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COATING TECHNOLOGY

Nova Werke AG
Vogelsangstrasse 24
CH-8307 Effretikon
Tel: +41 52 354 16 07
Fax: +41 52 354 16 91
www.novaswiss.com

High Pressure Liquid (With/Without Solid Particle) Impingement Erosion Test


(ASTM G 73 / ASTM G 76)
This test set-up may be used for evaluating the erosion resistance of materials when solid surfaces
are subjected to repeated impacts by liquid droplets and solid particles (Fig 1) or only with liquid
droplet impact to evaluate materials exposed to a cavitational liquid environment. The erosion
process can involve several wear mechanisms, typically occurring by plastic deformation or by
brittle fracture (Fig 2). Few semi-empirical models relate the erosion wear resistance: i) to material
properties (the hardness, the fracture toughness and the elastic modulus) and ii) to other features
linked to the testing process, e.g. erodent shape, density, speed and size. This set-up can simulate
the wear process in many harsh erosive and corrosive environments, for example, blades in water
turbines (Fig 3). The impingement medium can be water, artificial sea water or fluids with additives.
The impingement angles have a considerable influence on the erosion resistance of materials as
shown in Fig. 4, as well as the content and nature of the erodents. The testing set-up parameters:
Sample geometry (if tensile load shall be involved):

140x40x4 mm

Sample geometry (without additional tensile load):

40x40x4 mm

Solid particle erodent concentration:

up to approx. 10 wt.-%

Impingement angle:

30 up to 90

Stand-off distance between nozzle and sample surface: 50- 200 mm


Water jet pressure (at exit):

up to 250 bar

Typical Standard Method


This testing set-up combines both Standard test methods ASTM G73 and ASTM G 76
ASTM G73: standard test method for liquid impingement erosion and G76: standard test method
for conducting erosion tests by solid particle impingement
Sand

Coating
Nozzle

Degree pivot
30, 60 and 90

E ro sio n ska m m e r

Liquid jet

B e d ie n p ult

P u lve rf rd er
A b s e tz b e ck e n

Figure 1: High pressure liquid and solid particle impingement erosion set-up
Contact:
Dr. Mousab Hadad, Head of Tribology Laboratory:
Dr. Stephan Siegmann, Head of Coating Technology:

Mail: mousab.hadad@novaswiss.com
Tel: +41 52 354 51 41
Mail: stephan.siegmann@novaswiss.com Tel: +41 52 354 16 07

Nova Werke AG

page 1 / 3

April 2012

COATING TECHNOLOGY
Nova Werke AG
Vogelsangstrasse 24
CH-8307 Effretikon
Tel: +41 52 354 16 07
Fax: +41 52 354 16 91
www.novaswiss.com

Figure 2: Schematic presentation of several wear mechanisms dominating erosive wear process by single
particle erosion. (Ref: Engineering Tribology (2nd Edition), 2001)

Figure 3: Typical erosive wear on the edge of water turbine blade (Ref: Hadad_ITSC 2007).

Figure 4: The influence of different solid particle materials and impingement angles on the erosive wear
resistance. (Ref: Engineering Tribology (2nd Edition), 2001)

Contact:
Dr. Mousab Hadad, Head of Tribology Laboratory:
Dr. Stephan Siegmann, Head of Coating Technology:

Mail: mousab.hadad@novaswiss.com
Tel: +41 52 354 51 41
Mail: stephan.siegmann@novaswiss.com Tel: +41 52 354 16 07

Nova Werke AG

page 2 / 3

April 2012

COATING TECHNOLOGY
Nova Werke AG
Vogelsangstrasse 24
CH-8307 Effretikon
Tel: +41 52 354 16 07
Fax: +41 52 354 16 91
www.novaswiss.com

Example of erosion test (1):


Erosion test was performed on a WC-Co-Cr HVOF thermally sprayed coating on a steel substrate.
The worn surface is shown in Fig 5.

Substrate

Coating

(b)

10 mm

(c)

a)

Impingement angle 30

Coating

Impingement angle 90

(a)
10 mm

d)

Figure 5: a) The micrograph of worn surface morphology of coating caused by erosive wear, b) upper scanned
topographic surface by White-Light profilometer (Altisurf 500-Cotec), c) 3D topographical measurements of the worn
surface, d) metallographic cross sectioned of coated samples with impingement angles at 30 and 90.

(1)

Hadad_Surface & Coatings Technology_2008

Contact:
Dr. Mousab Hadad, Head of Tribology Laboratory:
Dr. Stephan Siegmann, Head of Coating Technology:

Mail: mousab.hadad@novaswiss.com
Tel: +41 52 354 51 41
Mail: stephan.siegmann@novaswiss.com Tel: +41 52 354 16 07

Nova Werke AG

page 3 / 3

April 2012