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THE STRAIGHT LINE

GRADIENT m =

Y2 Y1
X 2 X1

Example

Exercises

1) (1,2) and (3,4)

1) ( 2,1) and (4,3)

m=

42 2
= =1
3 1 2

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------2) (-1,2) and (3,4)


2) (- 2,1) and (4,3)
m=

42
2 1
= =
3 (1) 4 2

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------3) (1,-2) and (3, 4)

4) (2,-1) and (4, 3)

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------5) (-1,-2) and (3, 4)

6) (-2,-1) and (4, 3)

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------7) (-1,-2) and (-3,-4)

8.) (-2,-1) and (-4,-3)

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------9) (0,

1
3
) and ( ,0 )
2
2

The Straight Line

10) (-

1 3
1 1
, ) and ( ,- )
2 2
2 2

INTERCEPT
y-intercept (x = 0)

x-intercept (y = 0)
X-intercept

y=0

Example

Exercise

1) y = 2 x + 4

1) y = 3x + 6

y = 0 0 = 2x + 4
4 = 2x

2 x = 4
x=

4
= 2
2

x- intercept = -2
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------2) y = 5 x 2
2) y = 2 x + 5

y = 0 0 = 5x 2
2 = 5x
5x = 2
2
5
5
x-intercept =
2
x=

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------3) y = 4 x + 5
4.) y = 3 x + 1

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------5) 2 y = 3 x 6
6) 2 y = 2 x + 5

The Straight Line

2
x+6
3

7) y =

8) y =

2
x4
5

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------9) 2 y =

3
x + 12
5

10) 3 y =

1
x3
9

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------11) 2 y = x + 12
12) 3 y = 3 x 2

y intercept

Example
1) y = 2 x + 6
x = 0 , y = 2(0) + 6
y=6
y- intercept = 6

x=0

Exersice
1) y = 3 x + 8

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------2) y = 2 x 7
3.) y = 3 x 9

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

The Straight Line

4) y =

2
x+6
3

5) y =

1
x6
2

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------6) y =

2
x+7
3

7) y =

2
x 10
5

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Example

3
x + 12
5
3
X = 0, 2y = (0) + 12
5

8) 2 y =

9) 3 y =

1
x 21
9

2y = 12
y=6
y intercept = 6
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------10) 2 y = x + 12
11) 3 y = 3 x 2

..

The Straight Line

EQUATION OF A STRAIGHT LINE : y = mx + c

Gradient y-intercept

THE EQUATION OF A STRAIGHT LINE PASSING THROUGH THE POINTS AND


GRADIENT
Example
1) (2,7) and m = 3
y = mx + c
7 = 3(2) + c
7=6+c
76=c
c=1

Exercise A
1) (4,9) and m= -2

Equation of a straight line , y = 3x + 1


.
2) (-3,5) and m = 4
y = mx + c
5 = 4(-3) + c
5 = -12 + c
C= 5 + 12
=17

2) (-1,7) and m = 5

Equation of a straight line, y = 4x +17


.
3) (4,-9) and m =

1
2

3) (-5,11) and m = -2

y = mx + c
-9 =

1
(4) + c
2

-9 = 2 + c
-9 2 = c
c = -11
equation of a straight line, y =

1
x - 11
2

.
4) ( -3,-5) and m =

The Straight Line

2
3

5) (3,-7) and m = -

3
4

6) (-1,-4) and m =

2
5

7) (-10,10) and m = -

4
5

.
8) (0,-3) and m =

1
2

9) (-6,-2) and m =

4
3

The straight line can also be obtained by using the formula

y k = m (x h)
Example

Exercise B

1) (2,7) and m = 3

1) (4,9) and m= -2

y 7 = 3( x 2)
y 7 = 3x 6
y = 3x 6 + 7
y = 3x + 1
.
2) (-3,-5) and m = 4

3) (-1,7) and m = 5

The Straight Line

1
2

4) (4,-9) and m =

5) (5,-11) and m = -2

2
3

6) ( -4,-5) and m =

7) (4,-7) and m = -

3
4

2
( x ( 4 ))
3

y ( 5) =

2
(x + 4)
3
3( y + 5) = 2 ( x + 4 )
3 y + 15 = 2 x + 8
y + 5 =

3 y = 2 x + 8 15
3y = 2x 7
.
8 (-1,-4) and m =

2
5

9) (10,10) and m = -

4
5

.
10) (0,-3) and m =

The Straight Line

1
2

11) (-5,-2) and m =

4
3

EQUATION OF A STRAIGHT LINE THROUGH TWO POINTS

Step 1 : Find the gradient


Step 2: Find the y- intercept
Step 3 : Write down the equation in a form of y = mx + c
Example
(-1,2) and (3,4)
m=

Exercise
1. (2,1) and (4,3)

42
2 1
= =
3 (1) 4 2

y = mx + c

1
(3) + c
2
3
4= +c
2
3
C= 4 2
1
=2
2
4=

Equation of a straight line, y =

1
5
x+
2
2

Or 2y = x + 5
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------2) (-1,2) and (3,4)
3) (-2,1) and (4,3)

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------4) (3,-5) and (-2,5)


5) (3,-7) and (-1,3)

The Straight Line

6) (0,-5) and (2,1)

7) (-1,5) and (-3,-7)

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

1
2

8) ( ,4 ) and (3,-6)

1
3

1
3

9) ( ,5 ) and ( ,3 )

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------EQUATION OF A STRAIGHT LINE PASSING THROUGH PARALLEL LINES


Lines which are parallel have the same gradient and vice versa.
Example
1) (1,2) and y = 3x 4

Exercise
1) (0,-3) and y = -2x + 5

m=3
y 2 = 3( x 1)

y 2 = 3x 3
y = 3x 3 + 2
y = 3x 1

2) (2,4) and y + x = 5
2) (0,6) and y = 5x -1
y = -x + 5

m = 1
y 4 = 1( x 2)

y 4 = x + 2
y = x + 2 + 4
y = x + 6
.............................................................................................................................................................

The Straight Line

3) (8,-5) and 5y + 20x = -2


5y = -20x -2

3) (2,3) and 2x -5y = 12

20 x 2
5
2
y = - 4x 5
m = 4
y (5) = 4( x 8)
y=

y + 5 = 4 x 32
y = 4 x 32 5
y = 4 x 37

4) (5,2) and y = x -3

5) (1,8) and 3x + y =4

6) (3,4) and y = 2x -2
7) (0,-3) and 2x + y -5 = 0

8) (-1,3) and y = 3x + 1
9) (4,0) and y = 3x - 11

10) (4,-5) and y = -2x + 3


11) (3,4) and 4y 2x = 3

The Straight Line

EXAMINATION FORMAT QUESTION


EXAMPLE 1

42
2
=
= 1
02 2

(i)

gradient AB=

(ii)

x-intercept for AB

y=0
the equation of AB

A(0,4)

y 4 = 1( x 0)
y 4 = x
B(2,2)

0 4 = x
x=4
x-intercept = 4

(iii)

Diagram 1

the equation of AC

M AC = M OB =
y 4 = 1( x 0)
y4= x
y = x+4
EXERCISE
1.Base on diagram 2
(i) gradient PQ

P(0,6)
Q(3,5)
(ii)

x-intercept for PQ

Diagram 2
(iii)

The Straight Line

the equation of PR

20
=1
20

Base on diagram 3, find


(i) the gradient of AB

A(2,6)

(ii) the equation of ECF

C(5,4)

B(-3,3)

(iii) x-intercept for ECF

Diagram 3

In the diagram 4, OP = 6 units.


(i) find the gradient of PR

Q(7,8)

P
Diagram 4

The Straight Line

(ii) find the y-intercept of PQ

The diagram 5, AB is a straight


line.
(i) state the y-intercept of AB

(ii) find the equation of of AB

4
-6
Diagram 5

5.

In diagram 6, the gradient of PQ


is

P(0,6)

3
. Line
2

RS is parallel to the line PQ and


passes through a point (-5,3). Find
(i) the coordinate of Q.

Q
Diagram 6

The Straight Line

ii) the equation of RS

6.

In diagram 7, line DE is parallel to the line GF.

y
D(-4,6)
G(h,4)

x
E

(a)
(b)
( c)
7.

Diagram 7

Given the equation of straight line DG is x + 3y = 14 and the gradient of GF is -2,


Find
the value of h,
the coordinate F
the equation of straight line DE
[ 5 marks]

2
3
N(6, p)

In diagram 8, the gradient of the straight line MN is

y
M

x
-5

Diagram 8

Find
(a) the value of p
(b) the equation of straight line LN
8.

In diagram 9, JKLM is a trapezium and JK is parallel to ML


K (2,5)
y
L(4,3)

J(-4,2)
x
M

O
Diagram 9

Find
(i)
(ii)
(iii)

The Straight Line

the x-intercept for the straight line JK


the equation of the straight line ML
the coordinate M

SPM PAST YEAR QUESTIONS (PAPER 2)


1. SPM 2003
In Diagram 2, the graph shows that PQ, QR, and RS are straight lines. P is on the y-axis. OP is
Parallel to QR and PQ is parallel to RS.

y
R
P

x
(8, -7)

Diagram 2
The equation of PQ is 2x + y = 5
(a)
State the equation of the straight line QR
(b)
Find the equation of the straight line RS and hence, state its y-intercept.
[ 5 marks ]
2. SPM 2004
In Diagram 3, OPQR is parallelogram and O is the origin.

y
R(4,12)
Q

x
P(3, -6)
Diagram 3

Find
(a)
(b)

the equation of the straight line PQ,


the y-intercept of the straight line QR
[ 5 marks ]

The Straight Line

3. SPM 2005
In Diagram 2, O is the origin, point R lies on the x-axis and point P pies on the y-axis.
Straight line PU is parallel to the x-axis and straight line PR is parallel to straight line ST. The
equation of straight line PR is x + 2y = 14.

y
P

U
x + 2y -14

T(2, -5)
Diagram 2
(a)

State the equation of the straight line PU

(b)

Find the equation of the straight line ST and hence , state its x-intercept
[ 5 marks]

4. SPM 2006( June)


In Diagram 3, O is the origin and PQRS is a trapezium. PS is parallel to QR. Straight line RS is
parallel to x-axis. Point Q and S lies on x-axis

y
P (-1, 10)

Diagram 3
Find
(a)
(b)

R(4, -11)

Equation of a straight line QR


x-intercept of the straight line QR
[ 5 marks ]

The Straight Line

5. SPM 2006(Nov)
Diagram 5 shows a straight line PQ and a straight line RS drawn on a Cartesian plane. PQ is
parallel to RS.

y
P (0, 4)

R (0, 4)

S (0, 4)

Diagram 5
Find
a) the equation of the straight line PQ,
b) the x-intercept of the straight line PQ
[ 5 marks ]

6. SPM 2007( June)


In Diagram 2, O is the origin . Point P and point R lie on the y-axis. PS is parallel to the x-axis
and straight line SR is parallel to straight line PQ .

y
P

Q(-4,0)

S (8 , 3)

R
Diagram 2
Find
(a)

the equation of a straight line SR

(b)

the x-intercept of the straight line SR


[ 5 marks ]

The Straight Line

7. SPM 2007(Nov)
In Diagram 2, O is the origin .Straight line KL is parallel to straight line MN. The equation of
straight line KL is 2x + y = 4. The points L and N lie on y-axis .

K
M (-3, 7)

L
N

O
Diagram 2
Find
c) the equation of the straight line MN,
d) the x-intercept of the straight line MN

[ 5 marks ]

8. SPM 2008( June)


In Diagram 5, PQRS is parallelogram and O is the origin . It is given that the equation of the
straight line PQ is 2y = x + 18.

y
Q
P

R( 7, 2)
O

Diagram 5
Find
(a)
(b)

the equation of a straight line RS,


the x-intercept of the straight line RS.
[ 5 marks ]

The Straight Line

9. SPM 2008( Nov)


Diagram 6 show a trapezium PQRS drawn on a Cartesian plane. SR is parallel to PQ .

S (8 , 9)

P (3 , 5)

Q(11,1)
O

Diagram 6
Find
(a)
(b)

the equation of a straight line SR


the y-intercept of the straight line SR
[ 5 marks ]

The Straight Line

ANSWERS
Gradient
Exercise
1)
1

5
2

6)

2)

1
3

3)

7)

8)

4)

9)

1
3

5)

3
2

10)

Intercept
x-intercept
1.

x = -2

7.

x= 9

2.

x=

8.

2.

5
2

5
4

4.

x=

5.

1
3

x=2

3.

x=

x = 10

9.

x = -20

10. x = -27

11.

y = -7

3.
9.

y = -9
y = -7

4
10.

5.

y = -6

11.

y=

x = -12

6.
12.

x=

5
2
2
3

y-intercept
1.
7.

y=8
y = -10

y=6
y = -6

6.

y=7

2
3

Equation of a straight line given the point and gradient


Exercise
1. y = -2x + 17

6. y =

2
18
x5
5

2. y = 5x +12

7. y = -

4
x+2
5

3. y = -2x + 1

8. y =

1
x3
2

2
x3
3
4
9. y = x - 1
3
4. y =

5. y = -

5.

3
x -19
4

The equation of a straight line passing through


two points
1.

y=x1

6.

y = 3x 5

The Straight Line

2.

y=

1
9
x+
4
4

3.

3y = x + 5

4.

y = -2x 1

7.

y = 6x + 11

8.

y = -4x + 6

9.

y = 12x + 1

2y = -5x + 1

Equation of a straight line through parallel lines


Exercise
1.

y = 2 x 3

2.

y = 5x + 6

3. y = 2x + 11

4.

y=x3

5.

y = -3x +11

6.
11.

y = 2x -2
2y = x + 5

7.

y = -2x 3

8. y = 3x + 6

9.

y = 3x 12

10.

y = -2x + 3

SPM Format Question


1.

(i) -

1
3

(ii)

x = 18

2.

(i)

3
5

(ii)

y=

3.

(i)

4
3

(ii)

y = 8x 48

4.

(i) -6

(ii)

y=

5.

(i) Q = (4,0)

(ii)

2y = -3x - 9

6.

(i) x = 2

(ii)

( 4,0 )

7.

(a) p = 7

8.

(a)

The Straight Line

1
2

3
x+1
5

(iii) x = -

5
3

3
x6
2

(iii) y = -2x + 2

(b) y = 2x 7
(b)

2y = x + 2

(c)

(-2,0)

Past Years SPM Questions


1. SPM 2003 Q5
(a) x =

5
2

2. SPM 2004 Q6
(a) y = 3x 15
3. SPM 2005 Q5
(a) y = 7

(b) y-intercept =9

(b) y-intercept =20

(b) 2y = -x - 8
x=8

4. SPM 2006 ( June) Q7


(a) y = -2x -3

(b) x = -

3
2

5. SPM 2006 ( Nov) Q10


(a) y = -2x + 11

(b) x intercept =

11
2

6. SPM 2007 ( June) Q7


(a)

y=

3
x3
4

(b) x-intercept = 4

7. SPM 2007 ( Nov) Q5


(a) y = -2x + 1

(b) x intercept =

1
2

8. SPM 2008 ( June) Q7


(a)

y=

1
3
x
2
2

(b) x-intercept = 3

9. SPM 2008 ( Nov) Q5


(a)

The Straight Line

1
y = + 13
2

(b) y intercept = 13