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Analele tiinifice ale Universitii Al. I.

Cuza Iai
Tomul LVII, fasc. 1, s. II a. Biologie vegetal, 2011

VASCULAR FLORA OF THE DANUBE DELTA


V. CIOCRLAN*
Abstract: The aim of this paper is to present an updated list of the vascular flora of the Danube
Delta, together with endangered categories, in accordance with the International Union for Conservation of
Nature (IUCN). Also, the floras categories are presented according to ecological and habitat criteria.
Keywords: vascular flora, Danube Delta, IUCN.

Introduction
The Danube Delta is Romanias youngest relief unit and the territory with the
greatest habitat diversity and as a consequence with an impressive taxonomic diversity.
On a relatively limited area of 3,466 km2 [10] representing 1.5% of the Romanian
territory, live around 1,000 vascular plant species, almost 1/3 of all the species of the
Romanian flora.
Short history of floristic research
The Danube Deltas vascular flora1 has drawn the attention of many scientists.
Different groups of plants related to different habitats (such as water, swamps, pastures,
sands, salty areas), plants that are important for fishery or wooden plants are described in
over 300 scientific articles published so far. Other articles record taxons that are new to
the Romanian flora. There are also many papers on vegetation where species found in
different associations are published.
Below are listed the main authors that researched and published synthesis
articles on the Danube Deltas flora. The authors are mentioned in the chronological
order and in the bibliography additional data can be found: Kanitz A. (1879-1881),
Brndz D. (1898), Grecescu D. (1898, 1909), Pallis M. (1916), Panu Z. and collab.
(1935), Prodan I. (1935-1939, 1939), Borza Al. (1947, 1949), Svulescu Tr. (edit.)
(1952-1976), Beldie Al. (1977, 1979), Dihoru Gh. and Negrean G. (1976), paper with a
rich bibliography - 228 titles, eliag-Sosonko, Dubna (1984), paper refering to the flora
of Chilias secondary delta, Ciocrlan V. (1994, 2000, 2009).
Materials and methods
Before presenting the floras categories according to ecological and habitats
criteria, the following explanation is necessary:
- we will only refer to species living in the actual Delta;
- all commentaries target species recorded in the last 30 years and which
exist at least partially as a documentary material in the herbariums BUAG
*

University of Agronomical Sciences and Veterinary Medicine of Bucharest, B-dul Mrti nr. 59, Sector 1,
Bucharest, Romania.
1
We use the term Vascular flora in accordance with the English, French and German botanical literature.

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(University of Agronomical Sciences and Veterinary Medicine of


Bucharest), I (Al. I. Cuza University of Iai) and IAGB (Botanical
Garden of Iai University);
as the publication of an annex volume comprising the complete list of
species is envisaged, in this first part we will focus on the main species that
determine plant associations, species that are characteristic to certain
habitats, trying to anticipate their future evolution;
in the presentation of the flora categories, we must consider the great
capacity of plant species to adapt to the ecological factors, which makes
possible for one species to be recorded in different ecological groups with
two or three step variation. Example: mesophilic-hydrophilic species or
resistant halophilic-preferant halophilic species or psamofilic-calcareous
species or neutral-moderately acidophilic species etc.
Results and discussions
Aquatic Flora (Hydrophyta)

The water as an ecological factor induces a relative uniformity of the flora.


However there are obvious flora differences determined by other factors that lead to the
formation of different habitats with their own species. Thus the aquatic flora shows
differences according to the type of water fresh or salty, running or stagnant, the
degree of mineral or organic clogging, the levels of pollution, eutrophication or
oxygenation, etc.
The flora of the fresh running waters is represented by few but nummerically
abundant species that are living on streams and channels with reduced water flow, while
on the Danubes branches and on the channels with an active water flow the vascular
species are either lacking or are present only on the shores. Along the streams and
channels where the clogging phenomenon and accumulation of decaying organic matter
are present the following species thrive: Stratiotes aloides, Hydrocharis morsus-ranae,
Utricularia vulgaris, which are floating species during anthesis, as well as fixed species,
such as: Hippuris vulgaris, in shallow eutrophic waters, Hottonia palustris, sparsely seen
lately, Potamogeton pectinatus very frequent, living in stagnant low-salted waters,
Nymphoides peltata, Vallisneria spiralis, etc. We mention that these species also live in
small lakes with slow water circulation.
The flora of the fresh stagnant waters. The species living in lakes are
different depending on the lakes characteristics, firstly on the lakes size and on the
water exchange level. There are the so-called open pools (lakes), which are lakes having
a spread acvatorium, with natural active water exchange, and the closed pools (lakes)
which are smaller and with a slow water circulation.
The open lakes (pools) are subjected to the action of winds, water bottom
currents, the water is well-oxygenated, while the aquatic plant species, as well as the
submerse plant species, fixed or not, are scarce and found towards the lakes' shores,
where they are protected by the taller helophilic species, primarily by the reed
(Phragmites australis).

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The closed lakes (pools) are smaller, less exposed to winds and less influenced
by currents, and as a consequence in these habitats the processes of clogging,
sedimentation and organic matters decaying are predominant. These processes are
favoring the development of a very rich immerse and submerse flora, floating or fixed.
The hydrophilic species have a very large area, some are cosmopolitan, others
are circumpolar, Eurasian, European and a few are adventive. Hydrophilic species with a
reduced living area, specific to the Danube Delta, are not known. There are few taxons,
recently discovered in the Delta, whose complete spreading within the Delta is not yet
known. Such species are: Lemna minuta and Trapa natans subsp. muzzanensis known
only in the vicinity of the Nebunu Lake. Otherwise, Elodea nuttalli is frequent
throughout the entire Delta and has replaced in great part Elodea canadensis which has
become a rarity. Ceratophyllum demersum and Potamogeton pectinatus are also well
represented, as well as Elodea nuttallii, which show an explosive spreading as a result of
the eutrophication. Species mentioned as frequent by the old literature [9] became rarer:
Aldrovanda vesiculosa, Ceratophyllum submersum, Hottonia palustris, Marsilea
quadrifolia, and according to some observations even Trapa natans has dissapeared
from such lakes as Rou, Roule, Puiu, Fortuna [15]. Since a second volume (annex)
will be published with a complete list of vascular species and taking into account the
large spreading of the hydrophilic species, well known to the specialists, we mention the
existence throughout the entire Delta of species belonging to the following genera:
Potamogeton, Myriophyllum, Nymphaea, Utricularia, etc.
The flora of the brackish and salty waters is very poor as in the inner Delta
there are only fresh water lakes. However, Najas marina was recorded in the Rducului
Lake, a species that is facultative halophitic or tolerant to salinity. We mention that the
pH of the lake is of 8.02. Also, in the north-east of the Sinoe Lake, close to Gura Portiei,
was recorded Ruppia cirrhosa [7], a halophilic species new to the Romanian Flora. We
emphasize that the Sinoe Lake is connected to the sea waters. Zannichellia palustris
subsp. pedicellata, a halophilic taxon, is mentioned from the Sinoe and Golovia Lakes,
that are influenced by sea waters [9].
Higro-helophilic flora (Hygro-helophyta)
This is the most spread flora category within the Danube Delta and is
represented by a large number of species with numerous individuals. This type of flora
lives on lake shores, channels and streams, in shallow pools and even on areas that are
periodically flooded, but with permanent water to the root system during the drought
periods. The alluvial layer is rich in nutritive substances, dead plant organs (rhizomes,
roots) in different stages of decomposition. By the accumulation of dead undecomposed
organs, a new layer isolating the contact of the living roots with the bottom alluvia is
formed and these roots get fixed in this layer. Through the action of the wind and of the
resulting waves, pieces of the isolating layer become detached from the bottom, start
floating and form islets known as plaur.
The higro-helophilic species have a large range, as the hydrophilic species, the
majority being circumpolar and Eurasian. Few species have a reduced range, such as:
Carex elata, with an European area, forming dense large bushes, more or less
cylindrical, known as popndaci.

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Within the Danube Delta were recorded and published [7] a few adventive
species: Bidens connata, B. frondosa, B. vulgata, Cyperus odoratus, Lindernia dubia,
Sagittaria trifolia. Other floristic novelties for the Romanian flora, recorded within the
Danube Delta are: Achillea innundata and Eleocharis mitracarpa, that are Pontic
species, and Cladium mariscus subsp. martii [7].
Rare species are: Limosella aquatica, only in Meleaua Sacalin, Angelica
sylvestris, Tanacetum serotinum, Sonchus palustris, Rumex dentatus subsp. halacsy,
Lysimachia punctata, Erianthus ravennae, E. strictum, Carex panicea, Carex viridula,
etc. The majority of the higro-helophilic species, with an abundant development within
the Danube Delta are well-known by the specialists and will be found in the conspectus
from the annex volume.
Halophilic flora (Halophyta)
The halophilic species live on salty lands, mainly in the fluvial-marine delta and
less frequently in the fluvial delta. The main types of soils for these species are the
solonchaks, the freatic-wet solonetzes, and salinized sandy soils.
The halophilic species are classified in obligatory halophilic (strict halophilic)
which live only on strongly salinized soils and facultative halophilic species, adabtable
to salinity, which grow both on strongly salinized soils and on unsalinized soils [4]. The
obligatory halophilic species are few: Salicornia spp., Suaeda spp., Spergularia media,
Bassia hirsuta, Artemisia santonica, Limonium meyeri, L. bellidifolium, Aeluropus
littoralis, Argusia sibirica, etc. The facultative halophilic species are numerous and they
either live as preferant halophilic species or as tolerant halophilic species (Bucur N. et
al., 1957). The majority of the facultative halophilic species are mesohalophilic and
higrohalophilic. These are a few examples: Lactuca tatarica, Alopecurus arundinaceus,
Peucedanum latifolium, Chenopodium glaucum, Juncuscompressus, Carex distans, C.
secalina, Achillea asplenifolia, Inula britannica, Cirsium alatum, Trifolium fragiferum,
Vicia biennis, etc.
The halophilic species new for the Romanian flora, recorded and published in
the last 20 years are: Suaeda confusa, Salicornia ramosissima, S. procumbens, Sagina
maritima, Plantago coronopus subsp. stricta, P.maritima subsp. ciliata, Elymus
athericus subsp. deltaicus. We emphasize that salty lands are also in the fluvial Delta,
such as on the Sulina branch, close to Gorgova, in a spot called Baba Rada, in former
fishery pools, were Salicornia and Suaeda were identified. It seems that the sea's
influence is not limited to the erosion of the sea shore but also stimulates the
development of the halophilic flora.
Psamophilic flora (Psamophyta)
This group of plant species grows on sands dunes and interdunes, and on the
sea shore sands where they are influenced by the sea water.
The psamophilic species are represented by numerous genera and show the
ecological potential of the Danube Deltas dry lands. Without water, these lands would
be a steppe with an arenarious flora. This type of flora is well developed on the Letea
and Caraorman sand hills. The psamophilic species range is smaller compared to those

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of other types of flora. Many actual psamophilic species, that is xeropsamophilic species,
are of Eastern-Pontic, Continental-Eurasian and Continental-European origin. These are
a few examples: Dianthus bessarabicus, Minuartia setacea, Apera spica-venti subsp.
maritima, Syrenia montana, Asperula setulosa, Carex colchica subsp. colchica, Leymus
sabulosus, Stipa pennata subsp. sabulosa, Senecio borysthenicus, etc. There are also
psamophilic species with smaller-Euxinic range, such as: Convolvulus persicus,
Plantago arenaria subsp. orientalis, Linaria euxina, Festuca beckeri subsp. arenicola,
etc. A few psamophilic species have a large range, that is Atlantic-Mediterranean,
reaching the Danube Delta, such as: Plantago coronopus subsp. coronopus, Eryngium
maritimum, Petasites spurius, or a Mediterranean range in a broad meaning, such as:
Stachys maritima, Lolium rigidum subsp. lepturoides, Erianthus hostii, etc. We
emphasize that some southern species have extended their area towards the north,
reaching the Danube Delta; these are: Stachys maritima, Lolium rigidum subsp.
lepturoides, Parapholis incurva, and Trachomitum venetum, re-recorded after more than
100 years on the Perior sand hill. We emphasize that the northern extension of the range
of some species is a general phenomenon proved also by the discovery to the north of the
Danube, within Romania, of a few species, such as: Ranunculus neapolitanus, Daucus
brotteri, Cytissus danubialis, etc.
Along with the xeropsamophilic flora exists a mesopsamophilic flora and even
a mesohigropsamophilic one, formed of species that live on wet and flooded sands, with
an alternative humidity regime. Such species are: Scirpoides holoschoenus, Scirpus
nigricans, Calamagrostis epigeios, etc.
There are also situations that are difficult to define and species that are difficult
to characterize, when the water is salty, as happens on the seaside band. Here there are
sands on more or less leveled and low lands, but also sands in the form of dunes. The
former are strongly influenced by the salty sea water, the latter are less influenced, only
through the water drops or through vapors. That is why on the seaside band we will find
halopsamophilic species and psamohalophilic species. The delimitation between these
two plant groups is very difficult or even impossible to make, as one and the same
species comprises individuals that live both on the low sands and on the high sands, that
is on the dunes.
The flora of the seaside band. The flora of the seaside band is either
halopsamophilic or psamohalophilic, depending on the sands salinization level,
determined by the lands position, that is either low, level, and wetted sands, or sand
dunes.
We emphasize that many species which live on the maritime sands that belong
to the seaside band can also be found on the sands of the two large sand hills Letea and
Caraorman.
We will mention a few main species that live only on the seaside band, from
Gura Portiei up to the north.
We emphasize again that the delimitation between the halopsamophilic species
and the psamohalophilic species is indeed very difficult, as we have previously shown.
Here are some of the species that are specific to the seaside band: Crambe
maritima, species that is tolerant to salinity, vulnerable, and whose range reduced being
still found between Portia and the Perior sand hill. Eryngium maritimum and Cakile
maritima subsp. euxina are species that became very rare, their existence being

45

endangered. Other species became floristic rarities such as Medicago marina,


Astrodaucus littoralis, Artemisia tschernieviana and other species. The species Sagina
maritima and Parapholis incurva were recorded in the last years, while Trachomitum
venetum was re-recorded.
The seaside bands plant species have been subjected to the stress of
constructions and tourism. An effective protection of what is left on the Danube Deltas
seaside is imperative. The introduction of species on the red lists does not prevent their
endangerment and even extinction.
Grasslands flora (forage)
Valuable species in terms of forage are relatively few in the Danube Delta. The
lands with such species are mainly used for grazing rather than for mowing, that is for
hay making. At Caraorman and on the Letea sand hill there are also lands used for
mowing. We emphasize that the free grazing, practiced until recently, was banned in
strictly protected areas.
The main species that make up the grasslands are mesophilic and
mesohigrophilic and are situated on unsalinized lands, as well as on low to moderately
salinized lands.
Species of unsalinized grasslands: Agrostis gigantea, A. stolonifera, Alopecurus
pratensis, Cynodon dactylon, Elymus repens (facultative halophilic as well), Festuca
arundinacea (facultative halophilic as well), Phalaris arundinacea, Poa palustris, P.
trivialis, Juncus articulatus, Carex distans (facultative halophilic as well), Trifolium
fragiferum (tolerant to salinity), T. hybridum, Trigonella procumbens, Coronilla varia,
Medicago falcata, Melilotus albus, Tetragonolobus maritimus (facultative halophilic as
well), Daucus carota, etc.
Species of salinized grasslands: Aeluropus littoralis, Alopecurus arundinaceus,
Agrostis stolonifera subsp. maeotica, Elymus elongatus, Crypsis spp., Puccinellia spp.,
Lotus glaber, Cyperus pannonicus, Aster tripolium, Taraxacum bessarabicum, etc. We
mentioned only frequent species.
Weeds flora
The weed species found in cultivated fields are xeromesophilic to mesophilic
species, having their main range in the steppe and the silvo-steppe and less frequently in
the oak forests area and the sessile oak (Quercus petraea) area. The cultivated area is
small, and situated in the following locations: Pardina, Grindul Stipoc, Cmpul Chiliei,
Ostrovul Ttarul. The main cultivated species are: the barley, the wheat, the maize, the
sun-flower. We will mention only the segetal species.
The main species recorded in the straw crops (wheat and barley) are: Galium
aparine, Consolida orientalis, C. regalis, Raphanus raphanistrum, Sinapis arvensis,
Bifora radians, Papaver rhoeas, Rubus caesius, Veronica spp., Avena fatua, Setaria
spp., etc.
In the hoeing crops (sun-flower, maize, beets, tomatoes) the main weeds are:
Amaranthus albus, A. blitoides, A. powellii, A. retroflexus, Sonchus asper, S. arvensis, S.
oleraceus, Chenopodium album, C. hybridum, C. polyspermum, Sorghum halepense,

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Echinochloa crus-galli, Cirsium arvense, Calystegia sepium, Xanthium italicum,


Chondrilla juncea, Lycopis arvensis subsp. orientalis, Solanum nigrum, Heliotropium
europaeum, etc. Some weeds are found both in straw crops and in hoeing crops.
Examples of such species are: Cirsium arvense, Setaria pumila, S. viridis, S.verticillata,
Convolvulus arvensis, Reseda lutea, Falcaria vulgaris, etc.
Forests flora
Within the Danube Delta the presence of the Letea and Caraorman forests,
situated on the homonymous sand hills, is well known. The existence of these forests has
increased the fame and the tourists and scientists attraction to the knowledge of the
Danube Delta.
The two forests together with the water have modeled and moderated the
influence of the ecologic factors characteristic to the steppe, stemming a large diversity
of habitats, and as a consequence the existence of species of great scientific interest.
Here live together species that form different types of flora (aquatic, marsh, halophilic,
psamophilic, etc.) of different origins and ranges. The forests flora to which we will
refer in the following paragraphs is less varied, more homogenous regarding the species
origins and ranges.
The main wooden species are represented by the following trees: Quercus
robur, Q. pedunculiflora, Fraxinus pallisiae, F. angustifolia subsp. oxycarpa, Populus
alba, P. tremula, Tilia cordata, T. tomentosa, Carpinus betulus (rare), Pyrus pyraster,
Malus sylvestris, etc. Dominant are the Quercus species, which occupy the more
elevated microrelief, and the two Fraxinus species which occupy the low lands, with
excess humidity.
The shrubs are represented by the following species: Euonymus europaea, E.
verrucosa, Ligustrum vulgare, Cornus sanguinea, Crataegus monogyna, Corylus
avellana, Berberis vulgaris, Rhamnus cathartica (the last two species are found only in
sunny places, at the edge of the forest), Rosa scabriuscula, Rubus caesius that is very
frequently and forms thickets difficult to cross, etc. Along with the trees and shrubs,
there are also vines: Periploca graeca, an Est-Mediterranean element, Vitis sylvestris
with a central European-Mediterranean range, Clematis vitalba and Humulus lupulus.
We emphasize another fact the frequent presence of the species Loranthus europaeus
on the two species of Quercus, contributing to the partial drying of their upper branches,
that have a winding ondullated and growing pattern, while the trees that are more
isolated, between the interdunes with small areas, dry and perish.
The herbaceous flora is scarce, partially due to the species Rubus caesius that
grows exuberantly suppressing other species. Nevertheless, in the free spaces, we find
the following species: Convallaria majalis, Polygonatum latifolium, Alliaria petiolata,
Glechoma hederacea, Lysimachia vulgaris, Astragalus glycyphyllos, Cephalanthera
longifolia, Limodorum abortivum, Neottia nidus-avis, Aegopodium podagraria,
Lithospermum officinale, L. purpureocaeruleum, Brachypodium sylvaticum, Festuca
gigantea, etc.
Some of the species cited in the old literature, such as: Salvia glutinosa (Prodan
I., 1939), Mycelis muralis (Brndz D., 1898), Lathyrus vernus (Panu Z., 1935), were
not found any longer, as they either became very rare, or became extinct.

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The riparian wooden flora of the water banks Danubes branches, streams,
channels, lakes - is represented by species of Salix and Populus, while the species Alnus
glutinosa is very rare.
Within the western fluvial delta, the species Salix and Populus are present,
while in the eastern fluvial-maritime delta the two forests are found Letea and
Caraorman, as mentioned above. There are also isolated bushes formed of the following
shrub species: Amorpha fruticosa, Hippophe rhamnoides, Tamarix ramosissima, Salix
cinerea (widespread) and Salix rosmarinifolia.
The Danube Deltas wooden flora has a European and Eurasian character, and
only a few species are Pontic, Pontic-Balcanic and Pontic-Sub-Mediterranean.
The phytogeographical and geobotanical classification of the Danube Delta
corresponds to the physical-geographical and pedo-geographical classifications [23]. The
Deltas territory is situated at the merging limit of the two floristic provinces,
respectively to the east of the Danubial province of the Lower Danube and to the west of
the Pontic province, forming a particular unit the Danube Deltas District (Sector).
From the point of view of the vegetation zoning, the Delta is situated in the
steppe area, where it benefits from a particular continental-moderate climate the deltaic
topoclimate. The presence of the water models and moderates the influence of the
ecological factors that are specific to the steppe, fact that enabled the setting of the two
forests Letea and Caraorman.
Brief analysis of the flora
The analysis of the bioforms (life forms) shows a high percentage of
terophytes, including hemicryptophytes, that is winter annual species and bisannual
species. Then follow the hemicryptophytes and the cryptophytes that include the
geophytes, helophytes and hydrophytes. Below are the comparative percentages from the
deltas flora and from the Romanian flora:
Therophyta (including Hemitherophyta)
38%
26.2%
Hemicryptophyta
33%
44.2%
Cryptophyta
21%
15%
Chamaephyta
1.7%
6.5%
Phanerophyta (including vines)
6%
7.8%
Epiphyta
0.2%
0.1%
The analysis of the floristic elements (geoelements)
In order to show the characteristics of the Danube Deltas flora, we will refer to
the large groups of florisitic elements: Eurasian 28%; European 14%; Eastern
(continental Eurasian, continental European, Pontic) 24%; South and South-Eastern
(Mediterranean, Sub-Mediterranean, Balcan, Anatolic-Caucasian) 9%; Western
(Atlantic, Atlantic-Mediterranean, Atlantic-Pontic) 2.3%; Circumpolar 8.4%;
cosmopolitan 8.3%; adventive 4.6%; endemic 0.4%.
Compared with the situation in the Romanian flora, we emphasize the presence
within the Danube Delta of a large number of cosmopolitan and adventive species 13%
whereas within the Romanian flora these represent only 5%; secondly, there are 24%
Eastern species within the Deltas flora and only 20% within the Romanian flora.

48

With reference to the number of vascular species that exist within the Danube
Delta, we can say with an approximation of only 4-5% that their number is of 985
species. Explanations:
- species recorded in the past and that could not be confused were not
recorded any more, but we cannot say with certainity that they are extinct;
- species recorded in the past, some very likely erroneously identified, could
not be verified because of the lack of material.
So, new research is needed in order to elucidate some controversial matters.
However, the research of the past 30 years have enriched the Danube Deltas flora with
more than 130 species and with a large number of novelties for the Romanian flora.
These are the phytotaxons recorded within the Danube Delta, in the last 20
years, that are novelties for the Romanian flora: Achillea innundata, Allium albiflorum,
Amaranthus emarginatus, Ambrosia coronopifolia, Bidens connata, Chenopodium
pumilio, Cyperus odoratus, Elodea nuttallii, Eleocharis mitracarpa, Lemna minuta,
Linaria euxina, Lindernia dubia, Lolium rigidum subsp. lepturoides, Parapholis incurva,
Ruppia cirrhosa, Sagina maritima, Sagittaria trifolia, Salicornia procumbens, S.
ramosissima, Salsola collina, Suaeda confusa, Trachomitum venetum, Xanthium
orientale, Cladium mariscus subsp. martii, Plantago scabra subsp. orientalis, Plantago
coronopus subsp. stricta, Plantago maritima subsp. ciliata, Trapa natans subsp.
muzzanensis. There are 23 species and 5 subspecies [7].
The large number of adventive species is obvious. The research of the last two
decades led to the record and publication of some taxons new to science: Elymus
athericus subsp. deltaicus, Fumana procumbens subsp. sabulosa, Elymus elongatus var.
gemminatum, Syrenia montana var. brachycarpa [5, 6, 7].
Flora protection and trends in the floras evolution
The contemporary impact on the taxonomic diversity was highlighted by
scientists and accepted as a worldwide consensus. As a consequence the efforts for
natures conservation and for biodiversity protection have intensified.
The issue of flora and biodiversity conservation is an intrinsec part of these
general measures to protect the nature and the environment.
In order to meet this major objective the conservation of biodiversity, it is
necessary to identify the periclitated species and to evaluate the status of the ecosystems
and biotops that shelter the endangered species. The making of red lists is necessary but
does not solve the issue of biodiversity conservation.
There is one red list of the Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve [6]. There are also
designated protected areas with species that need protection as well as administrative
measures to ensure their protection. In 1992 were GPS-localised a number of rare
species whose evolution and population dinamics was surveyed. Unfortunately until now
there were no field inspections made so as to record possible changes. We consider that
at least once in 5 years this kind of inspection is needed. For instance, in 1975, at Portia
and Perior, Eryngium maritimum was well represented, but dissapeared after 1980; the
same happened with Centaurium spicatum, that was recorded on the Srturile sand hill,
but dissapeared a few years later.

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Within the Danube Delta the multiple actions of the human being, correlated
with the influence of the natural factors, led to important changes on the ecosystems and
biotops and, implicitly, profound changes in the florisitc spectrum.
The ecosystems and biotops changes through dams, draining works, chemical
treatments, forests area reductions and forests thinning through the extraction of
valuable species, especially Quercus, grazing, tourism, etc. led to the increase of the
continentalization level, the aridification of the Deltas land. The Danubes polution,
internal and external, associated with the eutrophication, led to changes especially in the
aquatic flora.
The changes in the florisitc spectrum may be evidenced through:
- the reduction of taxonomic diversity; over 100 species mentioned in the
literature until around 1950 were not recorded any longer;
- the enrichment of the Deltas flora with circa 130 species, partly weeds
(Sorghum halepense, Avena fatua, Bifora radians, etc.), but also adventive
species (Ambrosia coronopifolia, Bidens connata, Cyperus odoratus, etc.),
and recently recorded indigenous species (Crepis sancta, Centaurium
spicatum, Camelina rumelica, Viola kitaibeliana, Carex viridula, etc.);
- the ruderalization and uniformization tendencies of the vegetal coverage,
phenomena that are mainly due to grazing; we hope that the flora
corresponding to biotops will recover, following the banning of grazing
within the protected areas;
- the extension of the range of certain southern species towards the north,
reaching the Danube Delta (Lolium rigidum subsp. lepturoides, Parapholis
incurva, Sagina maritima, Stachys maritima, etc.);
- qualitative and quantitative changes due to pollution and eutrophication,
such as: the replacement of the species Elodea canadensis that became a
rarity with E. nuttallii that is polution resistant; the same situation with
Ceratophyllum demersum, that has a remarcable development while C.
submersum is a rarity;
- the numerical reduction that probably leads to the extinction from the
Danube Deltas flora of species with a mountainous range within Romania
and that presently exist as very rare individuals. Such species are: Angelica
sylvestris, Comarum palustre, Cephalanthera longifolia, Dactylorrhiza
incarnata, Potentilla erecta, Salvia glutinosa, etc.
The field inspection of the endangered and vulnerable species status is required
(see the conspectum in the annex).
The reseach of the vernal flora based on old data is required so as to find
species considered extinct. The research for species considered as having a certain
location may bring data to confirm their rerecord or extinction.
Finally, we emphasize once more that the Danube Deltas flora reseach is not
over and it must be continued.

50

List of species. IUCN indices


The list of species will be presented in alphabetical order. The species that were
not recorded in the last 50 years but were mentioned in the previous literature and that
we think were correctly recorded will be considered as disappeared or likely
disappeared. These species either are very rare and were not recorded by the more recent
research or have disappeared.
To the right of species will be abbreviated the endangerment category, in
accordance with the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN). Ex =
extinct species or likely extinct; E = critically endangered species, close to extinction; V
= vulnerable species that need protection; R = rare species not yet endangered but in
need of surveillance; I = species for whom we lack sufficient information to fit them in
one of the previous categories. In this latter category we also include the species whose
taxonomy is controversial, as well as the species with uncertain presence within the
Danube Delta. End. = endemic species and Subend. = subendemic species.
Please note that the IUCN indices refer to the species from within the Danube
Delta.

51

Abutilon theophrasti Medik.


Acer campestre L.
Achillea asplenifolia Vent.
R
Achillea coarctata Poir.
V
Achillea collina J. Becker ex Rchb.
Achillea innundata Kondrat.
I
Achillea millefolium L.
Achillea pannonica Scheele
Achillea setacea Waldst. & Kit.
Acorus calamus L
V
Aegilops crassa Boiss.
I
Aegilops cylindrica Host
R
Aegopodium podagraria L.
Aeluropus littoralis (Gouan) Parl.
Agropyron cristatum (L.) Gaertn.
subsp. pectinatum (M. Bieb.)
Tzvelev
Agrostemma githago L.
R
Agrostis gigantea Roth
subsp. gigantea
subsp. maeotica (Klokov) Tzvelev
Agrostis stolonifera L.
subsp. stolonifera
subsp. albida (Trin.) Tzvelev
Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle
Ajuga chamaepytis (L.) Schreb.
subsp. ciliata (Briq.) Smejkal
Ajuga genevensis L.
Ajuga reptans L.
Aldrovanda vesiculosa L.
V
Alisma gramineum Lej.
Alisma lanceolatum With.
Alisma plantago-aquatica L.
Alliaria petiolata (Bieb.) Cavara & Grande
Allium albiflorum Omelczuk
I
Allium guttatum Stev.
V
Allium podolicum Blocki ex Racib. & Szafer
Allium rotundum L.
R
Allium scordoprasum L.
Allium ursinum L.
subsp. ucrainicum Kleopow & Oxner
Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn.
Alopecurus aequalis Sobol.
Alopecurus arundinaceus Poir.
Alopecurus geniculatus L.
R
Alopecurus pratensis L.
Althaea officinalis L.
Alyssum alyssoides (L.) L.
Alyssum borzaeanum E. I. Nyrdy
V
Alyssum desertorum Stapf.

Alyssum hirsutum M. Bieb.


Alyssum minutum Schlecht.
Amaranthus albus L.
Amaranthus blitoides S. Watson
Amaranthus blitum L.
Amaranthus crispus (Lesp. & Thv.)
N. Terracc.
Amaranthus deflexus L.
Amaranthus emarginatus Uline & Bray R
Amaranthus powellii S. Watson
Amaranthus retroflexus L.
Ambrosia coronopifolia Torr. & A. GrayR
Ammophila arenaria (L.) Link
subsp. arundinacea Lindb. Fil.Ex
Amorpha fruticosa L.
Anacamptis pyramidalis (L.) Rich.
V
Anagallis arvensis L.
Anagallis foemina Mill.
Anchusa azurea Mill.
R
Anchusa officinalis L.
subsp. officinalis
subsp. procera (Besser) Ciocrlan
R
Angelica sylvestris L.
R
Anthemis austriaca Jacq.
Anthemis ruthenica M. Bieb.
Anthericum ramosum L.
R
Anthriscus caucalis M. Bieb.
Apera spica-venti (L.) Beauv.
subsp. maritima (Klokov)
Tzvelev
Apium graveolens L.
Apium nodiflorum (L.) Lag.
Ex
Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh.
R
Arabis hirsuta (L.) Scop.
Arabis turrita L.
R
Arctium lappa L.
Arctium minus (J. Hill) Bernh.
Arctium tomentosum Mill.
Arenaria rigida M. Bieb.
Ex
Arenaria serpyllifolia L.
Argusia sibirica (L.) Dandy
Aristolochia clematitis L.
Armoracia rusticana P. Gaertn., B. Meyer &
Schreb.
Artemisia absinthium L.
Artemisia annua L.
Artemisia austriaca Jacq.
Artemisia campestris L.
Artemisia santonica L.

52

Bidens vulgata E.L. Greene


R
Bifora radians M. Bieb.
R
Blackstonia acuminata (Koch & Ziz) Domin
Ex
Bolboschoenus maritimus (L.) Pallas
Brachyactis ciliata (Ledeb.) Ledeb.
R
Brachypodium sylvaticum (Huds.) Beauv.
Brassica nigra (L.) Koch
Brassica rapa L. subsp. campestris (L.) A.R.
Clapham
Bromus arvensis L.
Bromus commutatus Schrad.
Bromus hordeaceus L.
Bromus inermis Leyss.
Bromus japonicus Thunb.
Bromus ramosus Huds.
Bromus secalinus L.
Bromus squarrosus L.
Bromus tectorum L.
Bryonia alba L.
Bupleurum rotundifolium L.
Bupleurum tenuissimum L.
R
Butomus umbellatus L.
Cakile maritima Scop.
subsp. euxina (Pobed.) E.I. Nyrdy
V
Calamagrostis canescens (weber ex F.H.
Wigg.) Roth
R
Calamagrostis epigeios (L.) Roth
Calamagrostis pseudophragmites (Haller fil.)
Koeler
Caldesia parnassifolia (L.) Parl.
Ex
Calla palustris L.
Ex
Caltha palustris L.
I
Calystegia sepium (L.) R.Br.
Calystegia soldanella (L.) R.Br.
Ex
Camelina alyssum (Mill.) Thell.
Camelina microcarpa Andrz.
Camelina rumelica Velen.
R
Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz
Campanula sibirica L.
Camphorosma annua Pall.
Cannabis sativa L.
subsp. spontanea (Vavilov) Serebr.
Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medik.
Cardamine impatiens L.
Cardamine pratensis L.
subsp. dentata (Schult.) Celak.
Cardaria draba (L.) Desv.
Carduus acanthoides L.
Carduus thoermeri Weinm.
Carex acuta L.

subsp. santonica (subsp. patens


(Neilr.) K. Persson
subsp. monogyna (Waldst. & Kit.)
Leonova
Artemisia scoparia Waldst. & Kit.
Artemisia tschernieviana Besser
V
Artemisia vulgaris L.
Arum maculatum L.
Asarum europaeum L.
R
Asparagus littoralis Stev.
I
Asparagus pseudoscaber Grec.
Asparagus officinalis L.
Asparagus tenuifolius Lam.
Asparagus verticillatus L.
R
Asperugo procumbens L.
Asperula cynanchica L.
Asperula setulosa Boiss.
R
Asperula taurina L.
Asperulla tenella Heuff. ex Degen
R
Aster linosyris (L.) Bernh.
R
Aster tripolium L. subsp. Tripolium
subsp. pannonicus (Jacq.) So
Astragalus cicer L.
Astragalus contortuplicatus L.
Astragalus cornutus Pallas
Ex
Astragalus glycyphyllos L.
Astragalus varius S.G. Gmel.
V
Astrodaucus littoralis (M. Bieb.) DrudeE
Atriplex litoralis L.
Atriplex micrantha Ledeb.
R
Atriplex oblongifolia Waldst. & Kit.
Atriplex patula L.
Atriplex prostrata Boucher ex DC.
Atriplex rosea L.
R
Atriplex sagittata Borkh.
Atriplex tatarica L.
Avena fatua L.
Azolla filiculoides Lam.
Ballota nigra L.
Bassia hirsuta (L.) Asch.
Bassia sedoides (Pallas) Asch.
R
Bassia laniflora (S.G. Smel.) A.J. Scott
Bassia prostrata (L.) G. Beck
Bassia sieversiana (Pallas) W.A. Weber
Beckmannia eruciformis (L.) Host
Berberis vulgaris L.
Berteroa incana (L.) DC
Berula erecta (Huds.) Coville
Bidens cernua L.
Bidens connata H.L. Mhl. ex Willd. R
Bidens frondosa L.
Bidens tripartita L.

53

Cerastium gracile Dufour


R
Cerastium semidecandrum L.
Ceratocarpus arenarius L.
Ceratophyllum demersum L.
Ceratophyllum submersum L.
R
Chaerophyllum temulum L.
Chamaesyce canescens (L.) Prokh.
subsp. massiliensis (DC.) Sojk
Chamaesyce maculata (L.) Small
Chamaesyce peplis (L.) Prokh.
Chenopodium album L.
Chenopodium ambrosioides L.
Chenopodium botrys L.
R
Chenopodium chenopodioides (L.) Aellen
Chenopodium ficifolium Sm.
R
Chenopodium glaucum L.
Chenopodium hybridum L.
Chenopodium murale L.
Chenopodium polyspermum L.
Chenopodium pumilio R.Br.
R
Chenopodium rubrum L.
Chenopodium strictum Roth
Chenopodium suecicum J. Murr.
Chenopodium urbicum L.
Chenopodium vulvaria L.
Chondrilla juncea L.
Chorispora tenella (Pall.) DC.
R
Chrysopogon gryllus (L.) Trin.
Cichorium intybus L.
Cicuta virosa L.
Cirsium alatum (S.G. Gmel.) Bobrov
Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop.
Cirsium vulgare (Savi) Ten.
Cladium mariscus (L.) Pohl
subsp. martii (Roem. & Schult.)
So
Clematis vitalba L.
Clinopodium vulgare L.
Comarum palustre L.
I
Conium maculatum L.
Consolida orientalis (Gay) Schrdinger
Consolida regalis S.F. Gray
Convallaria majalis L.
Convolvulus arvensis L.
Convolvulus cantabrica L.
Convolvulus lineatus L.
Ex
Convolvulus persicus L.
R
Conyza canadensis (L.) Cronq.
Corispermim marschallii Steven
R
Corispermum nitidum Kit. in Schult.
Cornus mas L.
Cornus sanguinea L.

Carex acutiformis Ehrh.


Carex colchica Gay
Carex diluta M. Bieb.
I
Carex distans L.
Carex divisa Huds.
Carex elata All.
Carex extensa Good. subsp. sacalinensis
Ciocrlan
Carex hirta L.
Carex liparocarpos Gaud.
Carex melanostachya M. Bieb. ex Willd.
Carex otrubae Podp.
Carex panicea L.
Carex paniculata L.
R
Carex praecox Schreb.
Carex pseudocyperus L.
Carex riparia Curt.
Carex secalina Wahlenb.
subsp. sabulosa Ciocrlan
R
Carex spicata Huds.
Carex viridula Michx.
Carex vulpina L.
Carpinus betulus L.
Carthamus lanatus L.
R
Catabrosa aquatica (L.) Beauv.
Centaurea apiculata Ledeb.
subsp. adpressa (Ledeb.) DostlR
Centaurea arenaria M. Bieb.
subsp. borysthenica (Gruner) Dostl
Centaurea besserana DC.
Centaurea cuneifolia Sibth. & Sm.
subsp. pallida (Friv.) Hayek R
Centaurea cyanus L.
Centaurea diffusa Lam.
Centaurea iberica Trev.
Centaurea jacea L.
Centaurea micranthos S.G. Gmel.
Centaurea pontica Prodan & E. I. Nyrdy
R (End.)
Centaurea rutifolia Sibth. & Sm.
subsp. jurineifolia (Boiss.) Nyman
Centaurea stereophylla Besser
Centaurea stoebe L. (C. rhenana Boreau)
Centaurium erythraea Rafin.
subsp. erythraea
subsp. turcicum (Velen.)
Melderis
R
Centaurium pulchellum (Swartz) Druce
Centaurium spicatum (L.) Fritsch.
V
Cephalantera longifolia (L.) Fritsch.
R
Cerastium dubium (Bast.) Gupin
Cerastium glomeratum Thuill.

54

Dianthus platyodon Klokov


V
Dianthus pontederae Kerner
R
Dichantium ischaemum (L.) Roberty
Digitaria ischaemum Schreb. ex Muhl.
Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop.
subsp. sanguinalis
subsp. pectiniformis HenrardR
Diplotaxis erucoides (L.) DC.
Ex
Diplotaxis muralis (L.) DC.
Diplotaxis tenuifolia (L.) DC.
Dipsacus laciniatus L.
Dorycnium herbaceum Vill.
V
Ecballium elaterium (L.) A. Rich.
E
Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) Beauv.
Echinops sphaerocephalus L.
R
Echium vulgare L.
Eleocharis acicularis (L.) Roem. & Schult.
Eleocharis mitracarpa Steud.
R
Eleocharis palustris (L.) Roem. & Schult.
Eleocharis parvula (Roem. & Schult.) Link ex
Bluff, Nes & Schauer
Eleocharis uniglumis (Link) Schult.
Elodea canadensis Michx.
Elodea nuttallii (Planch.) St. John
R
Elymus athericus (Link) Kergulen
subsp. athericus
subsp. deltaicus (Ciocrlan)
Ciocrlan
R (End.)
Elymus elongatus (Host) Runemark
subsp. elongatus
subsp. ponticus (Podp.) MelderisR
Elymus farctus (Viv.) Runemark ex Melderis
subsp.bessarabicus(Svul.&Rayss)
Melderis
E
Elymus hispidus (Opiz) Melderis
Elymus repens (L.) Gould
Ephedra distachya L.
Epilobium hirsutum L.
Epilobium parviflorum Schreb.
Epilobium tetragonum L.
Epipactis atrorubens (Hoffm.) Besser
subsp. danubialis (K. Robatsch &
J. Rydlo) Ciocrlan et R.
Rs.
R
Epipactis palustris (L.) Crantz
Equisetum arvense L.
Equisetum fluviatile L.
Ex
Equisetum hyemale L.
R
Equisetum palustre L.
Equisetum ramossisimum Desf.
Eragrostis minor Host
Eragrostis pilosa (L.) Beauv.

Coronilla varia L.
Coronopus didymus (L.) Sm.
R
Corylus avellana L.
Corynephorus canescens (L.) Beauv. Ex
Cotoneaster integerrimus Medik.
Ex
Crambe maritima L.
V
Crateagus monogyna Jacq.
Crepis foetida L.
subsp. rhoeadifolia (M. Bieb.)
Celak.
Crepis sancta (L.) Bornm.
Crepis setosa Hall. fill.
Crepis tectorum L.
Cruciata laevipes Opiz
Cruciata pedemontana (Bellardi) Ehrend.
Crypsis aculeata (L.) Aiton
Crypsis alopecuroides (Piller & Mitterp.)
Schrad.
Crypsis schoenoides (L.) Lam.
Cucubalus baccifer L.
R
Cuscuta approximata Bab.
R
Cuscuta campestris Yunck.
Cuscuta epithymum (L.) L.
subsp. epithymum
subsp. trifolii (Bab. & Gibson)
Berher
Cuscuta europaea L.
Cynanchum acutum L.
Cynodon dactylon L.
Cynoglossum officinale L.
Cyperus flavescens L.
Cyperus fuscus L.
Cyperus glaber L.
Cyperus glomeratus L.
Cyperus hamulosus M. Bieb.
Cyperus longus L.
Cyperus michelianus (L.) Link
Cyperus odoratus L. (Torulinium odoratum
(L.) Hooper
R
Cyperus pannonicus Jacq.
Cyperus serotinus Rottb.
Dactylis glomerata L.
Dactylis polygama Horvtovszky
I
Dactylorrhiza incarnata (L.) So
V
Dasypyrum villosum (L.) P. Candargy R
Datura stramonium L.
Daucus broteri Ten.
I
Daucus carota L.
Daucus guttatus Sibth. & Sm.
subsp. zahariadii Heywood R
Descurainia sophia (L.) Webb ex Prantl
Dianthus bessarabicus (Kleopov) KlokovV

55

Erianthus hostii Griseb.


V
Erianthus ravennae (L.) Beauv.
V
Erigeron acris L.
Erodium ciconium (L.) LHrit.
V
Erodium cicutarium (L.) LHrit.
Erodium hoefftianum C.A. Meyer
R
Erophila verna (L.) Chevall.
Eruca sativa Mill.
Ex
Eryngium campestre L.
Eryngium maritimum L.
E
Erysimum diffusum Ehrh.
Erysimum repandum L.
Euonymus europaea L.
Euonymus verrucosa Scop.
Eupatorium cannabinum L.
Euphorbia agraria Bieb.
I
Euphorbia amygdaloides L.
I
Euphorbia leptocaula Boiss.
R
Euphorbia lucida Waldst. & Kit.
Euphorbia palustris L.
Euphorbia paralias L.
V
Euphorbia peplis L.
V
Euphorbia seguierana Neck.
Euphorbia stricta L. (E. serrulata Thuill.)I
Euphorbia virgata Waldst. & Kit.
Euphrasia stricta D. Wolff ex J.F. Lehm.
Falcaria vulgaris Bernh.
Fallopia convolvulus (L.) A. Lve
Fallopia dumetorum (L.) Holub.
Festuca arundinacea Schreb.
subsp. arundinacea
subsp. orientalis (Hack.) Tzvelev
Festuca beckeri (Hack.) Trautv.
subsp. arenicola (Prodan)
Ciocrlan
Festuca gigantea (L.) Vill.
R
Festuca valesiaca Schleich. & Gaudin
Filago arvensis L.
Filago vulgaris Lam.
Filipendula vulgaris Moench
Fimbristylis bisumbellata (Forskal) Bubani
V
Frangula alnus Mill.
Frankenia hirsuta L.
R
Frankenia pulverulenta L.
R
Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl
subsp. oxycarpa (M. Bieb. ex Willd.)
Franco & Rocha Afonso
Fraxinus excelsior L.
Fraxinus ornus L.
Fraxinus pallisiae Wilm.
Fumana procumbens (Dunal) Gren & Godron

subsp. sabulosa Ciocrlan R(End.)


Fumaria schleicheri Soy.-Willem.
Galega officinalis L.
Galinsoga parviflora Cav.
Galium aparine L.
Galium humifusum M. Bieb.
Galium mollugo L.
Galium odoratum (L.) Scop.
Galium palustre L.
Galium rubioides L.
subsp. rubioides
subsp. dasypodum (Klokov)
Ciocrlan
Galium tricornutum Dandy
Galium wirtgenii F.W. Schultz
R
Genista tinctoria L.
Gentiana cruciata L.
E
Geranium dissectum L.
Geranium phaeum L.
Ex
Geranium pusillum Burm. fil.
Geum urbanum L.
Glaucium flavum Crantz
subsp. flavum
subsp. leiocarpum (Boiss.) Ciocrlan
Glechoma hederacea L.
Glinus lotoides L.
R
Glyceria fluitans (L.) R.Br.
Glyceria maxima (Hartm.) Holmb.
Glycyrrhiza echinata L.
Gnaphalium luteo-album L.
Gnaphalium uliginosum L.
Gratiola officinalis L.
Groenlandia densa (L.) Fourr.
R
Gypsophila muralis L.
Gypsophila pallasii Ikonn. (G. glomerata
auct. non Pallas)
Ex
Gypsophila muralis L.
Gypsophila paniculata L.
Gypsophila perfoliata L.
Halimione pedunculata (L.) Aellen
Halimione verrucifera (M. Bieb.) AellenR
Halocnemum strobilaceum (Pall.) M. Bieb.
R
Hedera helix L.
Helianthemum nummularium (L.) Mill.
Helichrysum arenarium (L.) Moench
subsp. ponticum (Velen.) Clapham
Heliotropium curassavicum L.
Heliotropium dolosum De Not.
R
Heliotropium europaea L.
Heliotropium suaveolens M. Bieb.
I
Heracleum sphondylium L.

56

subsp. flavescens (Willd.) So


Hesperis tristis L.
R
Hibiscus trionum L.
Hieracium bauhinii Schult.
Hieracium echioides Lumn.
Hieracium umbellatum L.
Hippophe rhamnoides L.
Hippuris vulgaris L.
Holcus lanatus L.
Holosteum umbellatum L.
Hordeum bulbosum L.
Hordeum geniculatum All. (H. hystrix Roth)
Hordeum jubatum L.
R
Hordeum marinum Huds.
Hordeum murinum L.
subsp. murinum
subsp. leporinum (Link) Arcang.R
Hottonia palustris L.
Humulus lupulus L.
Hydrocharis morsus-ranae L.
Hymenolobus procumbens (L.) Torr. & A.Gray
Hyoscyamus niger L.
Hypericum elegans Stephan
Hypericum perforatum L.
Hypericum tetrapterum Fr.
R
Inula britannica L.
Inula salicina L.
Iris pseudacorus L.
Iris variegata L.
R
Isatis tinctoria L.
R
Isolepis setacea (L.) R.Br.
R
Juncus articulatus L. em. Richt.
Juncus bufonius L.
Juncus compressus Jacq.
Juncus conglomeratus L.
Juncus gerardi Loisel.
Juncus hybridus Brot.
R
Juncus littoralis C.A. Mey.
Juncus maritimus Lam.
Juncus minutulus Krecz. & Gontsch. R
Juncus subnodulosus Schrank
I
Koeleria glauca (Spreng.) DC.
subsp. glauca
subsp. rochelii (Schur) Nyman
Kohlrauschia prolifera (L.) Kunth (Petrorhagia
prolifera (L.) P.W. Ball. &
Heywood)
Lactuca saligna L.
Lactuca serriola L.
Lactuca tatarica (L.) C.A. Mey.
Lamium amplexicaule L.
Lamium purpureum L.

Lappula patula (Lehm.) Grcke


Lappula squarrosa (Retz.) Dumort.
Lapsana communis L.
Lathyrus lacteus (M. Bieb.) Wissjul. (L.
versicolor auct.)
Lathyrus palustris L.
Lathyrus pratensis L.
Lathyrus sylvestris L.
Latryrus tuberosus L.
Lathyrus venetus (Mill.) Wohlf.
Leersia oryzoides (L.) Sw.
Lemna gibba L.
Lemna minor L.
Lemna minuta Kunth
Lemna trisulca L.
Leontodon autumnalis L.
Lepidium campestre (L.) R.Br.
Lepidium cartilagineum (J. Meyer) Thell.
subsp. crassifolium (Waldst. & Kit.)
Thell.
R
Lepidium latifolium L.
Lepidium perfoliatum L.
Lepidium ruderale L.
Leucojum aestivum L.
V
Leymus sabulosus (M. Bieb.) Tzvelev
Ligustrum vulgare L.
Limodorum abortivum (L.) Sw.
R
Limonium bellidifolium (Gouan) Dumort.
subsp. danubiale (Klokov) Roman
R
Limonium meyeri (Boiss.) O. Kuntze
Limosella aquatica L.
R
Linaria euxina Velen.
R
Linaria genistifolia (L.) Mill.
Linaria vulgaris Mill.
Lindernia dubia (L.) Penell R
Linum austriacum L.
Linum hirsutum L.
Linum perenne L.
Liparis loeselii Rich.
Ex
Lithospermum arvense L.
subsp. arvense
subsp. glandulosum (Velen.)
Ciocrlan
Lithospermum officinale L.
Lithospermum purpureocaeruleum L. I
Lolium multiflorum Lam.
Lolium perenne L.
Lolium rigidum Gaud.
subsp. lepturoides Sennen &
Mauricio
E
Loranthus europaeus Jacq.

57

Lotus corniculatus L.
Lotus tenuis Waldst. & Kit.
Lychnis flos-cuculi L.
Lycium barbarum L.
Lycopis arvensis L.
subsp. orientalis (L.) KuntzeR
Lycopus europaeus L.
Lycopus exaltatus L. fil.
Lysimachia nummularia L.
Lysimachia punctata L.
R
Lysimachia vulgaris L.
Lythrum hyssopifolia L.
Lythrum salicaria L.
Lythrum thymifolia L.
R
Lythrum tribracteatum Salzm. ex Spreng.
Lythrum virgatum L.
Malus sylvestris Mill.
Malva neglecta Wallr.
Malva pusilla Sm.
Marrubium peregrinum L.
Marrubium vulgare L.
Marsilea quadrifolia L.
E
Matricaria perforata Mrat
Matricaria recutita L.
Medicago falcata L.
Medicago lupulina L.
Medicago marina L.
E
Medicago minima (L.) L.
Medicago x varia Martyn
Melampyrum arvense L.
Melampyrum cristatum L.
Melica transsilvanica Schur
Melilotus albus Medik.
Melilotus altissimus Thuill.
Ex
Melilotus arenarius Grec.
I
Melilotus dentatus (Waldst. & Kit.) Pers.
Melilotus officinalis Lam.
Melilotus polonicus (L.) Pall.
I
Melilotus tauricus (M. Bieb.) Ser.
I
Melilotus wolgicus Poir.
I
Melissa officinalis L.
Mentha aquatica L.
Mentha arvensis L.
Mentha longifolia (L.) L.
Mentha pulegium L.
Menyanthes trifoliata L.
I
Merendera sobolifera C.A. Meyer
R
Milium vernale M. Bieb.
Minuartia setacea (Thuill.) Hayek
R
Molinia caerulea (L.) Moench
subsp. caerulea var. salsuginosa Pavl.
Ex Roshev. (M. euxina Pobed.)

Muscari racemosum (L.) Mill.


Myagrum perfoliatum L.
Mycelis muralis (L.) Dumort.
Ex
Myosotis arvensis (L.) Hill.
Myosotis scorpioides L.
Myosotis sparsiflora Mikan ex Pohl
Myosotis stricta Link
Myosoton aquaticum (L.) Moench
Myosurus minimus L.
Myriophyllum spicatum L.
Myriophyllum verticillatum L.
Myrrhoides nodosa (L.) Cannon
Ex
Najas marina L.
Najas minor All.
Nasturtium officinale R.Br.
Neottia nidus-avis (L.) Rich.
R
Nonea pulla (L.) DC.
Ex
Nuphar lutea (L.) Sibth. & Sm.
Nymphaea alba L.
Nymphoides peltata (S.G. Gmel.) O. Kuntze
Odontites vernus (Bellardi) Dumort.
subsp. vernus
subsp. serotinus (Dumort.) Corb.
Oenanthe aquatica (L.) Poir.
Oenothera biennis L.
Oenothera parviflora L.
Ononis arvensis L.
Ononis spinosa L.
Onopordum acanthium L.
Onosma arenaria Waldst. & Kit.
Onosma setosa Ledeb.
I
Onosma visianii G.C. Clementi
Ophioglossum vulgatum L.
I
Orchis coriophora L.
subsp. fragrans (Poll.) K. Richt.V
Orchis laxiflora Lam.
subsp. elegans (Heuff.) So
Orchis morio L.
subsp. picta (Loisel.) K. Richt.V
Origanum vulgare L.
Orlaya grandiflora (L.) Hoffm.
Ornithogalum amphibolum Zahar. (Subend.)
R
Ornithogalum orthophyllum Ten.
subsp. kochii (Parl.) Zahar.
Ornithogalum oreoides Zahar. (Subend.) R
Orobanche alba Stephan ex Willd.
Orobanche arenaria Borkh.
Orobanche cernua Loefl. var. cumana (Wallr.)
G. Beck
Orobanche lutea Baumg.
Orobanche picridis F.W. Schultz

58

Plantago tenuiflora Waldst. & Kit


R
Plantago uliginosa F.W. Schmidt (P. major
subsp. intermedia (DC.) Arcang.)
Platanthera bifolia (L.) Rich.
Poa angustifolia L.
Poa annua L.
Poa bulbosa L.
Poa compressa L.
Poa palustris L.
Poa pratensis L.
Poa sylvicola Guss.
Poa trivialis L.
Polycnemum arvense L.
Polycnemum heuffelii Lng.
Polygala comosa Schkuhr
Polygala vulgaris L.
Polygonatum latifolium (Jacq.) Desf.
Polygonatum multiflorum (L.) All.
Polygonum amphibium L.
Polygonum arenarium Waldst. & Kit.
Polygonum arenastrum Boreau
subsp. arenastrum
subsp. calcatum
(Lindm.)Wisskirchen
Polygonum aviculare L.
Polygonum graminifolium Wierzb. ex Heuff
R
Polygonum hydropiper L.
Polygonum lapathifolium L.
subsp. lapathifolium
subsp. incanum (F.W. Schmidt)
Schbl. & Martens
Polygonum maritimum L.
V
Polygonum mesembricum Chrtek
V
Polygonum minus Huds.
Polygonum mite Schrank
Polygonum neglectum Besser
R
Polygonum patulum M. Bieb. subsp.
kitaibelianum (Sadl.) Asch. & Graebn.
R
Polygonum persicaria L.
Polygonum rurivagum Jord. ex Boreau
Polypogon monspeliensis (L.) Desf.
Populus alba L.
Populus canescens (Aiton) Sm.
Populus nigra L.
Populus tremula L.
Portulaca oleracea L.
Potamogeton acutifolius Link
Potamogeton compressus L.
R
Potamogeton crispus L.
Potamogeton gramineus L.

Orobanche ramosa L.
Orobanche reticulata Wallr.
Oxalis corniculata L.
Palimbia rediviva (Pall.) Thell.
I
Paliurus spina-christi Mill.
R
Papaver dubium L.
subsp. dubium
subsp. confine (Jord.) Hrandl
Papaver hybridum L.
Papaver laevigatum M. Bieb.
R
Papaver rhoeas L.
Parapholis incurva (L.) C.E. Hubb
V
Paspalum distichum L.
I
Pastinaca sativa L.
subsp. pratensis (Pers.) Celak.
subsp. repens (Gren. & Godr.) Celak.
Periploca graeca L.
Petasites spurius (Retz.) Rchb.
Petunia parviflora A.L. Juss.
Peucedanum arenarium Waldst. & Kit.R
Peucedanum latifolium (M. Bieb.) DC.R
Phalaris arundinacea L.
Phleum paniculatum Huds.
var. annuum (M. Bieb.) Westb.R
Phleum phleiodes (L.) Karst.
Phlomis pungens Willd.
Phragmites australis (Cav.) Steud.
subsp. australis
subsp. chrysantha (Mabille) Sojk (subsp.
altissimus (Benth.) W.D. Clayton; subsp.
gigantea (Gay ex Boiss.) Bonnier &
Layens)
Phytolaca americana L.
Picris hieracioides L.
subsp. hieracioides
subsp. villarsii (Jordan) Nyman
Plantago altissima L.
I
Plantago cornuti Gouan
Plantago coronopus L.
subsp. coronopus
subsp. stricta (Pilger) Ciocrlan
Plantago crassifolia Forssk.
I
Plantago lanceolata L.
Plantago major L.
subsp. major
subsp. winteri (Wirtg.) W. LudwigR
Plantago maritima L.
subsp. ciliata Printz (P. salsa Pall.)
Plantago media L.
Plantago scabra Moench
subsp. orientalis (So) Tzvelev
Plantago schwarzenbergiana Schur
R

59

Potamogeton lucens L.
Potamogeton natans L.
Potamogeton obtusifolius Mert. & W.D.J.
Koch
R
Potamogeton pectinatus L.
Potamogeton perfoliatus L.
Potamogeton pusillus L.
Potamogeton trichoides Cham. & Schlecht.
R
Potentilla anserina L.
Potentilla argentea L.
Potentilla erecta (L.) Rusch.
E
Potentilla inclinata Vill. (P. canescens Besser)
R
Potentilla pedata Willd.
R
Potentilla recta L.
subsp. recta
subsp. laciniosa (Kit. ex Nestl.) So
Potentilla reptans L.
Potentilla supina L.
Prunella vulgaris L.
Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn
Ex
Puccinellia convoluta (Hornem.) Hayek
subsp. pseudobulbosa (E.I. Nyrdy)
Borza
Puccinellia distans (L.) Parl.
Puccinellia gigantea (Grossh.) Grossh. (P.
convoluta (Hornem.) Hayek p.p.)
Puccinellia limosa (Schur) Holmb.
Puccinellia poecilantha (K. Koch) Grossh.
(P. brachylepis Klokov)
I
Pulicaria dysenterica (L.) Bernh.
Pulicaria vulgaris Gaertn.
Pulsatilla montana (Hoppe) Rchb.
I
Pyrus pyraster (L.) Burgsd.
Quercus pedunculiflora K. Koch
Quercus robur L.
Ranunculus acris L.
Ranunculus aquatilis L.
Ranunculus baudotii Godr.
I
Ranunculus circinatus Sibth.
Ranunculus ficaria L.
Ranunculus lingua L.
Ranunculus peltatus Schrank
R
Ranunculus polyanthemos L.
subsp. polyanthemoides (Boreau)
Ahlfv.
R
Ranunculus repens L.
Ranunculus rionii Lagger
Ranunculus sardous Crantz
Ranunculus sceleratus L.
Ranunculus trichophyllus Chaix

Raphanus raphanistrum L.
Rapistrum perenne (L.) All.
R
Reseda lutea L.
Rhamnus cathartica L.
Rorippa amphibia (L.) Besser
Rorippa austriaca (Crantz) Besser
Rorippa palustris (L.) Besser
Rorippa prolifera (Heuff.) Neilr.
Rorippa sylvestris (L.) Besser
Rosa canina L. s.l.
Rosa jundzillii Besser
Rosa pseudoscabriuscula (Keller) Henker et G.
Schulze
R
Rubus caesius L.
Rumex acetosa L.
Rumex acetosella L.
Rumex conglomeratus Murray
Rumex crispus L.
Rumex dentatus L.
subsp. halacsyi (Rech.) Rech. fil.
Rumex hydrolapatum Huds.
Rumex maritimus L.
Rumex obtusifolius L.
subsp. transiens (Simonk.) Rech. fil.
Rumex palustris Sm.
Rumex stenophyllus Ledeb.
Rumex tuberosus L.
R
Ruppia cirrhosa (Petagna) Grande
Sagina maritima G. Don
R
Sagittaria sagittifolia L.
Sagittaria trifolia L.
V
Salicornia europaea L.
var. patula (Duval-Jouve) Crp.
var. prostrata (Pall.) Rchb.
Salicornia procumbens Sm.
Salicornia ramosissima Woods
Salicornia veneta Pign. & Lausi.
I
Salix alba L.
Salix aurita L.
Salix cinerea L.
Salix fragilis L.
Salix petandra L.
Salix purpurea L.
Salix rosmarinifolia L.
Salix x rubens Schrenk (S. alba x fragilis)
Salix triandra L.
Salsola collina Pall.
Salsola kali L. subsp. ruthenica (Iljin) So
subsp. tragus (L.) Nyman
Salsola soda L.
Salvia aethiopis L.
Salvia austriaca Jacq.
R

60

Salvia glutiosa L.
Ex
Salvia nemorosa L. subsp. tesquicola (Klokov
& Pobed.) So
Salvia natans (L.) All.
Sambucus ebulus L.
Sambucus nigra L.
Samolus valerandi L.
Sanicula europaea L.
Ex
Saxifraga tridactylites L.
Scabiosa argentea L.
Scabiosa ochroleuca L.
Schoenoplectus lacustris (L.) Palla
Schoenoplectus litoralis (Schrad.) Palla
Schoenoplectus supinus (L.) Palla (Isolepis
supina (L.) R.Br.)
Schoenoplectus tabernaemontani (C.C. Gmel.)
Palla
Schoenoplectus triqueter (L.) Palla
R
Schoenus nigricans L.
Scirpoides holoschoenus (L.) Sojk
Sclerochloa dura (L.) Beauv.
Scolymus hispanicus L.
Scorzonera hispanica L.
R
Scorzonera laciniata L. (Podospermum
laciniatum (L.) DC.)
Scorzonera parviflora Jacq.
Scrophularia nodosa L.
Scrophularia umbrosa Dumort.
I
Scutellaria galericulata L.
Scutellaria hastifolia L.
Secale sylvestre Host
Senecio erucifolius L.
Senecio jacobea L. subsp. borysthenicus (DC.)
Ciocrlan
Senecio paludosus L.
Senecio vernalis Waldst. & Kit.
Senecio vulgaris L.
Seseli arenarium M. Bieb.
Seseli campestre Besser
I
Setaria pumila (Poir.) Roem. & Schult.
Setaria verticillata (L.) Beauv.
Setaria viridis (L.) Beauv.
Sideritis montana L.
Silene borysthenica (Gruner) Walters
Silene chersonensis (Zapal.) Kleopow
Silene conica L.
Silene latifolia Poir. subsp. alba (Mill.) Greuter
& Burdet
Silene multiflora (Waldst. & Kitt.) Pers. R
Silene viscosa (L.) Pers.
Silene vulgaris (Moench) Garcke
Sinapis arvensis L.

Sisymbrium altissimum L.
Sisymbrium loselii L.
Sisymbrium officinale (L.) Scop.
Sisymbrium orientale L.
Sisymbrium polymorphum (Murray) Roth
Sium latifolium L.
Sium sisarum L.
Solanum alatum Moench
R
Solanum dulcamara L.
Solanum nigrum L.
Solanum retroflexum Dumort.
R
Sonchus arvensis L.
subsp. arvensis
subsp. uliginosum (M. Bieb.) Nyman
Sonchus asper L.
subsp. asper (L.) Hill
subsp. glaucescens (Jordan) Ball R
Sonchus oleraceus L.
Sonchus palustris L.
R
Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers.
Sparganium emersum Rehm.
Sparganium erectum L.
subsp. erectum
subsp. neglectum (Beeby) K. Richt.
Spergularia media (L.) C. Presl.
Spergularia rubra (L.) J. Presl. & C. Presl.
Spergularia marina (L.) Griseb.
Spirodella polyrhiza (L.) Schleid.
Stachys annua (L.) L.
Stachys atherocalyx K. Koch.
R
Stachys maritima Gouan
V
Stachys palustris L.
Stachys recta L.
Stellaria media (L.) Vill.
Stemmacantha serratuloides (Georgi)
M. Dittrich (Leuzea salina Spreng.) Ex
Stipa capillata L.
Stipa pennata L.
subsp. sabulosa (Pacz.) Tzvelev R
Stipa pulcherrima K. Koch
I
Stratiotes aloides L.
Suaeda confusa Iljin
Suaeda maritima L.
Suaeda salsa (L.) Pall.
R
Suaeda splendens (Pourr.) Gren. & Godr. I
Symphytum officinale L.
Symphytum tanaicense Steven
Syrenia montana (Pall.) Klokov
Tamarix ramosissima Ledeb.
Tanacetum serotinum (L.) Schultz-Bip.
(Leucanthemella serotina (L.) Tzvelev)
V

61

Trigonella gladiata Steven


R
Trigonella monspeliaca L.
R
Trigonella procumbens (Besser) Rchb.
Tussilago farfara L.
Typha angustifolia L.
Typha latifolia L.
Typha laxmannii Lepech.
Ulmus minor Mill.
Ulmus laevis Pall.
Urtica dioica L.
Urtica kioviensis Rogow.
Urtica urens L.
Utricularia australis R.Br.
Utricularia bremii Heer
Utricularia minor L.
Ex
Utricularia vulgaris L.
Vaccaria hispanica (Mill.) Rauschert R
Valeriana officinalis L.
Valerianella carinata Loisel.
R
Valerianella coronata (L.) DC.
R
Valerianella locusta (L.) Laterr. em. Betcke
Vallisneria spiralis L.
Verbascum banaticum Schrad.
Verbascum blattaria L.
Verbascum lychnitis L.
Verbascum nigrum L.
Verbascum phlomoides L.
Verbascum phoeniceum L.
Verbena officinalis L.
Veronica anagallis-aquatica L.
Veronica anagalloides Guss.
Veronica arvensis L.
Veronica beccabunga L.
Veronica catenata Pennell
Veronica chamaedrys L.
Veronica hederifolia L.
Veronica longifolia L.
Veronica orchidea Crantz
Veronica persica Poir.
Veronica prostrata L.
Veronica scardica Griseb.
Veronica scutellata L.
Veronica triphyllos L.
Viburnum opulus L.
Vicia angustifolia L.
Vicia biennis L.
Vicia cracca L.
Vicia hirsuta (L.) S.F. Gray
Vicia pannonica Crantz
Vicia villosa Roth
Vincetoxicum hirundinaria Medik.
subsp. hirundinaria

Tanacetum vulgare L.
Taraxacum bessarabicum (Hornem.) Hand.Mazz.
Taraxacum officinale Weber ex Wiggers
Taraxacum serotinum (Waldst. & Kit.) Poir.
R
Tetragonolobus maritimus (L.) Roth
Teucrium chamaedrys L.
Teucrium scordium L.
subsp. scordium
subsp. scordioides (Schreb.) Arcang.
Thalictrum flavum L.
Thalictrum lucidum L.
Thalictrum minus L.
Thelypteris palustris Schott
Thesium arvense Horv.
Thlaspi arvense L.
Thlaspi perfoliatum L.
Thymelaea passerina (L.) Coss. & Germ.
Tilia cordata Mill.
Tilia tomentosa Moench
Tordylium maximum L.
R
Torilis arvensis (Huds.) Link
Trachomitum venetum (L.) Woodson
(Apocynum venetum L.)
E
Tragopogon dubius Scop.
Tragopogon floccosus Waldst. & Kit. R
subsp. floccosus
subsp. podolicus (DC.) Ciocrlan
Tragus racemosus (L.) All.
Trapa natans L.
V
subsp. natans
subsp. muzzanensis (Jggi) Schinz
Tribulus terrestris L.
Trifolium arvense L.
Trifolium campestre Schreb.
Trifolium diffusum Ehrh.
R
Trifolium dubium Sibth.
R
Trifolium filiforme L. (T. micranthum Viv.)
Ex
Trifolium fragiferum L.
subsp. fragiferum
subsp. bonannii (C. Presl) Sojk
Trifolium hybridum L.
subsp. hybridum
subsp. elegans (Savi) Asch. &
Graebn.
Trifolium pratense L.
Trifolium repens L.
Trifolium suffocatum L.
I
Triglochin maritima L.
Triglochin palustre L.

62

subsp. nivale (Boiss. & Heldr.)


Markgraf
Vincetoxicum scandens Sommier & Levier
Ex
Viola arvensis Murr.
Viola hirta L.
Viola kitaibeliana Roem. & Schult.
R
Viola odorata L.
Viola palustris L.
R
Viscum album L.
Vitis sylvestris C.C. Gmel.
Wolffia arrhiza (L.) Hork. ex Wimmer
Xanthium italicum Moretti
Xanthium orientale L.
Xanthium saccharatum Wallr.
Xanthium spinosum L.
Xanthium strumarium L.
Xeranthemum annuum L.
Zannichellia palustris L.
subsp. palustris
subsp.pedicellata (Wahlenb. & E.
Rosn) Arcang.
Zygophyllum fabago L.
R

63

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64