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MTNL

CETTM

TRANSMISSION OVERVIEW
MODULE ID: TGENOVT001

TRANSMISSION OVERVIEW

Topics

CETTM

MTNL

Introduction to Transmission Networks


Transmission Media
PCM & Higher Order Multiplexing
Transmission Systems
SDH Concepts
WDM Basics
MPLS Basics
MLLN

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Key Terms

MTNL

Signal: Physical magnitude specific for each


medium, change with respect to time
Transmission medium: consists of links that
connect nodes
Nodes : Network elements that receive/retransmit
further until reaching final users

Information : Consists message exchanged


between final users ,coded as signals
Analog signal: can take an unlimited number
Of values within a given range
Digital signal: Take limited number of values.
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Transmission System Architecture

Message
signal

Transmitter

Medium

Receiver

MTNL

Out put
signal

The telecommunications network transmits a


variety of information, in two basic forms,
analog or digital from one place to another

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Advantages of digital
communication

MTNL

Improved signal to Noise Ratio


Compatibility of different media,traffic
No additional interference as noise
Economy
Novel facilities and sevices
Applicability in extremely difficult transmission
paths
Simpler equipment (no need of filters)
Easy repeatability of design.
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Digital Transmission Systems

MTNL

Media
Line (Coax cable)
Digital Radio

Higher
Order
Multiplex

T
E
R
M
I
N
A
L

Satellite

T
E
R
M
I
N
A
L

Higher
Order
Multiplex

CCITT
Interface

CCITT
Interface
Optical fiber
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Problems of legacy media

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Bandwidth and capacity limitations

Attenuation, cross talk, noise ,distortion

Electromagnetic interference

Wire separation limits to achieve distortionless


condition in /wire, ug cables

Requirement of filters,line and office


repeaters , ccps,(repeater spans 1.5 km in
case ug cable pairs, 4.5 km for cxl cables

Fading , reflection, absorption ,line of sight


problems in case of microwave

High initial cost of Satelite, royalty for RF

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Microwave System Configuration

From Base Band


Tx Unit
MUX

Modulator

Supervisory
Channels

To
MUX

Base Band
Rx Unit

Demodulator

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Tx1
Up
Converter
Tx2

B
R
A
N
C
H
Rx2
I
N
Rx1
G
Down
Unit
Converter

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Classification of O F Cable

MTNL

Based on material used


Glass Fiber & Plastic clad Silica

Based on Size or Mode


Multi mode - Large core dia..50/62.5/85/100
um
Single mode - Small core dia (8/9/10 um)

Based on Refractive Index


Step Index
- Uniform R.I for the core
Graded Index - Non uniform R.I for the core
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Frequency division multiplexing

MTNL

Process of translating individual speech


circuits into pre assigned frequency slots
within the bandwidth of the transmission
medium
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TIME DIVISION MULTIPLEXING

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MTNL

TDM Involves Sharing of the Transmission medium by a


Number of Circuits in TIME DOMAIN
This can be achieved by establishing a sequence of Time
Slots (periods) during which Individual channels (circuits)
are Transmitted

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CETTM

Modulation

MTNL

Modulation is the process


of varying one waveform
in relation to another
waveform
Three types of modulation
are
Analogue modulation
Digital modulation
Pulse modulation

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CETTM

Modulation of Digital Signal

MTNL

ASK (Amplitude Shift Keying)


FSK (Frequency Shift Keying)
PSK (Phase Shift Keying)
QAM (Quadrature Amplitude Modulation)
ASK:Amplitude Shift Keying)
The amplitude of the carrier is changed with
respect to the input digital signal [ 0 or 1 ].
Similar to ON/OFF Keying.
Causes more errors
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Amplitude Shift Key Modulation

TRANSMISSION OVERVIEW

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Frequency Shift Key, Phase shift keying

TRANSMISSION OVERVIEW

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Pulse Code Modulation(PCM)

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Conversion of Analog signal into Digital

Binary format is called PCM


Stages of PCM:
Filtering..................limiting freq band to 4khz

Sampling...............PAM sampling 8000/SE


Quantizing.............Assigning quantity to
amplitudes read.
Encoding/Decoding Binary conversion
Line Coding.............HDB3+/AMI/CMI

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CETTM

Frame & Multiframe

MTNL

Frame
The Collection of one sample from each channel
is called a Frame. Total frames :15
Thus the set of first Samples of all channels is
one frame, the set of Second Samples is
Second frame, and so on.
The duration of a frame is 125 micro seconds
One additional frame to carry sync data(MFAW)
Multi frame
A group of 16 frames is formed to make a
Multiframe.
The duration of a multi frame is 2 milliseconds.
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CETTM

2 Mbps Frame Structure


Frame Alignment Word (FAW)

MTNL

Signaling information

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31

Samples from Channels 1 to 15

Samples from Channels 16 to 30

32 Time slots in 125 s

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Multi Frame Structure

CETTM

TS0

TS1

TS2

TS15

F0

FAW

Ch
1

Ch
2

F1

ALM
&
Supy

Ch
1

Ch
2

F2

FAW

Ch
1

Ch
2

F3

ALM
&
Supy

Ch
1

F1
4

F1
5

FAW
ALM
&
Supy

TS16

MTNL

TS17

TS31

MFAW
ALM

Ch
16

Ch
30

S Ch 1

S Ch
16

Ch
16

Ch
30

Ch
15

S Ch 2

S Ch
17

Ch
16

Ch
30

Ch
15

S Ch 3

S Ch
18

Ch
16

Ch
30

S Ch
29

Ch
16

S Ch
14

Ch
15

Ch
30

Ch
15

S Ch
15

S Ch
30

Ch
16

B1-B4

B5-B8

Ch
15

MFAW

Ch
15

Ch
2

Ch
1

Ch
2

Ch
1

Ch
2

TRANSMISSION OVERVIEW

Ch
30
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2.048 MBPS G.703 INTERFACE

MTNL

Frequency

2048Kbps 50ppm. (HDB3 coded)

Pulse shape

All masks of a valid signal conform to the


pulse mask given in ITU-T G.703,
irrespective of the sign. The value V
corresponds to the nominal peak value.

Type of pair

Symmetrical pair.

Test load impedance

120 Ohms resistive.

Nom, peak voltage of a mark (pulse)

3.0 V.

Peak voltage of a space (no pulse)

0 0.3 V.

Nominal pulse width

244 ns.

Ratio of the amplitudes of positive and


negative pulses at the centre of the pulse
interval
Ratio of the widths of positive and negative
pulses at the nominal half amplitude.

0.95 to 1.05

Max. peak to peak jitter at an output


port

As per Para 2 / ITU-T Rec. G.823.

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0.95 to 1.05

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O F System Composition

MTNL

Fibre Optics Transmission System (FOTS)


comprises of the following sub systems
Digital multiplex sub system
Optical line transmission system
Central supervisory system
Trans multiplexer sub system
Alarm sub system
Power supply sub system

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SDH Multiplexing

CETTM

140 Mb

VC 4

C4

AU 4

MTNL

X
1

AUG

XN

STM-N

X3

34 Mb

C3

6.3 Mb

C2

2 Mb

1.5 Mb

34 Mb

C 12

VC 3

VC 2
VC 12

TU 3

TUG 3

X
TU 12 1

X3

TUG 2

X
4

C11

VC 11

C3

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X
7

TU 11

VC 3

SDH
Multiplexing

X
7

TU 2

AU 3

X
3

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SDH Frame Structure

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270 Columns (Bytes)


270

MTNL

transmit
row by row

RSOH
3
4

AU Pointer

Payload
(transport capacity)

MSOH
9

RSOH: Regenerator section overhead


MSOH: Multiplex section overhead
Payload: Area for information transport

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SDH System Types


MTNL

CETTM

Types

Bit Rates

Chl. Capacity

STM-1 ---- 155.520 Mb/s ---

1890 Chls

STM-4 ---- 622.080 Mb/s ---

7560 Chls

STM-16 -- 2488.32 Mb/s --- 30240 Chls


STM-64 -- 9953.28 Mb/s --120960 Chls

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CETTM

DWDM System input

155MSDH
622MSDH
2.5G SDH
10G SDH
PDH
IP
ATM
155MSDH
622MSDH
2.5G SDH
10G SDH
PDH
IP
ATM

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Transponder

MTNL

Open

G.692
O
T
U
DWDM
Mux

G.692

Integrated

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DWDM Application for Data Centre

Data Centre Interconnection

MTNL

Storage Area Network (SAN ) on DWDM


Storage

Fiber
Channel

Mainframe
Metro DWDM

Server

Storage

ESCON/FICON

Server

TRANSMISSION OVERVIEW

Mainframe

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CETTM

Basic Working Process of MPLS

MTNL

Core LSR
Edge LSR

Edge LSR

IP

IP

L1

Traditional
IP forwarding

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IP

L2

Label forwarding

IP

L3

IP

Traditional IP
forwarding

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Architecture of a MLLN

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DACC

V-MUX

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MODEM

Provides fully secure data communication service


End to end circuit creation and monitoring
circuit loop test and fault isolation,
Alternate re-routing of traffic,
Software programmability of NTUs
Fully Managed Access Network
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MLLN Network

CETTM

MTNL

CUSTOMER
V-MUX
DACC

DACC

DACC

V-MUX
TRANSMISSION OVERVIEW

CUSTOMER
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CETTM

Summary

MTNL

We have seen different Transmission


Technologies and media
Transmission is in transition phase where
we are migrating from circuit switching
technologies like SDH to Packet switching
technology like MPLS
Future transmission system will be based
on optical switching like OTN ( Optical
Transport Networks )
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