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SUMMARY

SUMMARY ......................................................................................................... I
PREFACE......................................................................................................... III
1.
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8
1.9
1.10
1.11

2.
2.1
2.2
2.3

3.
3.1
3.2

4.
4.1
4.2

5.
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5

6.
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4
6.5

7.
7.1
7.2

TERMINOLOGY....................................................................................... 1
GENERAL TERMS........................................................................................................................................ 1
MECHANICAL DESIGN ................................................................................................................................ 2
SPANS ......................................................................................................................................................... 4
PROFILES .................................................................................................................................................... 6
CONDUCTOR ARRANGEMENTS ................................................................................................................... 7
SUPPORT STRUCTURE................................................................................................................................. 9
POLES - BRACKETS................................................................................................................................... 10
TOWERS ................................................................................................................................................... 10
BARE CONDUCTORS ................................................................................................................................. 13
CONDUCTOR FITTINGS ............................................................................................................................. 15
INSULATOR SETS - ACCESSORIES ............................................................................................................. 17

PARAMETERS IN OVERHEAD LINE TOWER DESIGN ............... 21


GEOMETRICAL PARAMETERS ................................................................................................................... 21
LOADING PARAMETERS ............................................................................................................................ 28
MATERIALS .............................................................................................................................................. 30

STATIC CALCULATION ...................................................................... 32


TOWER MODEL ........................................................................................................................................ 32
COMPUTER PROGRAM .............................................................................................................................. 32

TOWER DIMENSIONING..................................................................... 34
BAR DIMENSIONING ................................................................................................................................. 34
BOLT DETERMINATION ............................................................................................................................ 38

DETAILING AND FABRICATION ...................................................... 40


DRAWINGS ............................................................................................................................................... 40
CONNECTIONS .......................................................................................................................................... 40
MATERIAL ................................................................................................................................................ 40
SHOP OPERATIONS .................................................................................................................................... 40
MARKING ................................................................................................................................................. 40

TOWER PROTOTYPE ........................................................................... 42


PROTOTYPE DOCUMENTS ......................................................................................................................... 42
CHECKING OF MAIN DIMENSIONS ............................................................................................................. 42
CHECKING OF BARS .................................................................................................................................. 42
PLATES CHECKING ................................................................................................................................... 42
BOLTS CHECKING ..................................................................................................................................... 42

TOWER TESTING .................................................................................. 44


CHOICE OF LOADING CASES .................................................................................................................... 44
ELABORATION OF TOWER TESTING PROGRAM ........................................................................................ 44

-iRev. A

7.3
7.4

PROTOTYPE ERECTION CHECKING ........................................................................................................... 45


TESTING PROCEDURE ............................................................................................................................... 45

8.

BIBLIOGRAPHY .................................................................................... 46

9.

ANNEXES ................................................................................................. 47

ANNEX 1: TOWER COMPUTER PROGRAM MANUAL ........................................................................................... 47


ANNEX 2: AMERICAN STANDARD FOR DESIGN OF OVERHEAD LINE TOWERS ....................................................... 47
ANNEX 3: EUROPEAN STANDARD FOR THE STEELS USED IN DESIGN OF OVERHEAD LINE TOWERS ...................... 47
ANNEX 4: EUROPEAN RECOMMENDATION FOR DESIGN OF OVERHEAD LINE TOWERS .......................................... 47
ANNEX 5: AMERICAN RECOMMENDATION FOR DESIGN OF OVERHEAD LINE TOWERS .......................................... 47
ANNEX 6: INTERNATIONAL STANDARD FOR OVERHEAD LINE TOWER TESTING .................................................... 47
ANNEX 7: BARE OVERHEAD LINE CONDUCTOR CATALOGUE.............................................................................. 48
ANNEX 8: OVERHEAD LINE INSULATORS CATALOGUE ........................................................................................ 48
ANNEX 9: STRING HARDWARE CATALOGUE ......................................................................................................... 48

10. INDEX ....................................................................................................... 49

- ii Rev. A

PREFACE
DOMAIN OF UTILISATION
This Guide, prepared by Mr. Sasha DIMOV, B.Sc. Civil Engineering, is
presenting overhead line lattice towers design. This Guide does not
represent any standard or norm; it just gives the technical details to be
considered in overhead line design and in any case cannot be applied to any
other civil work design other then overhead line.
OBJECT
This Guide object is to establish tower design rules in order to satisfy
safe overhead line exploitation, people security, and minimal costs in
construction as well in maintenance of overhead line. All rules are to be in
accordance with national and international standards concerning the
overhead lines.
DIFFUSION
This Guide is distributed to the GPC design engineers, who are
mentioned in Contract between SNIG and GPC. All examples are numerated
and nominal. Any other copies have to be ordered from SNIG, mentioning
the names of dedicated persons.
PROPRIETY
This Guide is exclusive propriety of SNIG. All reproduction, complete
or partial, is forbidden without the authorisation in written form of SNIG
representatives.

- iii Rev. A

Terminology

1
1. Terminology
1.1
1.1.1

General Terms
(Electric) Line
A generic term for a set of conductors with insulation and accessories used for the
transmission or distribution of electrical energy.

1.1.2

Overhead Line
A line in which the conductors are supported above ground, generally by means of insulators
and appropriate supports.

1.1.3

AC Line
A line connected to an alternating current source of supply, or connecting two alternating
current networks.

1.1.4

Phase (of an AC Line)


Any conductor, or bundles of conductors, or terminals of a polyphase laser case system,
which is at a voltage in normal use.

1.1.5

Direct Current Line


A positive (negative) line conductor or terminal of a direct current system.

1.1.6

Positive (Negative) Pole


A positive (negative) line conductor or terminal of a direct current system.

1.1.7

Circuit
A conductor or system of conductors through which an electric current is intended to flow
e.g. a set of three conductors of a laser case transmission line connected to a three-phase
source of supply, or a set of two conductors connected to a single phase source of supply, or
to two phases of a three-phase source of supply, etc

1.1.8

Monopolar Line
A direct current line in which only one pole connects the load to the supply, the return path
being through earth.

-1Rev. A

Terminology

1
1.1.9

Bipolar Line
A direct current line in which, the two poles connect the load to the supply.

1.1.10 Transmission Line


A line used for electric power transmission. Normally restricted to overhead construction
and operated at high voltage.

1.1.11 Distribution Line


A line that delivers electric energy from transformation points on the transmission, or bulk
power, to the consumers.

1.1.12 (Overhead) Conductor


A wire or combination of wires not insulated from one another, suitable for carrying an
electric current. It may be bare or lightly insulated.

1.1.13 Conductor Vibration


Periodic motion of a conductor relative to a static position.

1.1.14 Aeolian Vibration


Periodic motion of a conductor predominantly in a vertical plane, or relatively high
frequency and small amplitude of the order of the conductor diameter induced by laminar
wind flow.

1.1.15 Sub-span Oscillation


Periodic motion of one (or more) sub-conductor(s) predominantly in a horizontal plane, of
intermediate frequency and amplitude of the order of the bundle spacing.

1.1.16 Conductor Galloping


Periodic motion of a conductor (or bundle) predominantly in a vertical plane of low
frequency and high amplitude (with a maximum value of twice the original sag.

1.2

Mechanical Design
(Note: In this section, the expression load, loading refer to mechanical forces applied to
a component of a line)

-2Rev. A

Terminology

1
1.2.1

Loading Assumptions
Set of loading conditions, resulting from national or particular statutory regulations (as well
as from a study of meteorological data) to be accepted for designing each element of an
overhead line.

1.2.2

Loading Case
Combination, or set, of loads applied to an element of an overhead line for a particular
loading assumption.

1.2.3

Working Load
The load derived from the specified loading assumption excluding factors of safety or
overload factors.

1.2.4

Normal Load
Loads resulting from the action of the wind or of gravity on wires, insulators and/or supports
(structures) under ice or no ice condition.

1.2.5

Exceptional Loads
The loads produced by the reasonable activities of construction and maintenance personnel,
and those resulting from the failure of some component of a line.

1.2.6

Legislative Load
The loads arbitrarily dictated by local or national regulating bodies.

1.2.7

Test Load
The load applied to an element or elements of an overhead line for testing purposes.

1.2.8

Rupture Load
That loading which causes failure to occur in any element.

1.2.9

Ultimate Design Load


The loading resulting from multiplying the working load by the factor of safety or overload
factor and which all elements should just sustain without failure, during the specified
duration.

-3Rev. A

Terminology

1
1.2.10 Vertical, Transverse, Longitudinal Loads

The three components, in a three-dimensional system of co-ordinates, of any load applied at


a given point of the support. The longitudinal load (parallel to the line axis) and the
transverse load (perpendicular to the line axis) are supposed to be in the horizontal plane.

1.2.11 Wind Load


Horizontal load resulting from the wind pressure applied to any element of the overhead line,
with or without ice loading.

1.2.12 Ice Loading


Additional mass resulting from ice accretion on any element of the overhead line.

1.2.13 Uniform Ice Loading


Ice load uniformly distributed over the length of each conductor (and earth-wire) and over
all the spans of a section of line.

1.2.14 Unequal Ice Loading


Ice load not uniformly distributed over the length of each conductor (and earth-wire) and
over all the spans of a section of line. This may be due to ice shedding or from non-uniform
accumulation, or from non-uniform detachment.

1.3
1.3.1

Spans
Span
The part of an overhead line between two adjacent point of support of a conductor.

1.3.2

Span Length (Horizontal Span Length)


The horizontal distance between two adjacent point of support of a conductor.

1.3.3

Level Span
A span in which the conductor support points are in the same horizontal plane.

1.3.4

Inclined Span
A span in which the conductor support points are not in the same horizontal plane.

-4Rev. A

Terminology

1
1.3.5

Difference in Levels
Vertical distance between the two horizontal plans, each containing the support points of a
span.

1.3.6

Wind Span
The distance between the points at mid-span on each side of a support.

1.3.7

Weight Span
The horizontal distance between the low points of a conductor (or bundle) on either side of a
support. In steeply sloping terrain, both low points may be on the same side of the support.

1.3.8

Span Depth
The vertical distance between two horizontal planes, one through the highest point of
support of the conductor in a span, and the other tangential to the lowest point of the
conductor curve. This lowest point may be imaginary.

1.3.9

Sag
The maximum vertical distance in a span of an overhead line between a conductor and the
straight line joining its points of support.

1.3.10 Section (Of an Overhead Line)


A part of an overhead line between two tension supports.

1.3.11 Equivalent Span Ruling Span (US)


A fictitious single span in which tension variations, due to load or temperature changes are
nearly the same as in the actual spans of a section.
Note: The approximate value of the equivalent (ruling) span is calculated from:

a
a

i
i

1.3.12 Catenary
Equation of the curve assumed by a perfectly flexible, in-extensible cord suspended at its
ends.

x
Y = cosh 1

In practice, the simple parabola formula is often used,

-5Rev. A

Terminology

1
Y=

x2

which represents the first two terms of the series expansion of the catenary.
NOTE: The catenary curve represents a cable with constant unit weight per unit of length of
curve, while the parabola represents a wire with a constant unit weight per horizontal unit of
length. Use of the parabola will indicate less sag as the wire becomes more steeply inclined
and may introduce significant errors in steeply inclined sections of cable.

1.3.13 Catenary Constant


The constant in the catenary and parabola equations geometrically represented by the radius
of curvature at the lowest point of the span.
It is given as the ratio between the horizontal tension in the conductor To and its unit weight
, which can take into account the ice or wind overloads.

1.4
1.4.1

To

Profiles
Longitudinal Profile
A representation of the ground contours in the vertical plane through the axis of the overhead
line.

1.4.2

Side Slope at X meters


A representation of the ground contour in the vertical planes located X meters from, and
parallel to the axis of the overhead line.

1.4.3

Transverse Profile (Section Profile)


Profile in a vertical plane perpendicular to the axis of the line.

1.4.4

Diagonal Leg Profiles


Representation of the ground contour in vertical planes containing diagonally opposite legs
of a tower.

1.4.5

Line Angle
The angular change in the direction of an overhead line at a support.

-6Rev. A

Terminology

1
1.5
1.5.1

Conductor arrangements
Conductor Configuration
The geometrical arrangement of the conductors in relation to the support.

1.5.2

Horizontal Configuration
A configuration in which all conductors on a support are in the same horizontal plane.

1.5.3

Semi-Horizontal Configuration
A variation of the horizontal configuration in which the centre phase is a slightly higher or
lower level than the lateral phases.

1.5.4

Triangular Configuration
A configuration in which the conductors of a circuit are located at the apexes of the triangle
whose base is not necessary horizontal.

1.5.5

Delta Configuration
A configuration in which the conductors of a circuit are located at the apexes of an isosceles
triangle whose base is not necessary horizontal.

1.5.6

Vertical Configuration
A configuration in which the conductors of a circuit are virtually located in the same vertical
plane.

1.5.7

Semi - Vertical Configuration


A variation of the vertical configuration in which the centre phase is horizontally offset.

1.5.8

Double Circuit Vertical Configuration


A configuration in which each of the two circuits, in vertical formation, is located on either
side of the support.

1.5.9

Double Circuit Semi - Vertical Configuration


A variation of the double circuit vertical configuration in which the centres phase is
horizontally offset.

-7Rev. A

Terminology

1
1.5.10 Transposition

A change of the relative positions of the phase conductors of an overhead line, carried out in
order to establish adequate electrical symmetry of the conductors one to another or with
respect to earth or with respect to neighbouring systems.

1.5.11 Transposition Interval


Length of the section of a line between two successive transpositions.

1.5.12 Ground Clearance (Clearance to Ground)


The minimum distance to be maintained at all times between a live conductor, or metal
fitting, and the ground.

1.5.13 Live Metal to Earth Clearance


(Clearance Live Metal to Grounded Parts)
The minimum distance to be maintained at all times between live conductors or live
components and any steelwork deemed to be at earth potential.

1.5.14 Clearance to Obstacles Working Clearance (US)


The minimum distance to be maintained at all times between a live conductor, or live metal
fitting, and any obstacle at ground potential, under or passing under or close to the line.

1.5.15 Phase Spacing


The distance between the axes of two adjacent line conductors, or between the centres of two
adjacent bundles of line conductors.

1.5.16 Angle of Protection Angle of Shade Shielding Angle


The angle between the vertical planes through the earth-wire and the plane through the earth
wire and the conductor to be protected against lightning.

1.5.17 Minimum Angle of Shade Minimum Shielding Angle


The angle within the line conductors must lie in order to obtain a desired magnitude of
protection against direct lightning strokes.

-8Rev. A

Terminology

1
1.6
1.6.1

Support Structure
Support (UK) Structure
A generic term for any device designed to carry, through insulators, a set of conductors of an
overhead line.

1.6.2

Straight Line Support Intermediate Support Tangent Support


Straight Line Structure Intermediate Structure Tangent
Structure
A support located on a straight-line portion of an overhead line route, where the conductors
are attached by suspension; pin or line post insulators.

1.6.3

Flying Angle Support Running Angle Support


Flying Angle Structure Running Angle Structure
A support used on small or medium angles of deviation of the route, the conductors being
attached by suspension type insulator sets.

1.6.4

Angle Support Angle Structure


Section Support Section Structure
Anchor Support Anchor Structure
Dead-end Support Dead-end Structure
A support to which the conductors (or bundles) are attached through tension insulator sets.
The loads due to the adjacent spans are applied independently to the attachment points.

1.6.5

Terminal Support Terminal Structure


A support situated at the end of a line and designed to terminate the line tension of
conductors on one side.

1.6.6

Transposition Support
A support specifically designed to permit the change of the relative position of the phases
along the route of a line.

1.6.7

Self-supporting Structure
A support having intrinsic stability.

1.6.8

Guyed Structure (US) Stayed Support (UK)


A support whose stability is ensured by guys (stays).

-9Rev. A

Terminology

1
1.6.9

Stay Guy
A separate member, usually in tension, used for ensuring the stability of stayed (guyed)
support.

1.7
1.7.1

Poles - Brackets
Pole
A vertical single member support in wood, concrete, steel etc , with one end buried in the
ground, either directly or by means of a separate base.

1.7.2

Portal Structure H Pole H Frame (US, CA)


A H shaped support comprising two spaced vertical main legs with a horizontal cross-arm
at the top.

1.7.3

Cross-arm Beam
The horizontal transverse member of a portal or H structure supporting the insulators and the
conductors.

1.7.4

Bracket
A small fitting attached to the outside of a building, or any support.

1.7.5

A Pole A Frame (US CA)


A double member support in which the tops of each member are shaped, keyed and bolted
together at the apex of the letter A and are joined by a common cross-block

1.8
1.8.1

Towers
Tower
A support which may be made of any material, comprising a body which is normally four
sided, with cross-arms.

1.8.2

Lattice Tower
A compound structure resulting from an assembly of small structural members.

1.8.3

Bracing System (UK) Lacing System (US CA)


Arrangement of the members in a lattice support.

- 10 Rev. A

Terminology

1
1.8.4

Single Warren Single Lacing (US CA)


See Figure 1.1.1

1.8.5

Double Warren Double Lacing (US CA)


See Figure 1.1.2

1.8.6

Triple Warren Triple Lacing (US CA)


See Figure 1.1.3

1.8.7

K Bracing (K Panel)
See Figure 1.1.4

1.8.8

Double Warren Redundant Support


Double Lacing Redundant Support (US CA)
See Figure 1.1.5

1.8.9

Top Hamper Super Structure


See Figure 1.2.1

1.8.10 Earth Wire Peak


See Figure 1.2.11

1.8.11 Beam Gantry Bridge Girder


See Figure 1.2.12

1.8.12 Cross-arm
See Figure 1.2.13

1.8.13 Fork K Frame


See Figure 1.2.14

1.8.14 Waist
See Figure 1.2.115

- 11 Rev. A

Terminology

1
1.8.15 Tower Body
The vertical structure of a tower.
See Figure 1.2.2

1.8.16 Plan Bracing - Diaphragm


See Figure 1.2.21

1.8.17 Main Bracing


See Figure 1.2.22

1.8.18 Redundant (Secondary) Bracing


See Figure 1.2.23

1.8.19 Main Leg


See Figure 1.2.24

1.8.20 Leg Slope


See Figure 1.2.25

1.8.21 Node Panel Point


See Figure 1.2.26

1.8.22 Anti-Climbing Guard Device


A device installed on, or attached to, a support, structure, tower, guy, etc to make climbing
difficult by unauthorised persons.
See Figure 1.2.30

1.8.23 Foot (Footing)


See Figure 1.2.30

1.8.24 Hill Side Extension Leg Extension


Portion at base of tower constructed with equal or different standard lengths used for
variations in tower heights or on hillsides.

- 12 Rev. A

Terminology

1
1.9
1.9.1

Bare conductors
Conductor (of a Line)
That portion of an electric line, which has the specific function of conveying current.

1.9.2

Solid Conductor
A conductor consisting of a single wire.

1.9.3

Wire, Strand
One of the individual wires used in manufacture of a stranded conductor.

1.9.4

Stranded Conductor
A conductor consisting of a number of individual un-insulated wires laid up together in the
alternating left and right helical formation.

1.9.5

Layer
In a stranded conductor, that group of wires, arranged to form a cylinder of constant radius,
with the same axis as the conductor and having the same direction and length of lay.

1.9.6

Length Of Lay
The axial length of one complete turn of the helix of a wire in a stranded conductor.

1.9.7

Lay Ratio
The ratio of the length of lay to the mean diameter of the helix.

1.9.8

Direction Of Lay
Direction of rotation of the helix formed by a wire of a stranded conductor. With right-hand
lay the wires conform to the direction of the central part of the letter Z when the conductor is
held vertically. With left-hand lay, the wires conform to the direction of the central part of
the letter S when the conductor is held vertically.

1.9.9

Smooth Body Conductor; Segmented or Locked Coil Conductor


A conductor with a relatively smooth surface obtained by using, for the outer layer, wires
whose shape is that of a radial section of an annulus (segmental), of whose shape prevents
them from having any radial movement (locked coil).

- 13 Rev. A

Terminology

1
1.9.10 Hollow Conductor

A tubular conductor made up of wires or segments stranded sometimes around a helical


arrangement of reinforcing wires.

1.9.11 Expanded Conductor


A conductor where some of the internal wires have been omitted, or replaced by nonmetallic, lighter wires to obtain an artificial increase in diameter.

1.9.12 All Aluminium Conductor AAC


All Aluminum Conductor (US) AAC
All Aluminium Alloy Conductor AAAC
All Aluminum Alloy Conductor (US) AAAC
A conductor where, all wires are made of aluminium, or aluminium alloy.

1.9.13 Aluminium Conductor Steel reinforced (A.C.S.R.)


Aluminum Conductor Steel reinforced (US) (A.C.S.R.)
Aluminium Alloy Conductor (A.A.C.S.R.)
Aluminum Alloy Conductor (US) (A.A.C.S.R.)
Bimetallic conductor in whom the aluminium or aluminium alloy wires are stranded around
an inner core of steel wires, with successive layers of opposite lay.

1.9.14 Aluminium Conductor Steel Reinforced With Alumoweld Core


(ACSR/AW)
Aluminum Conductor Steel Reinforced With Alumoweld Core
(US) (ACSR/AW)
An ACSR conductor as in 1.9.13 with the steel core wires replaced with bimetallic
aluminium sheathed steel wire (Alumoweld).

1.9.15 Aluminium Conductor Alloy Reinforced (ACAR) or


Alumoweld/Aluminium Conductor
Aluminum Conductor Alloy Reinforced (ACAR) or
Alumoweld/Aluminum Conductor (US)
An aluminium conductor with a portion of the aluminium strands replaced by aluminium
alloy or alumoweld strands in a configuration within the conventional stranding
arrangement.

- 14 Rev. A

Terminology

1
1.9.16 Core (Of A Bimetallic Conductor)

The inner steel, or aluminium alloy or Alumoweld wires of a bimetallic conductor. The
proportion of strength contributed by the core may be greater or smaller than contributed by
the conducting outer aluminium alloy layers.

1.9.17 Single Conductor


Each phase or pole consists of a single conductor.

1.9.18 Bundle Conductor/Sub-Conductor


Each phase consists of two or more single conductors connected in parallel, spaced one from
the other, and supported by common suspensor insulator sets. The individual conductors in
the bundle constitute sub-conductors.

1.9.19 Twin, Triple, Quad Bundle etc - (Two, Three, Four etc
Conductor Bundle (US)
A phase conductor consisting of two, three, four or more sub-conductors installed in parallel.

1.9.20 Earth-wire, Earth Conductor, Shield Wire, Overhead Groundwire


A conductor connected to earth at intervals, which is suspended usually above but not
necessarily over the line conductor to provide a degree of protection against lightning
discharges.

1.9.21 Jumper
A short length of conductor, not under mechanical tension, making an electrical connection
between two separate sections of line.

1.9.22 Counterpoise
A conductor, or system of conductors, arranged beneath the line, located on, above or most
frequently below the surface of the earth, and connected to the footings of the towers of
poles supporting the line.

1.10

Conductor fittings

1.10.1 Spacer; Spacer Damper


A device which keeps apart the sub-conductors of a bundle at a pre-determinate distance

- 15 Rev. A

Terminology

1
1.10.2 Mid-Span tension joint

A joint inserted between two lengths of a conductor, designed to carry the full current and to
withstand 90% of the breaking load of the conductor

1.10.3 Dead-end Tension Joint


A joint inserted at the end of a conductor for attachment to an insulator tension set, designed
to carry the full current and to withstand 90% of the breaking load of the conductor.

1.10.4 Jumper Lug, Jumper Terminal


The component of a joint which permits an electrical continuity with another joint or
conductor.

1.10.5 Repair Sleeve


A special fitting which can be installed over a damaged conductor in order to restore its
electrical and mechanical properties.

1.10.6 Clamp
A term used to define any fitting which can be fixed on (to) a conductor.

1.10.7 Suspension Clamp


A fitting, which attaches a conductor to a suspension insulator set.

1.10.8 Tension Clamp; Dead-end Clamp


A clamp which attaches a conductor to a tension insulator set or to a support, and designed
to withstand the full tension of the conductor.

1.10.9 Pivot Type Suspension Clamp


A suspension clamp designed so that it can oscillate around a horizontal axis normal to the
conductor and normally on its centre line.

1.10.10 Body (Of a Suspension Clamp)


That part of the suspension clamp which supports the conductor.

1.10.11 Suspension Straps (Of a Suspension Clamp)


That part of a suspension clamp which supports the body of the fitting.

- 16 Rev. A

Terminology

1
1.10.12 Trunnion (Of a Pivot Type Suspension Clamp)

The circular projection from the body of the clamp, which acts as an axis of rotation within
the straps, permitting some oscillation of the clamp.

1.10.13 Hold Down Weights Counterweight (US)


A mass attached to a suspension clamp (assembly) utilised to reduce or eliminate uplift, to
provide positive loading to insulator sets to prevent turning-over, or to reduce the angle of
swing of suspension insulator sets during high transverse winds.

1.10.14 Vibration Damper


In an overhead line, a device attached to a conductor in order to suppress or minimise
vibrations due to wind.

1.10.15 Night Warning Light (For Conductor)


Device, which becomes luminous generally by capacitive induction from a live conductor to
which is attached. Used as a night warning device.

1.10.16 Aircraft Warning Marker (For Cables)


A warning device visible during the day, used on conductors or earth wires.

1.10.17 Armour Rods Armor Rods (US)


A set of protective metal rods wound helically around a conductor at the suspension point
and placed prior to the installation of the suspension clamp.

1.10.18 Patch Rods


A set of metal rods, similar to armour rods, wound helically around a conductor over
damaged areas to restore the electrical properties of the conductor.

1.11

Insulator Sets - Accessories

1.11.1 Insulator Set (UK) Insulator Assembly (US)


An assembly of one or more string insulator units, suitably connected together, complete
with metal fittings, for flexible mechanical attachment of an overhead conductor to a support
while insulating it electrically.

1.11.2

Insulator String
A chain of several insulator units in series flexibly connected together.

- 17 Rev. A

Terminology

1
1.11.3 Suspension Set (UK) Suspension Assembly (US)

An insulator set complete with all fittings and accessories to support one or more conductors
at his lower end.

1.11.4 Tension Set (UK) Tension Assembly (US)


An insulator set complete with all fittings and accessories to withstand the tensile load of one
or more conductors.

1.11.5 U Bolt
A fitting in the form of a U attached to a support.

1.11.6 Dropper (UK) Swinging Bracket (US)


A fitting that lowers the upper attachment point of a suspension insulator set.

1.11.7 Tower Swivel Clevis


A fitting free to rotate rounds an axis and attached to the steelwork of a support.

1.11.8 Yoke Plate


A special fitting for the attachment of several insulator strings or other parallel elements, to a
single point.

1.11.9 Insulator Protective Fittings


Metal accessories, installed at one or both extremities of an insulator set to drive the
flashover arc away from the insulator set and provide a better voltage distribution along the
insulator string.

1.11.10 Arcing Horn


A protective fitting in the shape of a horn.

1.11.11 Arcing Ring


A protective fitting in the shape of a ring.

- 18 Rev. A

Terminology

Figure 1.1. 1-5 - BRACING SYSTEM

- 19 Rev. A

Terminology

1
Figure 1.2. 1-35 - LATTICE TOWERS

11
12
13

14

15

22

21

23
24

25
26

27

30

31

- 20 Rev. A

Parameters in Overhead Line Tower Design

2
2

2. Parameters in Overhead Line Tower Design


In the design of new overhead line towers, we are obliged to follow the
technical specification for the specific overhead line. In our approach, we
will base our design on the GECOL TECNICAL SPECIFICATION and
ANSI/ASCE 10-90 standard. Of course, in the case that some solutions,
specified in other international standards are more appropriate we will
incorporate them in our design approach.
2.1

Geometrical parameters
The rules of overhead line design satisfying the geometrical conditions, are
imposed by three things:
Security of the people and the goods
Electrical conditions of the object insulating
Possibility of intervention on the objects in the exploitation conditions
All those conditions are elaborated by the client, in our case GECOL. Anyhow,
it is our duty to react in the case when we doubt in the technical specifications, and
ask the clarification of the suspected point.

2.1.1

Tower types
The determination of tower types to be designed is generally linked to the needs of a client,
which, in our case is GECOL. For one overhead line with one type of conductor, four or five
tower types are necessary. Those towers having the similar outline are making a family. In
common use is to give the names as A, B, C, D etc or ADT, BDT, CDT, DDT etc.
In GECOLs case, the tower names are fixed per internal codification. For example, the
tower types of one 220kV overhead double circuit line are:
1. TYPE 2BB02 -

This is the suspension tower designed for line deviation of 0 to 2

2. TYPE 2BB30 -

This is medium angled tower designed for line deviation of 2 to 30

3. TYPE 2BB60 -

This is the large angled tower designed for line deviation of 30 to 60

4. TYPE 2BB90 -

This is the dead-end (terminal) tower and maximum angle tower


designed for line deviation of 60 to 90

In this case, the first digit represents the number of sub-conductors per phase, the letters in
second and third position represent the nominal voltage and the last two digits represent the
maximum line angle for the tower.
If the choice of the tower type used in design were different than initially specified by
GECOL, then this choice has to be approved by GECOL or the other client (in the case of a
design for export).

- 21 Rev. A

Parameters in Overhead Line Tower Design

2
2

Some of tower types are presented in the following table and the family names will be the
object of discussion with GECOL.

- 22 Rev. A

Parameters in Overhead Line Tower Design

2
2

Geometrical
Characteristics

EDF
Designation

Triangular
configuration

Triangle

GECOL
Designation

Schema

To ask GECOL

Drapeau
Flag configuration

Double circuit flag


configuration

Sapin

To ask GECOL

S&B

Double circuit semivertical configuration

Tonneau

Nine cross-arms

Neuf consoles

No English equivalent

To ask GECOL

To ask GECOL

H&B

To ask GECOL

Danube

To ask GECOL

- 23 Rev. A

Parameters in Overhead Line Tower Design

2
2

Geometrical
Characteristics

Delta configuration

EDF
Designation

GECOL
Designation

Schema

Anjou
To ask GECOL

Double circuit vertical


configuration

Quadruple drapeau

Special configuration

Spcial

Semi_horizontal
configuration

Chat

To ask GECOL

To ask GECOL

To ask GECOL

C&B

- 24 Rev. A

Parameters in Overhead Line Tower Design

2
2

Geometrical
Characteristics

EDF
Designation

Horizontal
configuration

Nappe

Portal

GECOL
Designation

Schema

To ask GECOL

N&M

Nappe Trianon

To ask GECOL

N&M

- 25 Rev. A

Parameters in Overhead Line Tower Design

2
2

2.1.2

Clearance to Obstacles
The clearance to obstacles is important in the spotting of towers. It is imposed by GECOL
and for the maximum conductor sag at 75C without wind, the minimum clearances are:

Crossing-Over

30kV

66kV

220kV

Normal ground

7.0m

8.0m

9.0m

Power and T.T. lines

3.0m

3.0m

7.0m

Main roads

10.0m

12.0m

12.0m

Secondary roads

9.0m

10.0m

10.0m

Trees

2.5m

4.5m

4.5m

Shrubs

2.5m

4.0m

4.0m

Figure 2.1.2-1

The values for the column 66kV are marked to be subject of discussion with GECOL.
In the tower design, only the values for the Normal ground crossing-over are to be
considered. In the tower spotting, we have to respect all of them.

2.1.3

Tower height under cross-arm


In our personal engineering practice, we had sometimes problems with the client due to a
misunderstanding of the terms explained in this article. This is important for both, the client
and designer.
In the tower height determination, first at all, we have to make sag and tension calculation
for the overhead line conductor. In this calculation, using the equivalent span and respecting
the maximum allowable conductor tension, we obtain the maximum sag of the conductor Sc.
If an allowable soil clearance is Sd, and the isolator string length id Sl, the tower height
under cross-arm is for the suspension tower Hs=Sd+Sc+Sl and for the tension tower
Hs=Sd+Sc.
This height is generally called the zero height. Please pay attention; the zero height of tower
is composed of the tower head, basic body and the zero leg extensions.
During the tower spotting, we require the tower to be higher or less then the zero height. In
this case we use the terms6m, -3m etc or +3m, +6m, +9m etc. For the minus height, in
general, we have to modify the basic body to be adapted to desired height. To obtain the plus

- 26 Rev. A

Parameters in Overhead Line Tower Design

2
2

heights we use the basic body adding the body extensions. Therefore, for the +6 height we
have the basic body with a +6 body extension.
For the hilly areas, the terrain slope has a great impact on the design because we need
unequal leg extensions. In tower design, we have to consider this because of efforts in the
main member. Generally, the effort in the main member for the configuration of four zero
leg extensions, can be increased even a 10%. To avoid this, there are two possibilities. First
is, to calculate the worst combination of unequal legs. For a long time, this was the only
method. The second way is, to calculate the tower with a configuration of four zero leg
extensions, and then to verify, tower per tower, the mechanical characteristics for each. With
the new computers and the new programs, this is now possible.
The specification of the different tower heights is generally made by GECOL. If this is not
the case, all mentioned criteria have to be satisfied.

2.1.4

Live metal distances


The live metal distances between any metallic element of support and the pieces under
voltage (conductors, isolator string extremities, counterweights etc) to be respected in our
tower design are specified in GECOL Technical specification.
For the different swing of suspension string, the values are:

Live metal distances

Hypothesis

30 kV

66 kV

220 kV

0 swing of suspension string

?????

?????

?????

reduced swing of suspension string

?????

760mm (10)

1980m (20)

maximum swing of suspension


string

450mm (60)

650mm (30) 1500mm (60)

Figure 2.1.4-1

The values in this table have to be subject of serious discussion with GECOL, especially for
the unspecified distances.

2.1.5

Earth-wire shield angle


According to the GECOL Technical specification the earth-wire shield angles (see definition
1.5.16 Angle of Protection Angle of Shade Shielding Angle) are:
30kV double circuit overhead line
66kV double circuit overhead line
220kV double circuit overhead line

=>35
=>35
=>30.

We assumed that for the double circuit towers, only one earth-wire is demanded.

- 27 Rev. A

Parameters in Overhead Line Tower Design

2
2

For the horizontal conductor configurations, we need a clarification from GECOL,


concerning the shield angle, and the shield angle covering an internal conductor.

2.1.6

Horizontal and vertical conductor distances


Both, horizontal and vertical distances, are fixed by TECNICAL SPECIFICATION and their
values are:

Description

30 kV

66kV

220kV

Minimum horizontal
distance between phase
conductors

5000mm

5000mm

5000mm

Minimum vertical distance


between phase conductors

2000mm

2700mm

2700mm

Figure 2.1.6.1

Of course, in case of horizontal arrangement of conductors, the vertical distance between


them doesnt exist.
The conductor spacing between phases or phases and earth wire in the mid span shall be
regulated by following formula:

C [m] = 0.8
s

( Sag + L) +

E
150

where Sag represent the conductor sag at +75C expressed in meters,


L is length of string also in meters, but for V and tension-string is equal to zero,
E is nominal line voltage expressed in kV.

2.1.7

Special conditions
Any special condition, for the particular tower family, or specific overhead line, will be
discussed with GECOL whenever is the case.

2.2

Loading parameters
The tower resistance is represented by the ratio of ultimate efforts and working
loads, and is called a safety factor. The ultimate effort represents the effort causing
the tower irreversible deformation. The working loads are the loads that the tower is
submitted during his life.

2.2.1

Normal conditions
The normal (every day) loading cases are:

- 28 Rev. A

Parameters in Overhead Line Tower Design

2
2

Permanent loads
Wind and temperature loads (ice is not mentioned in GECOL technical specification and will
be not considered)
According to the load vector orientation, we can distinguish a vertical, transversal and
longitudinal effort.
Vertical efforts:
Weight of tower
Weight of insulator string
Weight span of conductor (earth wire) multiplied by specific weight of the conductor (earth
wire)
Transversal efforts:
Wind pressure on each conductor and earth wire
Wind pressure on each insulator string
Wind pressure on the flat surface of structural member
Transversal component of wire tension
Longitudinal efforts:
For the angle towers, unbalance conductor and earth wire tensions, due to unequal spans
For the dead end towers, conductor and earth wire tension on one side only. This is because
the other side of tower is not loaded at all.
The values for the wind pressure, coefficient for the structural member exposed area to the
wind, are specific for the different geographical area and the nominal line voltage.
Safety factor for the normal loading cases is 2.5

2.2.2

Exceptional conditions
Under exceptional conditions, we assume the broken wire cases.
The towers shell be designed for the following broken wire conditions:

2.2.2.1 SUSPENSION TOWER BROKEN WIRE CONDITION


Any one bundled phase conductor broken or earth wire broken whichever is more stringent
for a particular member of the tower. The tension due to broken conductor shall be
considered as 30% of maximum tension of all the phase conductors whereas the tension due
to broken earth wire shall be considered as 70% of the maximum tension.

- 29 Rev. A

Parameters in Overhead Line Tower Design

2
2

2.2.2.2 TENSION TOWER BROKEN WIRE CONDITION


Any of the phase conductors broken on the same side and on the same span or any one of the
phase conductor and earth wire broken on the same span whichever is more stringent. The
tension due to broken conductors or earth wire shall be full maximum tensions.

2.2.2.3 TERMINAL TOWER BROKEN WIRE CONDITION


Three phase conductors broken on the same side and on the same span (? To discuss with
GECOL same span expression because we have a terminal tower case) or any two of the
phase conductors and earth wire broken on the same span. In addition, they shall be
designed for six phase conductors on the same side unconnected. The tension due to broken
conductors shall be considered as the maximum tension
The vertical and transversal loads shall be computed on same pattern while considering 60%
of weight and wind spans as mentioned above in Normal conditions.
Safety factor for the broken wire loading cases is 1.5

2.2.3

Line erection and maintenance conditions


The line erection and maintenance conditions are not precisely determinated by GECOL and
will be discussed with them.
Safety factor for the line erection and maintenance conditions loading cases is 1.5

2.3

Materials
Materials used in design of towers are in accordance to the GECOL
specifications. They are two of kind: steels and bolts.

2.3.1

Steels
The steel used in our design shall be mild or high tensile according to the international DIN
or ASTM standards.
The ultimate tensile strength for the mild steel is between 37 and 45 kp/mm2 and yield stress
is not less than 24 kp/mm2.
The ultimate tensile strength for the high tensile steel is between 52 and 62 kp/mm2 and
yield stress is not less than 36 kp/mm2.
This steel designation has to be discussed with GECOL in order to respect the new European
Standard. All details are in annex 3 of this Guide.
The minimum thickness for the angles is:
Leg and other corner members

- 5 mm

Bracings and other members

- 4 mm

An unequal leg angle is permitted in the design. The minimum size of flange without holes is
3mm. Anyhow; the unequal leg angle type is to avoid, for the different raisons, like
symmetry, fabrication problems, possibility of mistake in the erection etc.

- 30 Rev. A

Parameters in Overhead Line Tower Design

2
2

2.3.2

Bolts and nuts


Bolts and nuts in our design are conforming to DIN 7990 and 555. Grade of bolts is
minimum 4.6 (to discuss with GECOL a value of minimum).
The size we will use in our design shall be M16 and M20. It is preference to have only one
diameter for the whole tower. We shell discuss with GECOL a possibility to use a M12 in
our tower design.

- 31 Rev. A

Static calculation

3
2

3. Static calculation
All previous steps have to be accomplished before starting a static
calculation. A dynamic calculation is possible, but generally, we are
replacing the concentrated mass elements that are multiplied by the
acceleration and statically applied on the structure.
The hypothesis to be respected in tower analysis is that a tower is an
ideal three-dimensional truss, and in that case, only axial forces in the
members are possible. This hypothesis is very important and any other
assumption is very dangerous for a non-experienced designer. I am saying
this because of recent collapse of one angle tower design (year 2000) made
by one Spanish college who considered some elements (leg members) as
beam elements, without the control of moments occurred in the nodes of
structure.
3.1

Tower Model
We know too well that the tower is composed from a lot of elements, bars,
plates, bolts, etc. For the calculation purposes, we have to assume that the tower is
presented by the lines connected to the nodes. The tower has a high degree of
symmetry which is facilitating the tower modelling, and almost all specialised
computer programs has this facility in the nodes and bars generating. The rules
describing how to respect these static lines in the tower detailing is described in the
chapter Detailing and fabrication.
All members have to be triangulated in order to have a static system and not
mechanism. The members who are inside a triangle have an axial forces equal to
zero. Therefore, the members with forces as result of a loading case we call a
primary bars, and the bars without any force secondary members. The secondary
bars are used to reduce un-braced lengths of the primary members, and for this
reason we call them also redundant members. Having secondary bars is not useful in
tower modelling and our advice is to avoid them.

3.2

Computer Program
Our choice of computer program was TOWER, software made by Power
Line Systems, Inc. All descriptions of his use are presented in the program manual
that is in annex 1 of this Guide.
However, we have to pay attention on few things. A computer program is
always a tool, and for now being, cannot replace an engineer experience. We have
one expression for this case called GIGO; it means Garbage in garbage out.
For the good utilisation of this program, you have to make a certain number of
towers, designed under the control of somebody with experience in this field. Even
then, continue to read and study the literature in this domain. This will allow you to

- 32 Rev. A

Static calculation

3
2

be in the contact with the newest experience and solutions to the problems in the
tower design.

- 33 Rev. A

Tower Dimensioning

4
2

4. Tower Dimensioning
4.1

Bar dimensioning
The methods described in this chapter are to be applied for the dimensioning of
hot-rolled and cold-formed bars.
Once the static calculation finished, the most important task to do is bar
dimensioning. Every designer has to take in the consideration all necessary elements
to make the profile choice. On this point, we have to finalized the tower outline;
make the choice of secondary (redundant) bars necessary to add in order to reduce
the slenderness ratio, etc
Please, dont forget to recalculate the wind on tower efforts, due to the final bar
sections.

4.1.1

Slenderness ratios
According to the GECOL technical specifications, the limiting values of the slenderness
ratio for the bars with calculated compressive stress shall be as follows:

Leg members and main corner members


of earth-wire peak and cross arms

120

Other members

200

For the bars without calculated stress or with the nominal stress, we have to respect the
following limit:

Redundant members and those carrying nominal stress 250


Also:

Members carrying axial tension only

4.1.2

375

Tension members
In the bar determination due to the tension effort, we have to pay attention on only one thing:
the net section of bar.
To determinate the net section, we need to have two parameters, the cross section of the bar
and the characteristics of bolted connection (diameter of holes and the number of holes).

- 34 Rev. A

Tower Dimensioning

4
2

In the GECOL technical specification, for the bolts M16 and M20, the diameter of the holes
is equal to the bolt diameter + 1.5mm

4.1.2.1 Angles connected by one leg


Allowable tension effort for the angles connected by one leg is equal to design stress Ft
multiplied by net cross section.

Tc = Ft An
In this case, the net section of unbolted leg is equal to the 0.5 of leg section, and net section
of the bolted leg is equal to the leg section minus the holes.
On the end the formula of the net section is:

An = 0.75 A D t
Where A is the angle section, D is hole diameter and t is the thickness of leg.

4.1.2.2 Angles connected on both legs


Allowable tension effort for the angles connected on both legs is equal to design stress Ft
multiplied by net cross section.

Tc = Ft An
In this case, the net section of angle is equal to angle section minus the holes.
On the end the formula of the net section is:

An = A n D t
Where A is the angle section, D is hole diameter, t is the thickness of leg and n is
the number of bolts, generally with value of two. In case of diagonal or zigzag chain of
holes, we have to check the angle section formed by the shortest line connecting the bolts on
both legs. If this section is less then the previously calculated then we have to replace net
section by the new one.

4.1.3

Compression members
The compression calculation is explained in details in the annex 2. Anyhow, some details are
to be repeated twice.
The allowable compression stress Fa is given by formulas:
2

KL

1
r F
Fa = 1
2 Cc y

Fa =

2E

(KL r )

Cc =

KL Cc
r

KL C
c
r

2E
Fy

(4.1.3-1)

(4.1.3-2)

(4.1.3-3)

- 35 Rev. A

Tower Dimensioning

4
2

Fy

- Minimum guaranteed yield stress

- Modulus of elasticity

- Un-braced length

- radius of gyration

- Effective length coefficient

4.1.3.1 Maximum

w/t Ratio

The maximum w / t ratio is 25, where w is the flat angle width and t is angle leg thickness.

80
w
=
Fy
t lim

If the w/ t exceeds

(4.1.3.1-1)

Then the value of allowable stress Fa shall be replaced with Fcr , as given by:

w/t
Fcr = 1.667 0.677
Fy
( w / t ) lim

w 144
w

Fy
t lim t

for the value of

(4.1.3.1-2)

or

Fcr =

0.0332 2 E
(w / t )2

for the value of

w 144

t
Fy

(4.1.3.1-3)

The value of , mentioned in (4.1.3.1-1) trough (4.1.3.1-3), is equal to 1 if the Fy is


expressed in ksi, and equal 2.62 if the Fy is expressed in MPa.

4.1.3.2 Effective lengths


The only value not explained is previous formulas K

is - Effective length coefficient.

For the members with L / r 120 the value for effective slenderness ratio in (4.1.3-1) and
(4.1.3-2) is :

KL / r = L / r

For no eccentricity at both ends, as for


example the main member (Curve 1)

4.1.3.2-1

- 36 Rev. A

Tower Dimensioning

4
2

KL / r = 30 + 0.75 L / r

For eccentricity at one end only, as for


example the bottom cross-arm member
(Curve 2)

4.1.3.2-2

KL / r = 60 + 0.5 L / r

For eccentricity at both ends, as for example


the diagonals (Curve 3)

4.1.3.2-3

For the members with L / r > 120 the value for effective slenderness ratio in (4.1.3-1) and
(4.1.3-2) is :

KL / r = L / r

For the member unrestrained at both ends


(Curve 4)

4.1.3.2-4

KL / r = 28.6 + 0.762 L / r

For the member with partial restraint at one


end only (Curve 5)

4.1.3.2-2

KL / r = 46.2 + 0.615 L / r

For the member with partial restraint at both


ends (Curve 6)

4.1.3.2-3

Regarding the complexity of realisation, the Curve 5 and 6 are not recommended for use.

- 37 Rev. A

Tower Dimensioning

4
2

4.2

Bolt Determination
The last things to determinate are bolts. First, we have to make the choice of
bolt diameters to use in our design. We suggest you to avoid more then two
diameters for one tower type. Sometimes, when is possible, we rather use a single
bolt diameter. This is very important decision. The consequences are not only for the
fabrication facility but for the erection work also. In GECOL specification, we found
that M12 is forbidden for use. We suggest to GECOL to reconsider this decision and
allow us his use.
Once diameter(s) accepted, we can start with calculation of bolt quantities.
Two element of this calculation are necessary to do, described later in articles
4.2.1 Shearing and 4.2.2 Bearing, of this chapter. For the bolt determination, we
prefer the method described in Recommendation for Angles in Lattice Transmission
Towers rather then ASCE method.

4.2.1

Shearing
The shear strength of bolt is related to the bolt quality only. First, we have to determinate the
values of 0.69t and 0.95y and to accept the smallest s as allowable shear stress. Then the
shear strength of bolt is given by the following formula:
Ft = sA
where A is cross sectional area of bolt.
The number of bolt (n), for a particular bar connection, is calculated in order to satisfy a
condition that maximum bar ultimate tension or compression effort is less than shear
strength of bolts. This is described by following formula:
Fu(t,c) nsA
In case of double shear, the value of Fu(t,c) is double also. The case of triple shear is rarely
or impossible to find in common tower design.
In addition, we have to pay attention that the number of bolts has to be in accordance with
the bar curve.

4.2.2

Bearing
The bearing capacity is linked to the allowable deformation of holes. In France, EDF is
accepting three times yield stress, but the theory of allowable edge distances is too much
complicated.
In our design we shall use two times yield stress and the edge distances x=1.5D; y=1.25D
and z=2.5D; where D is bolt diameter.
In this is the case, the ultimate compression or tension effort for one bolt is:

Fu(t,c)=bDst
where b is allowable bearing stress and equal to twice yield stress of bar.

- 38 Rev. A

Tower Dimensioning

4
2

In some special cases, when we need to use the edge distances less then specified, we have
to check the bearing capacity by using the formulas:

z
t

Fu(t,c) = b(x-Dst)

for the longitudinal edge distances

Fu(t,c) = 1.33b(y- Ds)t


Fu(t,c) = b(z- Ds)t

for the transversal edge distances

for the hole centre distances.

- 39 Rev. A

Detailing and fabrication

5
2

5. Detailing and fabrication


Detailing problem consists in transforming statical lines in angles and
plates connected bye bolts. Our choice of drafting aid program was
AutoCAD.
The rules to follow are described in ANSI/ASCE 10-90 and have to be
respected.
5.1

Drawings
Tower detail drawings are composed of workshop drawings and bills of
material. In some cases, to facilitate the tower erection procedure, we are producing
the erection drawing simplified workshop drawings, showing the complete
assembly and indicating the position of each element. Bill of material will be made
in excel sheet.
Approval of workshop drawings is a task of GECOL, who will control
correctness of dimensional detail calculations and give his opinion once test of tower
finished.

5.2

Connections
The best way to connect members is making directly on each other with
minimum eccentricity. Minimum bolt spacing, end and edge distances shell respect
those mentioned already in 4.2.2 Bearing and those specified in GECOL technical
specification.

5.3

Material
Workshop drawings have to clearly specify member and connection materials.
As told before, we are using maximum two kind of steel: mild steel and high tensile
steel. High tensile steel has to be marked with letter A on the workshop drawings.

5.4

Shop operations
Shop operations consist essentially of cutting, punching, drilling, blocking or
clipping, and either cold or hot bending. Every operation has to be indicated on the
workshop drawing.
For more details, see Annex 2, Article 7.2.2

5.5

Marking
For the marking of pieces, you have to keep on mind the necessary elements:
Mark of fabricator

- 40 Rev. A

Detailing and fabrication

5
2

Tower designation
Item number
Steel quality
The mark of fabricator in our case is special logo of GPC. This is needed in
case of problems on erected towers. In case that erected tower pieces dont have GPC
mark, no any responsibility of GPC is engaged.
Tower designation is normally limited on three characters, because of limit of
CNC machines (8 characters in total).
Item number has to unique to the specific tower, and generally is limited on
three characters (numbers).
Steel quality is the last mark on tower elements. It is in GECOL case, a letter A
for the high tensile steel, and blank for the mild steel.
For the other details, see Annex 2, article 7.2.4.

- 41 Rev. A

Tower Prototype

6
2

6. Tower Prototype
It is highly recommended to make a tower prototype before to start any
serial production. This is valuable for the new design as well as for the old
one. The prototype is assembled on the ground in horizontal position. This
chapter is describing the procedure in the prototype approval.
6.1

Prototype documents
The documents to be checked are:

Workshop drawings

Material lists

Steel certificates

Bolt and nuts certificates

All documents revisions have to correspond to the assembled prototype. This is


very important point in later serial production of towers.

6.2

Checking of main dimensions


The main dimensions have to be checked to avoid a possible capital error that
the workshop drawing is not corresponding to statical outline. Sometimes it arrives
that during detailing we made some error on one element provoking a general main
dimension error.

6.3

Checking of bars
Bars have to be with all dimensions and steel quality as indicated on workshop
drawings. After this check, we have to check that all bars were assembled without
any forcing and any deformation. Any interferences between bars or bars any other
tower element have to be reported, corrected, and workshop drawings have to be
changed with a new revision note.

6.4

Plates checking
Plates have to satisfy the same criteria as bars.

6.5

Bolts checking
During our checking of prototype, we have to check the following bolts
parameters:

Bolt diameter

- 42 Rev. A

Tower Prototype

6
2

Length of bolts

Bolt hole (holes)

All bolt diameters have to correspond to those in workshop drawings.


The length of bolts has to be same as indicated on workshop drawings. The
length of remaining part of bolts has to be between two and three treads.
Any bolt has to be mounted without any forcing, the holes he is passing
through have to be perfectly aligned. All mistakes can be dangerous for the test of
tower, provoking premature tower failure.

- 43 Rev. A

Tower testing

7
2

7. Tower testing
Before to start this chapter, we would like to say one thing. The
overhead line tower is the only structure tested up to the failure, and that is
the reason to have so precise design method.
In the design, we are always trying to have an optimum dimensioned
tower. We are newer making a reserve more than 10%, because the weight
supplement for one tower, multiplied by total number of towers, is giving a
very expensive transmission line. Dont forget that extra weight of towers
has also the repercussions on the tower transport and erection costs.
Every designer assisting on the tower test has two fears, first is the
resistance of tower on 100% of loading, and the second is that the failure of
tower arrives before the 125% of loading for the ultimate test case. This is
increased knowing that the good tower test result is not depending on the
good tower design. A lot of factors are involved in this process, like material
tolerances (+ or -), fabrication mistakes, testing equipment problems,
external (non calculated) wind during the test, etc
In the case that the tower collapse arrives before 100% of loading,
dont panic. You are not the first, either last designer confronted with this
problem. In addition, please, do not continue the test without knowing the
failure reason. This is important for the good finishing of tower test and it
will be a good experience for the future tests.
7.1

Choice of Loading Cases


The choice of loading cases is generally made by client him self or his
consulting engineer. Sometimes, it is up to the designer to propose the loading cases.
Anyhow, you have to know that too much loading cases applied on the tower can
provoke his collapse even that the tower can resist to the each of them separately.
This is the reason to have a maximum of five loading cases.
The last case is a destructive test, except when the client asks to not have one.
This is generally decision for the towers of a small serial production, and where we
want to recuperate the prototype for the later use.
Please, pay attention that it is forbidden to recuperate, and use in normal
exploitation, the tower submitted to the destructive test.

7.2

Elaboration of Tower Testing Program


Elaboration of testing program is to be discussed with GECOL

- 44 Rev. A

Tower testing

7
2

7.3

Prototype Erection Checking


The prototype erection is made by testing station team, and they are
responsible for this. Anyhow, the designer have to check the prototype erection him
self and to pay attention on following:

7.4

All bars mounted and all bolts tied well

Level of artificial foundations has to be in tolerances zero

Tower have to be vertical position

Testing Procedure
The testing procedure have to be in accordance to the International standard for
overhead line tower testing LOADING TESTS ON OVERHEAD LINE TOWERS
made by International Electro technical Commission. Many countries listed on page
3 of this publication, voted explicitly in favour of publication.
There is not need to give more explanations for the testing procedure;
everything is already described in this publication.

- 45 Rev. A

Bibliography

8
2

8. Bibliography

ANSI/ASCE 10-90 (1991) Design of Latticed Steel Transmission Structures American Society of Civil
Engineers

ASCE MANUALS AND REPORTS ON ENGINEERING PRACTICE NO. 52 (1984) Guide for Design of Steel
Transmission Towers
ECCS TECHNICAL COMMITTEE 8 STRUCTURAL STABILITY
TECHNICAL WORKING GROUP 8.1 (1985) Recommendations For Angles in Lattice Transmission Towers
EDF/CERT (1996) Directives Lignes Ariennes
GENERAL ELECTRIC COMPANY OF LIBYA-PLANNING & PROJECTS DEPARTMENT (1999) Technical
Specification for 30 kV Double Circuit Overhead Transmission Lines
GENERAL ELECTRIC COMPANY OF LIBYA-PLANNING & PROJECTS DEPARTMENT (1996) 66 kV Double Circuit
Overhead Transmission Lines - Technical Specification
GENERAL ELECTRIC COMPANY OF LIBYA-PLANNING & PROJECTS DEPARTMENT (1999) Technical
Specification of 220 kV Overhead Double Circuit Transmission Lines
GRAEVINSKI FAKULTET SARAJEVO (1980) Otpornost materijala
GTMH (1999) Directives Lignes Ariennes Michel Bougue

- 46 Rev. A

Annexes

9
2

9. Annexes
Annex 1: TOWER Computer Program Manual
Power Line Systems TOWER Analysis and Design of Steel Latticed Towers
used in Transmission and Communication Facilities

Annex 2: American standard for design of overhead line towers


ANSI/ASCE 10-90 (1991) Design of Latticed Steel Transmission Structures
American Society of Civil Engineers

Annex 3: European Standard for the Steels used in design of


overhead line towers
BS EN 10025 (1993) Hot rolled products of non-alloy structural steels
Technical delivery conditions

Annex 4: European recommendation for design of overhead line


towers
ECCS Technical Committee 8 Structural Stability Technical Working
Group 8.1 (1985) Recommendations for Angles in Lattice Transmission Towers

Annex 5: American recommendation for design of overhead line


towers
ASCE Manuals and Reports on Engineering practice No. 52 (1984) Guide for
Design of Steel Transmission Towers

Annex 6: International standard for overhead line tower testing


INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISION LOADING TESTS
ON OVERHEAD LINE TOWERS

- 47 Rev. A

Annexes

9
2

Annex 7: Bare Overhead Line Conductor Catalogue


ALCATEL CABLE France

Annex 8: Overhead Line Insulators Catalogue


SEDIVER France

Annex 9: String hardware catalogue


Derveaux groupe SICAME France

- 48 Rev. A

Index

10
2

10. Index

A
AC Line ...................................................................................................................................... 1
Aeolian Vibration ....................................................................................................................... 2

B
Bearing ..................................................................................................................................... 38
Bipolar Line................................................................................................................................ 2
bolt diameter ............................................................................................................................. 38
Bracing System ........................................................................................................................ 10

C
Catenary ................................................................................................................................. 5, 6
Circuit ............................................................................................................................... 1, 7, 46
Clearance to Obstacles ......................................................................................................... 8, 26
compression .............................................................................................................................. 38
conductor ...................................................................... 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 8, 13, 14, 15, 16, 21, 26, 28
Conductor ............................................................................................................. 2, 7, 13, 14, 15
Conductor fittings ..................................................................................................................... 15
Conductor Galloping .................................................................................................................. 2
Conductor Vibration ................................................................................................................... 2
Cross-arm ........................................................................................................................... 10, 11

D
Delta Configuration .................................................................................................................... 7
Diagonal Leg Profiles................................................................................................................. 6
Difference in Levels ................................................................................................................... 5
Direct Current Line .................................................................................................................... 1
Distribution Line ........................................................................................................................ 2

E
Earth Conductor ....................................................................................................................... 15
Earth-wire ........................................................................................................................... 15, 27
Exceptional Loads ...................................................................................................................... 3

G
Ground Clearance ....................................................................................................................... 8
Guy ........................................................................................................................................... 10

H
Horizontal Configuration ........................................................................................................... 7

- 49 Rev. A

Index

10
2

I
ice ....................................................................................................................................... 3, 4, 6
Ice Loading ................................................................................................................................. 4

J
Jumper ...................................................................................................................................... 15

L
Legislative Load ......................................................................................................................... 3
Line........................................................................................................... 1, 2, 5, 6, 9, 13, 21, 30
Loading Assumptions ................................................................................................................. 3
Loading Case .............................................................................................................................. 3
Longitudinal Profile ................................................................................................................... 6

M
Mechanical Design ..................................................................................................................... 2
Monopolar Line .......................................................................................................................... 1

N
Normal Load .............................................................................................................................. 3

O
Overhead Ground-wire ............................................................................................................. 15
Overhead Line ............................................................................................................................ 1

P
Phase....................................................................................................................................... 1, 8
Pole ........................................................................................................................................... 10
Positive (Negative) Pole ............................................................................................................. 1

R
Rupture Load .............................................................................................................................. 3

S
Sag ........................................................................................................................................ 5, 28
shear ......................................................................................................................................... 38
Shearing .................................................................................................................................... 38
shield angle ............................................................................................................................... 27
Shield Wire ............................................................................................................................... 15
Span .................................................................................................................................. 4, 5, 16
structural members ................................................................................................................... 10
Support ................................................................................................................................. 9, 11

- 50 Rev. A

Index

10
2

T
tension .................................................................................................. 5, 6, 9, 10, 15, 16, 26, 38
Test Load .................................................................................................................................... 3
Tower ....................................................................................... 10, 12, 18, 21, 26, 32, 34, 42, 44
Transmission Line ...................................................................................................................... 2
Transposition .......................................................................................................................... 8, 9
Transverse Profile ...................................................................................................................... 6
Triangular Configuration............................................................................................................ 7

U
Ultimate Design Load ................................................................................................................ 3

V
Vertical Configuration................................................................................................................ 7
Vertical, Transverse, Longitudinal Loads .................................................................................. 4

W
wind .......................................................................................................................... 2, 3, 4, 6, 26
Wind Load .................................................................................................................................. 4
Working Clearance ..................................................................................................................... 8
working load ............................................................................................................................... 3
Working Load ............................................................................................................................ 3

Y
yield .......................................................................................................................................... 38

- 51 Rev. A