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# CHAPTER1

Hans Oersted

James Maxwell
Andre Ampere
Kamerlingh Onnes
Coulumbs 1st Law
Coulumbs 2nd Law
Childs Law
Wiedmann-Franz Law
Curies Law
Curie-Weiss Law
Ewings theory of
Ferromagnetism
Amperes Theorem

## Right hand rule

End Rule
Helix Rule
Unit Pole
Magnetic Pole
Magnetic Axis
Dia
Para

Relationship of magnetism and electricity that served as the foundation of theory for
electromagnets
Most important electrical effect is the magnetic effect
Theory of electromagnetic induction
Current Carrying conductor would move when placed in a magnetic field
Electromagnetic Theory of light
Demonstrated that there are magnetic effects around every current carrying conductor and
that these conductors act like a magnet
Superconductivity
Whenever a conductor cuts a magnetic flux, an emf is induced in it
The magnitude of induced emf is directly proportional to the rate of change of flux linkages
Whenever the flux linking a coil or current changes, an emf is induced in it
Force between 2 magnetic poles is directly proportional to their strengths
Force between 2 magnetic poles id inversely proportional to the distance between them
Current in a thermionic diode varies directly with the three halves power of anode voltage
and inversely with the square of distance between the electrodes
Ratio of the thermal conductivity to the electric conductivity is directly proportional to the
absolute temp for all metals
The magnetic susceptibilities of most paramagnetic materials are inversely proportional to
their absolute temperatures
Law relating the M and E susceptibilities and the absolute temperature
Theory of ferromagnetic phenomena which assumes each atom is a permanent magnet
which can turn freely about its center under the influence of applied fields and magnets
States that a current flowing in a circuit produces a magnetic field at external points
equivalent to that due to a magnetic shell whose bounding edge is the conductor and
whose strength is equal to the strength of current
Also called corkscrew rule
If looking at any one end of a solenoid, the direction of current is found to be clockwise
then the end under observation is a south pole
If a solenoid is held by the right hand with the fingers pointing to the direction of the
current flow, the outstretched thumb will point to the north pole
A pole which when placed in air from a similar and equal pole repels it with a force of 1/4pi
newtons
Point in a magnet where the intensity of the magnetic lines of force is max
Straight Line passing through 2 poles of a magnet
Ur<1 U<Uo ; air, H, bismuth, gold, antimony, copper, zinc, mercury, silver
Ur>1 U>Uo ; aluminum, platinum, manganese, chromium, oxygen

Domain
Toroid
Hall effect

Greatest % of materials
Ur>>1 U>>Uo ; cobalt
Diameter of atom
Diameter of atomic nucleus
Diameter of Hydrogen Atom
Reciprocal of Reluctance / Analogous to conductance
Amount of magnetizing force to counter balance the residual magnetism
Ratio of flux in iron to flux in air (iba iba yung tawag sa book at sa coaching)
The flux density produced in it due to its own magnetism
Lag between B and H
Non metallic materials that have ferromagnetic properties
Air space between magnets
Used to maintain the strength of magnetic field
Where all magnetic field originates from
Magnetic field does not interact with this
Magnetic field inside a solenoid
Resembles the magnetic field of a bar magnet
A current is flowing east along a power line. If the earths field is neglected, the direction
of the magnet below it is
When a wire loop is rotated in a magnetic field, the direction of the induced emf changes
every
Group of magnetically aligned atoms
Electromagnet with its core is in the form of a close magnetic ring
Small voltages generated by a conductor with current in an external magnetic field

Edison effect

## Effect which is generally used in the gaussmeter to measure flux density

Emission of e- from hot bodies

Ferro
10^-10 m
10^-15 to 10^-16 m
1.1 x 10^-8 cm
Permeance
Coercivity
Leakage Factor
Intensity Magnetism
Hysteresis
Ferrites
Air Gap
Keeper
Moving electrical charge
Stationary Electrical Charges
Uniform
Current Carrying Wire Loop
North
revolution

Wiegand effect
Wall Effect
Bridgman effect
Hydrogen
Germanium
Atomic Mass
Atomic Number
72.6
28.09
# of protons
Copper
Metallic bonding
Motor Action
Electron Volt (eV)
Joule, Watt-sec, KW-h
KW-h
Ion
Thermionic emission
Amber
Plasma
Exclusion Principle
Pauli Exclusion Principle
Ohms Law
Crystalline Solid
Amorphous
Permits mechanical
Clearance
Van der Waals Bond
Atomic Packing Factor
Creepage
Aurora
1.15 to 1.25
Astrionic
Air
Soft iron
Using material with narrow
hysteresis loop
Silicon steel
Unlimited
Ohm-m
Siemens / Mhos
Siemens/m
Resistivity Temperature
2 Wb/m^2
insulators

semiconductors
conductors

## Temp coefficient resistance

+ temp coef
- temp coef
.0034
.0038
.0039
Almost 0
Silicon Carbibe
10x
Neutral
Dielectric constant or

## Ability of a mechanically stressed ferromagnetic wire to recognize rapid switching of

magnetization when subjected by a dc magnetic field
Contribution to the ionization in an ionization chamber by e- from the walls
Phenomenon when current passes through an aristropic crystal, there is an absorption of
heat due to the non uniformity in current distribution
Simples atom to exist; it is a diamagnetic material
32p+, 32e- and 40n = 72Ge32 = (AtomicWeightGeAtomicnumber)
Sum of proton and neutrons (di ko sure pero eto nakalagay e)
# of protons or # of electrons
Ge exact atomic weight
Si exact atomic weight at 300K
Determines the atomic # of an element
34n
Atom bonding due to the force of attraction between groups of + ion and ion
Physical motion resulting from the forces of magnetic field
= flux x # of turns
Customary energy unit in atomic and nuclear physics
Units of electrical energy
Practical unit for electrical energy
An atom or group of atoms carrying a net electrical charge
Evaporation of e- from a heated surface
Greek word for electron
Charged Gases
Principle that states that each e- in an atom must have a different set of quantum
numbers
Principle that states that only 2 e- with differebt spins are allowed to exist in a given orbit
Common application if an air-cored choke
For linear circuits (AC,DC)
One of the solid structures in which the position of the atoms or ins are predetermined
Solid with no defined crystal structure; also called non-crystalline
Reason for air gaps between rotor and stator
Formed when there exist distant electronic interaction between opposite charges present in
the neighboring atoms or molecules
Measures compactness of crystal = atom volume/cell volume
Corrects the electrostatic forces of the more distant ions in an ionic solid
Conduction of electricity across the surface of a a dielectric
Corona discharge
Leakage coef for electrical machines
Science of adapting electronics to aerospace flight
Has straight BH curve passing through the origin
BH curve not straight
Reduces hysteresis loss
Least hysteresis loop area
# of compounds in nature
SI unit for specific resistance
SI / CGS for conductance
SI for conductivity
For Conductors
Typical saturation flux density for most magnetic materials
Temp coefficient of resistance is NEGATIVE;
Temp coefficient of resistance is directly proportional to T;
R is inversely proportional to T
Temp coefficient resistance is NEGATIVE
Temp coefficient resistance is POSITIVE;
Temp coefficient of resistance is inversely proportional to T;
R is directly proportional to T
Dependent on nature and temp of material
Tells how much the R changes for a change in T
Manganin, Tungsten Filament
Electrolytes, carbon
Temp coef of resistance of pure gold
Temp coef of resistance of silver
Temp coef of resistance of lead
Eurekas Temp coefficient resistance
Ohms law cannot be applied to this material
Hot R = ___x Cold R
A body under ordinary conditions
Another name for relative permitivitty

## Specific Inductive Capacity

Breakdown Volatage
Magnetic conductivity
1/(oo) = c2
1 and 10
Mica
Porcelain
Earphones
Motors

## Another name fore Dielectric Strength (V/mil)

Another name for permeability
Relationship of Eo and Uo and c (light velocity)
Dielectric constant of most materials
Insulating material used in an electric ion
Insulating material used in voltage transformers
Uses permanent magnets
Uses temporary magnets

CHAPTER2
+ to - to +
W
VAR
VA
Power factor
Reactive factor
Voltage Magnification Factor
Current Magnification Factor
Voltage Resonance
Current Resonance
Ionization Current
ELI
ICE
ELI by exactly 90 deg
ICE by exactly 90 deg
ELI by less than 90 deg
ICE by less than 90 deg
Reactance = 0
0.707
Gang Capacitor
Trimmer Capacitor
55 ohm-cm
60 ohm-cm
55 ohm-cm
Lagging pf
Separation of the half power
points
Effective Value
Stray Capacitance
1.73
Triangular Wave
Independent to each other
Appliances have different
current ratings
Sinusoidal
Square wave
Ideal Current Source
(parallel r)
Ideal Voltage Source
(series r)
Ideal Ammeter
(in series to the circuit)
Ideal Voltmeter
(in // to the circuit)
Resonance Curve
Reactance Chart
Edge Effect
The narrower the passband
Internal Heating
Phase
3.7K
It has a varying magnetic

Conventional Flow
Electron Flow
P true power
Q reactive power
S apparent power
Cos = P/S
Sin = Q/S
Q Factor of Series resonant circuit
Q factor of // Resonant Circuit
Series Resonance
Parallel Resonace
Results from free electrons
Series Resonace / Acceptor Circuit
Parallel Resonance / Rejector Circuit
Pure inductance
Pure capacitance
RL
RC
If I and V are in phase for an AC circuit
Current is ____ times the max current at half power points of a resonance curve
Variable Capacitor which the C is varied by varying the plate area
A variable capacitor in which C is varied by changing distance between plates
Specific resistance of pure Ge
Resistivity of pure Ge under standard conditions
Specific resistance of pure Si
Power factor of series RLC at its half power points
Meaning of BW in series RLC
Most important value of a sinewave
An intermittent and non symmetrical alternating current like that obtained from the
secondary winding of an induction coil
Capacitance that exists not through design but because 2 conducting surfaces are
relatively close to each other
Peak factor of a triangular wave
Peakiest waveform
Reason for // connection of appliances in homes
Reason why not in series connection of appliances in homes
Most popular waveform
Most common non sinusoidal waveform
Infinite internal resistance
Zero internal conductance
Zero internal Resistance
Infinite internal conductance
R is 0
R is infinite
Frequency VS Current
Estimates the resonant freq and to find the reactance at any freq for any value of C or I
Refers to the outward curving distortion of the lines of force near the edges of 2 // metal
plates that form a capacitor
(For Series RLC), the higher the Q
Leakage resistance in a capacitor results to
The_____ of an alternating quantity is defined as the fractional part of a period or cycle
through w/c the quantity has advanced from a selected origin
Metal tin becomes a superconductor at this temp
Reason why AC can induce voltage

field
Exponential Law
Sinewaves
Joule
Breakdown Voltage
Blocks DC current
47 ohms
Electrolytic capacitor

Variable Capacitor
Barium Strontium Titanite
Dielectric
Surge Voltage
Voltage
It has reactance in radio freq
circuits
Manganin
Temp coef
Rate at which electrons pas
a given point
Q of 10
770V
Anticapacitance Switch
Bifilar Resistor
Alloy
Vpeak
Vrms
Maximum capacitance
Thevenins Theorem
Phasor

## Charging of capacitor through a resistance obeys _______

The factor 0.707 for converting peak to rms applies only to _____
Term to express the amount of electrical energy stored in a electrostatic field
Refers to the lowest voltage across any insulator that can cause current flow
Capacitor
Preferred value of resistor (among the choices which are 520, 43K and 54K)
Most suited for dc filter circuits;
Highest cost per uF;
Only Capacitor used in DC circuits;
Used in Transistor amplifiers
Used air dielectric
Also called ceramic
Max voltage that can be applied across a capacitor for a short period of time
It is used as the reference phasor for // AC circuits
Most common material for wirewound
Indicated by the first band for a 5band method of capacitor color coding
Determines the magnitude of an electric current
Means that the energy stored in the magnetic field of the coil is 10x the energy wasted in
the resistance
Neon lamp ionizes at approx _____
Switch designed to have low capacitance between terminals when open
Resister wound with a wire doubled back on itself to reduce inductance
Fusion of elements without chemical action between them
Used in calculating max instantaneous power
Used in calculating Vave
Happened when movable plates of gang capacitor overlaps the fixed plates
Used for analysis of Vacuum tubes
Rotating vector whose projection can represent either current or voltage

CHAPTER3
1
8 e32 p+
More slowly
Intrinsic semiconductor
Extrinsic semiconductor
2mV/C
Piecewise Linear Model
Diffusion and drift
Diffusion
Drift Current
Carrier Drift
Zener and Avalance Effects
Zener Breakdown
Avalanche Breakdown

Avalance effect
Diffusion or Storage
Capacitance
Recombination
Transit time
Reverse recovery time

Insulator
Compound Semicon
Increase electric
conductivity
Ptype semicon

## # of e- in 4th orbit of copper atom

Each atom in a Si Crystal has _____ in its valence orbit
Silicon Atom has ____
e- in the largest orbit travel _______ than the e- in smaller orbits
Pure Semiconductor
Doped semiconductor;
2 Ohm-cm = resistivity
For Ge or Si diodes, the barrier potential decreases _____
A diode modeling circuit which considers the threshold voltage, Rave and switch as the
diodes equivalent
2 mechanisms by which holes and electrons move through a Si crystal
Random motion due to thermal agitation in the movement of h+ and e- in a Si crystal
Happens when charges are forced to move the electric field of a potential difference
Mechanism for carrier motion in semicon
Two possible breakdown mechanism in PN jxn diodes
Electric field in the depletion layer increases to the point where it can break covalent bonds
and generate electron-hole pairs
(In semiconductors) this takes place when the reverse bias exceeds a certain value;
Happens when the minority carriers that cross the depletion region under the influence of
the electric field gain sufficient KE to be able to break covalent bonds in atoms
Occurs are higher reverse voltages
Is the forward bias capacitance of a diode
Amount of time between the creation and disappearance of a free electron
Annihilation of e- and h+;
Merging of e- and h+
Time taken by e- or h+ to pass from emitter to collector
Time taken by a diode to operate in the reverse to forward condition;
Time it takes to turn off a FB diode;
= storage time + transition interval from F to R bias
At room temp, silicon acts like a ______
Gallium Arsenide, Alluminum Arsenide and Gallium Phosphide are classified as ______Purpose of adding impurities
Silicon doped with trivalent impurity;

Ntype semicon
Trivalent Atom
Pentavalent Atom
N type
P Type
PN crystal

Dipole
Barrier Potential
High field emission
Intensity of electric field
Forward current
Reverse Breakdown Voltage
Esaki Diode

Schotty Diode
Shocklet Diode
Bulk resistance
VAristors
Varactor Diode
Point Contact diode
PIN diode
Bulk resistance decreases in
semiconductors
High Resistance
Less than 1 ohm
Transition region capacitance
LED

IR emitters
Optocoupler
Second approximation
Third approximation
Negative voltage supplies
16.7 ms
8.33 ms
40.6%
81.2
MOSFET
FET
uA
Ohms
Derating Factor
Dember Effect
Bulk Effect

## Holes are majority carriers

Silicon doped with pentavalent impurity;
Electrons are majority carriers
Acceptor Atom;
Boron, Indium, Gallium,
Donor Atom;
Phosphorus, Arsenic, Antimony, Bimsuth
Forms when the # of free e- in a doped semiconductor is increased;
Forms when pentavalent atom is added
Forms when the # of free e- in a doped semiconductor is reduced
Forms when trivalent atom is added
Other name for Jxn Diode;
Commonly rated by its PIV and max forward current;
Max forward current is limited by Jxn Temperature
Each pair of + and ions at the jxn is called _____
Inversely proportional to temp
Creation of free electrons through a zener effect
Zener effect depends on this
Most impt diode parameter which gives the current value a diode can handle without
burning
Maximum reverse voltage that can be applied before current surges
Tunnel Diode;
Principal char is that it has negative resistance region;
Widely used in oscillators, switching networks and pulse generators
Most impt application is digital computers
No depletion layer
Sum of the P and N regions resistances;
rB = (V-VT)/I
Are transient suppressors
Also known as epicap, varicap, voltage-variable capacitance, voltacaps;
Used for tuning the Receivers and is normally operated at reverse biased
Used metal cat whiskers as its anode;
Classified as hot carrier diode
Used in RF switches, attenuators and other phase switching devices
If doping increases, ___________
Lightly doped semiconductors have ____
Typical bulk resistance of rectifier diodes
The reverse bias diode capacitance is termed as ______
Equivalent to a optocoupler ;
Typical operating current is 10mA;
Voltage drop is 1.5V;
Constructed using Gallium Arsenide;
Gives light when FB
A photodiode which conducts current only when FB and is exposed to light;
Also called photodiode
Solid state GaAs devices that emit a beam of radiant flux when FB
Also known as optoisolator
(for diodes) an equivalent ckt of a diode in which it is represented as a switch series with
barrier potential
(for diodes) an equivalent ckt of a diode in which it is represented as a switch in series
with a resitance
Needed for PMP voltage divider bias
Halfwave signal (1/60Hz)
Fullwave signal (1/120Hz)
Max rectification efficiency of HW
Max rectification efficiency of FW
Highest Zin;
Sometimes called Insulated Gate FET
Has least noise level;
Has higher Zin compared to BJT due to its input which is reverse biased
Typical leakage current in a PN jxn
Resistance of a FB PN jxn
Shown on a data sheet that tells how much you have to reduce the power of a device
Or Photodiffusion effect;
The creation of voltage in a conductor or semicon by illumination of one surface
Effect that occurs within the entire bilk of a semiconductor material rather than a localized
jxn

Skin Effect
Anotron Diode
BARITT Diode

Spacistor
Zener Diode
Voltage multiplier
Photoconductive Cell
Emitter Resistor
Silicon
% Ripple
Ripple Voltage
Holes

Isotopes
Series Capacitors
Emitter Follower Circuit

BJT / transistors
FET

Transistors
Power Transistors
Power amplifiers
Oscillators
Ohmic
IGFET
CMOS
Saturation region
Triode region and Saturation
Region
10uF
Qpoint / OperatingPoint
Luminous Efficacy
Scale Current
Input Char Curve
Output Char Curve
RC coupling
Transformer Coupling
1.12eV(Si) and 0.72eV(Ge)
0.135 m2/V-s
Harold Black
Always points to N and away
from P
CE circuit
Junction and Point Contact

## Increases the resistance of wires at high frequencies

A cold cathode glow-discharge diode having a copper anode and a large cathode of sodium
or other material
A microwave diode in which the carriers that transverse the drift region are generated by
minority carrier injection from a FB jxn instead of being extracted from the plasma of
avalanche
Multiple terminal solid state device similar to transistor that generates frequencies up to
avout 10,000 Mhz by injecting e- or h+ into a space charge layer
Principal char is that its voltage is constant under conditions of varying current;
Used as a voltage regulator or reference voltage
Converts AC to DC, where the DC output can be greater than the AC input
Or Photoresitive device
Most commonly used for biasing a bipolar jxn transistor
Not a good conductor;
Has the smallest leakage current
= (Vac / Vdc) x 100
= (rZ / (rZ+rS)) x V
As a general rule, _____ are found only on semiconductors;
An incomplete part of an electron pair bond;
Vacancy left by free electrons
A nuclei with common # of p+ but different # of neutrons
In power supplies, circuits that are employed in separating AC and DC components and
bypass AC components around the load are called _______
Av is low and usually less than 1;
Ai is High;
input is in-phase with output;
Employs 100% negative feedback;
Used for impedance matching;
Equivalent to CC amplifier
Current controlled device;
Largest region is the Collector Region
Voltage controlled device;
Has 5v pinch off voltage;
FET transcoductance = IC/VGS ;
Square Law Devices;
At cut-off, the depletion layers are touching
Converts DC power to AC power
Made in large sized to disspate more heat
Input is DC
Converts DC power to AC power
Equivalent if transistor at saturation in JFET is ______
Another name for MOSFET
Easily damaged by static charges
Used by FET (EMOSFET) to act as an amplifier
Used by FET (EMOSFET) to act as a switch
Coupling capacitor value in RC coupling;
Coupling capacitor (Cc) must be high enough to prevent attenuation of low freq
Point of intersection between a diode characteristic and a load line;
Intersection of dc and ac load lines
Measure of the ability of any LED to produce lumens per applied watt of energy
Another name is Saturation Current
A graphical representation in a transistor where the IE is plotted against the variable VEB for
constant VCB
A graphical representation in a transistor where the Ic is plotted against the variable VCB for
constant IE
Used in low level, low noise audio amplifiers to minimize hum pick up from stray magnetic
fields
Major advantage is permitting power to be transformed from the relatively high output
impedance of the first stage to the relatively low input impedance of second stage
From these conditions, it can be said that less # of electron-hole pair will be generated in
Si than in Ge
Electron mobility in silicon
Invented feedback amplifier in 1928
Arrows in semiconductor symbols
Conventional amplifier
Structural category of a semiconductor diodes

Threshold Voltage
DMOSFET
EMOSFET
Heat dissipation
Collector Efficiency
Drift transistor
Poor frequency response
Fission
Neutrino
EG => 5eV
EG = 1.1eV
EG => 0.67eV
Bound Electrons
25mV
8.62 x 10^-5 eV/K
Voltage divider Bias
VGS(OFF) = VGS(ON)
Beta
Alpha

Turns on an enhancement-device
Acts mostly as a FET;
Can operate in D and E
Can only operate in E
Most important factor of a power transistor
Most important consideration in power amplifiers
Has a high frequency cut off due to its low inherent internal capacitance and low electron
transit time
Results when transistors are used as video amplifiers
Break up of nuclei into nuclear fragments that are nuclei themselves
Zero charge and zero mass
Energy gap for insulators
Energy gap for Si semiconductors
Energy gap for Ge semiconductors
Tightly holds the 8 eThermal Voltage at room temp;
Thermal voltage causes holes in intrinsic semiconsuctors
Boltzman constant
Preferred form of biasing a FET
For N-channel EMOSFET
CE gain
= IC/IB
CB gain
= IC/IE

CHAPTER5
Collector has reverse bias
Gain-BW product
Logic probe
Logic analyzer
Oscillators
Biasing
AF transformer
Amplitude Distortion
Frequency
RC coupling

Transformer coupling

DC coupling

Klystron Oscillator
Step Down Transformer
Gives distorted output
Campbell and Wagner
10Khz
Coupling Capacitor
Bigger
At least 2 transistors
Generator Output level is kept
constant
Relaxation oscillator
GPS
1/( 4(LC) )
The smaller the %VR

## Reason why a transistor amplifier has high output impedance

Considered as an amplifier figure of merit
In an oscilloscope, it is used to indicate pulse condition in digital logic circuit
Used to sample and display systems signal
Produces undamped oscillations
Establishes a fixed level of current or voltage in a transistor
It is shielded to prevent induction due to stray magnetic fields
Or harmonic distortion
Ear is not sensitive to this
To separate bias of 1 stage to another stage;
Used for voltage amplification;
Av is constant over mid frequencies;
Most economic type of coupling;
Not used to amplify extremely low freq because electrical size of the coupling capacitor
becomes very large;
Type of coupling used in the initial stage of a multistage amplifier;
Used in power amplifiers;
Provides high freq because DC resistance is low;
Used when load resistance is very low;
Type of coupling used in the final stage of an amplifier;
Introduces frequency distortion;
Most expensive type of coupling;
Provides high gain because it employs impedance matching;
Can be used either in Voltage or Power amplifiers
Best freq response;
Used to amplify dc signals in multistage amplifier;
Achieves minimum interference in freq response
Used in order to produce freq in the microwave region
Used for impedance matching;
It is also used as the output transformer in power amplifiers
Where the basic concept of electric wave filter originated
Freq that produces highest noise factor
The input capacitor in an amplifier
Used by multistage amplifier
To obtain the frequency response curve of an amplifier
Type of oscillator where the frequency is determined by the charge and discharge of RC
networks used in conjunction with amplifiers or similar devices
Instrument used to measure ones location in terms of coordinates
Cutoff freq for constant-k high pass filter
The better!

Thin base
Darlington Pair
Independent
Feedback Networks
Positive Feedback
Negative Feedback

Feedback factor ()

## Approx gain of an amplifier

with negative feedback (Af)
(A) in negative feedback
Power Again (Ap)
Crossover network

Armstrong circuit
10uF
50uF
Re, re and
Out of phase (180 deg)
Zero
Increase Av
LC oscillator
RC Oscillator
Sine wave oscillator
Hartley Oscillator
Crystal Oscillator

Tuned Amplifier
Wien Bridge Oscillator

## Hum in the circuit

Low Output
High Q
More than 10,000
Push Pull amplifer
X axis

Y axis
+ temp coef
- temp coef
Zero temp coef
More battery consumption
Buffer Amplifier
Hand capacitance
Ic becomes maximum
Maximum voltage appears
across transistor
At minimum
Power stage
DC
Sum of AC and DC
CMRR = infinity
To set up an operating point

## Transistor should have a _____ to have more Av

Its advantage is that it increases overall Beta Gain
A feedback network is _______ of frequency
They employ resistive networks
Employed by Oscillators;
Employed by amplifiers
Reduces distortion;
Reduces gain;
Increases BW of an amplifier;
The sacrifice factor is (1+A)
Is always less than 1;
= (1/Af) (1/A)
= Vf / V
Reciprocal of feedback factor;
= 1/
Very much greater than 1 to obtain good gain stability
= Av x Ai;
Main consideration in the output stage of an amplifier
A pair of filter common on a high fidelity system which separates audio freq band
signals into 2 separate groups where one is fed to the tweeter and the other to the
woofer
Simplest variable freq sinusoidal oscillator
Typical value of Coupling capacitor
Typical value of emitter bypass capacitor in a CE multistage amplifier
Input R of CE amplifier is affected by ________
Output is always _______ with the input signal in a CE amplifier
Phase difference between collector voltage and signal voltage in CE amplifier
Purpose of emitter bypass capacitor in CE amplifier is to _____
Used only in/for high freq
Used only in/for low freq
Composed of 1 or more amplifying devices with some freq determining networks
introducing + feedback
Fixed frequency oscillator;
Has fewer loses and will generate alternating emf longer than LC circuit when shock
excited
Operated in Class C;
Frequency stability of the oscillator output is maximum ________;
Employs both + and feedback;
Used in signal generators in laboratories;
A pulsating DC applied to the power amplifier causes ______
Important limitation of Crystal Oscillator
Reason why crystal oscillator freq is very stable
Typical Q of a crystal
Commonly employed at the output stage of an amplifier
Cutting perpendicular to end to end;
Electrical axis;
Connects the corners of the crystal
Cutting perpendicular to face to face;
Mechanical
When crystal freq increases with temp
When crystal freq decreases with temp
When crystal freq doesnt change with temp
Low efficiency of a power amplifier results in ______
If you move towards an oscillating circuit, its freq changes because of the ______
When transistor is at saturation
When transistor is at cut-off
In an LC circuit, when the Capacitor energy is at max, the inductor energy is _____
The operating point in a transistor amplifier moves along ______ when AC signal is
applied
Also called output stage in an amplifier
At zero signal conditions, a transistor sees _____ load
The current in any branch of a transistor amplifier that is operating is the _____
For an ideal differential amplifier
The purpose of dc conditions in a transistor is _____

## To avoid drop in gain

Collector Supply
Low
25%
50%
RF amplifiers
Driver stage
1NPN, 1PNP transistor
Increases Input Impedance,
Decreases Output Impedance
Decreases Input Impedance,
Increases Output Impedance
ID
AND gate

## The purpose of an emitter capacitor is _____

The Poutput of a transistor amplifier is more than the Pinput due to the additional power
supplied by _______
When a transistor feeds a load of low R, its Av is _____
Max collector efficiency of Resistance Loaded Class A power amp
Max collector efficiency of Transformer coupled Class A power amp
Class C amplifiers are used as
Employs class A amplifiers
Complementary-symmetry amplifier
Negative voltage feedback
Negative Current Feedback
The Quiescent current of a FET amplifier is _____
The frequency response of the combined amplifier can be compared with an ______