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International Conference on Advances in Electrical and Electronics Engineering (ICAEE'2011)

Development of AC Inverter stage of 200W OffGrid Microinverter for Photovoltaic Application


Kyu Kyu Mar, Maung Maung Latt , Zaw Min Naing
Abstract This 200W solar microinverter consists of three
portion: the MPPT, the DC-to-DC step-up converter and the DC-AC
Inverter sections. The MPPT detects and optimizes the power from
the solar panels by using of microcontroller to achieve the maximum
power transfer from the panel at any instant of the time. DC voltage
output of MPPT is driven to the DC-to-DC converter. Small size soft
ferrite core is used as a power converter at 65 kHz in DC-DC step-up
converter. This paper especially discusses on the third portion of the
microinverter stage of off-grid type. The inverter delivers 230VAC,
50 Hz modified sine-wave. The overload and short-circuits protection
circuitries for the output is also provided. The battery-less system
provides the green power generating process and environmental
friendly.

KeywordsMPPT, DC-DC step-up converter, Soft Ferrite Core,


Inverter, Protection.
I.

INTRODUCTION

Microinverter system is one of the first of these products


obtainable on the market. It is a set of small units that attach
directly to each solar module to change DC power into AC
power. It transmits precious performance data on each module
to the system possessor. The result is more power, a more
reliable system, and the ability to monitor and respond quickly
to performance issues. Homeowners and business-owners get
more energy, lower costs, and greater control of their solar
investment [6].
THE INVERTER SECTION

II.

The inverter consists of Power MOSFET Inverter Bridge


(Q12~Q15), Driver Stage (Q8~Q11), Switching Control Stage
(U10), Pulse Generator & PWM control stage (U9-556),
Overload protection & Short-circuit protection (U11A&B) and
Thermal protection (U11C) stages.

HERE are two important sections in Microinverter System,


so called the MPPT section and inverter section.

D17
PR1504

R37
1M3 / 0.25W

R38 4k7

D19
PR1504

Q12
IRF830

R39 4k7

230V,
50Hz

Q14
IRF830

Power +340 VDC

R42
4k7

DC- to - DC Inverter

D18
1N4148

R43
4k7

D20
1N4148

R41 NTC

C45
2.2u f / 50V

C44
2.2uF / 50V

SK1

Power GND

AC Outlet

MPPT
Control +12VDC

R36
0.33 / 1W

Output
V&I
sensor

PIC
16F873

340Vdc

R62
22k

100
Hz

Freq.
Adjust

+
1
LM339/a
6
-

R40 10k

R50 47k C47 +

DC to AC
Inverter

AC 230V, 50Hz
Modified Sinewave
Output

U9A
Overload
&
Short-circuit
Protection

R52

100
Hz

R51
470k
11

1
U11D

+
13
LM339/d
10
+ C48
10uF / 50V

R59
1k

DSCHG

U9B
OUT

13

3
4 CV
2 RST LM556/a
6 THRES
TRG

U10B

U10A

DSCHG

OUT

5
3

11
10 CV
12 RST LM556/b
8 THRES
TRG

1
Q 2
Q

CLK

13
Q 12
Q

CLK

10k
NE556
Thermal
Protection

R53 R54 R55


180k 27k

4013
R61 22k

3k3

R60

Q16
2N2222

U11C
36k

PWM Control

9
11

10
4013/b
8 R
S

4
4013/a
6 R
S

DC to DC
Step-Up
Converter

130k

VR1
20k

U11A

22uF / 50V

10k

R58

D21
2.5V Zener

R64

10k

14

LM358

R45

10k

C51
100nF

C46 +
10uF /50V
R49 15k

R63

10k

+12V
reg.

+
2
LM339/b
-

VDD

IOUT

R44

GND

VOUT

VIN

Q11
Q10
MPSA44 2N2222

I IN

14

U11B
5

R47
10K
R48
43K

R46
ZERO

Q15
IRF830

Q8
Q9
MPSA44 2N2222

VCC

FET
Driver

Control GND

GND

PV
V&I
Sensor

Q13
IRF830

13.5Vdc

Switching
& Output

12

Solar
Panel

+
14
8 LM339/c
-

Switching
Control

C49

R56 R57

1nF

10k

TS1

C50
100nF

C52
100nF

C53
100nF

C54
100nF

C55
100nF
Output
Voltage
Adjust

VR2
50k

Fig.2 The DC-AC Inverter Circuit

Oscillator

Fig.1 Block Diagram of Microinverter System


F. A. Kyu Kyu Mar, is with the Electronic Engineering Department,
Mandalay Technological University, Mandalay, Myanmar (e-mail:
thankyumar@gmail.com).
S. B. Maung Maung Latt, is with Pro-rector, Technological University
(Meiktila), Myanmar (e-mail: mgmglatt2020@gmail.com).
T. C. Zaw Min Naing, is with Pro-rector, Technological University
(Maubin) , Myanmar (e-mail: zawminnaing@pmail.ntu.edu.sg).

The Power +340VDC output from DC to DC inverter stage


is applied to the power inverter bridge and control +12V
regulated DC voltage is applied to control IC circuitries.
U9 (NE556) Fig. 3 acts as frequency generator and PWM
control circuit. It has 2 timer stages. The first timer is used as
astable multivibrator which output frequency is exactly 100Hz.
This frequency is determined by R58, VR1, R59 and C52.
100Hz pulse is appeared on Pin5 of U9.

151

International Conference on Advances in Electrical and Electronics Engineering (ICAEE'2011)

change to High-state (H), and hence, the reset signal is sent to


U10 and the inverter bridge will be closed.

+12V
R58

+340V

130k
R58

From Current Sensor

1.5M
+12V

100
Hz

100
Hz

5
R46

1
R59

3
4
2
6

14

DSCHG

OUT

13

OUT

+
LM339/b
-

4k7

DSCHG

11
10
12
8

CV
RST
LM556/a
THRES
TRG

R48 43k C46 +


10uF /50V
R49 15k

PWM Out Put

U11A
7

CV
RST
LM556/b
THRES
TRG

GND

1k

U9B

VCC

U9A

+12V
reg.

U11B

R47 10k

+
LM339/a
-

1
R40 10k
Disable

R50 47k C47 +


D21
2.5V Zener

Overload
&
Short-circuit
Protection

22uF / 50V

R51
470k
11
10

NE556
R52

R60
C54
100nF

C53
100nF

C55
100nF
Output
Voltage
Adjust

C48
10uF / 50V

U11D

+
LM339/d
-

13

10k

36k
C52
100nF

Freq.
Adjust

12

VR1
20k

VR2
50k

R53

R54

R55

180k

27k

3k3

Thermal
Protection

U11C
9

+
8 LM339/c
-

0V

Fig.3 Oscillator and PWM Circuit

C49

R56

R57

C50

1nF

10k

TS1

100nF

14

0V

The second timer acts as monostable multivibrator. The


output from the first timer is triggered to second timer so that
the interrelated impulse is occurred at output Pin9. The pulse
width of this output impulse depends on the voltage across
C40 (i.e, +340VDC). This pulse width is controlled by R37,
R60, VR2 and C55. Adjusting VR2 (PWM control) results to
varies the output AC voltage of inverter stage.
One of the output from the U9 (Pin9) Fig. 4 is driven
directly to the input of U10 (Pin3) and the other input (Pin11)
is driven by the 180 phase shift circuit which consists of Q16,
R61 and R62. U10 consists of 2 separate D-flip-flops. The
four 50Hz square-wave outputs (on-off time ratio 1:1) of the
two flip-flops (Pin 1, 2, 12, and 13) are driven to the driver
stage(Q8~Q11).
Control1

Control2

Control3

Control4

Disable
+12V

R62
22k

100
Hz

1
2

CLK
R
S

9
11
10
8

4013/a

Q
Q

13
12

R
S

DESIGN OF DC-AC INVERTER

III.

CLK
4013/b

A. Design of Oscillator

4
6

VDD

Q
Q

GND

PWM Out Put

U11C and associated components are act as thermal


protection circuit for the output MOSFET stage. The
temperature sensor TS1 is mounted on the heat-sink of the
output transistors. The voltage divider R53 & R56 set the
constant voltage on input Pin8. The temperature surveillance
voltage is applied to input Pin9 from the voltage divider which
consists of R55 & R57 (TS1-temperature sensor). The
hysteresis function is determined by R53.
U11A & U11B are formed as overload & short-circuit
protection circuit. R46 & D21 provide the reference voltage
(+2.5V) to the comparators' non-inverting inputs. R36 is the
shunt resistor of the power stage and the corresponding
negative shunt voltage is applied to the non-inverting inputs
via R47 & R49. If the summing voltage of these inputs is
smaller than 0 V, U11B will interrupt the power stage through
U11D.
The function of U11A is the same as U11B and this stage is
the overload protection stage.

U10B

14

U10A
5

Fig.5 Over Voltage and Over Current Protection Circuit

4013

+12V

R61 22k
Q16
2N2222

R1

Fig.4 Control Pulse Drive

152

OUT

GND

R2

DSCHG

3
4 CV
2 RST LM556/a
6 THRES
TRG

The driver transistors are controlled the switching sequence


of the power MOSFET bridge and the modified sine wave
output AC voltage is obtained from the AC outlet.
U11 (LM339 quad comparator) Fig. 5 is used as the
protection circuit. The open collector outputs of U11A, B & C
are formed as parallel-operated circuits. In normal situation the
capacitor C48 is charged via R51 and the comparator U11D
output (Pin13) is in low (L) state. If the comparator U11A
and/or U11B and/or U11C output become low-state, the
capacitor C48 will discharge, then the U11D output will

VCC

14

0V

100nF

0V

Fig.6 Astable Mode Design

Fig.7 Component Selections

For typical value, it would be chosen C for 0.1F (100nF).

International Conference on Advances in Electrical and Electronics Engineering (ICAEE'2011)

(1)

The required output frequency is 100 Hz and must be pulse.


So R 2 is much smaller than R 1 . If R 2 = 1k, R 1 must be
calculated as
1.44
(2)
f =
( R1 + 2 R2 )C
R1 =

1.44
2 R2
fC

(3)

R1 = 142k

From the component selection Fig. 7, it can easily find the


intersection point of C and frequency of 100 Hz. It is found
that the value of R 1 +R 2 must between 100k and 1M. From
calculation R 1 +R 2 =143k, so it would be chosen
R 1 = 142 k and R 2 = 1 k.
For convenience of adjusting exactly 100 Hz on output, R 2
is substituted with series connection of 130k and 20k
preset resistor.
As per data sheet, the control voltage terminal (pin 3 of 556)
is chosen 0.1F.

it would be chosen 36k (fixed) + 50k (pre-set) resistors.


And so
R1 = (340-12) / 0.2mA = 1640k, 65.6mW,
For the delay time of 200ms,
(4)
t = 1.1R1C1
C1 = 0.101F

As per data sheet, the control voltage terminal (pin 11 of


556) is chosen 0.1F.
C. Design of Inverter Pulse Driver
The 4013 CMOS IC has dual type D flip-flop and it can get
two pair of phase-shifted pulse for inverter bridge control.
The type D flip-flop in divided-by-two configuration is
presented. The output frequency is half of the input frequency.
And used another D flip-flop for 180 out-of phase control
and the transistor Q acts as the phase-shifter
The Enable/disable points are connected together and
controlled by the protection circuit section. The pulse drivers
are used with NPN switching transistors and having typical
values of 4.7k load resistors and 10k base resistors.
The final pulse driver circuit will be seen as below.
+12V

B. Design of PWM Circuit


The PWM control circuit is designed with another timer of
556. The timer is in monostable mode and the control pulse
train is applied to trigger terminal of timer. (Pin 8 of 556)
NE556 utilizes the separated & regulated 12VDC from
previous stage. To control the power inverter output voltage,
the DC voltage input of inverter bridge must be sensed to
PWM circuit and is applied to the timing components R 1 & C
series circuit. To maintain the maximum charging voltage not
exceed to 12VDC, R 2 is parallel connected to C. R 1 and R 2 act
as voltage divider.

Q9
+12V
Enable/disable
22k
100 Hz

U10A

14

R39

R43

4k7

4k7
Control3

U10B
R45 10k
1
Q 2
Q

CLK

4
4013/a
6 R
S

9
11

Q10

13
Q 12
Q

CLK
Control4

0V

10
4013/b
8 R
S

GND

0V

+12V

R62

R1

OUT

Control2

0V
R63 10k

PWM Out Put

DSCHG

4k7
Control1

13

R42

4k7

Q8

+340V

Pulse 100 Hz Input

R38

R44 10k

VDD

The duty cycle can be calculated as


R2
D=
R1 + 2R2

R64 10k
Q11

PWM Output

0V

11
10 CV
12 RST LM556/b
8 THRES
TRG

4013
R61 22k
Q16
2N2222
0V

Fig.9 Inverter Bridge Pulse Driver Circuit

100nF
R2

0V

Fig.8 Monostable Mode with Trigger Input & Timing Chart

If the bleeding current of 0.2mA is chosen,


R 2 = 12V/ 0.2mA = 60k, 2.4mW and so the resistor
R 2 = 56k, 0.25W is chosen. In practice, for fine
adjustment for output AC voltage of inverter bridge, better
using pre-set resistor instead of fixed resistor. For convenience

D. Design of Inverter Bridge


The peak voltage is 340VDC and it is chopped by MOSFET
to have 50 Hz, 240VAC maximum. For the output of 200W
power, the maximum current is delivered as 0.83A.
If only 2W of heat energy is produced by MOSFET
switches, the maximum value of R DS(on) is 2 / (0.83)2 = 2.9.
From the FET Selection Chart, the N channel power MOSFET
of IRF830 from Philips Semiconductor meets these
specifications:

153

International Conference on Advances in Electrical and Electronics Engineering (ICAEE'2011)

When there is no-load condition, there is no current flow to


the inverter bridge. So no voltage drops across sensor. A 2.5V
reference is applied to the comparator inverting terminal via
R 1 . The sensed voltage is also applied to this terminal via R 2 .

+340V

Q12
IRF830

Q14
IRF830

Control1

Control3

+2.5V ref .

+12V

230V,
50Hz
R41 NTC

+
R1

SK1
AC Outlet

R2

Q15
IRF830

Q13
IRF830

V1

U11B
5

0V

Control4

Control2

R4

Vsense

R1

+
2
LM339/b
4
-

control

V2

0V

Fig.10 Inverter Bridge

+340VDC

V DSS = 500V, I D = 5.9A and R DS(on) 1.5


And so it would be chosen IRF830 for the switching device.
The NTC resistor is connected in series with AC load
to protect the electric shocked hazards to the user.

E. Design of Protection Circuit


The over current and output short-circuited protections are
included in this inverter.
The simplified design diagram is shown in Fig. 11.
Four comparators are used in this circuit and so the quadcomparator IC of LM339 is the heart of protector. A & B
comparators are used as OC and SC protectors and C
comparator is used as thermal protector which sensing device
(thermister) is mounted on heat-sink of the power MOSFETs.
And these three comparator outputs are summed together into
another inverting comparator D. Then this last comparator
output is controlling the inverter bridge working status. (enable
/ disable)
+340V
+

DC-DC
Converter
+12V

SK1

Inverter Circuit

Current
Sensor

AC Outlet

Fig.12 Over Current Protection

Let V 2 = 0.5V (beyond 0.6V; not to conduct internal


clamping diode in LM339). That means V Rs + V R2 = 0.5V.
When normal 240VAC, 200W inverter output, the current
flow is 0.83A.
If 150% of this current is defined as over-current, it will
equal 1.245A. To cancel the V 2 , the sensor resistor must be 0.5
/ 1.245 = 0.4, 0.62W.
Set bleeding current through R 1 , R 2 and R S is 50mA, when
no inverter current is flowing in sensor,
(R 1 + R 2 + R S ) =V zener /I bleed = 2.5V / 0.05A = 50k.
And R 2 = 0.5V / 0.05A = 10k, 0.025W.
And R 1 = 50-10-0.33 = 39.67k, 0.1W.
By E24 series, chose R 1 = 43k, 0.1W. For output opencollector resistor, chose 470k typical value.
The configuration of short circuit protection circuit is same
as above and base on 200% of excess current and got the
values of
R 1 = 47k, 0.25W and
R 2 = 15k, 0.25W.
And the summer-inverting comparator and thermal protector
is designed with data sheet typical values.
IV.

+12V
U11B
5

+2.5V ref .

+
LM339/b
4
-

U11A

11

+2.5V ref

10

U11D

+
LM339/d
-

13

Enable / disable Inv erter

EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS OF CONSTRUCTED HVDC


AND DC-AC STAGES

The complete prototype DC-to-DC converter is shown


below [2].

12

+
LM339/a
6
-

Inverter Circuit

+12V

U11C
9

+
8 LM339/c
-

+3.3V ref

TS1

14

Thermister
(on Heatsink)

Fig.11 Protection Circuit Setup Diagram

In normal states, outputs of comparator A, B and C are


positive with respect to ground. Even one output of these goes
low, the comparator D output goes high and disables the
inverter bridge.
154

Fig.13 DC-DC Step-Up Converter

International Conference on Advances in Electrical and Electronics Engineering (ICAEE'2011)

V.

CONCLUSIONS

In this paper the operation, design and considerations of an


inverter stage of 200W off-grid microinverter is presented. The
prototype circuit boards for MPPT, DC to DC converter and
inverter are individually constructed on perforated boards. The
ferrite transformer not only to increase the converted DC
power but also only small spacing requirement is provided [2].
The solar panels must be paralleled to meet the input
requirement of MPPT section. The future task is all of the
above three sections must be integrated in single PCB and
attached additional sections, such as phase detection of output
AC for the capability of two or more microinverters in parallel
connection to increase output power and the control and
supervisory data and the accessed via AC output line to the PC
network.

Fig.14 Inverter Circuit

This result is shown no load test of HVDC to 230VAC


modified sine wave output in Fig. 15.

All the designed functions such as protection, over-voltage,


overload, overheat etc was found satisfactory. Further tests are
still being done and more attention is given to reduce the
production cost even more.
ACKNOWLEDGMENT
The author would like to Special thanks are due to her
Supervisor, Prof. Dr. Maung Maung Latt, Pro. Rector,
Technological University (Meiktila), Prof. Dr. Zaw Min Naing,
Pro. Rector, Technological University (Maubin), and to her
teacher, U Soe Hlaing,(MRES)-Myanma Renewable Energy
System, for their useful guidance, patience and giving valuable
ideas. The author greatly expresses her thanks to all persons
whom will concern to support in preparing this paper.
REFERENCES

Fig.15 Measured Results of no load test of HVDC to 230VAC

[1] D. M. Kammen: Innovations in Solar Energy R&D and PV, 4th Germany
California Solar Day, May 27, 2008.

The complete prototype is load test of HVDC to 230VAC


modified sine wave output as followed.
In the method of testing with 12V100Ah battery instead of
solar cells without using MPPT section, it is seem that the
output AC voltage is very stable in full rated load of 200W.

[2] Kyu Kyu Mar: Implementation of DC-DC step-up converter design for
200W off-Grid Microinverter, Second ICSE Conference, Yangon,
Myanmar, December (2010) 67-71.
[3] R. W. Erickson: Fundamentals of Power Electronics, New
Chapman and Hall, 1997.

York:

[4] J. David Irwin: Power Electronics Handbook, 2001, Academic Press.


www.powersystemsdesign.com
[5] D. Jim, E. Dan, and S., Jeremy: DC-AC Pure Sine Wave Inverter, 2006.
[6] J. Jvd. Merwe: 150W Inverter- An Optimal design for use in solar home
system,2005.

Fig.16 Measured Results of Load test Inverter


155

International Conference on Advances in Electrical and Electronics Engineering (ICAEE'2011)

Navigation Guidance and Control System using


Hardware in the Loop Simulation for Unmanned
Aerial Vehicle (UAV)
Dr. Thae Maung Maung, Dr. Hla Myo Tun, and Moe Kyaw Naing

detect and prevent unnecessary malfunctions of hardware,


software and automatic flight control systems. Hardware-inthe loop simulation is a real-time simulation method or frame
work, in which the UAV platform is reacting the same way as
it in the real experiment. Using such a method, researchers can
effectively evaluate the reliability of the overall UAV system.
In particular, the framework can be intensively used to
examine the performance of designed automatic flight control
algorithms. Necessary enhancements and modifications can
then be done before actually testing the UAV system in the
sky and thus the probability of test flight accidents can be
greatly minimized. Thus researching on the Guidance,
Navigation and Control (GNC) of a UAV using MEMS
sensors is important. The physical UAV system comprises of
the flight platform, onboard systems, communication links,
and ground station. The UAV states are down linked to the
ground station for real time monitoring and to provide
accurate and reliable 3D navigation solutions as well as to
perform the guidance and control task. In my university
Research and Development center in Myanmar Aerospace
Engineering University (MAEU) objective is to develop a
fully autonomous UAV control system which is low cost
,simple to operate, modular, and reliable for unmanned
technology see Figure 1. For these requirements, the
Hardware In the Loop system is a very useful simulation tool.

Abstract Field trial is very critical and high risk in autonomous


UAV development life cycle. Hardware in the loop (HIL) simulation
is a computer simulation that has the ability to simulate UAV flight
characteristic, sensor modeling and actuator modeling while
communicating in real time with the UAV autopilot hardware. HIL
simulation can be used to test and validate the UAV autopilot
hardware reliability, test the closed loop performance of the overall
system and tuning the control parameter. By rigorous testing in the
HIL simulator, the risk in the field trial can be minimized in research
and development UAV autopilot. This paper presents a practical
approach of applying an Inertial Navigation System (INS) using
MEMS inertial sensors, Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver
for the Guidance, Navigation and Control (GNC) of an autonomous
Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). And the HIL environment can
give the best results by comparing with practical unmanned fight test.

Keywords Hardware In the Loop Simulation, unmanned air


vehicle (UAV); micro-electro mechanical system (MEMS); global
positioning system (GPS); Flight control; Navigation and Guidance
(GNC)
.
I. INTRODUCTION

NMANED air vehicles are nowadays seen as an area of


great importance in the aerospace industry. Unmanned
Aerial Vehicle (UAV) has proved to be a very valuable
asset in military and commercial application includes
reconnaissance, surveillance, search and rescue, remote
sensing, etc. UAV can accomplish its mission without risking
the pilot/operator and usually with lower operational cost
compared to manned aircraft.
In order to become successful, the cost of these systems
has to be affordable. Generally, the construction of UAVs is
costly and time consuming. Safety is thus a primary issue that
one is facing in conducting actual flight tests. As such,
intensive testing and simulation, especially with the actual
UAV hardware in the simulation loop, is an effective way to
Dr.Thae Maung Maung, Aerospace Reserach Section, Myanmar Aerospace
Engineering University, Myanmar (phone: 095-64-35241-35201; fax: 095-6435245; e-mail: thaemaungec@ gmail.com).
Dr Hla Myo Tun, Department of Electronics, Mandalay Technology
University, Myanmar (phone: 95-09-5416337; e-mail: hlamyotunmtu@ gmail
.com).
Moe Kyaw Naing , Aerospace Reserach Section, Myanmar Aerospace
Engineering University, Myanmar (phone: 095-64-35241-35201; fax: 095-6435245; e-mail: vincentmoe@ gmail.com).

Fig. 1. Block Diagram for MAEU 01 UAV system

II. UAV DEVELOPMENT LIFE CYCLE


The steps taken in this UAV development life cycle are:
Airframe selection,
Guidance, Navigation and Control development,
156