyforNorsokStandardN004,Eurocode3,andISO19902codes.InAMODlines,loadcaseswith
AMODvaluespecifiedto2.0areconsideredasALSwhosepartialresistancefactorsormaterialfactorsaremodifiedto1.0automaticallyincodechecktheloadcases
withoutAMODvalue(default)orAMODvaluesetto1.0areULSwithappropriateresistancefactors.Notethat,NorsokStandardN004doesnotallowthematerialfactor
MinULSloadcasetobemodified,whichequalsto1.15forEurocode3andISO19902,usermaydefineULSresistancefactorsinCODEECorCODEISline,
respectively.
1.6SELECTINGLOADCASESFOROUTPUT
Theloadcasesforwhichoutputresultsaredesired,maybedesignatedinthemodelfileusingtheLCSELline.Foraparticularanalysistype,resultsonlyforloadcases
specifiedforthattypearereported.
Specifyloadcasesincolumns1775andtheanalysistypetowhichthelistofloadcasespertainincolumns78asfollows:
STStandardstaticanalysisand/orPSIanalysis
GPGapelementanalysis
DYConverttomassforDynpacanalysis
PDDesignatesgravityloadusedtodeterminePDeltaeffectsforsecondorderanalysisand/ormomentmagnifiersforconcreteelementsinfirstorderanalysis.
LeavefunctionblankiftheloadcaseslistedaretobeusedforstandardSTanddynamicDYfunctions.
Forexample,thefollowinglinesdesignatethatloadcasesGRAV,ST01andST02aretobeusedforstandardanalyses,whileloadcasesBOATandMISCaretobe
convertedtomasswhenrunningDynpac.

Note:MorethanoneLCSELlinemaybeused.IfnoLCSELlineisspecified,allloadcasesareusedforstandardanalysis.
1.6.1PDeltaLoadCases
Thelateralstiffnessofanelementisafunctionofaxialforcesuchthataxialcompressionreducesthelateralstiffnesswhileaxialtensionincreasesthelateralstiffness.For
typicallinearstaticanalysis,theeffectofaxialforceonthelateralstiffnessisnegligible.Forsomestructures,howevertheaxialforcedoeshaveasignificanteffectonthe
lateralstiffnessoftheelements.ThePDeltaoptiongivesafirstorderapproximationoftheseeffects.
WhenusingthePDeltaoption,theprogramcalculatesthelateralstiffnessofeachmemberusingareferenceaxialforceobtainedfromtheloadcasesdesignatedasPDelta
loadcases.
Forexample,ifmostoftheaxialloadintheelementsofastructureisduetodeadloadingorotherverticalloading,thecorrespondingloadcasesshouldbedesignatedasP
Deltaloadcases.ThelateralstiffnessforeachmemberwillthenbedeterminedconsideringtheaxialforceduetothedesignatedPDeltaloadcases.
ThefollowingdesignatesthatloadcasesDEAD,MISC,EQPTandAREAaretobeusedtoincludetheeffectsaxialloadhasonlateralstiffness.

Note:Iftwodifferentdesignloadcasescausecompletelydifferentaxialloading,thenaseparateanalysismustberunforeachofthedesignloadcase.Forexample,ifone
casecausessignificantaxialcompressionwhileanothercausessignificantaxialtension,separateanalysesmustbeexecuted.
1.6.2LargeDeflectionorPDeltaAnalysis
WhenchoosingbetweenlargedeflectionorPDeltaoptionsforanalysis,somefactorsshouldbeconsidered.PDeltaanalysisgivesafirstorderapproximationoftheeffect
ofaxialforceonthelateralstiffnessofthestructure.Largedeflectionanalysisisahigherorderapproximation.Assuch,thePDeltaoptionisusefulforstructuresinwhich
thelateraldeflectionislessthan10%ofthetotalstructureheight(groundsupportedstructures).Forexample,ina300footplatform/towerassembly,PDeltaanalysiswould
bevalidfortowerdeflectionsinanydirectionoflessthan30feet.PDeltaanalysisislimitedtothedeflectionofframedstructures(beams).Forstructuresconsistingofplates

orothersolidelements,PDeltaanalysisdoesnotapplyandtheuseofthisanalysiswillnotmakeanydifferenceintheresults.
Largedeflectionanalysisisusedwhenloaddependentdeflectionsordiaphragmactioniscommon.UnlikePDeltaanalysis,largedeflectionanalysisislimitedtooneload
caseperrun.Forexample,aplatedboilermightbeanalyzedwithlargedeflectionanalysis,beingasthelargeplatedeflectionswillcausetheboilerwallstobehavelikea
diaphragmwithmembraneactionratherthanalinearplatewithonlybendingstiffness.
1.7FACTORINGLOADCASES
LoadcasesmaybefactoredforparticulartypesofanalysesusingtheLCFACline.Specifyloadcasesincolumns1775,thefactortobeappliedincolumns1116andthe
analysistypetowhichtheloadfactorpertainsincolumns78asfollows:
STStandardstaticanalysisand/orPSIanalysis
DYConverttomassforDynpacanalysis
LeavefunctionblankiftheloadcaseslistedaretobeusedforstandardSTanddynamicDYfunctions.
Forexample,thefollowinglinesdesignatethatloadcasesBOATandMISCaretobefactoredby0.5whenconvertedtomassforDynpac.

Note:MorethanoneLCFAClinemaybeused.Whenloadcasefactorsarespecified,theloadcaseisfactoredbeforebeingappliedtoanyloadcombinations.
1.8MATERIALANDSECTIONPROPERTYDATA
EachbeamandplateelementintheSACSmodelisassignedtoagroupwhichcontainsthematerialandsectionpropertydataforallelementsassignedtothatgroup.
Elementswiththesamenumberofsegmentsandidenticalstructural,materialandcodecheckpropertiesmaybeassignedtothesamegroup.
1.8.1SectionProperties
Thefollowingsectiondetailsdefiningsectionpropertiesforbeamandfiniteelements.
1.8.2NonTubularMembers
SectionpropertiesfornontubularbeamelementsaredefinedbythesectionreferencedontheGRUPlineofthegrouptheelementisassignedto.Referencedsectionsthatare
definedinthesectionlibraryfileneednotbedefinedinthemodelfile.Nontubularsectionsthatarenotdefinedinthesectionlibraryfilemustbedefinedinthemodelfile
usingaSECTIONline.
WhendefiningsectionpropertiesusingaSECTIONline,thesectionnameisdesignatedincolumns612,thesectiontypein1618andthedimensionsin5080.Crosssection
typessupportedare:
1. Tubular
2. WideFlange
3. CompactWideFlange
4. Box
5. Tee
6. GeneralPrismatic
7. Channel
8. PlateGirder
9. Angle
10. Cone
11. StiffenedBox
12. StiffenedCylinder
Stiffnesspropertiesarecalculatedfromthedimensionsinputbutmaybeoverriddenincolumns1948.Whenoverridingstiffness,allvaluesmustbeinput.
Note:Iftheuserinputsanyofthecrosssectionproperties(column19to48ontheSECTline),theprogramwillusetheinputvalueofthecglocation.Otherwisetheprogram
computesitusingthecrosssectiondimensions.Stiffnessvaluesforanglecrosssectionsmaynotbeoverridden.

ThefollowingsampledefinestheplategirdersectionPLGRD2referencedbygroupZB1andboxsectionRECTANG.Theboxsectionhasstiffnessvaluesspecified.
SectionW24X76referencedbygroupW02isobtainedfromthesectionlibraryfile.

Note:Whenusingsectionsdefinedinthesectionlibraryfile,thesectionlabelspecifiedonthemembergrouplinemustmatchthenameinthelibraryfileexactly.Also,
sectionsdefinedinthelibraryfilemaybeoverriddenbydefiningthesamesectioninthemodelfile.
Angle,teeandbulbcrosssectionsmaybeutilizedasstiffeningelements.Forexample,ifthestemofateecrosssectioniscontinuouslyconnectedtoaplateorgirder
structure,thentheteecrosssectionwillreinforcethestructuretowhichitisattached.Tospecifythatanangle,teeorbulbcrosssectionistoserveasastiffener,enterSin
column15oftherelevantSECTline.ThefollowingdesignatesthatanglecrosssectionSTFANGLwillbeusedasacontinuouslyconnectedstiffenerinthemodel.

Note:Onlyangle,teeandbulbsectionsusedasstiffenersmaybe

specifiedinthismanner.
1.8.3TubularMembers
Fortubularsections,sectionpropertiescanbedefinedonaSECTIONlineorcanbecalculateddirectlyfromtheoutsidediameterandwallthicknessinputontheGRUPline.
WhenasectionlabelisspecifiedontheGRUPline,thepropertiesaredeterminedfromtheinputonthecorrespondingSECTIONline.Thesectionlabelfieldshouldbeleft
blankwhensectionpropertiesaretobedeterminedfromtheoutsidediameterandwallthicknessspecifiedontheGRUPline.
ThefollowingdefinestubulargroupsBL1andBL2.ThepropertiesfromBL1aredesignatedontheGRUPlinewhilethepropertiesforgroupBL2areobtainedfrom
sectionCAN105definedusingasectionline.

1.8.4GroutedTubularMembers
Groutedsectionsaredefinedusingatubularsection.TheODandthicknessofeachoftheconcentrictubesmustbespecifiedontheSECTIONline.Forpurposeof
determiningtheweight,theannulusisassumedtobefilledwithgrout(150#/ft3).Forstiffnesspurposes,however,thegroutintheannulusisignored.
ThefollowingdefinesthegroutedleggroupGL2usingsectionGLEG103whichcontains103.ODand90.0ODconcentrictubulars.

1.8.5DentedTubularMembers
DentedtubularsectionsaredefinedusingaSECTIONlinewithDTBincolumns1618.TheODandthicknessofthetubularmustbespecifiedontheincolumns5055and
5660,respectively.Thedentdepthandgroutfillratioareinputincolumns6166and6771.Ifthesectionisbentandthebendisnotaccountedforusingoffsetsor
additionaljoints,entertheoutofstraightnessincolumns7276.

ThefollowingdefinesthedentedsectionDENT24as24x1.0withadentdepthof4inches.Nogroutisincluded.

Note:ThedentpointsinthelocalZdirectionandissymmetricaboutthelocalXZplane.Thedentlengthisthelengthofthememberorthelengthofthesegment.ThelocalZ
directioncanbeorientedrelativetothedefaultusingachordangleincolumns3641ofthecorrespondingMEMBERline(orareferencejointincolumns4245).
1.8.6SegmentedMembers
Thesectionlabeldefiningthecrosssectionproperties,orthediameterandwallthicknessfortubularmembers,foreachofthemembersegmentsisspecifiedontheGRUP
linecorrespondingtothatsegment.SeetheexampleintheSegmentedMembersundertheMaterialPropertiesSection.
1.8.7PlateElements
SectionpropertiesofaplateelementaredeterminedfromthethicknessspecifiedonthePLATElineforisotropicplatesthatarenotassignedtoplategroupsortheappropriate
PGRUPlineformembrane,shear,andcorrugatedplatesorforisotropicplatesassignedtoagroup.Thepropertiesofstiffenedplatesaredeterminedfromtheplateproperties
specifiedonthePGRUPlineandstiffenersspecifiedonthePSTIFinputline.
ThefollowingdefinesplatesAAAAandAAAB.ThethicknessforAAAAisdefineddirectlyonthePLATElinewhileAAABisobtainedfromthePGRUPlinedefining
groupP01.

1.8.8ShellandSolidElements
SectionpropertiesofashellelementaredeterminedfromthethicknessspecifiedontheSHELLlineforisotropicshellsthatarenotassignedtoshellgroupsviathe
SHLGRPline.Solidelementshavenosectionpropertiesparticulartotheelement.
1.8.9MaterialProperties

1.8.10MembersorBeamElements
Forbeamelements,materialpropertiessuchasmodulusofelasticity,shearmodulus,yieldstress(andshearareafactorfortubulars),arespecifiedontheappropriateGRUP
line.ThegrouptowhichthememberisassignedisdesignatedontheMEMBERline.
ThefollowingdefinesthematerialpropertiesforgroupsBL1andBL2.

Note:Bydefault,theplategirderflangeyieldstressisassumedtobethesameasthewebyieldstress.Entertheflangeyieldstressincolumns4145oftheGRUPline
definingtheplategirdergroupifdifferentfromthewebyieldstress.
1.8.11TaperedMembers
TaperednonsegmentedelementsmaybedefinedusingtwoGRUPlines.ThepropertiesofthebeginningofthetaperaredefinedusingaGRUPlinewithBincolumn9
whilethepropertiesattheendofthetaperaredefinedusingaGRUPlinewithEincolumn9.
Forexample,thefollowingdefinesataperedplategirderwiththebeginningdefinedbysectionPGIRD18andtheenddefinedbyPGIRD12.

Note:Thesectiontypemustbethesameateachendofthetaperedsegment.
ThepreviouscaseistheonlycaseinwhichmorethanoneGRUPlinecorrespondstoasinglesegmentmember.Inthiscasedonotspecifyasegmentlengthoradifferencein
materialpropertiesinthetwoGRUPlines.Inallothercases,thenumberofconsecutiveGRUPlineswiththesamegroupnamecorrespondstothenumberofsegmentsina
group.

Ifataperedbeamisneededwhosetopflangeisparalleltothelinebetweentheendpointjoints,itisnecessarytoaddtwointermediatejointsandsplitthememberintothree
members,thefirsttapered,thesecondconstantcrosssection,andthethirdtapered.Thisisdoneasfollows:

TaperedsegmentedelementsaredefinedusingaGRUPlineforeachsegment.ThepropertiesofthegroupforthebeginningofthetaperaredefinedusingaGRUPlinewith
Bincolumn9whilethepropertiesofthegroupfortheendofthetaperaredefinedusingaGRUPlinewithEincolumn9.AGRUPlinewithaBincolumn9willstarta
taperwiththeendofthetapercrosssectionobtainedfromthenextGRUPline.AGRUPlinewithanEincolumn9willendataperwiththebeginningofthetaper
determinedfromthepreviousGRUPline.

Forexample,thefollowingdefinesataperedplategirderwiththebeginningdefinedbysectionPGIRD12.ThemiddlesectionisconstantdepthdefinedbyPGIRD18andthe
endisdefinedbyPGIRD12.

Note:Thesectiontypemustbethesameforeachsegmentofthetaperedmember.
Inasegmentedmember,theaxisofthememberbetweenthejointscorrespondstotheneutralaxisofeachsegmentinthemember.Intheprevioustaperedplategirderthetop
andbottomflangesofthePGIRD12segmentwouldexpandtoreachthePGIRD18section.Inataperedsegmentedmember,thetopandbottomflangesarenotusually
paralleltothelinebetweenmemberendpoints.
1.8.12SegmentedMembers
AseriesofGRUPlineswiththesamegrouplabelareusedtodefinethepropertygroupofasegmentedmember.Eachinputlinecorrespondstooneofthesegmentsofthat
group.Materialpropertiesofthesegmentinadditiontothesegmentlengthmaybespecified.Forexample,groupLG1inthefigurebelowwouldbespecifiedusingthree
grouplinesasfollows:

Note:Thesegmentlengthforoneofthesegmentswasleftblanksothatitcanbedeterminedbytheprogram.Thisinsuresthatthesumofallsegmentlengthswillequalthe
memberlength.
Thesegmentlengthmayalsobeexpressedasafractionofthetotalmemberlength.Inthiscase,thefractionforeachsegmentmustbeenteredandthesummationofall
segmentlengthfractionsmustequalone.Ifanysegmentlengthisleftblank,itisassumedthattheremaininglengthsarelengthsratherthanfractions.
1.8.13PlateElements
MaterialpropertiesforplateelementsincludingYoungsModulus,PoissonsRatioandyieldstressarespecifiedontheappropriatePLATElineforisotropicplatesthatare
notassignedtoaplategrouporonthePGRUPlineformembrane,shear,corrugatedandstiffenedplatesorforisotropicplatesassignedtoaplategroup.Ifaplategroupisto
beused,thegrouptowhichtheplateisassignedisdesignatedonthePLATElinedefiningtheelement.
ThefollowingdefinesthepropertiesforplategroupP01.

1.8.14ShellandSolidElements
Materialpropertiesforshellandsolidelementswhicharenotinputingrouplines(SHLGRPorSLDGRP,respectively)areinputdirectlyontheSHELLorSOLIDline
definingtheelement.
1.8.15StiffenerData
1.8.16PlateGirders
Bydefaultplategirdermembersareassumedtohavewebstiffenerspacingequaltothememberlength.Plategirderwebstiffenerspacingcanbedesignatedincolumns6569
ontheGRUPlinedefiningtheplategirdergroup.
ThefollowingdesignatesahybridplategirdergroupnamedPG2thatreferencessectionPG36100.Theflangeyieldstressis50,thewebyieldstressis36andtheweb
stiffenerspacingisdesignatedas24.

1.8.17TubularMembers
Tubularmemberscancontainringand/orlongitudinalstiffenersasdefinedontheSECSCYlineimmediatelyfollowingtheSECTlinedefiningthetubularproperties.Enter
thelongitudinalstiffenersectionnameincolumns915andthespacingincolumns1620.
Theringstiffenersectionisdefinedincolumns2127alongwiththeringspacingincolumns2832.
Note:Thebasicsectionproperties(i.e.ODandthickness)ofastiffenedtubularsectionmustbedefinedusingaSECTIONline.
Thefollowingdefinesastiffened48.0x1.0tubularsectionnamedSCY48X1withringstiffenersdefinedbysectionRSTIF1spacedat24.

Note:StiffenedtubularsectionscanbecodecheckedusingAPI2UBulletincriteriabyspecifyingPTincolumns6768ontheOPTIONSline.
1.9ELEMENTDATA
TheSACSsystemallowstheuseofbeam,plate,shelland/orsolidelementsinthemodel.
1.9.1MembersorBeamElements
BeamelementsarespecifiedonMEMBERlinesfollowingtheMEMBERheaderinputline.Beamelementsarenamedbythejointstowhichtheyareconnected.Inaddition
totheconnectingjoints,thepropertygrouplabelalongwithsomeoptionalpropertydataarespecifiedontheMEMBERline.Memberpropertiesspecified,suchasflood
condition,Kfactors,averagejointthicknessanddensityoverridedataspecifiedontheGRUPline.
Thefollowingdefinesmember101201andassignsittopropertygroupGL2.

Note:Whenanaveragejointthicknessisentered,thememberlengthusedforEulerbucklingandhydrodynamicloadgenerationisshortedbytheaveragejointthickness.Any
existingloadsarenotaffectednormodifiedwhenanaveragejointthicknessisspecified.
1.9.2MemberLocalCoordinateSystem
Eachmemberhasanassociatedlocalcoordinatesystemwhichloadsandstressesmaybedefinedwithrespectto.Thedefaultmemberlocalcoordinatesystemisdefinedas:
ThememberlocalXaxisisdefinedalongthememberneutralaxisfromthefirstconnectingjointspecifiedtowardthesecondconnectingjoint.
Formembersthatarenotvertical,i.e.localXaxisisnotparalleltoglobalZ,thelocalZaxisisdefinedasperpendiculartolocalXaxis,lyingintheplaneformedbythe
globalZandlocalXaxesandhavingapositiveprojectionalongtheglobalZaxis.TherighthandruleisusedtodeterminethelocalYaxis.ThelocalZaxisforvertical
members,i.e.memberswhoselocalXaxisisparalleltoglobalZ,isparalleltotheglobalYaxisandinthepositiveYdirection.ThelocalYaxisisdeterminedbyusingthe
righthandrule.Seefigurebelow.

Thedefaultorientationofthememberlocalcoordinatesystemcanbeoverriddenbyspecifyingachord(beta)angleand/oralocalZaxisreferencejointontheMEMBER
line.Whenachordangleisinput,thedefaultlocalcoordinatesystemisrotatedaboutthelocalXaxisbytheanglespecifiedfollowingtherighthandrule.TheZaxis
referencejointisusedwiththelocalXaxistodefinethelocalXZplane.ThelocalZaxisisdefinedsuchthatitisperpendiculartothememberandpositivetowardthe
referencejoint.
1.9.3MemberInternalLoadandStressSignConvention
ThesignconventionusedbythePostprogrammoduleforreportingmemberinternalloadsandstressesisdependentonthememberlocalcoordinatesystemasfollows:
1. Axialtensionispositiveatbothendsofthememberwhilecompressionisnegativeatbothends.
2. Positivebendingatbothendsofthemembercausesthecenterofthemembertodeflectdownwardorinthenegativedirectionofthelocalcoordinatesystem.
3. Positiveshearforceisinthedirectionofthepositivelocalmembercoordinateatthebeginningofthememberandinthenegativelocalmembercoordinateattheendof
themember.
4. Apositivetorsionvectorisoutwardatbothendsofthemember.
Thefigurebelowshowspositiveloadsandmomentsalongwithpositivestressesatthememberbeginningandend.

1.9.4MemberEndFixity
Bydefault,theendsofamemberarefixedtotheconnectingjointsforallsixdegreesoffreedom.However,anyofthesixdegreesoffreedommaybereleasedfromthe
connectingjointbyspecifyinga1intheappropriatecolumnontheMemberDescriptionline.Degreesoffreedomareinthememberlocalcoordinatesystem.
Forinstance,thestartofmember101102isfixedforaxialloadandshear.Thetorsion,momentYandmomentZdegreesoffreedomarethereforereleasedbyspecifying
000111incolumns2328.Theendofthememberisfixedforalldegreesoffreedom.

1.9.5MemberOffsets
Memberoffsetsareusedtoshortenorlengthenthememberortomovethememberwhentheneutralaxisisnotlocatedonthelinebetweenitsconnectingjoints.When
offsetsarespecified,theprogramcreatesarigidlinkbetweentheneutralaxisofthememberendandtheconnectingjoint.
Theoffsetsdescribethelengthoftherigidlinkandmaybedescribedinlocalorglobalrectangularcoordinates.Thecoordinatesystemusedisspecifiedincolumn7onthe
MEMBERline.Enter1forglobalcoordinatesystemor2forlocalcoordinatesystem.TheoffsetsaredefinedontheMEMBEROFFSETSlineimmediatelyfollowing

Thefollowingdefinesoffsetsintheglobalcoordinatesystemformember203301.

Note:Specifiedmemberendreleasesareappliedtotheconnectionbetweenthememberendandtherigidlink.
1.9.6Kfactors/EffectiveBucklingLength
Kfactorsoreffectivebucklinglength,butnotboth,maybespecifiedforbucklingaboutthelocalYandZaxes.KfactorsarespecifiedonthepertinentGRUPlinein
columns5259butmaybeoverriddenontheMEMBERlineincolumns5259.
WhenKfactorsareused,theeffectivebucklinglengthiscalculatedastheKfactormultipliedbytheactualmemberlength.Wheneffectivelengthsarespecifiedonthe
MEMBERline,Lmustbeinputincolumn47.TheeffectivebucklinglengthisthendeterminedusingtheKfactorfromtheGRUPlinemultipliedbucklinglengthspecified.
Thefollowingdefinesmembers101201and201301.Theeffectivebucklinglengthformember101201isdeterminedusingtheKfactorsspecifiedforgroupT01sinceno
KfactorsarespecifiedontheMEMBERline.Theeffectivelengthformember201301isdeterminedusingthebucklinglengthontheMEMBERlineandtheKfactors
specifiedforgroupT01.

1.9.7UnbracedLengthofCompressionFlange
Thedistancebetweenbracingagainsttwistorlateraldisplacementofthecompressionflangeforuseincalculatingbendingallowablestressesfornontubularmembers,may
beinputontheGRUPorMEMBERlineincolumns6064.Thedefaultisthememberlength.
Thefollowingdesignatesthattheunbracedlengthofthecompressionflangeformember101201is5.

Note:ValuesspecifiedontheMEMBERlineoverridevaluesspecifiedontheGRUPline.
1.9.8ShearAreaFactorforTubularMembers
Fortubularmembers,thefactorwithwhichtomultiplythecrosssectionareaforpurposesofshearstresscalculations,maybeinputontheGRUPlineincolumns6569oron
theMEMBERlineincolumns6064.
Thefollowingspecifiesashearareamodifierof0.5formember101501.

1.9.9SkippingfromOutputReports
AmembermaybeeliminatedfromoutputreportsbyinputtingSKontheMEMBERlineincolumns2021.IfSEwasdesignatedastheelementdetailreportoption,enter
RPtohavethestressandunitycheckresultsreportedfortheparticularmember.Allmembersofagroupmaybeskippedfromoutputreportsbyspecifying9incolumn47
oftheGRUPline.
1.9.10MultipleMembersBetweenTwoJoints
Amaximumoftwomembers,spanninginoppositedirection,areallowedbetweenthesametwojoints.Forexample,twomembersmaybemodeledbetweenjoints101and
102,member101102andmember102101.However,allloadingappliedtothememberswillbeappliedtothefirstmemberspecified.Ingeneral,modelingtwomembers
betweenthesamejointsisapplicablewhenthesecondmemberisadummymemberusedonlytosimulateadditionalstiffness.
1.9.11DefiningSpecialElementTypes
1.9.12CableElement
CableelementsaredefinedusingstandardbeamelementsexceptthatadditionalmemberdataisspecifiedontheMEMB2line.Thetensionusedtodeterminethecable
stiffnessisinputincolumns814ontheMEMB2line.
Thefollowingspecifiesatensionforceof10.0forcablemember101501.

Note:EnterAincolumn16ontheMEMBERlineifadditionalmemberdataisspecifiedontheMEMB2line.
1.9.13GapElement
Elementscanbedesignatedastensiononly,compressiononly,noloadorfrictionelementsforGapanalyses.Thegapelementtypemaybedesignatedonthemembergroup
lineincolumn30orontheMEMBERlineincolumn22usingT,C,NorF,Release6:Revision0SACSSACSIV219respectively.
Note:Thegapelementtypeisonlyapplicablewhenrunningagapelementanalysisandisignoredforallotheranalysistypes.
1.9.14XBraceorKBrace
Bydefault,thebucklinglengthandKfactorsspecifiedontheGRUPandMEMBERlinesinthemodelareusedforunitycheckcalculationsforeachloadcase.
MembersmakingupanXbraceorchordmembersofaKbracenotbracedoutofplanemaybedesignatedassuchusingtheMEMB2line.TheMEMB2lineallows
designationoftheKfactorand/orbucklinglengthtobeusedforloadcaseswherethememberispartofanXbraceorthechordofaKbrace.
Note:TheXbraceorKbraceparametersareonlyappliedtotheaxisintheplaneoftheconnectionforloadcaseswherethememberisincompressionandthereference
member(s)areintension.
ThebracetypeXorKisdesignatedincolumn15.Thememberlocalaxis,YorZ,thatliesintheplaneoftheXbraceorKbraceisenteredincolumn16.Enterthe
referencemember(s)thatwillbecheckedfortensionincolumns1732.TheKfactorand/orbucklinglengthtobeusedforloadcaseswherethememberispartofanXbrace
orthechordofaKbraceisdesignatedincolumns3338and3945,respectively.
Note:KbracesrequiretworeferencememberswhilethesecondreferencememberisoptionalforXbraces.
Thefollowingexampledefinesparametersformembers101109and105109whicharechordmembersofaKbracewhoselocalYaxeslieinthebraceplane.Thediagonal
orKbracemembersare109110and109112.Forloadcaseswherechordmembers101109and105109areincompressionandmembers109110and109112arein
tension,aKfactorof0.8andabucklinglengthof11.15istobeused.Forotherloadcases,theKfactorandbucklinglengthspecifiedinthemodelfilearetobeused.


Thisexampledefinesparametersformembers301309and307309whicharechordmembersofanXbraceandmembers303309,305310and310309whichmakeupthe
twobraceelementsframingintothechord.ThememberslocalYaxeslieintheplaneofthebrace.Formembers301309and307309,aKfactorof0.9andabuckling
lengthof8.71istobeusedforloadcaseswherethememberisincompressionandtheotherpairofmembersframingintothechord,303309and310309,areintension.For
members303309,305310and310309,aKfactorof0.9andabucklinglengthof8.55istobeusedforloadcaseswherethememberisincompressionandmembers301
309and307309areintension.Forotherloadcases,theKfactorandbucklinglengthspecifiedinthemodelfilearetobeused.

1.9.15PlateElements
TheSACSsystemcontainsbothtriangularandquadrilateralorthotropicflatplateelements.Theelementisatrue6degreeoffreedomlinearstrainelement.Theorthotropic
natureoftheflatplateelementallowsforthemodelingofthefollowingplatetypes:
Isotropic,Membrane,Shear,Stiffened&Corrugated.
Theappendicescontainadetaileddiscussionofeachplateelementtype.
1.9.16IsotropicPlates
Forisotropicplateelements,theplatename,connectingjoints,thicknessandmaterialpropertiesmaybespecifiedontheappropriatePlateDescriptionline.Aplategroupis
notrequired.Ifaplategroupisspecified,thematerialpropertiesandthicknessareobtainedfromtheplategroupunlessoverriddenonthePLATEline.
ThefollowingdefinesplatesAAAAandAAAB.ThepropertiesofplateAAAAaredefineddirectlyonthePLATElinewhileplateAAABobtainspropertiesfromgroupP01.

1.9.17MembraneandShearPlates
APLATElinecontainingtheplatename,connectingjointsandplatepropertygroupnameisusedtodefinetheplate.Theplatetype,thicknessandmaterialpropertiesare
stipulatedontheappropriatePGRUPline.AnyplatematerialpropertiesinputonthePLATElineoverridethosespecifiedfortheplategroup.
1.9.18StiffenedPlates
APLATElinecontainingtheplatename,connectingjointsandplatepropertygroupnameisusedtodefineastiffenedplate.Theplatetype,materialproperties,stiffener
sectionlabels,stiffenerdirection,location(top,bottomorboth)andspacingarespecifiedontheappropriatePGRUPinputline.MultiplePGRUPlineshavingthesamegroup
labelcanbeusedtodescribeplateswithmorethantwosetsofstiffeners.PlatematerialpropertiesinputonthePLATElineoverridethosespecifiedfortheplategroup.
PlatestiffenercrosssectionsmaybeanyshapedefinablebytheSECTIONline.SpecialstiffenercrosssectionsnotavailableontheSECTIONlinemaybedefinedusingthe
PSTIFline.SectionsnotfoundinthesectionlibraryfilemustbedefinedinthemodelusingPSTIFlines.AnoutlineofPSTIFgeometryisshowninthediagramfollowing.
ThefollowingsampleshowsplateAAAAdefinedbygroupP01.GroupP01isastiffenedplategroupwithW12X26runningalongthelocalXaxisat100.0spacing.
W12X26isasectiondefinedinthesectionlibraryfile.

1.9.19CorrugatedPlates
Corrugatedplatesarespecialplateswithacombinationofbothinplaneandoutofplanestiffness.CorrugatedplatesaregivendirectlyonthePSTIFlinebyspecifyingfour
parametersA,B,C,andDasshowninthefollowingfigure.

ThefollowinginputdefinesacorrugatedplateAAABwithcorrugationsrunninginthelocalXdirection.Thethicknessoftheplateis0.25andthespacingCis12.TheA
andBdimensionsare3and3,respectively.WiththestiffenerspacingunspecifiedonthePGRUPline,thestiffenerspacingdefaultstotheCdimension12.Aspecificationof
TorBfortoporbottomstiffenersisunnecessary.

Note:AvonMisescheckversusanallowableof0.6Fyisusedtocheckthecorrugatedplate.Bucklingisnotincludedintheplatemodelorcodecheck.Ifbucklingcanoccur,
theplatethicknessmayrequireadjustmenttolimittheplatecapacity.ThenormallimitationsapplysuchasaspectratioandgriddensityaswithanyFEmodel.Sincethe
corrugatedplatehassignificantoutofplanestiffness,adjacentmembersareassumedtosharetheloadwiththecorrugatedplate.
1.9.20PlateLocalCoordinateSystem
Likebeamelements,eachplateelementhasanassociatedlocalcoordinatesystemwhichloadsandstressesmaybedefinedwithrespectto.TheplatelocalXaxisisdefinedat
theplatecenterlinefromthefirstconnectingjointspecifiedtothesecondconnectingjoint.ThelocalXYplaneisdefinedbythefirstthreejointswithlocalYaxis
perpendiculartothelocalXaxistowardthethirdjoint.TherighthandruleisusedtodefinethelocalZaxis.

Forexample,plateAAABconnectedtojoints614,615,627and626hasalocalXaxisfromjoint614tojoint615.ThelocalYaxisisperpendiculartothelocalXaxisin
thedirectionofjoint627.

1.9.21PlateOffsets
Plateoffsetsmaybeusedwhentheplatescenterplaneisnotlocatedattheplaneformedbytheconnectingjointsorwhenoneoftheedgesdoesnotcorrespondtoaline
betweenthejointstowhichitisconnected.Plateoffsetscanalsobeusedtogeneratethetransitionbetweentheflatplatesandbeamelements.SeetheCommentaryfora
detaileddiscussion.
Whenanoffsetisstipulated,theprogramcreatesarigidlinkbetweentheplatecornerandtheconnectingjoint.Theoffsetsdescribethelengthoftherigidlinkandmaybe
describedinlocalorglobalrectangularcoordinates.ThecoordinatesystemusedisspecifiedonthePLATEline.
LocalZoffsetsmaybespecifieddirectlyonthePGRUPlineincolumns3641.Forstiffenedplates,theautomaticoffsetoption,whichcalculatestheoffsetsuchthatthe
centerplaneoftheplateitselfliesinthejointplane,maybeselectedbyenteringZincolumn10.AnylocalZoffsetsspecifiedareaddedtothecalculatedoffsets.
ThefollowingdefinesplategroupsP01andP02containingalocalZoffsetof10.GroupP02isastiffenedplateandalsohastheneutralaxisoffsetoptiononsothattheoffset
ismeasuredfromtheplatecenterinsteadoftheneutralaxis.

OffsetsdefiningthelocationoftheplateedgesaredesignatedonthetwoPLATEOFFSETSlinesimmediatelyfollowingthePLATEinputline.Thefirstoffsetlinecontains
theoffsetsforthefirsttwojoints,andthesecondcontainstheoffsetsforthethirdandfourth(optional)joint(s).Thecoordinatesystemthattheoffsetsaredefinedwithrespect
toisdesignatedincolumn43onthePLATEline.Enter1forglobalcoordinatesor2forlocalcoordinates.
ThefollowingdefinesplateAAABwithglobalXoffsetof10.0specifiedateachjoint.

1.9.22SkippingfromOutputReports
AplatemaybeeliminatedfromoutputreportsbyinputtingSKincolumns3132onthePLATEline.IfSEisdesignatedforelementdetailreportsontheOPTIONSline,
enterRPincolumns3132tohavethestressandunitycheckresultsreportedfortheparticularplate.
1.9.23PlateModelingConsiderations
Unlikebeamelements,flatplateelementsarenotclosedformsolutions.Therefore,therearelimitationstothegeometryandmeshsizethatarenecessarytogenerateaccurate
stressesanddeflections.ThefollowingsuggestionsaremadefortheuseofflatplatesintheSACSsystem:
1. Theaspectratio(widthversusheight)forplateelementssubjectedtooutofplanebendingshouldbelimitedto6to1forthreenodeplatesand3to1forfournode
plates.Iftheprimaryplateloadisintheplaneoftheplatethentheaspectratiocanbeincreasedto10to1forthreenodeplatesand5to1forfournodeplates.
2. Interiorangleswithinaplateshouldnotexceed180degrees.
3. Fournodeplatesarelimitedto3degreesofoutofplanetolerancebetweentheRelease6:Revision0SACSSACSIV225fournodessuchthattheanglebetweenthe
normalstoanytriangularportionsofthefournodeplatecannotexceedthisvalue.
4. Fordetailedstresses,ameshsizeoffournodesbyfournodeswillaccuratelyrepresentaflatplateforbothstiffnessandstresscalculations.Acoarsermeshspacingwill
resultinrelativelyaccuratestiffnessrepresentationbutstresscalculationsmaynotrepresentlocalstressvariationswithintheplate.
5. Becausefournodeplatesarerepresentedinternallyby4threenodeplates,a4nodeplateisinherentlymoreaccuratethana3nodeplate.
6. Platestressesfortraditionalbeamstriptheoryplatesareonlyreportedatthegeometriccenteroftheplate.PlatestressesforDKTplatesarereportedatthecorner
jointsandthegeometriccenter.Platestressesreportedatthegeometriccenterofplatesaretheoreticallymoreaccuratethanthoseatcorner
joints.
1.9.24ShellElements
TheSACSprogramcontains6nodetriangular,and8or9noderectangularisoparametric

shellelements.Shellelementscanhaveconstantthicknessorthicknessmaybespecifiedateachnode.Rigidlinkoffsetscanbemodeledateachnodetoallowforconnection
eccentricities.
Materialpropertiesincludingmodulusofelasticity,Poissonsratio,yieldstress,coefficientofthermalexpansionanddensityarespecifiedeitherontheSHLGRPlineoron
theSHELLlineitself.Shellthickness,ifconstant,maybespecifiedeitherontheSHLGRPlineorontheSHELLline.Forshellswithvaryingthickness,thethicknessateach
nodeisspecifiedontheSHELLTHICKlineimmediatelyfollowingtheSHELLlinedefiningtheelement.
1.9.25ShellLocalCoordinateSystem
Fortriangularshellelements,thelocalXaxisisdefinedfromnodeonethroughnodethree.
ThelocalYaxisisperpendiculartothelocalXaxisandliesintheplaneformedbynodesone,threeandfive.TherighthandruleisusedtodeterminethelocalZaxis.The
localXaxisforarectangularshellisdefinedbynodesoneandthree.ThelocalYaxisisperpendiculartothelocalXaxisandliesintheplaneformedbynodesone,three
andseven.ThelocalZaxisisdeterminedbytherighthandrule.Adetaileddiscussiononshellelementsislocatedintheappendices.
1.9.26IntegrationPoints
ThenumberofGaussianIntegrationpointsalongtheelementsurfaceisspecifiedeitherontheSHLGRPlineorontheSHELLlineitself.TheuserspecifiesFine,Medium
orCoarseintegrationcorrespondingto13points,7pointsor3pointsrespectivelyfortriangularshells,or4x4,3x3or2x2meshrespectivelyforrectangularshells.Thereare
alsotwointegrationpointsthroughtheelementthicknessforbothtriangularandrectangularshellelements.
1.9.27ShellOffsets
Shelloffsetscanbemodeledateachnodetoallowforconnectioneccentricities.TheoffsetsarespecifiedontheSHELLOFFSETlineinglobalcoordinates.Twooffsetlines
arerequiredfor6nodeelementsandthreearerequiredforeightorninenodeelements.
1.9.28ShellElementReport
IfPTisdesignatedintheelementdetailreportfieldontheoptionsline,thestressdetailsforashellelementmaybeskippedbyinputtingSontheSHLGRPorSHELL
line.IfSEorisdesignatedintheelementdetailreportfieldontheoptionsline,allshellelementdetailswillbeskipped.
1.9.29SolidElements
TheSACSprogramcontains4nodetetrahedron,5nodepyramid,6nodewedgeand8nodebricksolidfiniteelementshapes.Theelementsareconstantstrainelementsand
donotrestrainrotationatthenodes.Thesolidname,connectingjointsandmaterialpropertiesincludingmodulusofelasticity,Poissonsratio,yieldstress,coefficientof
thermalexpansionanddensityarestatedeitherontheSLDGRPlineorontheSOLIDlineitself.
Beingasthesesolidfiniteelementsdonotcontaininherentrotationalstiffness,therotationaldegreesoffreedomforjointscontainedwithinonlysolidelementswillbe
constrained.SACSautomaticallygeneratestheconstraintsofrotationaldegreesoffreedomforjointswhichareexclusivelycontainedinsolids.Withtheextraconstraintson
solidjoints,therewillbeextrareactionforcesgeneratedinthePostoutputfortheseconstraineddegreesoffreedom.

Inherentrotationaldegreesoffreedominsolidelementsmaybemodeledbyspecifying6incolumn71oftheOPTIONSline.Theseelementsareacondensationofhigher
orderisoparametricsolidelements,withtherotationaldegreesoffreedombeingobtainedfrommidsidenodetranslationaldegreesoffreedom.
Jointorderinginsolidelementsisfree.Assuch,arbitraryjointordermaybeinputwiththeprogramdeterminingsolidfaces.Therearetwooptionsforjointordering:(1)the
defaultmethodwhichrequiresflatsolidfacesand(2)amorerobustschemeallowingsolidfacewarpage.Thesecondscheme,whichisspecifiedwithanRincolumn72of
theoptionsline,hastheadditionalfeatureofallowingtheprogramtobypassjointorderingforanysolidwhenanNisspecifiedincolumn44oftheSOLIDline(orcolumn

14oftheSLDGRPline).WiththedefaultjointorderingmethodanNspecifiedincolumn44oftheSOLIDline(orcolumn14oftheSLDGRPline)willmeanthatonly8
nodebricksolidelementsarenotreordered.Thedefaultjointorderingforsolidsisshowninthefigure.
1.9.30SolidLocalCoordinateSystem
ThelocalXaxisisdefinedbynodesoneandtwo.ThelocalXYplaneisdefinedbynodesone,twoandthree.ThelocalYaxisisperpendiculartothelocalXaxis,positivein
thedirectionofnodethree.TherighthandruleisusedtodeterminethelocalZaxis.
1.9.31SolidOffsets
SolidoffsetscanbespecifiedtoaccountforeccentricitiesorelementtransitionsontheSOLIDOFFSETlinefollowingtheSOLIDlinedefiningtheelement.
Normallyoffsetsareusedtolocatetheelementrelativetotheconnectingjointsusingarigidlink.Offsetscanalsobeusedtogeneratetransitionsbetweensolidelementsand
isoparametricshells,flatplates,andmembers.Forexample,ifafournodefaceofasolidelementisconnectedtoabeamorplateelement,thesolidfaceshouldbedescribed
usingonlytwojointslyingatthecenteroftheface.Twojointsshouldbespecifiedasthefourconnectingjoints(i.e.101,102,102,101).Offsetsarethenspecifiedateach
connectingjointtooffsetthejointstothecornersoftheelement.Theresultingoffsetsolidelementwillformafull6degreeoffreedomtransitionconnectionbetweenthe
elements.

1.10JOINTS
JointsaredefinedontheJOINTinputlinewhichcontainsthejointname,globalcoordinatesandfixity.
1.10.1JointCoordinates
TheX,YandZglobaljointcoordinatesmaybeinputinfeet,inchesorfeetplusinchesforEnglishunitsorinmeters,centimetersormeterspluscentimetersformetricunits.
Forexample,ajointwithanXcoordinateof25.50feetmaybeenteredas25.5feet,306.0inchesor25.0feetand6.0inchesasillustratedbythefollowingthreeJOINTlines:

AjointwithanXcoordinateof25.5metersmaybeenteredas25.5meters,2550.0centimetersor25.0metersand50.0centimetersasillustratedbytheinputlinesbelow:

1.10.2JointSupport/Fixity
Thejointsupportconditionorfixityofeachofthesixdegreesoffreedom(X,YandZtranslationandrotation)isspecifiedontheJOINTlineincolumns5560.
Bydefault,eachdegreeoffreedomisassumedfree.Ablankor0indicatesthatthedegreeoffreedomisfree.
1.10.3FixedtoGround
A1indicatesthatthedegreeoffreedomisfixedtoground.Forapinnedsupport,afixityof111orPINNEDshouldbespecified.Afixedsupportcanbespecifiedas
111111orFIXEDincolumns5560.
Thefollowingshowsjoint297aspinned(i.e.111)andjoint298fixedforXandYtranslationandforrotationabouttheglobalZaxis(i.e.110001).

Note:Jointswithspringsupportsortowhichprescribeddisplacementsaredefinedmustbefixedtogroundforanydegreeoffreedomtowhichaspringvalueor
displacementisassigned.
1.10.4PileheadSupports
Jointsthroughwhichalinearstructureisconnectedtoanonlinearsystemarecalledpileheadsupports.Thestiffnessandloadmatricesofthelinearstructurearecondensed
downtothepileheadjointsinordertoaccountfortheeffectsofthelinearstructureinthenonlinearanalysis.ThisisrequiredwhenusingthePSImoduletoaccountforthe
nonlinearpile\soilinteraction.AjointisdesignatedasapileheadjointbyspecifyingPILEHDincolumns5560ontheJOINTline.
Thefollowingshowsjoint299asapileheadsupport.

Note:Forstaticlinearanalysis,jointswithPILEHDstipulatedasthesupportconditionareassumedtobefixedsupports.
1.10.5SpringSupports
Anyoralldegreesoffreedomofajointmaybedesignatedasatranslationorrotationelasticspringprovidedthatthedegreeoffreedomisdesignatedasfixed(i.e.1)onthe
respectiveJointDescriptionline.ThespringconstantsforsprungdegreesoffreedomarespecifiedontheJointElasticSupportinputlineincolumns1253followingthe
JointDescriptionlineandareenteredwithrespecttothesupportjointcoordinatesystem.Thesupportjointcoordinatesystemistheglobalcoordinatesystembydefault.
Thefollowingdefinesjoint297asapinnedsupportwithaspringconstantof1000.0fortheverticaldirection(Ztranslationdegreeoffreedom).

Whenallthreetranslationaland/orrotationaldegreesoffreedomaredesignatedassprings,thesupportjointcoordinatesystemmayberedefinedusingtworeferencejoints
specifiedincolumns7376and7780ontheJointElasticSupportline.ThesupportjointlocalXaxisisdefinedbythesupportjointandthefirstreferencejoint.Thelocal
XZplaneisdefinedbythesupportjointandthereferencejointswiththelocalZaxisperpendiculartothelocalXaxis.

Forexample,joint297isdefinedaspinnedwithaspringconstantof100.0alongalinebetweenjoints297and505(supportlocalX).ThejointsupportcoordinatesystemXZ
planeisdefinedusingjoint702.
Note:Degreesoffreedommustbesprungasasetwhenthesupportcoordinatesystemisredefinedbyreferencejoints.Therefore,sincethelocalYandZdegreesoffreedom
aretobefixed,theywereassignedaveryhighspringconstant.

1.10.6RetainedforDynamics
Fordynamicanalysis,unrestraineddegreesoffreedomareconsideredasslavedegreesoffreedom.Specify2intheappropriatecolumntodesignateafreeDOFasamaster
DOFfordynamics.
Forexample,joint297isfreeforstaticanalysisbuttranslationXandYdegreesoffreedomareconsideredmasterorretaineddegreesoffreedomformodeshapeextraction.

1.10.7MasterDegreesofFreedom
ThedisplacementcharacteristicsofajointmaybeappliedtootherjointsusingtheMASTERline.Thislinespecifiesmasterdegreesoffreedomforwhichallcoupledjoints
willhaveidenticaldisplacements.Thisisusefulinmodelingrigidstructuralelementswhichattachtoabodyandsupplyuniformdisplacementforseveraljointsinastructure.
Asaruleofthumb,coupledjointsshouldnotbecoupledforalldegreesoffreedomtypically,distinctpointsmaybeforcedtodisplacesimilarlybutmaynotrotatesimilarly.
Thefollowingexamplespecifiesthatjoints22,23,24and25havethesameX,YandZdisplacement(1incolumns13,15and17,respectively)asmasterjoint20.

Note:Adegreeoffreedomforaparticularjointmaynotbecoupledtomorethanonemasterjoint.Similarly,amasterjointmaynotbecoupledtoanothermasterjoint.
1.11LOADING
TheSACSsystemsupportsloadingappliedatjointsandtomembers,platesandshellelements.Loadinginformationisgenerallyspecifiedafterallgeometryinformationin
themodelfileandmaybespecifiedbytheuserorgeneratedbyoneoftheSACSprogrammodules.AlinewithLOADspecifiedincolumns14isusedtosignalthe
beginningoftheloadingsectionofthemodel.

1.11.1LoadConditions
RelatedloadingisusuallygroupedintoaLoadConditionorLoadCasewithauniquenamedesignation.Loadcasesarenamedusingupto4characters(numericor
alphanumeric).
TheLoadConditionHeaderline,labeledLOADCN,signalsthebeginningoftheloadconditionspecifiedincolumns810.Allloadinginformationpertainingtothe
designatedloadconditionfollowsontheLOADlinesimmediatelyafter*.
Note:Platetemperatureloadandjointspecifieddeflectionsareexceptions.Seediscussionlaterinthissection.
1.11.2MemberDistributedLoadsandMoments
MemberdistributedloadsarespecifiedusingtheLOADlinetitledMemberDistributedLoadsbydesignatingtheappropriatememberjointnamesincolumns815and
UNIFincolumns6669forloadandDMOMincolumns6669formoment.LoadingmaybespecifiedinthedirectionoftheglobalormemberlocalX,YorZcoordinate
axes.Ingeneral,thefollowingdatashouldbespecifiedfordistributedloadsormoments:
1. Thedistancefromthestartofthemembertothepositionthattheloadstarts,
2. Themagnitudeperunitlengthoftheloadatthestartposition,
3. Thedistancefromthestartpositiontothepositionthattheloadends,and
4. Themagnitudeperunitlengthoftheloadattheendposition.
Ifthestartoftheloadcoincideswiththestartofthemember,thenthestartpositionoftheloadneednotbespecified.Furthermore,iftheendoftheloadcoincideswiththe
endofthemember,thenthedistancefromtheloadstarttotheloadendneednotbespecified.
Thefollowingdesignatesadistributedloadformember101102appliedintheglobalZdirection.Theloadbegins1.0fromthebeginningofthememberwithamagnitudeof
2.5k/ftandisappliedalongthememberfor5.0ft.Thefinalvalueis7.5k/ft.Member102103hasadistributedmomentaboutthelocalXaxis.Themomentatthebeginof
thememberis0andincreaseslinearlyto10.0atthememberend.

Note:Thebeginningpositionoftheloadingormomentismeasuredfromthememberendandnotfromthebeginjoint.Theeffectsofoffsetsshouldbetakeninto
considerationwhenspecifyingthisposition.
1.11.3MemberConcentratedLoadsandMoments
MemberconcentratedloadsormomentsarespecifiedontheLOADlinetitledMemberConcentratedLoadsbydesignatingthememberjointnamesincolumns815and
CONCorMOMTincolumns6669.Concentratedloadsormomentsmaybespecifiedwithrespecttotheglobalormemberlocalcoordinateaxes.Thedistancefromthe
beginendofthemembertotheloadmustbespecifiedandshouldtakeintoconsiderationanymemberoffsetsalongthememberlocalXaxisatthebeginend.
ThefollowingdefinesaconcentratedloadintheglobalZdirectiononmember101102.Theloadmagnitudeis57.0andisappliedadistanceof4.5fromthebeginningof
themember.Also,amomentof345.isappliedaboutthelocalZaxisofmember101102atthesamelocation.

1.11.4MemberTemperatureLoads
Membertemperatureloadsarestipulatedbydesignatingthememberconnectingjoints,thecoefficientofthermalexpansionandTEMPintheappropriatecolumnsonthe
LOADlinetitledMemberTemperatureLoad.ConstanttemperaturechangesorlineartemperaturegradientsalongthememberlocalX,YorZaxismaybespecifiedwith
respecttotheambienttemperature.
FortemperaturechangesalongthelocalYorZaxis,thechangeattwosurfacesataspecifieddistanceapartareinput.Thedistancebetweenthetwosurfacesaremeasured
alongthememberlocalaxisspecifiedabouttheneutralaxis.Forchangesalongthememberaxis,thetemperaturechangeatthebeginningandendofthememberare
specified.
Note:Whenspecifyingthetemperaturechangesalongthemember,1.0shouldbeinputasthedistancebetweenthetemperaturesurfaces.

TheinputlinesforcasesA,B,C,DandEillustratedinthefigureaboveformember12wheredzis20,dyis8andthecoefficientofexpansionis0.65xE05follow
respectively:

1.11.5JointLoads
LoadsonjointsaredesignatedusingtheLOADlinetitledJointLoads.Thejointname,forcesactingintheglobalX,YorZdirectionsand/ormomentsabouttheglobalX,
YorZaxisarestipulated.GLOBandJOINarespecifiedincolumns6164and6669respectively.
ThefollowingdefinesaforceintheglobalYdirectionof50.0andamomentabouttheZaxisof345.0injoint123.

1.11.6JointSpecifiedDisplacements
Forceddisplacementsforjointdegreesoffreedomdesignatedasfixedtoground,maybespecifiedusingtheJOINTlinenamedJointSpecifiedDeflection.TheJoint
SpecifiedDeflectionlineshouldfollowimmediatelyafterthedefiningJointDescriptionlineinthemodelfile.Thejointname,thespecifiedtranslationsand/orrotations
withrespecttotheglobalcoordinatesystemandPERSETmustbespecified.TheloadconditiontowhichthedeflectionsapplyorALLforallloadconditionsisstipulated
incolumns6972.
Thefollowingdesignatesadisplacementof3.5intheglobalZdirectionatjoint123inloadcaseMISC.

Note:ThedegreeoffreedombeingdisplacedusingthePERSETlinemustbefixedtoground.
1.11.7PlatePressureLoads
PlatepressureloadscanbeapplieddirectlytotheplateusingtheLOADPRESlines.Pressureloadingcanbeappliedtoindividualplatesortoplategroupsasuniform
pressureoralinearlyvaryingpressure.
1.11.8UniformPressure
Foruniformpressure,thepressureisdesignatedincolumns1723andthekeywordUNIFisspecifiedincolumns6669.Specifyeithertheplatenameorplategroupname
incolumns811or1315,respectively.
Thefollowingappliesauniformpressureloadof100toplateA001andallplatesingroupPLT.

1.11.9VaryingPressure
Forlinearingvaryingpressure,thepressureatthejointsisspecifiedincolumns1744andthekeywordJTJTisspecifiedincolumns6669.Specifyeithertheplatenameor
plategroupnameincolumns811or1315,respectively.
ThefollowingappliesavaryingpressureonplateU002.

1.11.10SubmergedPressure
PressureloadsduetoheadcanbeapplieddirectlytoplateelementsusingtheLOADPRESlinewiththeSUBMkeywordspecifiedincolumns6669.
Entereithertheplatenameorplategroupincolumns811or1315,respectively.Thesurfaceelevationandwaterdensityareenteredincolumns1723and2430,
respectively.
1.11.11PlateThermalLoads
PlatethermalortemperatureloadsarespecifiedontheLOADPTEMlinesintheloadingsectionofthemodel.Temperatureloadingmaybespecifiedforindividualplatesby
enteringtheplatenameincolumns811orforplategroupsbyenteringthegroupnameincolumns1315.Thecoefficientofthermalexpansionandplatetemperaturechanges
withrespecttotheambienttemperaturearerequired.
1.11.12UniformTemperature
UniformtemperaturechangeisdesignatedbytheUNIFkeywordincolumns6669andauniformtemperaturespecifiedincolumns1723.
ThefollowingshowsplateD100andallplatesingroupAAAwithauniformtemperatureof135inloadcaseT135.

1.11.13VaryingTemperature
AtemperaturechangeateachjointisdesignatedbytheJTJTkeywordincolumns6669.Thetemperatureateachjointisinputincolumns1744.
1.11.14SurfaceTemperature
SurfacetemperatureloadingisspecifiedusingtheTPBMkeywordincolumns6669.Entertheuppersurfaceandlowersurfacetemperaturesincolumns1723and2430,
respectively.
ThefollowingshowsplateD101andallplatesingroupABCwithanuppersurfacetemperatureof100andalowersurfacetemperatureof75inloadcaseloadcaseT135.

1.11.15ShellPressureLoads
GeneralshellpressureloadsappliedatthejointsarestipulatedontheLOADSPGlinetitledShellPressureLoadlocatedwithintheappropriateloadconditiondata.The
pressureisappliedtoeitheroneshell,arangeofshellsorallshellswithinthemodel,byspecifyingoneshellname,twoshellnamesornoshellname.Thepressureateachof
theshelljointsisdesignatedincolumns1880.
ConstantorlinearlyvaryingpressurewithinashellelementmaybespecifiedontheLOADSPCline.Byspecifyingoneshellname,twoshellnames,ornotspecifyinga
shellname,theShellVariablePressurelinecanapplytooneshell,arangeofshellsorallshellswithinthemodel.Forconstantpressure,thepressureisspecifiedincolumns
1824.Forvaryingpressure,thepressuregradientsinthedirectionofeachoftheglobalaxesarespecifiedincolumns2545.
1.11.16ShellTemperatureLoads
ShelltemperatureloadsarespecifiedwithintheloadconditiondatausingtheLOADlinetitledShellTemperatureLoad.Constanttemperature,temperaturevaryingat
midsurface,thetopsurfaceorthebottomsurfacemaybespecifiedbySTC,STM,STTorSTBrespectively.Theshellname,ornamesforarangeofshells,towhich
theloadistobeappliedalongwiththetemperaturechangeateachjointarespecified.Ifnoshellnameisspecified,theloadingisappliedtoallshellsinthemodel.For
constanttemperature,typeSTC,thetemperaturechangeatthefirstjointonlyisrequired.
1.11.17LoadCombinations
LoadcombinationsconsistingofbasicloadconditionsorpreviouslydefinedloadcombinationsaredefinedusingtheLCOMBinputline.Loadcombinationlinesfollowthe
basicloadconditionsinthemodelandmustbeinitiatedwithaLCOMBheaderline.
Note:BasicloadcasesmaynotbedefinedaftertheLCOMBheaderline.
Theloadcombinationnamemustbeauniquenamenotusedbyabasicloadcaseorbyanothercombination.Theloadcasesorcombinationsmakinguptheloadcombination
alongwiththeappropriateloadfactorstobeappliedarespecified.TheloadcombinationdefinitionmaybecontinuedbyrepeatingtheLCOMBlinewiththecombination
namespecifiedincolumns710,sothatuptofortyeightloadcomponentsmaybespecified.
ThefollowingdefinesaloadcombinationnamedST03consistingof100%ofloadcaseMISC,110%ofDEADand85%of7.

Note:Forastandardstaticanalyses,loadcombinationsarenotsolvedinthesolutionphase.Resultsareobtainedbysuperpositionofthebasicresultsduringpost
processing.BecausePSIanalyseshavenonlinearsolutions,resultsforonlyloadcombinationsandbasicloadcasesspecifiedontheLCSELlineareobtained.

2.0SACSIVTROUBLESHOOTING
2.1MODELSINGULARITY
Modelsingularityisthecommontermusedtodescribeproblemswithinastiffnessmatrixthatmaylimittheaccuracyofthesolutionorpreventitentirely.Inmatrixtheory,a
structuralmodelmatrixmustbePositiveDefiniteforittobeinverted.SomecommonreasonsforastructuralmodelmatrixbecomingNonPositiveDefiniteareasfollows:
1. Portionofstructureorentirestructuretranslatingasarigidbodyinspace.
2. Portionofstructureorentirestructurerotatingasarigidbodyinspace.
3. Ajointconnectedtothestructureistranslatingorrotatinginspacebecauseaparticularendfixityforallmembersconnectingtothejointisreleased,thereforethejoint
canmoveorspinfreely.
4. Memberorplatestructuralpropertiesarezeroforallelementsconnectingtoajointsothatthejointiseffectivelyunrestrained.
Whenusingacomputertoperformasolution,thereexistsafinitenumberofdigitsthatcanbeusedtodefineanyonenumber.Duringnumericalprocedureswithinthe
program,accuracymaybelostduetotherelativesizeofthenumbersusedinthemathematicaloperations.SACSIVdeterminestheaccuracylostduringsolutionandreports
itastheMaximumNumberofSignificantDigitslostintheoutputlistingfile.Ingeneral,solutionswithsixorfewersignificantdigitslostaresufficientlyaccuratewhile
solutionswithtwelveormoresignificantdigitslostarenot.
Itispossibleforthesolutiontolosesufficientaccuracysuchthatthesolutionbecomestrivialorthestructurebecomesmathematicallyunstable(matrixisNonPositive
Definite).Commonreasonsforastructuralmodeltoloosesignificantaccuracyorbecomemathematicallyunstablefollow:
1. Verystiffelementattachedtoaverysoftelement.
2. Astiffstructureattachedtogroundthrougharelativelysoftspringsystem.
3. Astructurewithlittlestiffnessattachedtogroundthrougharelativelystiffspringsystem.

2.2DEBUGGINGTHEMODEL
IfSACSIVdetectsaNonPositiveDefinitediagonalterminthestiffnessmatrix,itwillindicatetherowofthematrixwhereitoccurred.Ifthevalueisbetweenzeroand
0.0001itwillberesetto1.0,therowandcolumnwhereitoccurredwillbenulledandthesolutionwillcontinue.Ifthediagonalvalueislessthan0.0001theprogram
terminatesexecutionandreportsthecriticaljointdegreeoffreedom.
Forinstanceswhereanunrestrainedportionofthestructureactsasamechanismforsingularitytooccur,thelastjointofthemechanism,inoptimizedorder,isreported.Ifthe
reportedjointisindeedrestrained,theInterpretedInputEchoReportcanbeusedtoisolatethecriticalportionofthestructure.TheinterpretedJointDataListportionofthe
reportcontainsthejointdegreeoffreedomandmatrixrowlocationlistinthefollowingformat:
1. ThedegreesoffreedomforeachjointinthestiffnessmatrixarereportedasrotationX,YandZfollowedbytranslationX,YandZ.
2. Foreachjoint,thebeginningrownumberpertainingtotherotationXdegreeoffreedomislistedinthereport.TherownumberspertainingtorotationY,andZand
translationX,YandZareobtainedbyadding1,2,3,4,and5respectivelytotherowreportedforthejointrotationXdegreeoffreedom.
Thecriticalrowlocationisreportedinthesolutionlistingfile.

3.0COMMENTARY
3.1ANGLECROSSSECTIONS
TheorientationofananglesectionisdeterminedfromthesignsoftheAandBdimensionsinputontheSECTinputline.
Note:PositiveBdimensionisinthenegativelocalYaxisdirection.

SACSIVusespropertiesaboutthememberprincipalaxesforstiffnesscalculations.Normally,thecrosssectioninputlocalaxesareaxesofsymmetryandaretherefore
principalaxes.Forangles,however,theinputaxesarenotprincipalaxes.Therefore,theinertiapropertiescalculatedabouttheinputaxesmustbetransformedtotheprincipal
axesbytheprogramusingthefollowing:

Theshearareasabouttheprincipalaxesareusedinmemberstiffnesscalculationsandaretakenas:

wheretheIViandQViarewithrespecttothemprincipalaxis.
BendingstressandEulerbucklingstressarecalculatedwithrespecttotheprincipalaxes.Theeffectivebucklinglengthfactors,KyandKz,areinputwithrespecttothelocal
coordinates.TheprogramtransformstheinputKfactorsintotheprincipalaxessystemtoobtainthefactorstobeusedinEulerbucklingcalculations,from:

K1,2=Principalaxeseffectivelengthfactors
Ky,z=Inputeffectivebucklinglengthfactors
=Anglebetweeninputaxesandprincipalaxes
Theshearstressatanypointiscalculatedwithrespecttothelocalcoordinatesystemusingthefollowingequation:

Iy,Iz,Iyz=InertiapropertieswithrespecttoYandZaxes
Vy,Vz=ShearinYandZdirections
t=Thickness
Qy,Qz=FirstmomentsaboutYandZaxesofportionofthecrosssectionareabetweenthepointandthefreeedge(Shadedareainfigurebelow).

Tensileandcompressivestressesareevaluatedatpoints1,2,3,4and5shownintheaboverightfigure.Shearstressesaredeterminedatthepointsofmaximumshearstress
ineachleg.Thesepointsarelocatedautomaticallyforeachloadcase.
Note:Althoughprincipalaxesareusedinstiffness,bendingstressandEulerbucklingcalculations,theoutputresultsarereportedwithrespecttothelocalcoordinateaxes.

3.2FLATPLATECROSSSECTIONS
TheSACSIVprogramcontainsbothtriangularandquadrilateralorthotropicflatplateelements.Theseelementsarederivedfromclassicalflatplatetheorytechniquesby
incorporatinganempiricaltheorythatincludesaconstantstraininplaneextensionalandshearmodel,anedgebeamrepresentationforoutofplanebendingandshearmodel
andaninplanetorsionmodel.Thiscombinationresultsinatrue6degreeoffreedomlinearstrainelementthathasexcellentconvergenceproperties.
3.2.1IsotropicPlates
Theisotropicplateelementisafull6degreeoffreedombendingelementthatassumesconstantinplaneandoutofplanepropertiesinalldirections.Thiselementis
applicableforplateswithconstantthicknessandmaterialproperties.
3.2.2MembranePlates
Themembraneplateelementissimilartotheisotropicplateelementexcepttheoutofplanebendingandshearstiffnessissettozero.Theoutofplanedeflectionsand
rotationsarenotrestrained.Thiselementisapplicablewhenthebendingstiffnessoftheplateisnotcoupledtothesupportingframeorthebendingstiffnessoftheplateis
includedinthesupportingstructureelements.
3.2.3ShearPlates
Shearplateshaveonlyinplaneshearstiffnesswithallothercomponentsofstiffnesssetequaltozero.Thiselementcanbeusedtorepresentshearwallsorageneralshear
stiffnessforcoarsefiniteelementmeshrepresentation.
3.2.4StiffenedPlates
Stiffenedplatesarerepresentedbyanisotropicplatewithadditionaloutofplanebendingandshearstiffnessincludedtorepresentparallelmemberelementsattachedtothe
plateintheplatelocalXandYcoordinatedirections.Theadditionalbendingandshearstiffnessdoesnothavebiaxialcoupling(theXstiffenersarenotcoupledtotheY
stiffeners).
Thestiffenedplateelementcontainstheflatplatepropertiesandtheaveragememberstiffenerpropertiesinbothlocalcoordinatesincludingtheplacementoftheplaterelative
tothemembersstiffeners.Theoutofplanebendingstiffnesscalculationforthestiffenersassumesaneffectiveplatewidthactingwiththestiffenersforcalculatingan
averageadditionalmomentofinertiaduetothestiffeners.Theeffectiveplatewidthislimitedtothesmalleroftheparallelstiffenerspacingor30timestheplatethickness.
Stiffenedplateelementsareeffectiveforincludingthestiffnessofplatesandmembersinoneelementwithoutmodelinganexcessivenumberofjointsand/orbeamelements.
Thepropertiesreportedforthestiffenedplatearetheeffectivesmearedproperties.Themaximumstressesarereportedfortheflatplateportionandthestiffenersseparately.
3.2.5CorrugatedPlates
Thecorrugatedplateisaspecialcombinationofbothinplaneandoutofplanestiffness.Acorrugatedplatehasextensionalstiffnessinthedirectionofthecorrugationsand
noextensionalstiffnessacrossthecorrugations.Inplaneshearisassumedtobefullyeffective.Theoutofplanebendingandshearstiffnessiszerowhenbendingacrossthe
corrugations.Inthedirectionofthecorrugations,theoutofplanebendingandshearstiffnessisduetotheeffectivebeampropertiesofthecrosssection.Nobiaxialbending
couplingisallowedandtheinplanetorsionalpropertiesareassumedtobefullyeffective.
Note:Whenusingcorrugatedplates,thesumoftheinplaneareaduetotheeffectiveplatethicknessandthestiffenersmustequalthetotalinplaneareaofthecorrugated
panelinthedirectionofthecorrugations.
3.2.6PlateElementTransitiontoBeamElement

Plateoffsetscanbeusedtomodeltransitionpointsbetweenplateandbeamelements.Anytwoadjacentplatenodescanbespecifiedasthesamejointname.Plateoffsets
specifiedateachplatenodecanthenbeusedtoseparatethenodesandplacethemindifferentspatialpositions.Thiswillresultinoneedgeiftheplatebeingdescribedbythe
motionofonejointwhichcanbeconnectedtoabeamelement.Forexample,whenmodelingatubularmemberwithafiniteelementmesh,thereisusuallyatransitionpoint
wherebeamelementtheorybecomessufficientlyaccurate.Atthispoint,alloftheplateelementsmustbeattachedtoasinglecentraljointwhichisthebeginningjointofthe
beamelement.TheplateelementsareconnectedtothecentralJointwithoffsetssuchthattheendsoftheplatesarelocatedatthesurfaceofthetubular.Thetransitionjoint
willdefinethecompletedisplacementofthecrosssectionatthatpointandwillassureproperinternalloadtransfer.Also,thecrosssectionofthetubularatthetransitionwill
remainplaneduringdeformationwhichisaconstraintofnormalbeamtheory.
3.3SHELLELEMENTS
TheSACSIVprogramcontains6,8and9nodetriangularandrectangularIsoparametricShellElementsbasedonderivationsbyBathe[Bathe,KlausJurgen,FiniteElement
ProceduresInEngineeringAnalysis,PrenticeHall,NewJersey,1982].Theseelementsareconsideredindustrystandardsandareavailableinmostlargescalefiniteelement
programs.
ThelocationofthestresspointsalongtheshellsurfacedependsintheselectionofthenumberofGaussianIntegrationpointsspecifiedforeachshell.Thestressescanbe
calculatedatthecenteroftheshelland/oratthecornerGaussianpointsasshowninthefigures.Thedefaultforeachshellisthehavethestressdeterminedattheshellcenter
only.Theshelltotalinplanedirectandshearstressesarereportedinthelocalplatecoordinatesystemattheupper,middleandlowersurfacesandtheprincipalstressesand
maximumshearstressesarereportedfortheupperandlowersurface.

TheunitycheckcalculationsarebasedonmaximumvonMisesstressforinplanestressesattheupper,middleandlowershellsurface.Shellbucklingisnotincludedinthe
unitycheckcalculation.TheunitycheckformulationscanbefoundintheusersmanualofthePOSTprogrammodule.
3.3.1ShellElementTransitiontoBeamElement
Isoparametricshelloffsetsarenormallyusedtolocatetheneutralaxisoftheshellrelativetotheconnectingstructure.Theycanalsobeusedtogeneratethetransitionbetween
theisoparametricshellsandbeamelements.
Anythreenodesthatdescribethesideofashellcanbeconnectedtothesamejoint.Usingshelloffsets,thecoincidentnodescanbeseparatedandplacedindifferentspatial
positions,resultinginonesideoftheshellbeingdescribedbythemotionofonejointwhichcanbeconnecteddirectlytoabeamelement.
Forexample,whenmodelingatubularmemberwithshellelements,thereisusuallyatransitionpointwherebeamelementtheorybecomessufficientlyaccurate.Atthispoint,
alloftheshellelementsmustbeattachedtoasinglecentraljointwhichisthebeginningjointofthebeamelement.Theshellelementsareconnectedtothecentraljointwith
offsetssuchthattheendsoftheshellsarelocatedatthesurfaceofthetubular.Thetransitionjointwilldefinethecompletedisplacementofthecrosssectionatthatpointand
willassureproperinternalloadtransfer.Also,thecrosssectionofthetubularatthetransitionwillremainplaneduringdeformationwhichisaconstraintofnormalbeam
theory.
3.4SOLIDELEMENTS
TheSACSIVprogramcontains4,5,6and8nodeSolidFiniteElementsthatrepresenttetrahedron,pyramid,wedgeandbrickshapedelements,respectively.TheSolid
Elementsarebasedonaconstantstraintheoryandtheelementsdonotrestrainrotationatthenodes.Thepyramid,wedgeandbrickelementsarebuiltfromthebasic
tetrahedronelement.
3.4.1SolidTransitiontoShell,PlateorBeamElements
Solidelementoffsetscanbeusedtogeneratethetransitionbetweenthesolidelementsandisoparametricshells,flatplatesand/orbeamelements.Ifafournodefaceofasolid
elementisconnectedtoaoneortwodimensionalelementthenthefournodefaceshouldbedescribedbyonlytwoJoints.thesetwoJointsshouldlieonatthecenterofthe
faceoftheSolidElement.TheupperandloweredgesofthefacewillbedescribedbythesametwoJointsandwillincludeoffsetstolocatethemcorrectlyinspace.The
resultingOffsetSolidElementwillformafull6degreeoffreedomtransitionconnectionbetweentheelements.

4.0SAMPLEPROBLEMS
ThesampleproblemsillustratevariouscapabilitiesoftheSACSIVprogrammodule.Twoseparateanalysesaredetailed.
1. Thefirstsampleproblemisajackettypestructureconsistingoftubular,wideflange,angleandconecrosssectionbeamelementsandflatplateelements.Inadditionto
propertiesspecifiedinthemodelfile,sectionpropertiesdefinedintheAISCsectionlibrarywerereferenced.Thissamplecontainsmemberandplateoffsetsalongwith
memberendreleases.Fourbasicloadconditions,comprisedofjointloads,memberuniformloads,memberconcentratedloadsandjointspecifieddisplacements,and
twoloadcombinationswerespecified.
2. SampleProblem2illustratestheuseofshellandsolidelements.Threebasicloadcasesconsistingofjointloads,linearlyvaryingshellpressureloadsandvaryingshell
temperatureloadswerespecifiedinadditiontotwoloadcombinations.
SAMPLEPROBLEM1
SampleProblem1isthejackettypestructureshownfixedatthebottomofthepiles.Cone,tubular,wideflangeandanglecrosssectionbeamelementsandflatplateelements
aremodeled.Flatplate,tubular,angleandconesectionpropertiesaredefinedinthemodelfilewhilewideflangepropertiesareobtainedfromtheAISCsectionlibraryfile.

Offsetsarespecifiedforjackettubularmemberssothatbracesaremodeledtothefaceofthechordanda2"gap(atthechordface)existbetweenbraces.W12deckwide
flangemembersmodeledintheglobalYdirectionareoffsetsothattheyarelyingontopofW24maingirderswiththeneutralaxisatelevation40.0.Platesareoffsetsothat
theneutralaxisislocatedatelevation42.Anglemembersonthedeckaremodeledtoresistonlyaxialloadandshearbydesignatingmemberendreleases.

Fourbasicloadconditionsandtwoloadcombinationsarespecified.LoadCaseLIVEconsistofmemberuniformloadsrepresentingliveload.LoadCaseEQPTcontains
jointloadsandmemberconcentratedloadsrepresentingequipmentloads.Thethirdloadcase,LATXcontainsjointlateralloadsandLoadCaseDISPisusedtospecify
supportdisplacements.
PartsoftheSACSmodelfileisshownbelowfollowedbyadescriptionofselectedportions.

ThefollowingisadescriptionofselectedinputlinesintheSACSmodelfileforSampleProblem1.Theinputlinesarereferencedbytheletterintheleftmarginoftheinput
listing.
Note:Forasteriskeditems(*),seePostprogrammanualforadetaileddiscussiononpostprocessingoptions.
A. TheOPTIONSlinespecifiestheanalysisoptions,namely.
A. Englishunitsaredesignatedby'EN'incolumns1415.
B. Bydefaultastaticanalysisisdesired(columns1920areblank).
C. SDincolumns2324specifiesthatsheareffectsaretobeconsideredinmembers.
D. *ElementcodecheckwillbebasedonAISC/APIcode(UCincolumns2526).
E. *Nonsegmentedbeamelementswillbedividedintotwopostprocessingsegmentsandeachsegmentofsegmentedelementswillbeconsideredasapost
processingsegmentby2and1incolumns30and32.
F. AninterpretedechoofthemodelisrequestedbyPTincolumns4142.
G. *Unitycheckrange,stressforcontrollingloadcase,internalloadandjointreactionreportsarerequestedwhenperformingcodecheck.
B. *OnlyresultsforloadcasesCMB1andCMB62aretobereportedasspecifiedontheLCSELline.
C. *TheelementUCrangesarespecifiedontheUCPARTline.
D. *AllowablestressesforloadcaseCMB2aretobefactoredby1.333asspecifiedontheAMODline.
E. NontubularcrosssectionsnotdefinedinthesectionlibraryfilearedefinedbySECTlinesfollowingtheSECTheader.Thefirstlinedefinespropertiesofsection
CON4436asfollows:
A. Thesectiontowhichtheinformationappliesisspecifiedincolumns612.
B. SectionCON4436isdesignatedasaconesectionbyCONincolumns1618.
C. Becausenostiffnesspropertiesarespecifiedincolumns1948,theywillbecalculatedbySACSIV.
D. ThelargerOD,thicknessandsmallerODarespecifiedincolumns5055,5660and6166respectively.
F. PropertiesaredefinedonGRUPinputlinesfollowingtheGRUPheaderline.ThepropertiesforallmembersassignedtogroupDK1aredefinedontheGRUPline
withDK1specifiedincolumns68.
A. ThecrosssectionisaW24X94wideflangewhosepropertiesaredefinedinthesectionlibraryfile.
B. Theelasticmodulus,shearmodulusandyieldstressarespecifiedincolumns3135,3640and4145respectively.
C. *Columns47,5255and5659definethedefaultmemberclassification,KyandKzfactorsforcodecheck.
D. Thematerialdensityis490.0#/ft3asspecifiedincolumns7176.
G. ThepropertiesformembersassignedtogroupDK3aredefinedbytheGRUPlinewithDK3specifiedincolumns68.
A. ThecrosssectionpropertiesaredefinedbysectionL3X3whichisdefinedinthemodelfile.
H. ThepropertiesofmembersassignedtogroupLG1varyalongthelengthofthemember.ByinputtingthreeGRUPlinesforgroupLG1,themembersaredividedinto
threesegmentseachwithpropertiesdefinedforeachsegment.
A. Thepropertiesforthefirstsegment**aredefinedbythefirstGRUPLG1line.Thelinespecifiesoutsidediameter48.0,wallthickness1.5andyieldstress50.0
ksi.Thelengthofthefirstsegmentis6.98asspecifiedincolumns7780.
B. Themiddlesegmentisatubularwith48.0outsidediameter,1.0wallthicknessand36.0yieldstress.Nosegmentlengthisspecified**.
C. Thelastsegmentisatubularwith48.0outsidediameter,1.5wallthicknessand50.0yieldstress.Thesegmentlengthis5.55asspecifiedincolumns7780.
**Note:Thefirstsegmentspecifiedcorrespondstothesegmentstartingatthememberstartjoint.Also,thelengthofonesegmentshouldalwaysbeleftblank.The
programwilldeterminethelengthoftheblanksegmentforeachmemberofthegroupindividually,thusallowingmembersofdifferentlengthstobeassignedtothe
samegroup.

I. ThepropertiesformembersassignedtogroupMD1arespecifiedontheGRUPlinewithMD1incolumns68.
A. TheODandthicknessfortubularsectionsarespecifieddirectlyontheGRUPline.TheODisspecifiedas18.00andthicknessas0.75incolumns1823and25
29respectively.Theprogramwillcalculatethecrosssectionproperties.
J. MembersaredefinedintheinputfilefollowingtheMEMBERheaderline.MembersaredefinedusingaMEMBERinputlineandarenamedbythestartandendjoints.
Member101201isdefinedasfollows:
A. Thestartandendjointsarespecifiedincolumns811and1215.
B. ThememberisassignedtogroupLG1(columns1719).
K. Member101112isdefinedbytheMEMBERlinewith101and112specifiedincolumns911and1315asfollows:
A. AMEMBEROFFSETSlinedefiningoffsetsinglobalcoordinateswillfollowasdesignatedby1incolumn7.
B. ThepropertygroupisMH1andKyandKzare0.80.
C. TheMEMBEROFFSETSlinespecifiesanoffsetintheglobalXdirectionof24.0atthestartjoint.
L. Member520501isadeckmemberassignedtogroupDK2withglobaloffsetsspecified(1incolumn7).
A. ThememberisaW12X65(definedbygroupDK2)withtheunbracedlengthofcompressionflangespecifiedas0.01incolumns6064.
B. BecausethemembersitsonthetopflangeoftheW24itcrosses,itisoffset18.0"intheglobalZatthestartandendofthememberbytheMEMBEROFFSET
line.

M. Thememberdefinedbyjoints525and503isassignedtogroupDK3whichisdefinedasan3x3xdangle.
A. Offsetswillbedefinedwithrespecttothememberlocalaxisasdesignatedby2incolumn7.
B. ThememberendsarereleasedforlocalYandZmomentatthestartandlocalX,YandZmomentattheendasspecifiedby000011and000111incolumns
2328and2934respectively.
C. Thememberlocalcoordinatesystemisrotated90<fromthedefaultsystemby90.00incolumns3741.
D. Anoffsetattheendjointof18.00alongthelocalXaxisisindicatedincolumns5459.
N. PlategroupPG1isdefinedbythePGRUPlinewithPG1incolumns79afterthePGRUPheaderline.
A. Athicknessof0.375isdesignatedincolumns1116.
B. Theplatetypeisspecifiedasisotropic(Iincolumn17).
C. Modulusofelasticity,Poissonsratio,yieldstressanddensityarespecified.
O. PlatedefinitionsfollowthePLATEheaderline.Unlikemembers,platesareidentifiedbyanalphanumericnamewhichisspecifiedincolumns710onthePLATE
inputline.PlateAAACisdefinedbythePLATElinewithAAACdesignated.
A. Theconnectingjointsarespecifiedincolumns1227.
B. TheplategroupisspecifiedasPG1incolumns2830.
C. 1incolumn43denotesthatoffsetsontheensuingPLATEOFFSETSlinesareinglobalcoordinates.
D. PlateAAACisoffset24.0"intheglobalZdirectionateachoftheincidentjoints.
P. TheJOINTheaderlinesignalsthebeginningofjointdefinitions.ThefirstJOINTlinedefinesthecoordinatesofjoint101(101specifiedincolumns810).
Note:Coordinatesmaybeinputindecimalsoffeet(meters)orinfeet(meters)plusinches(centimeters).

A. TheXcoordinateofjoint101is15'asdesignatedby15.incolumns1218.
B. TheYcoordinateis25'10"(or25.105m)asdesignatedby25.incolumns1925and10.5incolumns4046.
C. TheZcoordinateis55.(55.incolumns2632).
D. Joint101isnotasupportjointbecausenodegreesoffreedomarerestrained(columns5560blank).
Q. Joint104isdefinedbyJOINTlinewith104incolumns810.
A. TheX,YandZcoordinatesaredefinedincolumns1253.
B. Joint104isdesignatedasasupportjointbyPILEHDincolumns5560.ForstaticanalysisPILEHDisfixedforallsixdegreesoffreedomandisequivalentto
specifying111111orFIXED.ForPSIanalysis,PILEHDdesignatesapointtowhichthestiffnessandloadmatricesaretobecondensedto.
R. TheloadingportionoftheinputbeginswiththeLOADheaderline.LoadconditionLIVEisdesignatedincolumns710oftheLOADCNinputline.
S. Adistributedmemberloadisspecifiedonmember520501usingtheLOADinputlineasfollows:
A. Thememberconnectingjointsarespecifiedincolumns811and1215.
B. ThetypeofloadisindicatedasuniformbyUNIFincolumns6669.
C. TheloaddirectionisalongtheglobalZaxis(GLOBincolumns6164andZincolumn6).
D. Themagnitudeoftheloadisconstantalongthelengthofthememberthattheloadacts(0.375incolumns2430and3844).
E. Bydefault,theloadactsalongtheentirelengthofthemember(columns1723and3137blank).
F. TheloadisgiventhelabelLIVEincolumns7380.
T. LoadcaseEQPTconsistsofmemberconcentratedloadsandjointloads.ThefirstLOADlineinloadcase2definesaconcentratedloadonmember503507.
A. ThetypeofloadandloaddirectionarespecifiedasconcentratedintheglobalZdirectionbyCONC,GLOBandZincolumns6669,6164and6.
B. Theloadactsat29.0ft(meters)fromthebeginningofthememberandhasamagnitudeof66.667.
C. TheloadisassignedalabelSKID1incolumns7380.
U. LoadcaseLATXincludesloadsonjoints501,503,505and507.Joint501isloadedasfollows:
A. TheJOINlabelincolumns6669designatesthetypeofloadingasajointload.
B. Thejointtobeloadedisdesignatedincolumns911.
C. Aloadof50.0istobeappliedintheglobalXdirectionasindicatedincolumns1723.
V. LoadcaseDISPismadeupofaspecifieddisplacementatsupportjoint104andcontainsnootherloading.ThespecifieddisplacementisdescribedonaJOINTline
withPERSETincolumns5560immediatelyfollowingtheJOINTlinedefiningthejoint.
A. TheloadcasetowhichthedisplacementisappliedisindicatedbyDISPincolumns6972.
B. Thedisplacementmagnitudeis2.5000intheglobalZdirectionasspecifiedoncolumns2632.
W. Loadcombinationsmadeupofoneormoreloadcasesand/orcombinationsaredefinedaftertheLCOMBheaderline.LoadcombinationCMB1isacombination
consistingofloadcaseLIVEmultipliedby1.1,110.0percentofloadcaseEQPT100.0percentofloadcaseLATX.
TheensuingisaportionoftheSACSIVlistingfile.SeethemanualforthePostprogrammoduleforlistingofthepostprocessingresultsforthismodel.

SAMPLEPROBLEM2
SampleProblem2illustratestheuseofninenodeshellandeightnodesolidfiniteelements.Threebasicloadcasesconsistingofjointloads,linearlyvaryingshellpressure
loadsandvaryingshelltemperatureloadswerespecifiedinadditiontotwoloadcombinations.

FollowingistheSACSmodelfileforthissampleproblemandadescriptionofselectedportions.

ThefollowingisadescriptionofselectedinputlinesintheSACSmodelfileforSampleProblem2.Theinputlinesarereferencedbytheletterintheleftmarginoftheinput

listing.
Note:Forasteriskeditems(*),seePostprogrammanualforadetaileddiscussiononpostprocessingoptions.
A. TheOPTIONSlinespecifiestheanalysisoptions,namely:
A. EnglishunitsaredesignatedbyENincolumns1415.
B. Bydefaultastaticanalysisisdesired(columns1920areblank).
C. *ElementcodecheckwillbebasedonAISC/APIcode(UCincolumns2526).
D. *AnelementdetailedstressreportisrequestedbyPTincolumns5556.
B. *Onlyresultsforloadcombinations4and5aretobereportedasspecifiedontheLCSELline.
C. ASHELLheaderlinedesignatesthatshellelementdefinitionsfollow.ThefirstSHELLinputlinedefinesthepropertiesofshellS212asfollows:
A. TheshellnameS212isdesignatedincolumns710.
B. Theconnectingjointsarespecifiedincolumns1247.ShellS212isaninenodeshelldefinedbyjoints212,213,214,224,234,233,232,222and223,where
joint223isthecenterjoint.ThelocalXaxisisdefinedbyjoints212and214,thelocalYisperpendiculartothelocalXandparalleltothelineformedbyjoints
214and234.
C. Aconstantthicknessof2.5"isassignedby0incolumn6(constant)and2.5incolumns5355.
D. TheModulusofelasticity,Poissonsratio,yieldstress,materialdensityandcoefficientofthermalexpansionarespecifiedincolumns5761,6265,6670,7175
and7680.
D. SolidelementsaredefinedonSOLIDinputlinesfollowingtheSOLIDheaderline.ThegeometryandpropertiesforsolidelementD101aredefinedonthefirst
SOLIDlineasfollows:
A. ThesolidnameD101isdesignatedincolumns710.
B. Theconnectingjointsarespecifiedincolumns1243.SolidD101isaneightnodebrickelementdefinedbyjoints101,102,202,201,111,112,212,and211.
C. Amodulusofelasticityof3,640ksiisassignedby3.64incolumns5761.ThedefaultPoissonsratioandyieldstressareused.
D. Thematerialdensityisspecifiedas150.0#/ft3incolumns7175.
E. TheJOINTheaderlinesignalsthebeginningofjointdefinitions.ThefirstJOINTlinedefinesthecoordinates**ofjoint101(101specifiedincolumns810).
**Note:Jointcoordinatesmaybedefinedindecimalsoffeet(meters)orinfeet(meters)plusinches(centimeters).Forthissample,coordinatesareexpressedinfeetplus
inches.

A. TheXcoordinateofjoint101is9ftasdesignatedby9.incolumns1218.
B. TheYcoordinateis5'0.276"or5.023'(5.00276mifmodelunitsaremetric)asdesignatedby5.incolumns1925and0.276incolumns4046.
C. TheZcoordinateis0.(0incolumns2632).
D. Joint101isasupportjointwithallsixdegreesoffreedomrestrained(111111incolumns5560).
F. Joint112isdefinedbyJOINTlinewith112incolumns810.
A. TheX,YandZcoordinatesaredefinedincolumns1253.
B. TheX,YandZrotationaldegreesoffreedomarerestrainedby000111incolumns5560.
Note:Becausesolidelementsdonothaverotationalstiffness,therotationaldegreesoffreedomforjointsconnectedexclusivelytosolidelementsmustbefixed.

G. TheloadingportionoftheinputbeginswiththeLOADheaderline.Loadcondition1isdesignatedincolumn10oftheLOADCNinputline.
H. Loadcase1consistofloadsonjoints212,213,214,215,216,222,223,224,225,226,232,233,234,235and236.Joint212isloadedasfollows:
A. TheJOINlabelincolumns6669designatesthetypeofloadingasajointload.
B. Thejointtobeloadedisdesignatedincolumns911.
C. Aloadof0.735istobeappliedintheglobalZdirectionasindicatedincolumns3137.
I. Loadcase2containsavaryingnormalpressureloadactingonshellsS212andS214.TheLOADinputlinespecifiesthefollowing:
A. ThetypeofloadisdesignatedasanormalpressureloadbySPCincolumns68.
B. AllshellnamesfromS212throughS214aretobeloadedbythisinputline(S212andS214incolumns1013and1417).
C. Thenormalpressureattheoriginjoint(i.e.firstjointspecifiedontheSHELLline)is10.4psiinthelocalZdirectionasspecifiedby10.4incolumns1824.
D. Thenormalpressuredecreasesby0.866psiperfootinthelocalYdirection(0.866incolumns3238).
J. Loadcase3containsshelltemperatureloadsonthetopandbottomsurfacesofshellsS212andS214.Thetopsurfaceoftheshellisexposedtoatemperaturelower
thantheambienttemperaturewhilethebottomsurfaceisattheambienttemperature.
A. ThetypeofloadisdesignatedasashelltemperatureloadatthetopsurfacebySTTincolumns68.
B. AllshellnamesfromS212throughS214aretobeloadedbythisinputline(S212andS214incolumns1013and1417).
C. Thetemperatureatthetopsurfacerelativetotheambienttemperatureateachoftheshelljointsisspecifiedincolumns1880.
D. Thetemperatureatthebottomsurfacerelativetoambienttemperatureisspecifiedincolumns1880oftheSHELLlinewithSTBdesignatedincolumns68.
K. Loadcombinationsmadeupofoneormoreloadcasesand/orcombinationsaredefinedaftertheLCOMBheaderline.Loadcase4isacombinationconsistingofload
case1multipliedby1.1and100.0percentofloadcase2.
Theoutputfilefortheanalysisislistedonthefollowingpages.TheoutputforthepostprocessorisincludedandisdiscussedindetailinthePostprogrammodule
manual.