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SHELLANDTUBEHEATEXCHANGERS

A
B

Brogan,R.J.

DOI:10.1615/AtoZ.s.shell_and_tube_heat_exchangers

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G

GeneralDescription

Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers are one of the most popular types of exchanger due to the flexibility the designer has to

allowforawiderangeofpressuresandtemperatures.TherearetwomaincategoriesofShellandTubeexchanger:

1. thosethatareusedinthepetrochemicalindustrywhichtendtobecoveredbystandardsfromTEMA,TubularExchanger

ManufacturersAssociation(seeTEMAStandards);

2. thosethatareusedinthepowerindustrysuchasfeedwaterheatersandpowerplantcondensers.

M
N

Regardlessofthetypeofindustrytheexchangeristobeusedinthereareanumberofcommonfeatures(seeCondensers).

O
P

Ashellandtubeexchangerconsistsofanumberoftubesmountedinsideacylindricalshell.Figure1illustratesatypicalunit

thatmaybefoundinapetrochemicalplant.Twofluidscanexchangeheat,onefluidflowsovertheoutsideofthetubeswhile
thesecondfluidflowsthroughthetubes.Thefluidscanbesingleortwophaseandcanflowinaparalleloracross/counter

flowarrangement.

S
SAFETYASSESSMENT
SAFFMANLENGTH
SALINEWATERRECLAMATION
SALT
SALTDILUTIONMETHODFORFILM
FLOWRATEMEASUREMENT
SALTATION

Figure1.Shellandtubeexchanger.

SALTINGOUT
SAMPLING
SAMPLINGMETHODS,FOR

Theshellandtubeexchangerconsistsoffourmajorparts:

DROPSIZEMEASUREMENT
SANDBLASTING
SANDIANATIONALLABORATORY,
SNL
SATELLITEREMOTESENSING
SATELLITES
SATURATEDFLUIDPROPERTIES
SATURATEDSURFACES
SATURATEDVOLUME
SATURATIONPRESSURE
SATURATIONTEMPERATURE
SAUTERMEANDIAMETER

FrontHeaderthisiswherethefluidentersthetubesideoftheexchanger.ItissometimesreferredtoastheStationary
Header.
Rear Headerthis is where the tubeside fluid leaves the exchanger or where it is returned to the front header in
exchangerswithmultipletubesidepasses.
Tubebundlethiscomprisesofthetubes,tubesheets,bafflesandtierodsetc.toholdthebundletogether.
Shellthiscontainsthetubebundle.
TheremainderofthissectionconcentratesonexchangersthatarecoveredbytheTEMAStandard.

ShellandTubeExchanger:GeometricTerminology
ThemaincomponentsofashellandtubeexchangerareshowninFigure2a,bandcanddescribedinTable1.

SCALEUPOFPERFORATION
PROCESS
SCALESOFTURBULENCE
SCALING
SCATTERING
SCATTERINGAMPLITUDE
SCATTERINGEFFICIENCY

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SCATTERINGINDICATRIX
SCATTERINGOFRADIATION
SCATTERINGPROBLEMFOR
CYLINDRICALPARTICLES
SCHEIBELEQUATIONFOR
DIFFUSIONINLIQUIDS
SCHLIERENINTERFEROMETRY
SCHLIERENTECHNIQUE
SCHMIDTNUMBER
SCHMIDT,ERNST(18921975)
SCHUSTERHAMAKERMODEL
SCHUSTERSCHWARZCHILD
APPROXIMATION,FORCOMBINED
RADIATIONANDCONDUCTION
SCRAPEDSURFACEHEAT
EXCHANGERS
SCREENSEPARATORS
SCREENS
SCREWROTARYCOMPRESSOR
SCREWS,PLASTICATING
SCROLLDISCHARGECENTRIFUGE
SCRUBBERS
SEAWATERCOMPOSITION
SECONDLAWOF
THERMODYNAMICS
SECONDNORMALSTRESS
DIFFERENCECOEFFICIENT
SECONDARYFLOWS
SECONDARYQUANTITY
SECONDARYRECOVERY
PROCESSES
SEDIMENTATION
SEDIMENTINGCENTRIFUGES
SEEPAGE
SEGMENTALBAFFLES

Figure2.TypeBEM,CFUandAESexchangers.1988byTubularExchangerManufacturersAssociation.

SEGREGATION

Table1.Shellandtubegeometricterminology

SEIDERTATECORRELATION
SELECTIVEFROTHFLOTATION
SELFORGANIZATION
SELFSIMILARHARDENING
BEHAVIOR

1 Stationary(Front)HeadChannel 20

SliponBackingFlange

2 Stationary(Front)HeadBonnet 21

FloatingTubesheetSkirt

FloatingTubesheetSkirt

Stationary(Front)HeadFlange 22

ChannelCover

23

SELFSIMILARITY

StationaryHeadNozzle

24

Packing

SEMICONDUCTOR

StationaryTubesheet

25

PackingFollowerRing

Tubes

26

LanternRing

Shell

27

TieRodsandSpacers

ShellCover

THERMOMETERS
SEMISLUGFLOWS
SEMITRANSPARENTMEDIA

PackingBoxFlange

28TransverseBafflesorSupportPlates

CONTAININGBUBBLES

10ShellFlangeStationaryHeadEnd29

SEMIANNULARFLOW

11

ShellFlangeRearHeadEnd

30

SEMICONDUCTORDIODELASERS

12

ShellNozzle

31

PassPartition

SEMICONDUCTORS

13

ShellCoverFlange

32

VentConnection

14

ExpansionJoint

33

DrainConnection

15

FloatingTubesheet

34

InstrumentConnection
SupportSaddle

SEMITRANSPARENTMEDIA
SENSIBLEHEATSTORAGE

ImpingementBaffleorPlate
LongitudinalBaffle

16

FloatingHeadCover

35

SEPARATEDFLOWMODELS

17

FloatingHeadFlange

36

LiftingLug

SEPARATEDLIQUIDFLOWS

18

FloatingHeadBackingDevice

37

SupportBracket

SEPARATIONOFBOUNDARY

19

SplitShearRing

LAYERS
SEPARATIONOFEMULSIONS

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TemaDesignations

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SEPARATIONOFFLUIDMIXTURES

Thepopularityofshellandtubeexchangershasresultedinastandardnomenclaturebeingdevelopedfortheirdesignation

SEPARATIONOFGASANDSOLIDS

and use by the Tubular Exchanger Manufactures Association (TEMA). This nomenclature is defined in terms letters and

SEPARATIONOFLIQUIDS

diagrams.Thefirstletterdescribesthefrontheadertype,thesecondlettertheshelltypeandthethirdlettertherearheader

SEPARATIONOFLIQUIDSAND

type.Figure2showsexamplesofaBEM,CFU,andAESexchangerswhileFigure3illustratesthefullTEMAnomenclature.

SOLIDS
SEPARATIONOFPHASESINGAS
LIQUIDFLOWS
SEPARATIONPROCESSES
SEPARATION,LIQUID/LIQUID
SEPARATION,PARTICLES/LIQUID
SERIESEXPANSIONS
SESSILEDROPSANDBUBBLES
SETTLINGSLURRIES
SEVEREACCIDENTS,INNUCLEAR
REACTORS,CONTAINMENTOF
SHADOWGRAPHTECHNIQUE
SHAPEMEMORY
SHAPEOFVAPORFORMATIONSIN
EXPLOSIVEBOILING
SHAPESELECTIVECATALYSIS
SHEARFLOW
SHEARLAYER
SHEARMODULUS
SHEARSTRESS
SHEARSTRESSMEASUREMENT
SHEARSTRESSVELOCITY
SHEARTHICKENING
SHEARTHICKENINGFLUIDS
SHEARTHINNINGFLUIDS
SHEARVISCOSITY
SHEARINGINTERFEROGRAM
SHEATHCHARACTERISTICS
SHEETSPLITTING,INDROP
FORMATION
SHELLANDTUBECONDENSERS
SHELLANDTUBEHEAT
EXCHANGERS

Figure3.TEMAnomenclature.1988byTubulareExchangerManufacturersAssociation.
Manycombinationsoffrontheader,shellandrearheadercanbemade.ThemostcommoncombinationsforanETypeShell
aregiveninTable2butothercombinationsarealsoused.

SHELLBOILER

Table2.Shellandtubegeometricterminology

SHELLPROGRESSIVEMODEL

FixedtubesheetexchangersUtubeexchangersFloatingheadexchangers

SHELLSIDEREFRIGERATION
CHILLERS

AEL

AEU

AES

SHELLS

AEM

CEU

BES

AEN

DEU

BEL

BEM

BEN

SHERWOODNUMBER
SHERWOOD,THOMASKILGORE
(19031976)
SHOCKTUBES
SHOCKWAVEPROPAGATION
SHOCKWAVES

Essentiallytherearethreemaincombinations
Fixedtubesheetexchangers

SHOCKWAVES,CONICAL
SHORTROUGHNESSSTRIP
SHORTTIMELAPSE
PHOTOGRAPHY

Utubeexchangers
Floatingheaderexchangers

SHORTTUBEVERTICAL
EVAPORATOR

FixedTubesheetExchanger(L,M,andNTypeRearHeaders)

SHOTTOWERS

Inafixedtubesheetexchanger,thetubesheetisweldedtotheshell.Thisresultsinasimpleandeconomicalconstructionand

SHRINKINGCOREMODEL

thetubeborescanbecleanedmechanicallyorchemically.However,theoutsidesurfacesofthetubesareinaccessibleexcept

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SIUNITS
SIDERITES
SIEVE,TRAYCOLUMN
SILICABASEDNANOPOROUS
COMPOSITEMATERIALS

tochemicalcleaning.
Iflargetemperaturedifferencesexistbetweentheshellandtubematerials,itmaybenecessarytoincorporateanexpansion
bellowsintheshell,toeliminateexcessivestressescausedbyexpansion.Suchbellowsareoftenasourceofweaknessand
failureinoperation.IncircumstanceswheretheconsequencesoffailureareparticularlygraveUTubeorFloatingHeader
unitsarenormallyused.

SILICAGEL
SILICON
SILICONCARBIDE

Thisisthecheapestofallremovablebundledesigns,butisgenerallyslightlymoreexpensivethanafixedtubesheetdesignat
lowpressures.

SILICONSOLARCELLS
SILOS,GRANULARFLOWFROM
SILVER

UTubeExchangers
InaUTubeexchangeranyofthefrontheadertypesmaybeusedandtherearheaderisnormallyaMType.TheUtubes
permitunlimitedthermalexpansion,thetubebundlecanberemovedforcleaningandsmallbundletoshellclearancescan

SILVERMETHOD

beachieved.However,sinceinternalcleaningofthetubesbymechanicalmeansisdifficult,itisnormalonlytousethistype

SIMILARITYCONDITIONS

wherethetubesidefluidsareclean.

SIMILARITY,THEORYOF
SIMILITUDE

FloatingHeadExchanger(P,S,TandWTypeRearHeaders)

SIMPLESTAPPROXIMATIONSOF

InthistypeofexchangerthetubesheetattheRearHeaderendisnotweldedtotheshellbutallowedtomoveorfloat.The

DOUBLESPHERICALHARMONICS

tubesheet at the Front Header (tube side fluid inlet end) is of a larger diameter than the shell and is sealed in a similar

SIMPLEXATOMIZER

manner to that used in the fixed tubesheet design. The tubesheet at the rear header end of the shell is of slightly smaller

SIMPLIFIEDBOILINGWATER

diameterthantheshell,allowingthebundletobepulledthroughtheshell.Theuseofafloatingheadmeansthatthermal

REACTOR,SBWR

expansioncanbeallowedforandthetubebundlecanberemovedforcleaning.Thereareseveralrearheadertypesthatcan

SIMULATINGSUBSURFACE

be used but the SType Rear Head is the most popular. A floating head exchanger is suitable for the rigorous duties

TEMPERATURE

associated with high temperatures and pressures but is more expensive (typically of order of 25% for carbon steel

SINCLAIRLAMERAEROSOL

construction)thantheequivalentfixedtubesheetexchanger.

GENERATOR
SINGLEPHASEMEDIUM
SINGLETSTATE
SINGLETSTATELIFETIME

Consideringeachheaderandshelltypeinturn:

ATypefrontheader
Thistypeofheaderiseasytorepairandreplace.Italsogivesaccesstothetubesforcleaningorrepairwithouthavingto

SINGULARITIES

disturbthepipework.Itdoeshoweverhavetwoseals(onebetweenthetubesheetandheaderandtheotherbetweenthe

SINGULARITIES,HYDRAULIC

headerandtheendplate).ThisincreasestheriskofleakageandthecostoftheheaderoveraBTypeFrontHeader.

RESISTANCEIN
SINTERING

BTypefrontheader

SINUOUSJETS

This is the cheapest type of front header. It also is more suitable than the AType Front Header for high pressure duties

SIPHONCENTRIFUGE

becausetheheaderhasonlyoneseal.Adisadvantageisthattogainaccesstothetubesrequiresdisturbancetothepipework

SKIMMERPIPEANDKNIFE

inordertoremovetheheader.

CENTRIFUGES
SKINEFFECT

CTypefrontheader

SKINFRICTION

Thistypeofheaderisforhighpressureapplications(>100bar).Itdoesallowaccesstothetubewithoutdisturbingthepipe

SLAGFORMATION

workbutisdifficulttorepairandreplacebecausethetubebundleisanintegralpartoftheheader.

SLIGHTLYDEFORMEDPOROUS
CIRCULARCYLINDER

DTypefrontheader

SLIGHTLYINCLINEDSURFACE

This is the most expensive type of front header. It is for very high pressures (> 150 bar). It does allow access to the tubes

MOUNTEDPRISMS
SLIPRATIO

without disturbing the pipe work but is difficult to repair and replace because the tube bundle is an integral part of the
header.

SLITFLOWMETERS
SLITFLOWS

NTypefrontheader

SLOTPERFORATEDFLATFINS

Theadvantageofthistypeofheaderisthatthetubescanbeaccessedwithoutdisturbingthepipeworkanditischeaperthan

SLOWMOTIONPHOTOGRAPHY

anATypeFrontHeader.However,theyaredifficulttomaintainandreplaceastheheaderandtubesheetareanintegral

SLUGFLOW

partoftheshell.

SLUGFLOW,SOLIDSUSPENSIONS
SLUGFREQUENCY
SLUGLENGTH
SLURRIES

YTypefrontheader
StrictlyspeakingthisisnotaTEMAdesignatedtypebutisgenerallyrecognized.Itcanbeusedasafrontorrearheaderand
isusedwhentheexchangeristobeusedinapipeline.Itischeaperthanothertypesofheadersasitreducespipingcosts.It
ismainlyusedwithsingletubepassunitsalthoughwithsuitablepartitioninganyoddnumberofpassescanbeallowed.

SMALLANCLESCATTERING
METHOD,FORDROPSIZE
MEASUREMENT

ETypeshell

SMELTING

Thisismostcommonlyusedshelltype,suitableformostdutiesandapplications.Othershelltypesonlytendtobeusedfor

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SMOKE,ASANAIRPOLLUTANT
SMOKES

FTypeshell

SNELLREFRACTIONLAW

Thisisgenerallyusedwhenpurecountercurrentflowisrequiredinatwotubesidepassunit.Thisisachievedbyhaving

SNL

twoshellssidepassesthetwopassesbeingseparatedbyalongitudinalbaffle.Themainproblemwiththistypeofunitis

SOAVEEQUATION

thermalandhydraulicleakageacrossthislongitudinalbaffleunlessspecialprecautionsaretaken.

SODAASH
SODIUM
SODIUMCARBONATE

GTypeshell
This is used for horizontal thermosyphon reboilers and applications where the shellside pressure drop needs to be kept
small.Thisisachievedbysplittingtheshellsideflow.

SODIUMCHLORIDE
SODIUMCOOLEDNUCLEAR
REACTOR
SODIUMHYDROXIDE
SOFTENINGOFWATER
SOFTWAREENGINEERING

HTypeshell
ThisisusedforsimilarapplicationstoGTypeShellbuttendstobeusedwhenlargerunitsarerequired.

JTypeshell
This tends to be used when the maximum allowable pressure drop is exceeded in an EType Shell even when double

SOIL,THERMALPROPERTIES

segmentalbafflesareused.Itisalsousedwhentubevibrationisaproblem.Thedividedflowontheshellsidereducesthe

SOL

flowvelocitiesoverthetubesandhencereducesthepressuredropandthelikelihoodoftubevibration.Whentherearetwo

SOLARAIRHEATERS

inletnozzlesandoneoutletnozzlethisissometimesreferredtoasanITypeShell.

SOLARCELLS
SOLARCOOKERS
SOLARDRYING
SOLARENERGY

KTypeshell
This is used only for reboilers to provide a large disengagement space in order to minimize shellside liquid carry over.
AlternativelyaKTypeShellmaybeusedasachiller.Inthiscasethemainprocessistocoolthetubesidefluidbyboilinga
fluidontheshellside.

SOLARENERGYTHERMAL
CONVERSION
SOLARPONDS
SOLARRADIATION

XTypeshell
Thisisusedifthemaximumshellsidepressuredropisexceededbyallothershellandbaffletypecombinations.Themain
applicationsareshellsidecondensersandgascoolers.

SOLARRADIATIONSPECTRUM
SOLARREFRIGERATION

LTyperearheader

SOLARSELECTIVESURFACES

Thistypeofheaderisforusewithfixedtubesheetsonly,sincethetubesheetisweldedtotheshellandaccesstotheoutside

SOLARSODIUMEVAPORATOR

ofthetubesisnotpossible.Themainadvantagesofthistypeofheaderarethataccesscanbegainedtotheinsideofthetubes

SOLARSTILLS

without having to remove any pipework and the bundle to shell clearances are small. The main disadvantage is that a

SOLARWATERHEATERS

bellows or an expansion roll are required to allow for large thermal expansions and this limits the permitted operating

SOLENOIDALFLOW
SOLIDFUELS
SOLIDHOLDUP

temperatureandpressure.

MTyperearheader
ThistypeofheaderissimilartotheLTypeRearHeaderbutitisslightlycheaper.However,theheaderhastoberemovedto

SOLIDPROPELLANT

gainaccesstotheinsideofthetubes.Again,specialmeasureshavetobetakentocopewithlargethermalexpansionsand

SOLIDSTATELASERS

thislimitsthepermittedoperatingtemperatureandpressure.

SOLIDLIQUIDLIQUIDFLOWS
SOLIDIFICATION

NTyperearheader

SOLIDIFICATIONCONSTANT

Theadvantageofthistypeofheaderisthatthetubescanbeaccessedwithoutdisturbingthepipework.However,theyare

SOLIDOSITY

difficulttomaintainandreplacesincetheheaderandtubesheetareanintegralpartoftheshell.

SOLIDSCONCENTRATION
SOLIDSINLIQUIDS,BOILINGHEAT

PTyperearheader

TRANSFER

This is an outside packed floating rear header. It is, in theory, a low cost floating head design which allows access to the

SOLIDSSEPARATION

insideofthetubesforcleaningandalsoallowsthebundletoberemovedforcleaning.Themainproblemswiththistypeof

SOLIDS,THERMALCONDUCTIVITY

headerare:

OF
SOLITARYWAVE
SOLITON

largebundletoshellclearancesrequiredinordertopullthebundle;
itislimitedtolowpressurenonhazardousfluids,becauseitispossiblefortheshellsidefluidtoleakviathepackingrings;

SOLUBILITY
SOLUBILITYOFGASESINLIQUIDS
SOLUBILITYOFSOLIDSINLIQUIDS

onlysmallthermalexpansionsarepermitted.
Inpracticeitisnotalowcostdesign,becausetheshellhastoberolledtosmalltolerancesforthepackingtobeeffective.

SOLUTE
SOLUTEDIFFUSION

STyperearheader

SOLUTEFUNCTIONALITY

This is a floating rear header with backing device. It is the most expensive of the floating head types but does allow the

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SOLUTIONALGORITHM

bundletoberemovedandunlimitedthermalexpansionispossible.Italsohassmallershelltobundleclearancesthanthe

SOLUTIONS

otherfloatingheadtypes.However,itisdifficulttodismantleforbundlepullingandtheshelldiameterandbundletoshell

SOLUTIONSFORONE

clearancesarelargerthanforfixedheadtypeexchangers.

DIMENSIONALPROBLEMS
SOLUTIONSFORONE
DIMENSIONALRADIATIVE
TRANSFERPROBLEMS
SOLVENT

TTyperearheader
Thisisapullthroughfloatinghead.ItischeaperandeasiertoremovethebundlethanwiththeSTypeRearHeader,butstill
allowsforunlimitedthermalexpansion.Itdoes,however,havethelargestbundletoshellclearanceofallthefloatinghead
typesandismoreexpensivethanfixedheaderandUtubetypes.

SOLVENTEXTRACTION
SOMEAPPLICATIONS:ELECTRICAL
ARCSANDATMOSPHERICRE

Utube

ENTRY

Thisisthecheapestofallremovablebundledesigns,butisgenerallyslightlymoreexpensivethanafixedtubesheetdesignat

SOMEAPPLIEDPROBLEMSOF

lowpressures.However,itpermitsunlimitedthermalexpansion,allowsthebundletoberemovedtocleantheoutsideofthe

COMBINEDHEATTRANSFER

tubes,hasthetightestbundletoshellclearancesandisthesimplestdesign.AdisadvantageoftheUtubedesignisthatit

SOMEMETHODSFORDETAILED

cannotnormallyhavepurecounterflowunlessanFTypeShellisused.Also,Utubedesignsarelimitedtoevennumbersof

NUMERICALSIMULATIONOF

tubepasses.

RADIATIVETRANSFER
SOMEVALIDITYSTUDIES

WTyperearheader

SONICOSCILLATOR

This is a packed floating tubesheet with lantern ring. It is the cheapest of the floating head designs, allows for unlimited

SONICVELOCITY

thermalexpansionandallowsthetubebundletoberemovedforcleaning.Themainproblemswiththistypeofheadare:

SONOCAPILLARYEFFECT
SOOT
SORETANDDUFOUREFFECTSON
FREECONVECTION
SORETEFFECT

thelargebundletoshellclearancesrequiredtopullthebundleand;
thelimitationtolowpressurenonhazardousfluids(becauseitispossibleforboththefluidstoleakviathepackingrings).
Itisalsopossiblefortheshellandtubesidefluidstobecomemixedifleakageoccurs.

SORPTIONHEATPUMPS
SOUNDABSORPTION
SOUNDGENERATION
SOUNDPROPAGATION
SOURGASES

GeometricOptions
Tubediameterlayoutandpitch
Tubesmayrangeindiameterfrom12.7mm(0.5in)to50.8mm(2in),but19.05mm(0.75in)and25.4mm(1in)arethemost
commonsizes.Thetubesarelaidoutintriangularorsquarepatternsinthetubesheets.SeeFigure4.

SOUTTERIONPUMP
SPACEHEATING
SPACERS
SPACERS,EFFECTONCHF
SPARKIGNITIONENGINES
SPARSELYPACKEDPOROUS
MEDIUM
SPATIALDISCRETIZATION
SCHEMES
SPATIALTEMPORALCORRELATION
SPECIFICHEATCAPACITY

Figure4.Tubelayouts.

SPECIFICWORK,INTURBINES
SPECKLEMETHOD

The square layouts are required where it is necessary to get at the tube surface for mechanical cleaning. The triangular

SPECKLEPHOTOGRAPHY

arrangementallowsmoretubesinagivenspace.Thetubepitchistheshortestcentertocenterdistancebetweentubes.The

SPECTRA,EMISSIONAND

tubespacingisgivenbythetubepitch/tubediameterratio,whichisnormally1.25or1.33.Sinceasquarelayoutisusedfor

ABSORPTION

cleaningpurposes,aminimumgapof6.35mm(0.25in)isallowedbetweentubes.

SPECTRALANALYSIS
SPECTRALDENSITYFUNCTION

Baffletypes

SPECTRALEMISSIVITY

Bafflesareinstalledontheshellsidetogiveahigherheattransferrateduetoincreasedturbulenceandtosupportthetubes

SPECTRALEXTINCTIONMETHOD

thusreducingthechanceofdamageduetovibration.Thereareanumberofdifferentbaffletypes,whichsupportthetubes

SPECTRALRADIATIVEPROPERTIES

andpromoteflowacrossthetubes.Figure5showsthefollowingbafflearrangements:

OFDIESELFUELDROPLETS
SPECTRALRADIATIVEPROPERTIES
OFDISPERSESYSTEMS:
THEORETICALMODELINGAND

SingleSegmental(thisisthemostcommon),
DoubleSegmental(thisisusedtoobtainalowershellsidevelocityandpressuredrop),

EXPERIMENTAL
CHARACTERIZATION

DiscandDoughnut.

SPECTRALRADIATIVEPROPERTIES
OFGASESANDPLASMA:

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THEORETICALMODELSAND
EXPERIMENTALDATA
SPECTRALRADIATIVEPROPERTIES
OFSOMEIMPORTANTMATERIALS:
EXPERIMENTALDATAAND
THEORETICALMODELS
SPECTROFLUORIMETRY
SPECTROSCOPICDATABASES
SPECTROSCOPY
SPECULARREFLECTION
SPEEDOFLIGHT
SPEEDOFSOUND
SPENTFUEL
SPHERE,DRAGCOEFFICIENTFOR
SPHERES,CONVECTIVEHEATAND
MASSTRANSFER
SPHERES,DRAGANDLIFT
SPHERES,SOLID,DRAGON

Figure5.Bafflearrangements.

SPHERICALPARTICLES
SPHERICITY
SPIRALCLASSIFIER
SPIRALHEATEXCHANGERS
SPIRALTUBES,USEINBENSON
BOILERS
SPIROPYRAN

Thecentertocenterdistancebetweenbafflesiscalledthebafflepitchandthiscanbeadjustedtovarythecrossflowvelocity.
Inpracticethebafflepitchisnotnormallygreaterthanadistanceequaltotheinsidediameteroftheshellorcloserthana
distanceequaltoonefifththediameteror50.8mm(2in)whicheverisgreater.Inordertoallowthefluidtoflowbackwards
and forwards across the tubes part of the baffle is cut away. The height of this part is referred to as the bafflecut and is
measuredasapercentageoftheshelldiameter,e.g.,25percentbafflecut.Thesizeofthebafflecut(orbafflewindow)needs
tobeconsideredalongwiththebafflepitch.Itisnormaltosizethebafflecutandbafflepitchtoapproximatelyequalizethe
velocitiesthroughthewindowandincrossflow,respectively.

SPLATTERING,EFFECTONJET
IMPINGEMENT

Therearetwomaintypesofbafflewhichgivelongitudinalflow:

SPONTANEOUSCONDENSATION
SPRAYCHARACTERISTICS
SPRAYCOLUMNS

OrificeBaffle,
RodBaffle.

SPRAYCONDENSERS
SPRAYCOOLING

Inthesetypesofbaffletheturbulenceisgeneratedastheflowcrossesthebaffle.

SPRAYDRYER
SPRAYDRYING
SPRAYEQUATION
SPRAYEVAPORATORS
SPRAYFLOWS

HeatTransferEnhancementsDevices
Therearethreemaintypes.

Specialsurfaces
Thesetendtobeusedtopromotenucleateboilingwhenthetemperaturedrivingforceissmall.

SPRAYFORMATION
SPRAYNOZZLES

Tubeinserts

SPRAYTOWERS

These are normally wire wound inserts or twisted tapes. They are normally used with medium to high viscosity fluids to

SPRAYERS

improveheattransferbyincreasingturbulence.Thereisalsosomeevidencethattheyreducefouling.Inordertousethese

SPRAYING

mosteffectivelytheexchangershouldbedesignedfortheiruse.Thisusuallyentailsincreasingtheshelldiameter,reducing

SPRAYS
SPREADINGOFLIQUIDSON

the tube length and the number of tubeside passes in order to allow for the increased pressure loss characteristics of the
devices.

LIQUIDS
SPUTTERING
STABILITY
STABILITYCRITERIA
STABILITYOFEMULSIONS
STABILITYOFFLOATINGBODIES
STACKS,POLLUTIONFROM

Extendedsurfaces
Theseareusedtoincreasetheheattransferareawhenastreamhasalowheattransfercoefficient.Themostcommontypeis
lowfintubingwheretypicallythefinsare1.5mmhighat19finsperinch.(SeealsoAugmentationofHeatTransfer.)

SelectionCriteria
Inmanycasestheonlywayofensuringoptimumselectionistodoafulldesignbasedonseveralalternativegeometries.In
thefirstinstance,however,severalimportantdecisionshavetobemadeconcerning:

STAGGEREDTUBEBANKS
STAGNANTFILMMODEL
STAGNATIONPOINT

allocationoffluidstotheshellsideandtubeside;
selectionofshelltype;

STAGNATIONPRESSURE

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STAGNATIONTEMPERATURE

selectionoffrontendheadertype;

STANDARDCONDITIONS
STANTONGAUGE
STANTONNUMBER

selectionofrearendheadertype;
selectionofexchangergeometry.

STANTON,SIRTHOMASEDWARD
(18651931)

Toalargeextenttheseoftendependoneachother.Forinstance,theallocationofadirtyfluidtotheshellsidedirectlyaffects

STARKBROADENING

theselectionofexchangertubelayout.

STARKNUMBER
STARS,FUSIONREACTIONSIN
STATICHEAD
STATICINSTABILITIESINTWO
PHASESYSTEMS
STATICMIXERS
STATICREGENERATORS
STATIONARYPHASE,SP,

Fluidallocation
Whendecidingwhichsidetoallocatethehotandcoldfluidsthefollowingneedtobetakenintoaccount,inorderofpriority.
1. Consideranyandeverysafetyandreliabilityaspectandallocatefluidsaccordingly.Neverallocatehazardousfluidssuch
theyarecontainedbyanythingotherthanconventionalboltedandgaskettedorweldedjoints.
2. Ensure that the allocation of fluids complies with established engineering practices, particularly those laid down in
customerspecifications.

CHROMATOGRAPHY
STATISTICALBANDMODELS
STATISTICALMECHANICS
STATISTICALTHEORY,OF
TURBULENTFLOW
STATISTICALTHERMODYNAMICS

3. Havingcompliedwiththeabove,allocatethefluidlikelytocausethemostseveremechanicalcleaningproblems(ifany)
tothetubeside.
4. If neither of the above are applicable, the allocation of the fluids should be decided only after running two alternative
designsandselectingthecheapest(thisistimeconsumingifhandcalculationsareusedbutprogramssuchasTASCfrom
theHeatTransferandFluidFlowService(HTFS)makethisatrivialtask).

STEAMENGINES
STEAMGASTURBINEUNITS

Shellselection

STEAMGENERATORS,NUCLEAR

Etypeshellsarethemostcommon.Ifasingletubepassisusedandprovidedtherearemorethanthreebaffles,thennear

STEAMJETEJECTORS

countercurrentflowisachieved.Iftwoormoretubepassesareused,thenitisnotpossibletoobtainpurecountercurrent

STEAMJETREFRIGERATION
STEAMTABLES

flowandthelogmeantemperaturedifferencemustbecorrectedtoallowforcombinedcocurrentandcountercurrentflow
usinganFfactor.

STEAMTURBINE

Gtype shells and H shells are normally specified only for horizontal thermosyphon reboilers. J shells and Xtype shells

STEAMWATERSEPARATION

should be selected if the allowable DP cannot be accommodated in a reasonable Etype design. For services requiring

STEELANDTUBECONDENSERS
STEELS
STEFAN'SLAW

multiple shells with removable bundles, Ftype shells can offer significant savings and should always be considered
providedtheyarenotprohibitedbycustomerspecifications

Frontheaderselection

STEFAN,JOSEF(18351893)

TheAtypefrontheaderisthestandardfordirtytubesidefluidsandtheBtypeisthestandardforcleantubesidefluids.The

STEFANBOLTZMANNCONSTANT

Atypeisalsopreferredbymanyoperatorsregardlessofthecleanlinessofthetubesidefluidincaseaccesstothetubesis

STEFANBOLTZMANNLAW

required.Donotuseothertypesunlessthefollowingconsiderationsapply.

STEFANMAXWELLEQUATIONS

ACtypeheadwithremovableshellshouldbeconsideredforhazardoustubesidefluids,heavybundlesorservicesrequiring

STEPWISEHEATRELEASE

frequentshellsidecleaning.TheNtypeheadisusedwhenhazardousfluidsareonthetubeside.ADtypeheadoraBtype

STEREOSCOPICIMAGING

headweldedtothetubesheetisusedforhighpressureapplications.Ytypeheadsareonlynormallyusedforsingletube

STEWARTNUMBER

passexchangerswhentheyareinstalledinlinewithapipeline.

STEWARTNUMBER
STEWARTSONTYPEFLOW

Rearheaderselection

STIELTJES'INTEGRAL

For normal service a Fixed Header (L, M, Ntypes) can be used provided that there is no overstressing due to differential

STIRREDTANKREACTOR
STIRREDTANKS

expansionandtheshellsidewillnotrequiremechanicalcleaning.Ifthermalexpansionislikelyafixedheaderwithabellows
canbeusedprovidedthattheshellsidefluidisnothazardous,theshellsidepressuredoesnotexceed35bar(500psia)and
theshellsidewillnotrequiremechanicalcleaning.

STIRREDVESSELPHASE
INVERSION

A Utube unit can be used to overcome thermal expansion problems and allow the bundle to be removed for cleaning.

STOCHASTICDIFFERENTIAL

However,countercurrentflowcanonlybeachievedbyusinganFtypeshellandmechanicalcleaningofthetubesidecanbe

EQUATIONS

difficult.

STOCHASTICPROCESS
STOICHIOMETRICCOMBUSTION

An Stype floating head should be used when thermal expansion needs to be allowed for and access to both sides of the
exchangerisrequiredfromcleaning.Otherrearheadtypeswouldnotnormallybeconsideredexceptforthespecialcases.

STOKESEQUATION
STOKESFLOW

SelectionofExchangerGeometry

STOKESLENGTH
STOKESPARADOX

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Tubeoutsidediameter
Fortheprocessindustry,19.05mm(3/4)tendstobethemostcommon.

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STOKESPROBLEM
STOKESSHIFT

Tubewallthickness

STOKESSTREAMFUNCTION

Referencemustbemadetoarecognizedpressurevesselcodetodecidethis.

STOKES'LAWFORSOLIDSPHERES
ANDSPHERICALBUBBLES

Tubelength

STOKESEINSTEINEQUATION

Foragivensurfacearea,thelongerthetubelengththecheapertheexchanger,althoughalongthinexchangermaynotbe

STOKESEINSTEINEQUATION,FOR

feasible.

DIFFERENTIALCOEFFICIENTSIN
LIQUIDS
STOMATALCONTROLOFWATER
LOSSFROMPLANTS
STOPPINGDISTANCE
STORE'SFORMULA
STRAIN
STRAINGAUGES

Tubelayout
45or90degreelayoutsarechosenifmechanicalcleaningisrequired,otherwisea30degreelayoutisoftenselected,because
itprovidesahigherheattransferandhencesmallerexchanger.

Tubepitch
Thesmallestallowablepitchof1.25timesthetubeoutsidediameterisnormallyusedunlessthereisarequirementtousea
largerpitchduetomechanicalcleaningortubeendwelding.

STRAINRATE
STRANGEATTRACTORS

Numberoftubepasses

STRATIFICATION,UNSTABLEAND

This is usually one or an even number (not normally greater than 16). Increasing the number of passes increases the heat

STABLE

transfercoefficientbutcaremustbetakentoensurethatthetubesidev2isnotgreaterthanabout10,000kg/ms2.

STRATIFIEDGASLIQUIDFLOW
STRATIFIEDWAVYFLOW

Shelldiameter

STRATOSPHERE

Standard pipe is normally used for shell diameters up to 610 mm (24). Above this the shell is made from rolled plate.

STREAMANALYSISMETHOD

Typicallyshelldiametersrangefrom152mmto3000mm(6to120).

STREAMAVAILABILITY
STREAMFUNCTION

Baffletype

STREAMLINE

Single segmental baffles are used by default but other types are considered if pressure drop constraints or vibration is a

STREAMLINEFLOW
STREAMLINEDBODIES,FLOWOVER
STREAMLINES
STREAMLINES,VISUALIZATION

problem.

Bafflespacing
Thisisdecidedaftertryingtobalancethedesireforincreasedcrossflowvelocityandtubesupport(smallerbafflepitch)and
pressuredropconstraints(largerbafflepitch).TEMAprovidesguidanceonthemaximumandminimumbafflepitch.

STREAMTUBE
STRESS

Bafflecut

STRESSINFLUIDS

Thisdependsonthebaffletypebutistypically45%forsinglesegmentalbafflesand25%fordoublesegmentalbaffles.

STRESSINSOLIDMATERIALS
STRESSTENSOR

Nozzlesandimpingement

STRESSVECTOR

For shellside nozzles the v2 should not be greater than about 9000 in kg/ms2. For tubeside nozzles the maximum v2

STRESS,NORMAL

should not exceed 2230 kg/ms2 for noncorrosive, nonabrasive single phase fluids and 740 kg/ms2 for other fluids.

STRESS,SHEAR

Impingement protection is always required for gases which are corrosive or abrasive, saturated vapors and two phases

STRETCHINGSHEET

mixtures.Shellorbundleentranceorexitareasshouldbedesignedsuchthatav2of5950kg/ms2isnotexceeded.

STRETCHINGSURFACE
STRETCHING/STABILIZINGEFFLUX

MaterialsofConstruction

FLUIDFILMS

In general, shell and tube exchangers are made of metal, but for specialist applications (e.g., involving strong acids or

STROUHALNUMBER

pharmaceuticals),othermaterialssuchasgraphite,plasticandglassmaybeused.

STRUCTUREOFPLASMASPECTRA
STRUCTUREDSURFACE
STUARTNUMBER
SUBCHANNELANALYSIS

ThermalDesign
The thermal design of a shell and tube exchanger is an iterative process which is normally carried out using computer
programs from organizations such as the Heat transfer and Fluid Flow Service (HTFS) or Heat Transfer Research
Incorporated (HTRI). However, it is important that the engineer understands the logic behind the calculation. In order to

SUBCHANNELMIXING

calculatetheheattransfercoefficientsandpressuredrops,initialdecisionsmustbemadeonthesidesthefluidsareallocated,

SUBCOOLEDTWISTEDFLOW

thefrontandrearheadertype,shelltype,baffletype,tubediameterandtubelayout.Thetubelength,shelldiameter,baffle

SUBCOOLING

pitch and number of tube passes are also selected and these are normally the main items that are altered during each

SUBCOOLINGEFFECTSONPOOL

iterationinordertomaximizetheoverallheattransferwithinspecifiedallowablepressuredrops.

BOILING
SUBLAYERFENCE
SUBLIMATION

Themainstepsinthecalculationaregivenbelowtogetherwithcalculationmethodsintheopenliterature:
1. Calculatetheshellsideflowdistribution[UseBellDelawareMethod,seeHewitt,Shires,andBott(1994)].

SUBMERGEDCOMBUSTION

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SUBMERGEDCOMBUSTION
EVAPORATORS
SUBMERGEDJETS
SUBROUTINES
SUBSTITUTENATURALGAS(SNG)
SUBSURFACEBARRIER
SUBUNDALFLOW

2. Calculatetheshellsideheattransfercoefficient(UseBellDelawareMethod)
3. Calculatetubesideheattransfercoefficient(see,forexample,Tubes:SinglePhaseHeatTransferIn).
4. Calculatetubesidepressuredrop(see,forexample,PressureDrop,SinglePhase).
5. Calculatewallresistanceandoverallheattransfercoefficient(seeOverallHeatTransferCoefficientandFouling).
6. Calculatemeantemperaturedifference(seeMeanTemperatureDifference).

SUCTION
SUCTIONEFFECTS
SULFUR
SULFURDIOXIDE

7. Calculatearearequired.
8. Comparearearequiredwithareaofassumedgeometryandallowedtubesideandshellsidepressuredropwithcalculated
values.

SULFURHEXAFLUORIDE
SULFURPOLLUTION

9. AdjustassumedgeometryandrepeatcalculationsuntilArearequiredisachievedwithintheallowablepressuredrops.

SULFURICACID

BooksbyE.A.D.Saunders[Saunders(1988)]andG.F.Hewitt,G.L.Shires,andT.R.Bott[Hewittetal.(1994)]providesa

SUN,HEATTRANSFERIN

goodoverviewoftubularthermaldesignmethodsandexamplecalculations.

SUPERPHENIX
SUPERCAVITATION
SUPERCOMPUTING
SUPERCONDUCTINGMAGNETS

MechanicalDesign
The mechanical design of a shell and tube heat exchanger provides information on items such as shell thickness, flange
thickness, etc. These are calculated using a pressure vessel design code such as the Boiler and Pressure Vessel code from
ASME(AmericanSocietyofMechanicalEngineers)andtheBritishMasterPressureVesselStandard,BS5500.ASMEisthe

SUPERCONDUCTORS

mostcommonlyusedcodeforheatexchangersandisin11sections.SectionVIII(ConfinedPressureVessels)ofthecodeis

SUPERCRITICALHEATTRANSFER

themostapplicabletoheatexchangersbutSectionsIIMaterialsandSectionVNonDestructiveTestingarealsorelevant.

SUPERFICIALVELOCITY
SUPERHEATING
SUPERSATURATION

Both ASME and BS5500 are widely used and accepted throughout the world but some countries insist that their own
national codes are used. In order to try and simplify this the International Standards Organization is now attempting to
developanewinternationallyrecognizedcodebutitislikelytobeasometimebeforethisisaccepted.

SUPERSONICEXTERNALFLOW
SUPERSONICFLOW
SUPERSONICFLOW,INNOZZLES
SUPERSONICHETEROGENEOUS
FLOW

References
1. TEMASeventhEdition.(1988)TubularExchangerManufacturersAssociation.
2. Saunders,E.A.D.(1988)HeatExchangersSelection,DesignandConstruction,LongmanScientificandTechnical.
3. Hewitt,G.F,Shires,G.L.,andBott,T.R.(1994)ProcessHeatTransfer,CRCPress.

SUPERSONICJET

4. BoilerandPressureVesselcode,ASME(AmericanSocietyofMechanicalEngineers).

SUPERUNDALFLOW

5. BritishMasterPressureVesselStandard,BS5500.

SUPPRESSIONOFNUCLEATE
BOILING

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