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MTNL

CETTM

ISO-OSI REFERENCE MODEL


MODULE ID: IDATOSI001

ISO-OSI Reference Model

CETTM

OSI - Open System Interconnect

ISO-OSI Reference Model

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1950s Computation - Batch Processing


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ISO-OSI Reference Model

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1960s - Host Computing

ISO-OSI Reference Model

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1970s - Distributed Processing

ISO-OSI Reference Model

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ISO-OSI Reference Model

1980s

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Protocols Between Human beings

ISO-OSI Reference Model

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Protocol in Telephone Communication


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ISO-OSI Reference Model

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Protocol in Data Communication


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ISO-OSI Reference Model

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ISO & CCITT (ITU-T)

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OSI

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Purpose:
To provide a common basis for the coordination of
standards development for:
Systems interconnection, while allowing existing
standards to be placed into perspective within the
overall reference model

Term OSI qualifies:


Standards for exchange of info among systems that
are open to another by virtue of mutual use of
applicable standards

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OSI
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Reference model is primarily concerned with:


Systems comprising of terminals, computers, and
associated devices and the means for transferring
info between such systems
OSI does not intend:
To be a basis for of implementation for systems
But provides:
Conceptual and functional framework for definition of
services and protocols which fit within boundaries
established by the model

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CETTM

ISO & CCITT (ITU-T)

ISO-OSI Reference Model

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CETTM

ISO-OSI Reference Model

The Wine Cup

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NETWORK ARCHITECTURE

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ISO Reference Model

ISO-OSI Reference Model

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computers

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CETTM

Physical Media - no Specs.

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CETTM

ISO-OSI Reference Model

Physical Layer

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CETTM

ISO-OSI Reference Model

DTE & DCE

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The Physical Layer

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Responsibility:

transmission of raw bits over a


communication channel.
Issues:

mechanical and electrical interfaces


time per bit
distances

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CETTM

ISO-OSI Reference Model

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CETTM

ISO-OSI Reference Model

DATA LINK LAYER

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The Data Link Layer-Data Link Control


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Responsibility:
provide an error-free communication link
Issues:
framing (dividing data into chunks)
header & trailer bits
addressing

10110110101

ISO-OSI Reference Model

01100010011

10110000001

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Function of Data Link Layer

ISO-OSI Reference Model

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The Data Link Layer-Data Link Control


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Media Access Control - needed by multi-

access networks.
MAC provides DLC with virtual wires on
multi-access networks.

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Multi-access vs. Point-to-point

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Point-to-point

only 2 systems involved


no doubt about where data came from !
Multi-access means shared medium.

many end-systems share the same physical


communication resources (wire, frequency, ...)
There must be some arbitration mechanism.

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Mechanism of Secure Data Transfer


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Frame Structure in HDLC

ISO-OSI Reference Model

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Sequence of HDLC
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Connect Data Link

SABM: Set Asynchronous Balanced


Mode
UA: Unnumbered Acknowledgement

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Sequence of HDLC

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Data Transfer

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Sequence of HDLC

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Adjacent Layer Data Unit Mapping

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CETTM

ISO-OSI Reference Model

Layer Interaction

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Elements of Layer Operation

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Elements of Layer Operation

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Elements of Layer Operation

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Procedure of ISO Communication

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Relation Between 4 Primitives

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CETTM

ISO-OSI Reference Model

Network Layer

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CETTM

ISO-OSI Reference Model

Network

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Network

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... communication system for connecting endsystems


End-systems a.k.a. hosts
PCs, workstations
dedicated computers
network components

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The Network Layer

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Responsibilities:

path selection between end-systems (routing).


subnet flow control.
fragmentation & reassembly
translation between different network types.

Issues:

packet headers
virtual circuits
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Relation Between Layers

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Connection Oriented and Connectionless


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Connection Type Network

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Connectionless Type Network

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X.25 Packet Switching Protocol

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CETTM

ISO-OSI Reference Model

X.25 Contd..

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CETTM

ISO-OSI Reference Model

Transport Layer

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The Transport Layer

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Responsibilities:

provides virtual end-to-end links between


peer processes.
end-to-end flow control
Issues:

headers
error detection
reliable communication

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Transport Layer in OSI Reference Model


CETTM

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The Role of Transport Layer

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Data Transfer in Transport Layer

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CETTM

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Sequence of Class 0

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Session Layer
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The Session Layer

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Responsibilities:

establishes, manages, and terminates


sessions between applications.
service location lookup
Many protocol suites do not include a

session layer.

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Dialog Unit, Activity and Synchronization


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Mj: Major SYNC point , Mn: Minor SYNC point


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The Role of Session Layer

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Session Connection Establishment


Sequence

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Data Transfer Sequence

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DT: Data Transfer GT: Give


Token
PT: Please Token
SSDU: Session Service Data Unit

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Data Transfer Sequence-Duplex

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(b) Duplex

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Session Connection Release Sequence

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FN: Finish, DN: Disconnect

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Session Connection Release


Sequence

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Presentation Layer

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The Presentation Layer

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Responsibilities:

data encryption
data compression
data conversion
Many protocol suites do not include a

Presentation Layer.

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Semantics and Syntax


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World of Semantics

World of Syntax

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The Role of Presentation

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Presentation
Protocol

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Abstract Sequence and Transfer Sequence


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The Abstract syntax


and Transfer syntax
of ASN 1
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CETTM

ISO-OSI Reference Model

Application Layer

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The Application Layer

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Responsibilities:

anything not provided by any of the other


layers
Issues:

application level protocols


appropriate selection of type of service

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CETTM

Message Handing System

ISO-OSI Reference Model

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CETTM

ISO-OSI Reference Model

Mail and E-mail

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Concept of MHS
CETTM

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MHS Functional Model


CETTM

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Message Flow in MHS

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Structure of IP Message

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Repeater

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Source
Application
Presentation

Destination

Repeater

Session
Transport
Network

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Application
Presentation
Session

Signal
Amplifier

Transport
Network

Data Link

Data Link

Physical

Physical

Segment 1

Segment 2

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Repeater

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Copies bits from one network to another


Does not look at any bits
Allows the extension of a network beyond

physical length limitations

REPEATER
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Bridge

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Source
Application
Presentation
Session
Transport

Bridge
Signal
Amplifier
and
DL Header; EC
Examination

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Destination
Application
Presentation
Session
Transport

Network

Network

Data Link

Data Link

Physical

Physical

Segment 1
ISO-OSI Reference Model

Segment 2
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CETTM

Bridge

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Copies frames from one network to another


Can operate selectively - does not copy all

frames (must look at data-link headers).


Extends the network beyond physical length
limitations.

BRIDGE
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ROUTER

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Source
Application

Router
End-to-End Communication

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Destination
Application

Presentation

Presentation

Session

Session

Transport

Transport

Network

Network

Data Link

Bridge

Data Link

Physical

Repeater

Physical

Segment 1
ISO-OSI Reference Model

Segment 2
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CETTM

ROUTER

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Copies packets from one network to another.


Makes decisions about what route a packet should take

(looks at network headers).

ROUTER
ROUTER

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Gateway
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Source
Application
Presentation

Gateway

Destination
Application

HL7-GW

Presentation

Session

Session

Transport

Transport

Network

Network

Data Link

Data Link

Physical

Physical

Segment 1

ISO-OSI Reference Model

Segment 2
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CETTM

Internet Reference Model

Application

Application

Presentation

Process

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Session
Transport

Host-to-Host

Network

Inter-Network
Network
Access

Data Link
Physical

OSI Model
ISO-OSI Reference Model

Internet Model
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Internet Protocols
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Process/
Application

FTP, Telnet, SMTP, NNTP,


SNMP, DNS, POP3, SIP, ...

Host-to-Host

TCP

Internet
Network
Access

ISO-OSI Reference Model

Routing
ARP, RARP

IP

UDP
ICMP

Ethernet II, 802.x, FDDI, ATM,


ISDN, X.25, Frame Relay

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Summary

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Layer Characteristic
(1)Physical Layer
Mechanical and Electrical means to Physical-connection
for Bit Transfer

(2) Data Link Layer


Structure of Bit Stream transmitted in Ph-Layer (Data
Frame)

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(3) Network Layer


Routing for T-Layer
Multiplexing Network Connection to DL-connection

(4) Transport Layer


Transparent data Transfer for Upper Layer

(5) Session Layer


Dialog Facility (Duplex, Half-duplex)

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(6) Presentation Layer

Transfer Syntax

Syntax Conversion
Abstract Syntax
Syntax Check

(7) Application Layer


Interface with Application Process (User)

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