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# TABLE OF CONTENT

1.1

ABSTRACT/SUMMARY

Pages
2

1.2

INTRODUCTION

1.3

OBJECTIVES

1.4

THEORY

1.5

## APPARATUS AND MATERIALS

1.6

METHODOLOGY/PROCEDURE

1.7

RESULTS

10

1.8

SAMPLE CALCULATION

14

1.9

DISCUSSION

17

2.0

CONCLUSIONS

18

2.1

RECOMMENDATIONS

18

2.2

REFERENCE

19

2.3

APPENDICES

19

ABSTRACT

Heat exchanger is a device that built for efficient heat transfer from one medium to another.
There are two type of flow in double pipe heat exchanger that is counter-flow and co-current
flow. Both hot and cold fluids enter the heat exchanger at the same end and move in the same
direction in parallel flow (co-current). On the other hand, the hot and cold fluids enter the
heat exchanger at opposite ends and flow in opposite directions in counter flow. The heat
exchanger also affected by hot water temperature inlet and the flow rate variation. Hot water
taken from the pump are discharge while the cold water is taken from the pipe. It has been
used in all fields in our life especially, in industries field. They use the heat exchanger to treat
the hot fluid stream either it product or undesired product. For this experiment we want to
determine the inlet and outlet temperature of cold and hot water streams at steady state in
counter-current shell and tube heat exchanger, to calculate the heat transfer and heat loss for
energy balance study and also to find the LMTD and heat transfer coefficients and to perform
and understanding the temperature profile and effect of flow rates on the heat transfer. The
experiment is conducted using counter-current flow in shell and tube heat exchanger. The hot
water flow rates (FT1) is set to fix and cold water flow rates (FT2) is varied. The experiment
is repeated by varied the FT1 and fixed the FT2. The result shows the effectiveness of heat
transfer at constant FT1 and FT2 is 0.05972 and 0.0593 respectively. As a conclusion, the
higher the rate of heat transfer, the higher the effectiveness of heat transfer.

INTRODUCTION

Heat exchanger is an equipment built for efficient heat transfer from one medium to another.
Different applications of heat exchanger require different types of hardware and
configurations of heat transfer equipment. There are several types of heat exchanger such as
double pipe heat exchanger, compact heat exchanger, shell and tube heat exchanger and plate
and frame heat exchanger. In this experiment, shell and tube heat exchanger was the only
apparatus are used. It is can be classified as parallel flow and counters flow and cross flow.
For parallel flow, the hot and cold fluids are enters and exit flow in same direction. For
counter flow, the hot and cold fluid flow in opposite thus the exchanger and exit exchanger
2

from opposite ends (P.Arthur., 1989). The temperature gradient or the differences in
temperature facilitate this transfer of heat. Transfer of heat happens by three principle means:
radiation, conduction and convection. In the use of heat exchangers radiation does take place.
However, in comparison to conduction and convection, radiation does not play a major role.
Conduction occurs as the heat from the higher temperature fluid passes through the solid wall.
To maximize the heat transfer, the wall should be thin and made of a very conductive
material.

## Figure 1 - Diagram of Parallel and Counter Flow Configurations

OBJECTIVES

1. To determine the inlet and outlet temperature of cold and hot water streams at steady
state in counter-current shell and tube heat exchanger.
2. To calculate the heat transfer and heat loss for energy balance study.
3. To find the LMTD and heat transfer coefficients.
4. To perform and understanding the temperature profile and effect of flow rates on the
heat transfer.

THEORY

Heat exchangers transfer heat from one working fluid to another. For instance, steam
generators, feed water heaters, re-heaters and condensers are all examples of heat exchangers
found in nuclear power systems. The heat transfer rate across a heat exchanger is usually
expressed in the form
Q = UA TLM & (1)

Where:
Q& = heat transfer rate
U = overall heat transfer coefficient
A = heat exchanger area
TLm = average temperature difference between the fluids
The overall heat transfer coefficient is a function of the flow geometry, fluid properties and
material composition of the heat exchanger. The average temperature difference between the
fluids is in general a function of the fluid properties and flow geometry as well. Heat
exchanger design requires consideration of each of these factors.

## Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient

The overall heat transfer coefficient represents the total resistance to heat transfer from one
fluid to another. The functional form of U or the product UA, may be derived for any
particular geometry by performing a standard conduction analysis on the system of interest.
To illustrate this, consider first a planar wall of thickness L, subject to convection on both
sides.

## Figure 2: Planar Wall Heat Exchanger

The heat transfer rate from the hot fluid to the wall for a surface area defined by the length
segment z is given by Newtons Law of Cooling as

q=hc1AS[TH-T1]

Equation [1]

TH-T1= q/(hc1As)

Equation [2]

such that

## Gives the temperature drop from the hot to cold fluid as

Equation 3a and 3b
is the Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient. In actual heat exchanger design, the planar wall is
seldom used. A more common design involves heat transfer across a tube wall as illustrated
in Figure 2.

## q =UA [TH TC]

Equation [4]

Where

Equation [5]

Since the heat transfer area on the interior of the tubes is different from that on the exterior in
cylindrical geometry, the product UA is normally used to describe heat exchanger
performance. Equations 4 the heat transfer across a small length segment z where the hot
and cold fluid temperatures can be considered constant. In reality, the hot and cold fluid
temperatures change continuously along the length of the heat exchanger.

APPARATUS

## Flow rates indicator

Temperature indicator

Temperature controller

Main switch

Concentric tube

Selector valves

Flowmeter

Control valves

## Hot water inlet

Pump inlet

Storage tank

PROCEDURE
GENERAL START-UP
1. A quick inspection was performed to make sure that equipment is in a proper working
condition.
2. Closed all valves except V1and V12.
3. Hot water was filled up via water supply hose connected to valve V27. The valve
closed when the tank was full.
4. The valve V28 are opened to fill up the cold water and leave the valve opened fully
continues water supply.
5. The drain hose was connected to the cold water drain point.
6. The main power and heater was switch on for the hot water tank and the temperature
controller was set to 500C.
7. The temperature was allowed in the water tank controller to reach the set point.
8. The equipment was ready to be run.

## GENERAL SHUT-DOWN PROCEDURE

1. The heater was switch off. Waited until the hot water temperature dropped below
40C.
2. The pump P1 and P2 were switch off.
3. The main power was switch off.
4. All the water in the process line was drained off. The water in the hot and cold tanks
was retained for the next laboratory session.
5. All the valves were closed.

## Experiment A: Counter-Current Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger.

1. The general start-up procedures were performed in Section 6.1.
2. The valves were switched to counter-current Shell & Tube Heat Exchanger
arrangement.
3. The pump P1 and P2 were switched on.
4. The valves V3 and V14 is opened and adjusted to obtain the desired flow rates for hot
and cold water streams respectively.
5. The system was allowed to reach steady state for 10 minutes.
6. The FT1, FT2, TT1, TT2, TT3 and TT4 were recorded.
7. The pressure drop measurement was recorded for shell and tube-side for pressure drop
studies.
8. The steps 4 t0 7 were repeated for different combinations of flow rates FT1 and FT2
as in the result sheet.
9. The pumps P1 and P2 were switched off after the completion of experiment.
10. The system was shut-down.

RESULT

TIME
(min)

FT1
(LPM)

FT2
(LPM)

TT1
(0C)

TT2
(0C)

TT3
(0C)

TT4
(0C)

TT5
(0C)

DPT1
(mmH2O
)

DPT2
(mmH2O)

10

37.6

28.3

46.2

49.7

50.4

93

10

10

44

29.7

47.5

49.2

50

91

20

10

39.5

30.2

46.7

49.7

50.7

88

13

30

10

37.5

30.7

46.1

49.0

49.9

89

58

40

10

36.3

31.1

45.5

48.8

49.9

86

106

50

10

10

35.8

31.4

45.6

49.1

49.8

91

193

TIME(min)

FT1 (LPM)

FT2 (LPM)

Q (W)

TLM (C)

U (W/m2. C)

10

10

10

233.92

10.24

187.71

20

10

825.48

13.09

518.17

30

10

1197.5

13.36

736.51

40

10

1817.17

13.43

1111.81

50

10

10

2408.93

13.75

1439.56

10

## B. Constant Cold Water Flow rates: 10 LPM

TIME
(min)

FT1
(LPM)

FT2
(LPM)

TT1
(0C)

TT2
(0C)

TT3
(0C)

TT4
(0C)

TT5
(0C)

DPT1
(mmH2O)

DPT2
(mmH2O)

10

33.9

29.2

43.3

49.5

51.5

-5

214

10

33.1

30.2

41.2

49.8

50.5

-5

216

10

33.5

30.9

44.2

49.5

50.3

-5

209

10

33.8

31.1

44.8

49.6

50.2

-3

216

10

34.9

31.0

44.8

48.9

49.9

12

215

10

10

10

35.7

31.1

46.7

50.4

51.0

26

216

Time(min)

FT1 (LPM)

FT2 (LPM)

Q (W)

TLM (C)

U (W/m2. C)

10

10

10

1184.63

13.65

711.36

20

10

1459.40

14.61

820.79

30

10

1982.32

14.73

1105.81

40

10

2257.94

13.89

1335.73

50

10

10

2545.45

15.15

1380.58

11

Temperature Profile
60
50
40
Hot Stream

30

Cold Stream

20
10
0

## Graph 1: Temperature Profile Hot Water Flow rates

Temperature Profile
60
50
40
Hot stream

30

Cold Stream
20
10
0

12

(W/M2.K)

Flow Rate
1600
1400
1200
1000
800
600
400
200
0
0

10

12

## Cold water Flow Rate (LPM)

Graph 3: Overall Heat Transfer Coefficients Vs Cold Water Flow rate Of Fixed Hot
Flow rate

(W/M2.K)

Flow Rate
1600

1400
1200
1000
800
600
400
200
0
0

10

12

## Hot water Flow Rate (LPM)

Graph 4: Overall Heat Transfer Coefficients Vs Hot Water Flow rate Of Fixed Cold
Flow rate

13

SAMPLE CALCULATION
Constant Hot Water Flow rates
= DL x tube count

Area, A

= (0.00775 m) (0.5 m) x 10
= 0.1217 m3
Q = mc T = UA TLM
Taverage =

+
2

Find Q:
(Heat transfer)

## Q = Volume flow rate x density x heat capacity x difference

temperature between hot in and hot out
(2L/min) x (988.998 kg/m3) x (1 m3/1000 L) x (1000 W/ (1kJ/s)) x
(1 min/60s) x (4.174 kJ/kg. K) x 1.7 K
= 233.92W

Find TLM:

Counter flow
dti = temperature of inlet primary temperature of outlet secondary
dt0 = temperature of outlet primary temperature of inlet secondary
LMTD = (dt0 dti ) / ln (dt0 / dti)
dti = 49.2 44 = 5.2
dt0 = 47.5 29.7 = 17.8
LMTD = (17.8 5.2) / ln (17.8 / 5.2)
=10.24C

Find U:

Q = UA TLM
U = 233.92W/ (0.1217 m2 x 10.24C)
= 187.71 W/m2. C

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Find :

Cmin =(

1000 60

x Cp) / 5

## = ((0.033 x 4.174) + (0.066 x 4.174) + (0.099 x 4.174) +

(0.131 x 4.174) + (0.165 x 4.174)/5
=0.412 kJ/s.K
Qmax= 0.412 (245.8 193.1)
= 21712.4 W
Q = (233.92 +825.48 + 1197.5 + 1817.17 +2408.93 )/5
= 1296.6 W
= 1296.6 / 21712.4
= 0.05972

Find Q:
(Heat transfer)

## Q = Volume flow rate x density x heat capacity x difference

temperature between hot in and hot out
= (2L/min) x (990.04 kg/m3) x (1 m3/1000 L) x (1000 W/ (1kJ/s)) x
(1 min/60s) x (4.174 kJ/kg. K) x 8.6 K
= 1184.63 W

Find TLM:

Counter flow
dti = temperature of inlet primary temperature of outlet secondary
dt0 = temperature of outlet primary temperature of inlet secondary
LMTD = (dt0 dti ) / ln (dt0 / dti)
dti = 49.8 33.1 = 16.7
15

## dt0 = 41.2 30.2 = 11

LMTD = (11 16.7) / ln (11 / 16.7)
=13.65C
Find U:

Q = UA TLM
= 1184.63W/ (0.122 m2 x 13.65 C)
= 711.36 W/m2. C

Find :

Cmin =(

1000 60

x Cp) / 5

## = ((0.033 x 4.174) + (0.066 x 4.174) + (0.099 x 4.174) +

(0.131 x 4.174) + (0.165 x 4.174)/5
=0.412 kJ/s.K
Qmax= 0.412 (248.2 - 171)
= 31806.4 W
Q = (1184.63 +1459.40 + 1982.32 + 2257.94 + 2545.45 )/5
= 1885.95 W
= 1885.95 / 31806.4
= 0.0593

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DISCUSSIONS

In this experiment, the objectives are achieved when the experiment was carryout. First, the
objective is to determine the inlet and outlet temperature of cold and hot water streams in and
out at steady state in counter-current shell and tube heat exchanger. Second is to calculate the
heat transfer and heat loss for energy balance study and also to find the LMTD and heat
transfer coefficients. Lastly, objective of this experiment is to perform and understanding the
temperature profile and effect of flow rates on the heat transfer.
From the result, it shows that hot and cold water from inlet and outlet have difference
temperature. Therefore, it proved that heat exchangers transfer heat from one working fluid to
another. This can be applied to industries field. A heat loss at hot water streams are increase
from 2 LPM until 10 LPM. The maximum heat loss energy for constant hot water is
1439.56W at 10 LPM. Also, heat loss at cold water streams are increasing from 2LPM until
10 LPM. For cold water streams the maximum heat loss energy is 1380.58 W at 10 LPM.
The highest average temperature difference between the fluids for the hot water
streams is 13.75 C at 10 LPM. While for the cold water streams the highest average
temperature difference between the fluids is 15.15C at 10 LPM. Increasing LPM are
increased the heat transfer coefficient for hot and cold water streams. The maximum heat
transfer coefficient at hot water streams is 1439.56 W/m2.C at 10 LPM while for cold water
streams heat transfer coefficient is 1380.58 W/m2 C at 10 LPM. The overall heat transfer
coefficient represents the total resistance to heat transfer from one fluid to another.
Generally, temperature profile hot and cold water flow rates show that hot water
higher than cold water. The heat transfer is dependent on the flow rate to increase for both
temperature profiles. It shows that the higher the flowrate the lower the heat transfer between
the fluids.

17

CONCLUSIONS

From the result of this experiment, it shows that temperature of hot and cold water decrease
and increase with higher difference of temperature inlet and outlet. It shows the counter
current heat exchanger have efficient heaat transfer. Also, it proved that heat exchangers
transfer heat from one working fluid to another that have been applied in our life such shower.
The heat loss at hot water streams are increase from 2 LPM until 10 LPM. Heat transfer
coefficient for hot and cold water streams are increase as increase LPM.

## The overall heat

transfer coefficient represents the total resistance to heat transfer from one fluid to another. A
temperature profile hot and cold water flow rates shows that hot water is higher than cold
water. The effects of flow rate on heat transfer are increase for both temperature profiles.

RECOMMENDATION

## 1. Ensure that the flow rates obtained are measured accurately.

2. The temperatures should be taken at least 15 minutes after they reach the desired
temperature for best results.
3. Replace the water with other materials such as hydrocarbon or refrigerant in order to
expose with the different physical and properties of the fluid.
4. Make sure the parameters such as temperature, pressure or flow rates is constant
before collecting the results.

18

REFERENCES

1. https://www.scribd.com/doc/23106551/Heat-Exchanger-Lab-Report
2. Arthur P.Fraas. (1989). Heat Exchanger Design.
ZuQSVpIHYBA&url=http://www.solution.com.my/A3pdf/HE158C(A3).pdf
&ved=0CBwQFjAB&usg=AFQjCNFPYOzZ8jBHin__s5NLZdfWc4orjA&sig
2=TKipDuzUCPLctNrAQD6pqA

APPENDICES

19

## Table B1: Properties of water (saturated liquid)

C
21.11
26.67
30.00
31.00
32.00
32.22
34.00
34.30
34.65
35.15
35.65
35.90
36.20
36.40
37.25
47.20
48.89
50.00
51.50
54.44

CpkJ/kg . K
4.179
4.179
4.176
4.175
4.174
4.174
4.174
4.174
4.174
4.174
4.174
4.174
4.174
4.174
4.174
4.174
4.174
4.175
4.176
4.179

kg/m
997.40
995.80
995.26
995.10
994.94
994.94
994.23
994.14
993.99
993.83
993.61
993.53
993.38
993.35
993.02
989.42
988.80
988.18
987.36
985.70
20

54.65
4.179
985.61
55.00
4.179
985.46
55.05
4.179
985.42
55.50
4.179
985.22
56.50
4.180
984.71
57.00
4.180
984.48
57.25
4.180
984.41
59.70
4.181
983.16
60.00
4.179
983.30
65.00
4.183
983.60
65.55
4.183
980.30
http://www4.ncsu.edu/~doster/NE400/Text/HeatExchangers/HeatExchangers.PDF

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