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MTNL

CETTM

OVERVIEW OF PSTN
MODULE ID: SPSTOVE002

Overview of PSTN

Topics

CETTM

MTNL

Public Switched Network


Hierarchy of Switches
PSTN N/W and Components
Long Distance (Toll) Network

Overview of PSTN

CETTM

Public Switched Telephone Network

MTNL

PSTN - public network for Voice Telephony


Major Components
- PSTN Switch (Exchange)
- Transmission facilities
- Local Loop
- Customer Premise Equipment (CPE)

Overview of PSTN

Typical Network

CETTM

PSTN
switch

MTNL

PSTN
Switch

CPE

CPE

Transmission Facilities

Overview of PSTN

Public Switched Network

CETTM

MTNL

Switched network

- Series of inter-linked nodes (switches)


Switches

- hardware and/or software devices


- capable of creating temporary connections
between two or more devices linked to the switch
but not to each other

Overview of PSTN

CETTM

Customer Premise Equipment (CPE)

MTNL

Term used to identify any piece of equipment supplied


by the customer to interface with the PSTN.
CPE devices
- POTS/ Telephone Set
- FAX/Modems or Data Sets
- Private Branch Exchange (PBX)
- ISDN Terminals (NT-TA)

Overview of PSTN

External Plant Distributed N/W

CETTM

MTNL

DP

DP
DP

Pillar
Pillar
Pillar

DP
DP

DP
DP

DP

Local
Exchange

DP

DP

Pillar

DP
DP

Digital
Subscriber
Analogue
subscriber

Overview of PSTN

External Plant Cable Network

CETTM

MTNL

Exchange
Main Distribution
Frame

Subscriber's
Telephone

Cable Chamber
Drop
wire

Distribution
Point Box

Pillar

Secondary Cable

Overview of PSTN

Primary Cable

CETTM

External Plant with DLC and RSU

Acces
s
N/W

Ac
ce
N/ ss
W

Connecting Cable
RSU (Remote Subscriber Unit)
Overview of PSTN

Access
N/W
Digital
Room

s
s
e
c
Ac /W
N

MTNL

Local
Exchange

Access
N/W
Main
Distribution
Frame

DLC (Digital Loop Carrier)


Pillar

DP
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CETTM

Subscriber Access Method


Exchange

TX system
LE

MTNL

Remote
Unit
External
network

RU

Subscribers
Premises

RU
TX system

DRU
TX system

Introduction of double remote unit


Overview of PSTN

Double
Remote
Unit
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CETTM

Problems with remote/double remote

MTNL

Technology specific.

- Alcatel- OCB283- RU-RSU(1-4K)&


DRU - CNE(0.25K)
- Siemens- EWSD- RU- RDLU(1.7K)& DRU - not available
- Lucent- 5ESS- RU-RISLU & DRU- Not available

Working on proprietary protocols


Inter-working not possible

Overview of PSTN

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CETTM

Use of V5.2 in access network

MTNL

BTS

a/b
ISDN
BA

LE

BSC

V5.2

DLC

V5.2

V5.2

DSLAM

INTERNET
Overview of PSTN

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CETTM

V5.2 Protocol

MTNL

Open protocol
- LE & AN can be of different make
- for LE access becomes transparent
Subscriber Loop Access on

- Wireless - CorDECT, Cellular


- Optical Fibre DLC
- Copper- 2Mbps -DLC
A message based Five Control Protocol
Subscriber signals multiplexed in one or more communication

channels

Overview of PSTN

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Local Network Structure

Exchange
Area 5

Exchange
Area 1

Wire
Center
A

MTNL

Exchange
Area 2
Wire
Center
B

CETTM

Exchange
Area 4

Overview of PSTN

Exchange
Area 3

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Hierarchy of Switches

CETTM

Class 1

MTNL

Gateway
Switch

Gateway
Switch

Trunk
Automatic
Exchange

Trunk
Automatic
Exchange

Class 2 &3
Trunk
Automatic
Exchange
Class 4

Tandem
Exchange

Tandem
Exchange

Tandem
Exchange

Tandem
Exchange

Class 5
Local
Exchange
Overview of PSTN

Local
Exchange

Local
Exchange

Local
Exchange

Local
Exchange

Local
Exchange
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CETTM

Hierarchy of Switches

MTNL

Class 1 - Regional Centre (RC).


- "last resort" for final set-up of calls when routes between
centres lower in the hierarchy were not available

Class 2 - Sectional Centre (SC).


- typically connected major toll centres within one/two states
Class 3 - Tandem exchanges
- connecting major population centres within particular
region of the network
Class 4 - Tandem exchanges
- connecting various areas of a city/towns in a region
Class 5 Local Exchanges
- subscribers and end-users telephone lines connected
Overview of PSTN

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Typical Exchange Network

CETTM

Local Exchange

Tandem Exchange
Switching
Systems

MTNL

NLD POP
TAX

Local Loop
Inter-exchange
Trunks

Local Loop
Local Exchange

Local
Overview of PSTN

Long
Distance
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CETTM

Multiple Carrier Network

MTNL

NLD1
NLD2
NLD3

Region x
Long Distance
Carriers

Overview of PSTN

Region y

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International Network

CETTM

MTNL

ILD1
INT Gateway

ILD2
ILD3

Country x

Overview of PSTN

International
Carriers

INT Gateway

Country y

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Long Distance Operators

CETTM

MTNL

23 NLDOs & 18 ILDOs licensed to operate

Overview of PSTN

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Network Evolution

CETTM

MTNL

Earlier Networks (Up to early 70s)


- Aanalogue telephone network
- Frequency-division multiplexing

Present

- Local loop analogue


- Network digital (based on TDM)
Network Migration
- IP based switching technology
(packet switching, Soft switches, VoIP)

Overview of PSTN

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NT Switching Systems

CETTM

OCB 283

ALCATEL (France)

EWSD

SIEMENS (Germany)

FETEX 150

FUJITSU

5ESS

AT&T (U.S.)

AXE10

ERICSSON (Sweden)

Overview of PSTN

MTNL

(Japan)

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CETTM

General Architecture of Exchange

MTNL

Switching
Network
C2

Subscriber
Access

C1

To another
subscriber or
Telephone
Exchange

Trunks
Access

N/W controller
Control Unit

From another Telephone exchange

(Call Processing)

O&M Unit
Overview of PSTN

(Control Processing
Programs)

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CETTM

PSTN switch (Exchange)

Subscriber interfacing equipment provides access to the customer

Trunk interfacing equipment provide access for incoming calls from other
exchanges

Switching Network provides path for through connection

Control unit, does the call processing control and charging function

Overview of PSTN

MTNL

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Subscriber Facilities

CETTM

MTNL

Analogue subscribers facilities


Digital subscribers facilities

Bearer services

64kbps circuit switching


Circuit switching in 300 bps-3.4 kbps
Teleservices
Supplementary services

Overview of PSTN

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CETTM

O&M Function

MTNL

Management/ supervision of incidents


Supervision of operation
Management of charges and deductions
Monitoring of exchange performance
Security mechanism

Overview of PSTN

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NTSS:O & M Function

CETTM

MTNL

Management/ supervision of incidents


Monitoring complaints
Automatic testing of lines & circuits
Display of alarms
Precise location of faults
Call statistics

Overview of PSTN

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NTSS:O & M Function

CETTM

MTNL

Supervision of operation

Subscribers file
Groups
Additional services
Subscriber Equipment
Exchange command
Translation, routing
Charging
No. 7 signalling

Overview of PSTN

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NTSS:O & M Function

CETTM

MTNL

Management of charges and of deductions

LAMA/ CAMA,
Domestic meters,
Detailed billing,
Centralization of accounts,
Coin box , time zones, etc.

LAMA-Local automatic message accounting


CAMA-Centralised automatic message accounting

Overview of PSTN

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CETTM

NTSS:O & M Function

MTNL

Monitoring of exchange performance


Traffic
Subscriber lines
Consistency of charging data

Overview of PSTN

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NTSS:O & M Function

CETTM

MTNL

Security mechanism:

Passwords for workstations and for the operator


Non-authorized entry detection

Overview of PSTN

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PSTN Numbering Scheme

CETTM

MTNL

ITU standard E.164 Numbering format


E.164 - Country code, Area code and Phone number
International public telecommunication number for geographic areas
(maximum 15 digits)
Generally International Numbers limited to 12 digits and National Numbers to
10 digits

- Country code
- National Destination code (optional)
- Subscriber Number
In India PSTN follows
SDCA code+Subscriber Number (10 digit)
Overview of PSTN

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CETTM

SUMMARY

MTNL

Public Switched Network


External and Internal elements of PSTN
Hierarchy of Switches
Different classes of PSTN switch
Long Distance (Toll)Network
Routing diagram for Long distance calls.
PSTN N/W and Components
Network evolution
General architecture of PSTN-- NT switch.

Overview of PSTN

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