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17 просмотров15 страницA high-gain Observer-Based PD control for robot Manipulator

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A high-gain Observer-Based PD control for robot Manipulator

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17 просмотров15 страницA high-gain Observer-Based PD control for robot Manipulator

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114

HARMONIC DRIVE GEARS

RACHED DHAOUADIa,* and FATHI GHORBELb

a

Division of Electrical, Electronics and Computer Engineering,

American University of Sharjah, P.O. Box 26666, Sharjah, UAE;

b

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Rice University, 6100 Main Street,

Houston, TX 77005, USA

In this article, a mathematical model and its parameter identification scheme are proposed for harmonic drive

gears with compliance and hysteresis. The hysteresis phenomenon in harmonic drives is described by a

nonlinear differential equation representing the torquedisplacement relationship across the flexpline of the

harmonic drive. The representation is equivalent to having the combination of nonlinear stiffness and

nonlinear viscous damping. Numerical simulations along with experimental data have been used to validate

the proposed modeling concept.

Keywords: Harmonic drive gear; Hysteresis; Nonlinear stiffness; Nonlinear ordinary differential equation

1. INTRODUCTION

Harmonic drives have been designed and used in demanding industrial and

instrumentation servo systems such as industrial robots and medical equipment,

where they provide high velocity reduction in a relatively small package permitting

high torque amplification with only small motors. Numerous contributions have been

made to the intuitive understanding and analytical description of harmonic drives.

However, their inherent nonlinear characteristics have not been clearly analyzed. The

three main nonlinear transmission attributes in harmonic drives responsible for

motion transmission performance degradation include nonlinear stiffness, friction,

and kinematic error. The transmission compliance and the internal dynamic friction

mechanisms, resulting in hysteresis curves when torque is plotted against angular

displacements, are controversial issues regarding the primary source of energy storage

and dissipation in harmonic drives [10,11,1315]. The accurate modeling of a total

harmonic drive system (including the actuator, harmonic drive, sensors, and load)

presents therefore a difficult problem. In much of the literature, the actuators providing

the drive torques are modeled as pure torque sources, or as first-order lags. Numerous

models have been proposed also to represent either the general system dynamics or

*Corresponding author. E-mail: rdhaouadi@aus.ac.ae

ISSN 0232-9298 print: ISSN 1029-4902 online 200? Taylor & Francis Ltd

DOI: 10.1080/0232929032000115137

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some aspects of nonlinear friction and compliance effects. The majority of these models

have been either too complicated, with parameters that are difficult to determine, or too

simple, assuming a linearized model and neglecting the nonlinear effects. The physical

realities of the system have therefore limited the acceptance of these models. There is

therefore a need to better understand the kinematic, dynamic, and transmission properties of harmonic drive gears, and their interaction with actuators and external loads.

The hysteresis phenomenon has been also studied in many other areas of engineering.

The most familiar example is the ferromagnetic hysteresis. The magnetic hysteresis

model admits descriptions in terms of hysteresis operators [12], or in terms of differential

equations. The former description is used during mathematical analysis in order to get

existence, uniqueness, and regularity results. The latter description is very useful for

numerical computations and construction of the global model in terms of partial

models given by dynamic equations. Bouc [1] used differential equations to model the

hysteresis relationship. His model is based on the variation of the multivalued sign function. The problem of describing a material with hysteresis can reduce to that of finding a

nonlinear or a piecewise linear function of the input signal v and the output signal w, so

that w forms a classical hysteresis loop when v is a sinusoid. The work of Hodgdon [8,9]

and Coleman and Hodgdon [5,6] shows that Boucs model is useful in applied electromagnetics because the functions and parameters can be fine tuned to match experimental

results in a given situation. Choua and Stromsoe [2,3] and Chua and Bass [4] also

presented another general theory of hysteresis, considering constitutive models that

take the form of first order differential equations. The main advantages of their

models over existing models is its simplicity and the constructive procedure available

for determining the nonlinear functions describing the model.

This article deals with the mathematical modeling of hysteresis in harmonic drives for

the purpose of developing effective controllers for electro-mechanical actuators with harmonic drives. Our proposed approach uses differential equations to model the hysteresis

relationship, which is resulting from the combined effect of the nonlinear flexibility of the

flexpline and friction. In our case, position and speed satisfy an Euler-like differential

equation describing the system dynamics. The representation of the hysterisis phenomenon by a differential equation is a useful approach to describe the overall harmonic

drive system with ordinary differential equations that are smooth and well posed [1,3].

The problem of describing the harmonic drive hysteresis can reduce to that of finding

two nonlinear functions of the angular displacement and speed, one is representing

the nonlinear stiffness and the other the nonlinear viscous damping, so that the combination of both forms a classical hysteresis loop when the displacement is a sinusoid.

This article is organized as follows. Section 2 presents the harmonic drive system and

the experimental setup. Section 3 presents the proposed dynamic model of hysteresis.

The dynamics of the setup including the new harmonic drive model is given in

Section 4 and the parameters identification procedure in Section 5. The simulation

and experimental results with the model validation, discussion, and conclusions are

given in Sections 6 and 7.

The harmonic drive system considered for our analysis is composed of a motor actuator, a harmonic drive gear, and an inertial load. The harmonic drive gear consists of the

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Generator, and a nonrigid flexible spline or Flexspline, which form together a compact

high-torque, high-ratio, in-line gear mechanism. A harmonic drive test apparatus was

designed and built at Rice University as a platform to perform various types of experiments on the harmonic drive and to characterize the different errors inherent in its

operation while preventing any external error component from being imposed [7].

The system is shown in Fig. 1. It has its major axis of motion in the vertical plane to

avoid the radial loading problem. A special design of vertical support plates and circular steel pipe sections with a highly stable platform was also used to maintain torsional

integrity of the system. Effort was also put into making the linkage joining the motor,

harmonic drive, and torque sensor very rigid. This aspect is important since the objective was to avoid any torsion in the system produced by elements other than the

flexpline and the harmonic drive as a hole. The harmonic drive system is driven by

an AC servo motor with a dedicated power supply and controller. The total system

is controlled with an IBM PC to which it is interfaced through a DSP board made

by dSPACE [16]. Position feedback from the motor and the load are provided with

high resolution optical encoders. The torque sensor used is a DC-operated noncontact

torque sensor with a large capacity matching that of the harmonic drive. The signals

and feedback are processed by the dSPACE board and may be displayed at the terminal

in real-time. The system has also the ability to store acquired data for later processing.

This data will be loaded into Matlab for further analysis and evaluation. The programs

necessary for the operation and control of the system were developed so that the user

could communicate with the system through a Windows interface and dSPACE.

3. Formulation of the Dynamic Model of Hysteresis

Our approach of modeling consists of postulating the following mathematical representation relating two variables x(t) and y(t) [3]:

dy

hygxt f yt,

dt

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where f(), g(), and h() are real-valued continuous and differentiable functions with

continuous first-order derivatives and satisfying

f 0 > 0,

g0 > 0

0<h<1

where the prime denotes differentiation with respect to the functions argument, and

and are finite positive constants.

With an appropriate selection of f, g, and h, Eq. (1) can be designed to exhibit the

desired nonlinear phenomena of hysteresis. The conditions imposed on f, g, and h

will insure the existence and uniquences of a solution of (1) when x(t) is a continuous

variable. This property is very important, since our objective is to obtain a reliable

hysteresis model that can be integrated easily in the global harmonic drive model to

yield a well-posed set of ordinary differential equations.

The describing characteristic of interest for our present purpose is the graph of

the torque applied to the harmonic drive flexpline as a function of the angular

displacement across the flexpline, relative to a fixed reference position

1

2,

N

where 1is the wave-generator position, 2 is the load position at the end side of the

flexpline and N is the reduction ratio. If we replace the variable x by the torsional

torque and the variable y by the angular displacement , Eq. (1) becomes:

dt

hg t f t:

dt

This equation can be rearranged into the form

t

1

t g

f t:

ht

Equation (4) can be interpreted as the mechanical dynamic equation across the

flexpline describing the parallel combination of a nonlinear torsional spring and a

nonlinear viscous damping. The function f() determines the stiffness curve while the

function g1() represents the nonlinear dynamic friction as shown in Fig. 2.

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The validity of the nonlinear model (4) will then be established. This consists of first

showing that the postulated model exhibits the same significant properties as the actual

system and then verifying that the model gives realistic responses to one or more test

signals.

4. FORMULATION OF THE EQUATIONS OF MOTION

OF THE HARMONIC DRIVE

In order to study the dynamic behavior of the complete harmonic drive system, the

model of hysteresis will be combined with the wave generator and load dynamic

models. The following set of equations represent the complete model of the harmonic

drive:

_,

m

N

J2 2 B2 _2 L _, 0

J1 1 B1 _1 f

_, g1

_

f

h

1

2

N

where J1 is the total motor and wave generator inertia, J2 is the total load inertia,

1 is the motor position, 2 is the load position at the end side of the flexpline, N is

the reduction gear ratio, B1 and B2 are the viscous damping coefficients at the motor

side and the load side, is the transmitted torque across the flexpline, m is the driving

torque applied by the electric motor, and L is the load torque. f represents a dry

frictional torque component at the bearings of the wave generator which is a

combination of the necessary torque to initiate motion from rest (static friction) and

the friction present during stabilized motion (sticktion).

We note that the transmitted torque across the harmonic drive represents a

nonlinear coupling factor between the motor side and the load side dynamics.

4.1. Locked Rotor Case

When the output of the drive is locked 2 0, the motor side can still rotate within a

limited angular range allowed by the flexibility of the harmonic drive gear. The

model of the setup in this case becomes

2 0

1

N

10

J B_ _, n

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J N 2 J1

12

B N 2 B1

13

n Nm f

14

In order to identify the nonlinear functions f, g, and h, a pair of waveforms {(t), (t)}

must be measured. If (t) is selected as the excitation signal and d/dt is known, then

Eq. (4) is reduced to an algebraic relationship to find the output signal (t). To be

able to perform the proposed experiments, the experimental setup should

be configured in a way to allow the angular displacement to be manipulated as the

excitation signal. This consists in having the load side of the harmonic drive locked

and then forcing the desired angular displacement through a feedback position control

loop. The position control loop gains are adjusted so as to get the desired accuracy of

the following reference waveform ref.

The analysis will proceed by carrying out a sequence of well instrumented and

carefully performed laboratory tests in which the excitation signal ref with a given

frequency and amplitude is assumed. These experiments produce (t) versus t and (t)

versus t graphs in pairs which lead to a complete (t) versus (t) system characteristic.

Given one specific hysteresis loop, the procedure to construct the nonlinear functions

f, g, and h is as follows [3]: If the displacement signal (t) is a cosine waveform with a

period T, then for each value of , there exist two instants of time t1 and t2 such that:

t1 t2 0

t1, t2 2 0, T

_t1 _t2

15

16

g1

_

_

t1

t2

g1

Xd

ht1

ht2

17

In view of Eq. (4), we note that ((t1), (t1)) and ((t2), (t2)) represent points on the

hysteresis loop with the same ordinate:

t1 t2 2Xd

t1 t2 f

1

t1 t2

f 1 Xm

2

18

19

Geometrically, Xm represents the midpoint of the two points on the hysteresis loop

corresponding to t1 and t2 and Xd is the horizontal distance from the edge of the

hysteresis loop to the midpoint as shown in Fig. 3. Therefore, the locus of the variable

Xm determines the function f while the locus of the variable Xd determines the function g.

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FIGURE 3

Next, the locus of each of the functions f and g is fitted to an analytical odd polynomial function. Assuming that h is a unity function (h() 1), the f and g parameters

can be estimated through a nonlinear least-square fit.

Xm

5

X

a 21 "f

20

21

b _

"g

21

1

Xd

5

X

1

where (a) and (b) are the function parameters and "f, "g are the model equation errors.

For each equation the optimum parameters in the least-square sense are determined

to minimize the criterion functions

Jf

n

X

"2f i

i1

Jg

n

X

i1

n

X

"

Xm i

i1

"2g i

n

X

5

X

#2

a i

21

22

1

"

Xd i

i1

5

X

b _i

21

#2

23

1

The estimated parameters are next used to find the estimated nonlinear functions f^, g^ .

f^

5

X

a^ 21

24

21

b^ _

25

1

g^ 1 _

5

X

1

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The estimated transmitted torque ^ at the output of the harmonic drive is finally

expressed as:

^, _ g^ 1 _ f^

26

6. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS

Various experiments have been carried out on the harmonic drive. Figure 4 shows

the measured motor position which was controlled to follow a sinusoidal reference

signal with 10 amplitude and 0.005 Hz frequency. Figure 5 shows the resulting

transmitted torque across the flexpline. It can be seen that the torque is not a pure

sine wave, which reflects the nonlinear relationship with the displacement. Figure 6

FIGURE 4

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FIGURE 6

shows the hysteresis curve obtained when the torque is plotted as a function of the

displacement. The results obtained also show that the hysteresis curve depends on

the amplitude of the displacement. It follows also that the resulting torque depends

on all the previous angular displacements which have been applied on the elastic

body of the harmonic drive.

In order to identify the nonlinear functions f and g, the pair of waveforms ((t), (t))

is used. Given the measured hysteresis loop, the procedure is to construct the locus

of the points Xm and Xd representing respectively the midpoint of the hysteresis loop

and the horizontal distance from the edge of the loop to the midpoint. The locus of

the variable Xm determines the function f while the locus of the variable Xd determines

the function g.

To plot the function g, the angular velocity d/dt is needed. The measured velocity is

given in Fig. 7(a). The high frequency noise in the speed signal is a result of the differentiation of the angular position measured from the position sensor. Because of the

high frequency noise, the accuracy of the parameters estimates of the function g will

be affected. On the other hand, filtering the speed signal will introduce a phase shift

which will also affect the accuracy. Therefore the motor velocity is replaced with an estimated signal obtained from the angular position . Since is assumed to follow a pure

sine wave, its derivative will also be a sine signal displaced by 90 or equivalently a

cosine function as shown in Fig. 7(b). The experimental values of the f and g functions

are shown in Figs. 8 and 9. The estimated parameters of the analytical odd polynomial

function are listed in Table I.

To validate the proposed hysteresis model, a simulation of the harmonic drive system is

performed with the locked output shaft. The data of the identified parameters is used to

represent the stiffness and viscous damping nonlinear functions of the flexspline.

The transmitted torque across the flexspline is computed using the actual displacement

angle and the estimated stiffness and damping functions as given by Eq. (26). Figure 7(b)

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10

FIGURE 7

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11

very good match of experimental results with those of simulation. This proves that

the proposed model is very well suited for the purpose. The proposed model is

shown to be useful because the functions and parameters can be fine tuned to match

experimental results in a given situation. The nonlinear ordinary differential equation

has guaranteed existence and uniqueness of solution. The nonlinear functions are

also strictly monotonically increasing and differentiable functions. Thus, the resulting

TABLE I Identified parameters

Parameter

a^1

a^2

a^3

a^4

a^5

b^1

b^2

b^3

b^4

b^5

Value

Unit

14.133

3.71 103

1.471 105

3.778 106

3.370 107

65.594

5.571 107

2.485 1012

5.615 1016

4.673 1020

N m/(deg)

N m/(deg)3

N m/(deg)5

N m/(deg)7

N m/(deg)9

N m/(deg/s)

N m/(deg/s)3

N m/(deg/s)5

N m/(deg/s)7

N m/(deg/s)9

drive system

Characteristic

Gear rated output torque

Gear maximum input speed

Gear reduction ratio

Wave generator inertia

Motor rated output torque

Motor rated speed

Motor inertia

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{GandB}Gsam/GSAM-31049.3d

Value

226 N m

2800 rpm

50

0.436 103

3.8 N m

4000 rpm

0.29 103 kg m2

Paper: GSAM-31049

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12

FIGURE 10 Measured and estimated stiffness function (): measured; (- - -): estimated.

FIGURE 11 Measured and estimated viscous damping function (): measured; (- - -): estimated.

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13

FIGURE 12 Measured and estimated hysteresis loop (): measured; (- - -): estimated.

analysis tools and control methodologies. see also Table II, Figs. 812.

8. CONCLUSION

A mathematical model for the hysteresis phenomenon in harmonic drives has been

presented. The proposed model is described by a nonlinear differential equation

representing the torquedisplacement relationship across the flexpline of the harmonic

drive. A mechanical analogy obtained through the proposed methodology amounts to

having the combination of a nonlinear stiffness and a nonlinear viscous damping.

Numerical simulations and experiments have been used to test this modeling concept.

References

[1] R. Bouc (1971). Modele mathematique dhysteresis. ACUSTICA, 24(3), 1625.

[2] L.O. Chua and K.A. Stromsmoe (1970 Nov). Lymped circuit models for nonlinear inductors exhibiting

hysteresis loops. IEEE Trans. on Circuit Theory, CT-17(4), 564574, .

[3] L.O. Chua and K.A. Stromsmoe (1971). Mathematical models for dynamic hysteresis loops. Int. Journal of

Eng. Science, 9 435450.

[4] L.O. Chua and S.C. Bass (1972 Jan). A generalized hysteresis model. IEEE Trans. on Circuit Theory,

CT-19(1), 3648.

[5] B.D. Coleman and M. Hodgdon (1986). A constitutive relation for rate-independent hysteresis in ferromagnetically soft materials. Int. Journal of Eng. Science, 24(6), 897919.

[6] B.D. Coleman and M. Hodgdon (1987). On a class of constitutive relations for ferromagnetic hysteresis.

Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis, 99(4), 375396.

[7] S. Hejny and F. Ghorbel (1997 May). Harmonic Drive Test Apparatus for Data Acquisition and Control.

Internal Report ATP96-2, Dynamic Systems and Control Laboratory. Rice University Department of

Mechanical Engineering.

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[8] M. Hodgdon (1988 Jan). Application of a theory of ferromagnetic hysteresis. IEEE Trans. on Magnetics,

24(1), 218221.

[9] M. Hodgdon (1988 Nov). Mathematical theory and calculations of magnetic hysteresis curves. IEEE

Trans. on Magnetics, 24(6), 31203122.

[10] N. Kircanski, A.A. Goldenberg and S. Jia (1993). An experimental study of nonlinear stiffness, hysteresis

and friction effects in robot joints with harmonic drives and torque sensors. Third International

Symposium on Experimental Robotics, pp. 147154. Oct. 2830, Kyoto.

[11] G. Legnany and R. Faglia (1992 March). Harmonic drive transmissions: the effects of their elasticity,

clearance and irregularity on the dynamic behavior of an actual SCARA robot. Robotica, 10(1),

369376,.

[12] J.W. Macki, P. Nistri and P. Zecca (1993 March). Mathematical models for hysteresis. SIAM Review,

35(1), 94123.

[13] T. Marilier and J.A. Richard (1989). Nonlinear mechanic and electric behaviour of a robotic axis with a

harmonic drive gear. Robotics and Computer Integrated Manufacturing, 5(23), 129136.

[14] W. Seyfferth, A.J. Maghazal and J. Angeles (1995). Nonlinear modeling and parameter identification

of harmonic drive robot transmissions. IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation,

30273032.

[15] T. Tuttle and W. Seering (1993). Modeling a harmonic drive gear transmission. Proc. 1993 International

Conf. on Robotics and Automation, 624629.

[16] dSPACE (1993). Digital Signal Processing And Control Engineering GmbH. DSP-CITeco LD31/

LD31NET Users Guide.

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