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Nation-building in Malaysia 1946-1974, James P.

Ongkili, Oxford University Press,


Singapore, 1985.

Muka surat 10
The governor of the straits settlement was also High Commissioner to the Malay
States, from 1888. He presided over both the settlement executive councils and the
faderal council, thus ensuring the coordination of British direct and indirect rule in
the colony and the nine Malay states. As the Higiest-ranking British in Malaya, the
governor cum High Commissioner, with the aid of his usually, energetic Residents
and advisers, was able not only to represent the view of Whitehall but also to
promote the growth of British Malaya in which, from days of intervention in the late
19th century until the Japanese invasion in 1941, his advice had to be asked and
acted upon all questions other those touching Malay Religion and Customs . The
Malay Rulers, though nominally still sovereign, had come under the effective
dominance of the British officials.
Mukasurat 11
Walaupun jelas bahawa British impose an effective administration control over
Malaya between 1874 and the Second World war, it is important to bear in mind
that not the whole of the Peninsula was directly colonized. While the Straits
Settlement were a Crown Colony from 1867, the nine Malay states remained legally
autonomous. Each states had it own civil service, albeit heavily influenced by the
British Resident or Adviser and the Kerajaan functioned in the name of the Ruler.
The indirect rule over the Malay states allowed the survival of a lingering impression
and belief among the Malay Ruler that they still held the patrimony of their states
and that the British were in theor mids as friends and protectors who therefore
should be treated with Malay traditional courtesy and afforded the dignity due to
any well-meaning ally.
Muka surat 39.
Since it was British policy for post-war Malaya which highlighted Malay loyalist and
patriotic sentiments. (Malayan Union)
Muka surat 53.
Although the Malayan Union scheme had been attempted and found unacceptable
to the community that mattered most, namely the Malays, Britain had no intention
of relinquishing Malaya forthwith. The only feasible alternative was to placate the
nationalistic Malay by agreeding to modify the original British proposals as much as
necessary to suit the circumstances of time.

Muka surat 88.


The imposition of rigid and wide-ranging Emergency Regulations in June 1948
prompted most of the earlier political groupings either to dissolve voluntarily or to
suspend activities.
Hence, constitutional discussions on the countrys future were apparently placed in
abeyance until the stringency and threat to stability of the Emergency abated.
The 1952 Ordinance maintained the provisions on language qualifications as they
existed in the 1948 Federation Agreement. Among other things, reasonable
proficiency in Malay or ENglis was required of the applicants for registration or
naturalization as federal citizen.
Muka surat 105.
Under British rule and protection befor 1946, the Strait Settlements, the Federate
Malay States and the Unfederated Malay States had a systematically thought-out
programme of education which was subtly geared to the maintenance of a plural
society in Malaya and which the Malay backward and rural.
Malay pupils were given free elementary education in Jawi and Romanized Malay
from the beginning of the 20th century