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# System analysis based on the frequency response

## Performance specifications in the frequency domain

For the closed loop systems
The general frequency response of a closed loop system is shown in Fig.
(1) Resonant frequency r:
Assume :

A( ) ( j )

r satisfy :

A()

G ( j )
1 G ( j ) H ( j )

d
A( )
0
d
r

Mr
A(0)
0.707A(0)

M r A( )

(3) Bandwidth b:

b satisfy :

A( )
b

2
A(0) 0.707 A(0)
2

## Performance specifications in the frequency domain

For the open loop systems
(1) Gain crossover frequency c: c satisfy :

G( j) H ( j)

## (2) Gain margin h:

h

1
G( j ) H ( j )

Lh (dB) 20 log G( j ) H ( j )

Here g satisfies :

G( j ) H ( j ) 1800
g

## (3) Phase margin :

1800 G( j ) H ( j )
Here c satisfies :

G( j ) H ( j ) 1
c

## Relationship of the performance specifications

between the frequency and time domain
performance specifications in the time domain
Overshoot
Setting time

%
ts

ess

## performance specifications in the frequency domain

Closed-loop

Open-loop

Resonant peak M r

Gain-crossover frequency

Resonant frequency
Bandwidth

Gain margin

h / Lh

Phase margin

## Relationship of the performance specifications

between the frequency and time domain
(1) Bandwidth b(or Crossover frequency c )
Generally b(or c ) ts

Setting time ts

## because of c b .(higher order system)

(2) Resonance peak Mr

Overshoot %

Normally Mr %
h and %
Some experiential formulas:
Overshoot % [0.16 0.4( M r 1)] 100%
and

Mr

(1.1 M r 1.8)

1
sin
k

Settling time t s
, k 2 1.5
1 2.5
1
c
sin
sin

35

900

## Relationship of the performance specifications

between the frequency and time domain
For the typical first-order system:
G( s)

1
1
( s )
Ts
Ts 1

t s 3T

b 1 / T
-3 dB

## The bandwidth is the frequency b , at which the frequency response

Has declined 3 dB from its low-frequency value.

## Relationship of the performance specifications

between the frequency and time domain
For the typical 2th-order system:

n 2
n 2
G( s)
( s ) 2
2
s( s 2 n )
s 2 n s n
We have:
b n (1 2 2 ) 2 4 2 4 4

r n 1 2 2 (0
Mr

1
2 1 2

c n
tg 1
h

1 4 4 2 2
2
1 4 4 2 2

2
)
2

, n % , t s , t r ...

, n % , t s , t r ...

## three frequency band theorem

Open loop transfer function
Gs H s

s T s 1T

2 T s 1

K j s 1 l2 s 2 2 l l s 1
v

2 2
k

k k

(db) 20lg G
[-20]
[40or60]

[-20]
0

1/ T1

0.1c

(2 10)c
[- 40]

low freqency

middlefreqency

band

band

10c

high freqency
band

[-60]

## three frequency band theorem

The performance analysis of the closed-loop system according
to the open-loop frequency response.
1. For the low frequency band
the low frequency band is mainly concerned with the control accuracy of the system.

The more negative the slope of L() is , the higher the control accuracy
of the system.
The bigger the magnitude of L() is, the smaller the steady-state error ess is.
2. For the middle frequency band
The middle frequency band is mainly concerned with the transient performance of
the systems.
c ts ;

h and %

The slope of L() in the middle frequency band should be the 20dB/dec
and with a certain width .

## three frequency band theorem

3. For the high frequency band
The high frequency band is mainly concerned with the ability of the system
restraining the high frequency noise.
The smaller the magnitude of L() is, the stronger the ability of the system
restraining the high frequency noise is.
Example 1: compare the performances between the system and system
Solution :
ess > ess
ts > ts

L( ) 20 log G( j ) H ( j )
40

% = %

## The ability of the system

restraining the high frequency
noise is stronger than system

0dB

20
40

## Frequency response of the closed-loop system

How to obtain the closed-loop frequency response in terms
of the open-loop frequency response.
s
j

G s
1 G s

G j
1 G j

G j G e jG

j M e

G e j
1 G e j

M ( ) f1 G , G

( ) f 2 G , G

M ( ) f1 G , G

( ) f 2 G , G

## The constant M circles: How to obtain the magnitude frequency response of

the closed-loop system in terms of the open-loop frequency response
(refer to text book)
The constant N circles: How to obtain the phase frequency characteristic of
the closed-loop system in terms of the open-loop frequency response
(refer to text book)
N.B.Nichols transformed the constant M and N circles to
the log-magnitudephase diagram, and the resulting chart is called
the Nichols chart.
The Nichols chart: How to obtain the closed-loop frequency response in
terms of the open-loop frequency response
(refer to text book)