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RENR5134-01

July 2001

Systems Operation
Testing and Adjusting
740 Articulated Truck Power Train
AXM1-Up (Machine)

i01097883

Important Safety Information


Most accidents that involve product operation, maintenance and repair are caused by failure to
observe basic safety rules or precautions. An accident can often be avoided by recognizing potentially
hazardous situations before an accident occurs. A person must be alert to potential hazards. This
person should also have the necessary training, skills and tools to perform these functions properly.
Improper operation, lubrication, maintenance or repair of this product can be dangerous and
could result in injury or death.
Do not operate or perform any lubrication, maintenance or repair on this product, until you have
read and understood the operation, lubrication, maintenance and repair information.
Safety precautions and warnings are provided in this manual and on the product. If these hazard
warnings are not heeded, bodily injury or death could occur to you or to other persons.
The hazards are identified by the Safety Alert Symbol and followed by a Signal Word such as
DANGER, WARNING or CAUTION. The Safety Alert WARNING label is shown below.

The meaning of this safety alert symbol is as follows:


Attention! Become Alert! Your Safety is Involved.
The message that appears under the warning explains the hazard and can be either written or
pictorially presented.
Operations that may cause product damage are identified by NOTICE labels on the product and in
this publication.
Caterpillar cannot anticipate every possible circumstance that might involve a potential hazard. The
warnings in this publication and on the product are, therefore, not all inclusive. If a tool, procedure,
work method or operating technique that is not specifically recommended by Caterpillar is used,
you must satisfy yourself that it is safe for you and for others. You should also ensure that the
product will not be damaged or be made unsafe by the operation, lubrication, maintenance or
repair procedures that you choose.
The information, specifications, and illustrations in this publication are on the basis of information that
was available at the time that the publication was written. The specifications, torques, pressures,
measurements, adjustments, illustrations, and other items can change at any time. These changes can
affect the service that is given to the product. Obtain the complete and most current information before
you start any job. Caterpillar dealers have the most current information available. For a list of the most
current publication form numbers available, see the Service Manual Contents Microfiche, REG1139F.

When replacement parts are required for this


product Caterpillar recommends using Caterpillar replacement parts or parts with equivalent
specifications including, but not limited to, physical dimensions, type, strength and material.
Failure to heed this warning can lead to premature failures, product damage, personal injury or
death.

3
Power Train
Table of Contents

Table of Contents
Systems Operation Section
Graphic Color Codes ............................................
General Information ..............................................
Torque Converter .................................................
Transmission Planetary .........................................
Output Transfer Gears .........................................
Interaxle Differential ..............................................
Differential (Front and Rear Axle) .........................
Differential (Center Axle) .......................................
Final Drive ............................................................
Power Train Hydraulic System .............................
Transmission Hydraulic Control ...........................
Power Train Electronic Control System .................
Output Transfer Gears Lubrication System ...........
Pressure Control Valve (Transmission) .................
Selector and Pressure Control Valve
(Transmission) .....................................................
Rotary Actuator (Transmission) ............................

4
5
6
8
9
11
13
15
18
19
23
24
28
30
37
40

Testing and Adjusting Section


Troubleshooting
Machine Preparation for Troubleshooting .............
General Troubleshooting Information ....................
Visual Inspection ...................................................
Operational Checks ..............................................
Torque Converter Troubleshooting ........................
Transmission Planetary Troubleshooting ..............
Interaxle Differential Troubleshooting ....................
Differential Troubleshooting ..................................

42
42
43
44
45
47
52
53

Testing and Adjusting


Power Train Pressures ..........................................
Transmission Hydraulic Control - Test and Adjust ..
Transmission Shift Points - Test ............................
Interaxle Differential - Test ....................................
Differential - Test ...................................................

55
73
82
84
85

Index Section
Index ..................................................................... 88

4
Power Train
Systems Operation Section

Systems Operation Section


i01481554

Graphic Color Codes


SMCS Code: 4000

Illustration 1

g00771291

(A) Red ........................... Pump discharge pressure


(B) Red Stripes and White
Stripes .......................... First pressure reduction
(C) Red Dots ................ Second pressure reduction
(D) Orange ............................. Pilot system pressure
(E) Orange Stripes and White
Stripes .............. Reduced pilot system pressure
(F) Blue .................................................. Blocked oil
(G) Green .. Suction oil, return oil, and case drain oil
(H) Yellow ..................................... Moving parts and
activated valve sections
(I) Purple ........................................ Pressurized gas
(J) Gray ............................... Cutaway sections, and
non-activated valve sections

5
Power Train
Systems Operation Section
i01563882

General Information
SMCS Code: 3030

g00791946

Illustration 2
(1) Engine
(2) Torque converter
(3) Transmission planetary
(4) Wheel and final drive
(5) Differential and bevel gear
(6) Output transfer gears and case

(7) Drive shaft


(8) Through hitch drive shaft
(9) Drive shaft
(10) Differential and bevel gear
(11) Drive shaft
(12) Differential and bevel gear

Tractor Arrangement
The engine flywheel drives torque converter (2).
The torque converter has an integral lockup clutch.
The lockup clutch for the torque converter allows
the machine to operate in torque converter drive or
in direct drive.
Torque converter (2) is located within the housing
for the transmission planetary which is bolted
directly to the engine. Transmission planetary (3)
contains seven hydraulically actuated clutches. The
seven hydraulically actuated clutches give seven
forward speeds and one reverse speed.
Main drive shaft (17) transmits torque to output
transfer gears and case (6). Differential (15) is
located in output transfer gears and case (6), which
is connected to front drive shaft (16) and drive shaft
(7). Front drive shaft (16) is connected to differential
and bevel gear (5). Drive shaft (7) is connected
hitch drive shaft (8).

(13)
(14)
(15)
(16)
(17)

Wheel and final drive


Wheel and final drive
Differential
Front drive shaft
Main drive shaft

Differential and bevel gear (5) transfers drive to


wheel and final drives (4) for the front axle.

Trailer Arrangement
Through hitch drive shaft (8) transmits torque to
drive shaft (9). The drive shaft transfers drive to
differential and bevel gear (10).
Differential and bevel gear (10) transfers drive to
wheel and final drives (14) for the center axle and
drive shaft (11).
Drive shaft (11) transmits torque to differential and
bevel gear (12).
Differential and bevel gear (12) transfers drive to
wheel and final drives (13) for the rear axle.

6
Power Train
Systems Operation Section
i01523695

Torque Converter
SMCS Code: 3101

g00791571

Illustration 3
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)

Housing
Turbine
Stator
Shaft

(5)
(6)
(7)
(8)

One-way clutch
Impeller
Lockup Clutch
Hub

The torque converter is driven by the engine


flywheel. The torque converter consists of impeller
(6), turbine (2), lockup clutch (7), and stator (3)
which incorporates one-way clutch (5). The lockup
clutch permits the machine to operate in direct
drive in order to keep the power loss at a minimum.
The one-way clutch holds the stator when torque
converter drive is used. The one-way clutch allows
the stator to turn freely when direct drive is used.
The torque converter housing is fastened to the
flywheel housing for the engine. Shaft (4) connects
the torque converter to the transmission planetary
group.

The engine flywheel turns rotating housing (1) and


impeller (6). The impeller directs oil onto the blades
of turbine (2). This causes the turbine to turn. The
turbine directs the oil onto stator (3). This causes
the stator to try to turn in the opposite direction
of the turbine. The movement of the stator causes
the rollers of one-way clutch (5) to move between
stator (3) and the carrier for the stator. The action
of the one-way clutch keeps the stator from rotating
in the opposite direction to the turbine. The stator
now directs most of the oil back to the impeller.
The remainder of the oil goes out of the torque
converter. The oil, that goes back to the impeller
from the stator, moves in the same direction as the
rotation of the impeller. Since this oil is moving in
the same direction as the impeller, the torque output
from the torque converter is multiplied.
Turbine (2) turns hub (8). The hub turns shaft (4).
Power is sent through the shaft to the transmission
planetary group.

7
Power Train
Systems Operation Section
Lockup clutch (7) is part of the torque converter.
The lockup clutch is located between the engine
flywheel and the turbine. The lockup clutch is
engaged under the following conditions: sufficient
input speed to the transmission planetary group,
sufficient oil pressure in the transmission planetary
group, and sufficient engine rpm. When the
lockup clutch is engaged, the impeller and the
turbine turn at the same speed as the engine and
there is no loss of power in the torque converter.
The connection between the engine and the
transmission planetary group is now direct.
Torque converter drive is available in the first gear
and reverse gear. The lockup clutch provides direct
drive once the transmission speed and the engine
speed are matched.
Direct drive is provided in all the higher gears. The
lockup clutch is disengaged during transmission
shifts in order to allow a smooth transition between
gears.
The input speed of the torque converter is measured
at the engine flywheel. This speed is the same
speed as the engine output speed. The output
speed of the torque converter is measured at the
planetary transmission. This speed is the same
speed as the transmission input speed.

8
Power Train
Systems Operation Section
i01523914

Transmission Planetary
SMCS Code: 3160

g00791642

Illustration 4
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)

Clutch
Clutch
Clutch
Clutch
Clutch

1
2
3
4
5

(6) Clutch 6
(7) Clutch 7
(8) Sensor (output speed)
(9) Output yoke
(10) Shaft (input from torque converter)

The planetary transmission has seven forward


speeds and one reverse speed. At lower ground
speeds, FIRST speed uses torque converter drive.
At higher ground speeds, FIRST speed uses direct
drive. As the ground speed increases in FIRST
speed the lockup clutch of the torque converter
engages. This provides FIRST speed with direct
drive. The torque converter is always in direct drive
for speeds SECOND through SEVENTH, but there
is a short period of torque converter drive when
the clutches engage in the planetary transmission.
Only torque converter drive is used when REVERSE
speed is selected. The torque converter lockup
clutch is disengaged during transmission shifts in
order to provide smooth shifts. Table 1 shows the
clutches that are engaged for each speed.

Table 1

SPEED SELECTION
SPEED

ENGAGED CLUTCHES

NEUTRAL

REVERSE speed

3 & 7

FIRST speed

2 & 6

SECOND speed

1 & 6

THIRD speed

3 & 6

FOURTH speed

1 & 5

FIFTH speed

3 & 5

SIXTH speed

1 & 4

SEVENTH speed

3 & 4

9
Power Train
Systems Operation Section
The planetary transmission consists of two rotating
clutches, five stationary clutches, and five planetary
units. This provides seven forward speeds and one
reverse speed. No. 3 clutch (3) and No. 4 clutch (4)
are the rotating clutches.
The planetary transmission is bolted to the torque
converter housing. Shaft (10) is part of the torque
converter, and the shaft transmits the torque to the
planetary transmission. Output yoke (9) from the
planetary transmission is bolted to the main drive
shaft. The main drive shaft connects the planetary
transmission with the output transfer gear.
Sensor (8) measures the output speed of the
planetary transmission. There are two sensors
in order to provide a backup in the event of a
failure. The sensors send information about the
transmission output speed to the ECM (Electronic
Control Module).
i01575760

Output Transfer Gears


SMCS Code: 3159

g00819173

Illustration 5
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)

Input Shaft
Differential
Shaft
Gear

(5)
(6)
(7)
(8)

Idler Gear
Gear
Output Yoke
Shaft

(9) Gear
(10) Gear
(11) Output Yoke
(12) Solenoid and Relief Valve

10
Power Train
Systems Operation Section
Power is transmitted to the output transfer gears
from the transmission planetary group via a drive
shaft to input shaft (1). The input shaft is splined
to interaxle differential (2) that splits the torque
between the front and the rear axles. Torque for the
front axle is transmitted from the differential along
shaft (3) to gear (4). An idler gear (5) transfers
this torque to gear (6) in the bottom of the output
transfer gear case. Gear (6) is splined to the output
yoke (7).
Torque for the rear axles is transmitted from the
differential along shaft (8) to gear (9). Gear (9) is
meshed with gear (10) which is splined to output
yoke (11).

Illustration 6

g00791610

This is a view of the solenoid and relief valve from below the
machine.

Solenoid and relief valve (12) controls the lubrication


oil for the output transfer gears. The solenoid and
relief valve also controls the interaxle differential
and the axle differentials.

11
Power Train
Systems Operation Section
i01524199

Interaxle Differential
SMCS Code: 3287

g00791767

Illustration 7
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)

Input shaft
Shaft
Planetary gear
Differential housing
Clutch pack

(6) Piston
(7) Rotating housing
(8) Output shaft
(9) Output shaft
(10) Gear

Torque from the transmission planetary enters


the output transfer gears, and flows directly to
differential housing (4). The torque is transmitted
through the interaxle differential to output shaft (8)
and output shaft (9).
The interaxle differential allows the torque from the
transmission planetary to be divided between the
front axle and the two rear axles.
The front axle receives a smaller proportion of the
torque than the center and rear axles. This prevents
excess torque from being transmitted to the front
axle.
The distance from the axis of rotation of differential
housing (4) to the axis of planetary gears (3) is
greater than the distance to the axis of planetary
gears (13).

(11)
(12)
(13)
(14)
(15)

Gear
Sun gear
Planetary gear
Sun gear
Hub

Planetary gears (3) transfer the torque from


differential housing (4) to output shaft (9) and
planetary gears (13) transfer the torque from
differential housing (4) to output shaft (8).
The torque that is transmitted to output shaft (9) is
greater than the torque that is transmitted to output
shaft (8).
Output shaft (9) transmits the torque to the two rear
axles and output shaft (8) transmits the torque to
the front axle.
The torque that is transmitted to the two rear axles
is greater than the torque that is transmitted to the
front axle. 40% of the torque is transmitted to the
front axle and 60% of the torque is transmitted to
the center and the rear axle.

12
Power Train
Systems Operation Section
If the machine was operated on a hard surface with
equal traction at each wheel, turning the machine
would cause torsional stresses in the power train.
This could reduce the service life of components
in the power train.
The interaxle differential transmits drive to the front
and rear axles at equal speeds when the machine
is travelling straight. The interaxle differential also
transmits drive to the front and rear axles at different
speeds when the machine is turning. Torque input is
maintained at each axle throughout each operation.
The interaxle differential responds to the difference
in resistance between the front wheels and the
center and rear wheels. This is carried out in
a similar manner to the response of the axle
differentials to the speed difference between the
inner wheels and the outer wheels.
The interaxle differential is equipped with a lockup
clutch. The lockup clutch is activated by a floor
mounted switch. The lockup clutch will neutralize
normal interaxle differential operation and transfer
drive to all three axles regardless of the ground
conditions or the rolling resistance at each wheel.
The interaxle differential consists of an input shaft
(1) which is connected to differential housing (4).
Differential housing (4) contains two pairs of three
evenly spaced shafts (2). The shafts are used to
support two planetary gear sets (3) and (13). Both
planetary gear sets are in constant mesh with each
other and each of the gears is free to rotate around
shafts (2).
Planetary gear set (3) is in constant mesh with sun
gear (14) which is installed onto output shaft (9)
for the output drive to the trailer. Planetary gear set
(13) is in constant mesh with sun gear (12) which
is installed onto output shaft (8) for the output drive
to the tractor.
When the machine is moving in a straight direction
with equal ground resistance at each wheel the
differential housing (4), planetary gears (3) and
planetary gears (13) rotate as a unit.
When the machine is turning, the turning radius
changes at the front wheels and at the rear wheels.
Planetary gears (3) and (13) rotate around shafts
(2) as sun gear (14) for the drive to the trailer slows
down.
If wheel spin occurs at the front of the machine,
drive to the center axle and drive to the rear axle
would be reduced to a degree that would stop
the machine. In this event, engaging the interaxle
differential lock would restore drive to all axles.
The differential effect is cancelled by locking the
differential housing to the output shafts.

When the operator engages the differential lock, oil


pressure is transmitted by the solenoid and relief
valve to rotating housing (7). The oil pressure inside
rotating housing (7) acts on piston (6) which forces
the piston against clutch pack (5). Hub (15) and
differential housing (4) are then connected. Both
planetary gear sets and both sun gears are locked
in position. The differential effect is cancelled. Shaft
(8) and shaft (9) will rotate at the same speed.
When the operator disengages the differential lock,
oil pressure is relieved at piston (6). This allows
clutch pack (5) to disengage. Differential housing
(4) and hub (15) are disconnected and the interaxle
differential effect is restored.

13
Power Train
Systems Operation Section
i01551675

Differential (Front and Rear


Axle)
SMCS Code: 3258-RE; 3258-FR

g00766546

Illustration 8
Differential
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)

Bevel pinion shaft


Oil supply tube
Chamber
Piston
Pressure plate
Rotating plate

(7) Friction disc


(8) Hub assembly
(9) Axle shaft
(10) Side gear
(11) Differential case
(12) Spider

A differential is an arrangement of gears which


enables one shaft to drive two shafts with equal
torque. The differential also allows the two shafts to
rotate at different speeds.
The differential in an axle enables drive to be
maintained to both wheels through separate axle
shafts when the machine is turning. The wheel on
the inside of the turn will travel a shorter distance
than the wheel on the outside of the turn. This
causes the wheel on the inside of the turn to slow
down while the wheel on the outside of the turn
speeds up.

(13)
(14)
(15)
(16)

Pinion gear
Axle shaft
Side gear
Bevel gear

In adverse ground conditions, one or more of


the wheels may lose traction. The action of the
differential will result in a loss of drive as the
differential allows the torque to be transmitted along
the path of least resistance, which will be the wheel
that is slipping.
The differential in each axle can be locked in
adverse conditions. Locking the differential provides
direct drive to all the wheels at the same speed
regardless of the resistance due to traction.

14
Power Train
Systems Operation Section
A differential divides the power that is sent to the
machine wheels. During a turn, the inside wheel
turns at a slower rate than the outside wheel. The
differential still sends the same amount of torque
to each wheel. Each differential has a differential
lock. The main component of the differential lock is
the clutch pack. When the differential lock switches
are engaged, the clutch pack connects one axle
shaft to the differential case. Both axle shafts are
connected in order to form a solid axle with no
differential effect.
The inside components of the differential receive
lubrication from the oil that is inside the axle
housing.
Bevel pinion shaft (1) is in constant mesh with bevel
gear (16). The bevel pinion shaft and the bevel
gear provide a gear reduction and a change in the
direction of drive by 90.
Differential case (11) is attached to bevel gear
(16). The differential case holds spiders (12). Four
pinion gears (13) are free to rotate around the
spiders. Side gears (10) and (15) are mounted in
the differential case. The side gears are meshed
with the pinion gears. Axle shafts (9) and (14) are
splined into the side gears.
When the bevel gear (16) is turned by bevel pinion
shaft (1), differential case (11) is also turned. If
the resistance between each of the road wheels
is equal, pinion gears (13) will not rotate around
spiders (12). The pinion gears will turn with the
spiders. The pinion gears will turn the side gears
with equal speed and equal torque.
When the machine is turning, the wheel that is on
the inside of the turn will travel a shorter distance
than the wheel on the outside of the turn. This
causes the wheel on the inside of the turn to slow
down while the wheel on the outside of the turn
speeds up.
The axle shaft on the inside of the turn and the side
gears on the inside of the turn slow down. This
causes the pinion gears to rotate on the spiders.
The wheel, the axle shaft and the side gear on
the inside will slow down as the machine turns.
The wheel, the axle shaft and the side gear on the
outside will speed up in proportion to the inside
wheel. The differential between the speed of the
two wheels is taken up by the rotation of the bevel
gears around the spiders. Both wheels are driven
with equal force, but at different speeds.

When one wheel has more traction than the other


wheel, the torque travels by the path of least
resistance to the wheel that has less traction. The
wheel with less traction will spin and the wheel
that has traction will be stationary. In this condition,
the machine will lose drive. A differential lock is
provided in order to prevent loss of drive in adverse
conditions.
Differential Lock Operation
The axle differential lock should be engaged when
the machine is being operated on a loose surface
or a soft surface. The axle differential lock should
also be engaged if wheel spin is experienced and
additional traction is required. Damage can occur to
drive line components through a buildup of torsional
stress, if operating the machine on a hard surface
with the axle differential lock engaged. The machine
should only be driven in a straight line when the
axle differential lock is engaged.
When the differential lock switches are operated,
oil pressure is transmitted through oil supply tube
(2) into chamber (3). Piston (4) is offset against
pressure plate (5) which forces rotating plates (6)
and friction discs (7) together, locking axle shaft (9)
to hub assembly (8). This prevents side gear (10)
from rotating inside differential case (11). Pinion
gears (13) stop revolving and this causes side gear
(15) and axle shaft (14) to lock. Both axle shafts
now rotate at the same speed as the bevel gear
and differential case.

15
Power Train
Systems Operation Section
i01515596

Differential (Center Axle)


SMCS Code: 3258-CE

g00786475

Illustration 9
Differential
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)

Bevel pinion shaft


Gear
Oil supply tube
Chamber
Piston
Pressure plate

(7) Rotating plate


(8) Friction disc
(9) Hub assembly
(10) Axle shaft
(11) Side gear
(12) Differential case

A differential is an arrangement of gears which


enables one shaft to drive two shafts with equal
torque. The differential also allows the two shafts to
rotate at different speeds.
The differential in an axle enables drive to be
maintained to both wheels through separate axle
shafts when the machine is turning. The wheel on
the inside of the turn will travel a shorter distance
than the wheel on the outside of the turn. This
causes the wheel on the inside of the turn to slow
down while the wheel on the outside of the turn
speeds up.

(13)
(14)
(15)
(16)
(17)
(18)

Spider
Pinion gear
Axle shaft
Side gear
Bevel gear
Differential carrier

In adverse ground conditions, one or more of


the wheels may lose traction. The action of the
differential will result in a loss of drive as the
differential allows the torque to be transmitted along
the path of least resistance, which will be the wheel
that is slipping.
The differential in each axle can be locked in
adverse conditions. Locking the differential provides
direct drive to all the wheels at the same speed
regardless of the resistance due to traction.

16
Power Train
Systems Operation Section
A differential divides the power that is sent to the
machine wheels. During a turn, the inside wheel
turns at a slower rate than the outside wheel. The
differential still sends the same amount of torque
to each wheel. Each differential has a differential
lock. The main component of the differential lock is
the clutch pack. When the differential lock switches
are engaged, the clutch pack connects one axle
shaft to the differential case. Both axle shafts are
connected in order to form a solid axle with no
differential effect.
The inside components of the differential receive
lubrication from the oil that is inside the axle
housing.
Bevel pinion shaft (1) is in constant mesh with bevel
gear (17). The bevel pinion shaft and the bevel
gear provide a gear reduction and a change in the
direction of drive by 90.
Differential case (12) is attached to bevel gear
(17). The differential case holds spiders (13). Four
pinion gears (14) are free to rotate around the
spiders. Side gears (11) and (16) are mounted in
the differential case. The side gears are meshed
with the pinion gears. Axle shafts (10) and (15) are
splined into the side gears.
When the bevel gear (17) is turned by bevel pinion
shaft (1), differential case (12) is also turned. If
the resistance between each of the road wheels
is equal, pinion gears (14) will not rotate around
spiders (13). The pinion gears will turn with the
spiders. The pinion gears will turn the side gears
with equal speed and equal torque.

When one wheel has more traction than the other


wheel, the torque travels by the path of least
resistance to the wheel that has less traction. The
wheel with less traction will spin and the wheel
that has traction will be stationary. In this condition,
the machine will lose drive. A differential lock is
provided in order to prevent loss of drive in adverse
conditions.
Differential Lock Operation
The axle differential lock should be engaged when
the machine is being operated on a loose surface
or a soft surface. The axle differential lock should
also be engaged if wheel spin is experienced and
additional traction is required. Damage can occur to
drive line components through a buildup of torsional
stress, if operating the machine on a hard surface
with the axle differential lock engaged. The machine
should only be driven in a straight line when the
axle differential lock is engaged.
When the differential lock switches are operated,
oil pressure is transmitted through oil supply tube
(3) into chamber (4). Piston (5) is offset against
pressure plate (6) which forces rotating plates (7)
and friction discs (8) together, locking axle shaft
(10) to hub assembly (9). This prevents side gear
(11) from rotating inside differential case (12). Pinion
gears (14) stop revolving and this causes side gear
(16) and axle shaft (15) to lock. Both axle shafts
now rotate at the same speed as the bevel gear
and differential case.
Center Axle Through Drive

When the machine is turning, the wheel that is on


the inside of the turn will travel a shorter distance
than the wheel on the outside of the turn. This
causes the wheel on the inside of the turn to slow
down while the wheel on the outside of the turn
speeds up.
The axle shaft on the inside of the turn and the side
gears on the inside of the turn slow down. This
causes the pinion gears to rotate on the spiders.
The wheel, the axle shaft and the side gear on
the inside will slow down as the machine turns.
The wheel, the axle shaft and the side gear on the
outside will speed up in proportion to the inside
wheel. The differential between the speed of the
two wheels is taken up by the rotation of the bevel
gears around the spiders. Both wheels are driven
with equal force, but at different speeds.

Illustration 10

g00807502

The center axle on the 740 features a through drive


in order to transmit drive to the rear axle.

17
Power Train
Systems Operation Section

g00807440

Illustration 11
(1) Bevel pinion shaft
(2) Gear

(17) Bevel gear


(19) Gear assembly

Drive is input to the axle from the drive shaft to gear


assembly (19). Gear assembly (19) is meshed with
gear (2) on bevel pinion shaft (1). This provides the
drive to bevel gear (17).
Drive to the rear axle is carried by gear assembly
(19) to an output shaft that connects to the drive
shaft to the rear axle via a universal joint.

18
Power Train
Systems Operation Section
i01515331

Final Drive
SMCS Code: 4050

Illustration 13

g00807179

Final Drive (Rear Axle)

Illustration 12
Final Drive (Front and Center Axle)
(1) Wheel
(2) Ring gear
(3) Planetary carrier
(4) Spindle
(5) Axle shaft
(6) Sun gear
(7) Hub
(8) Gear
(9) Wheel bearings
(10) Seals
(11) Brake (Front axle and center axle)

g00786313

(1) Wheel
(2) Ring gear
(3) Planetary carrier
(4) Spindle
(5) Axle shaft
(6) Sun gear
(7) Hub
(8) Gear
(9) Wheel bearings
(10) Seals

Planetary final drives are used on all axles.


Ring gear (2) is mounted on hub (7). The hub is
splined onto spindle (4). Spindle (4) is bolted to the
axle housing. Ring gear (2) is held stationary.
Gears (8) are mounted upon planetary carrier (3)
which is bolted to wheel (1). Sun gear (6) is splined
to axle shaft (5).
Drive comes to sun gear (6) through axle shaft (5).
Ring gear (2) is held stationary, so the planetary
carrier is driven in the same direction as the sun
gear at a reduced speed. The carrier is bolted to
the wheel and the wheel rotates on bearings (9).
The final drive is lubricated by oil from the axle.
Seals (10) allow the oil to be sealed in the final
drive and the axle.

19
Power Train
Systems Operation Section
i01528758

Power Train Hydraulic System


SMCS Code: 3000; 3100; 4000
The hydraulic system for the power train consists of
two separate subsystems.
The first system supplies oil to the torque converter
and the planetary transmission.
The second system supplies oil to the output
transfer gear, the interaxle differential lock and the
three axle differential locks.

Torque Converter and Transmission

Illustration 14

The transmission hydraulic control system provides


pressurized oil to the clutches of the transmission
planetary. , Pressurized oil is also supplied to the
torque converter and to the torque converter lockup
clutch.
Oil from the sump (1) of the torque converter is
drawn through suction screen (2) by oil pump (3).

g00809226

Oil from the pump is supplied through oil filter (4)


to downshift solenoid (5) and upshift solenoid (6).
Oil is also supplied to selector and pressure control
valve (13). Downshift solenoid (5) and upshift
solenoid (6) control the flow of pressurized oil to
rotary actuator (7). Rotary actuator (7) determines
the position of selector spool (12) in selector and
pressure control valve (13).

20
Power Train
Systems Operation Section
Selector spool (12) in selector and pressure control
valve (13) allows pilot oil to flow to individual valves
(8) on pressure control valve (9). The position of the
selector spool determines the path of the pilot oil
to the individual valves.
Each individual valve is a modulating valve which
controls the pressure of the oil that is supplied to
the clutches in the transmission planetary.
Oil from the selector and pressure control valve also
supplies the torque converter. The oil that is used
by the torque converter is then sent through the
transmission oil cooler and back to the transmission
as lubricant.

Transmission Oil Pump and Suction


Screen

Illustration 16

g00792091

(3) Oil pump (transmission)


(14) Port (inlet)
(18) Hose (pump drive group lubrication)
(19) Port (outlet)

Oil pump (15) for the transmission oil is located in


the top of torque converter housing (16).
The oil pump is splined to gear (17) which is driven
by the input to the torque converter via idler gear
(15).
The oil is drawn by the oil pump from the sump in
the torque converter housing. The oil then passes
through suction screen (2) to port (14) in the oil
pump. The oil is then pumped from port (19) to the
system. Hose (18) receives oil from the system in
order to lubricate the pump drive group.

Illustration 15
(3) Oil pump (transmission)
(14) Port (inlet)
(15) Idler gear
(2) Suction screen
(16) Torque converter housing
(17) Gear

g00792128

21
Power Train
Systems Operation Section

Transmission Oil Filter

If there is a restriction in the filter element the oil


pressure in the filter increases. The increased oil
pressure shifts spool (23) to the right against spring
(25). When the spool is moved to the right, oil flows
directly from cavity (22) to cavity (24). The oil filter
element is now bypassed.

Transmission Oil Cooler

Illustration 19

g00792759

This is a view from below the transmission oil cooler.

Illustration 17
(20)
(21)
(22)
(23)
(24)
(25)

g00792383

Oil from the torque converter is sent to the oil cooler


and the oil is cooled by engine coolant. Oil from the
oil cooler is then used to lubricate the transmission,
the pump drive group and the accessory drive
group.

Transmission oil filter base


Filter element
Cavity (oil inlet)
Spool (bypass valve)
Cavity (oil outlet)
Spring (bypass valve)

Illustration 18

The oil cooler for the transmission is located on the


right side of the engine below the oil cooler for the
brake system.

g00792384

Location of transmission oil filter

The transmission oil filter is located on the right side


of the engine.
The oil enters oil filter base (20) through cavity (22).
The oil flows from cavity (22) through filter element
(21) into cavity (24) and out of the filter base.

22
Power Train
Systems Operation Section

Output Transfer Gears and


Differentials

Illustration 20

A second hydraulic circuit supplies lubrication for


the output transfer gears. The circuit also controls
the interaxle differential and the axle differentials.
Oil from the sump of the output transfer gears (30)
is drawn by charging and scavenging pump (26)
through magnetic screen (32) in order to remove
any metallic particles that may be present in the
oil. The charging and scavenging pump charges
the output transfer gears and the differential locks.
The charging and scavenging pump for the output
transfer gears and the differential locks is mounted
on the top of the flywheel housing to the left of the
engine.

g00807200

The oil from the charging and scavenging pump


is fed via filter (27) to solenoid and relief valve
(28) that is mounted on the output transfer gear
case. The solenoid and relief valve controls the
lock for interaxle differential (29) and the locks for
the axle differentials. The solenoid and relief valve
also provides lubrication oil for the output transfer
gear (30).
Operation of the solenoid and relief valve applies
oil pressure to the lockup clutch in the interaxle
differential in order to engage the interaxle
differential lock. Within the solenoid and relief valve,
a second solenoid valve controls the axle differential
locks (31) in the three axles. The circuit allows the
axle differential locks to be engaged only when the
interaxle differential lock is engaged.

23
Power Train
Systems Operation Section
Engagement of the axle differential locks is achieved
when the solenoid valve allows pressurized oil from
the solenoid and relief valve to fill the clutches
on the differentials in each axle. When the axle
differential lock is unselected, the oil in the clutches
of the axle differentials is able to drain to the top
of the output transfer gear case as additional
lubrication.
The oil enters the output transfer gear case at the
top. The oil drains down to the sump of the output
transfer gear case and the oil provides lubrication
to the gears and the bearings.
i01536341

Transmission Hydraulic
Control
SMCS Code: 3167

Illustration 21

g00798715

24
Power Train
Systems Operation Section
Control of the torque converter and the planetary
transmission is achieved by a selector and pressure
control valve that controls the supply of pressurized
oil to the pressure control valve. The pressure
control valve contains individual valves that control
the oil pressure in each clutch and the oil pressure
in the torque converter lockup clutch.
Oil is supplied by pump (1) through oil filter (2). The
pressurized oil is available to downshift solenoid
(3), upshift solenoid (4) and torque converter lockup
clutch solenoid (9). Pressurized oil is also supplied
to selector and pressure control valve (13).
Selector and pressure control valve (13) regulates
the oil pressure. The selector and pressure control
valve sends pressurized oil to pressure control valve
(7) for clutch actuation. The selector and pressure
control valve also provides the pilot signal to the
individual valves (6) in the pressure control valve.
The selector and pressure control valve also
supplies oil to the torque converter. The maximum
pressure of the oil to the torque converter is
regulated by relief valve (11) in the selector and
pressure control valve.
Rotary actuator (5) is controlled by downshift
solenoid (3) and upshift solenoid (4). The rotary
actuator turns selector spool (10) in the selector
and pressure control valve. The selector spool
determines the path of the pilot oil to the individual
valves.
When the machine is in NEUTRAL, the downshift
solenoid is selected. This ensures that the rotary
actuator holds the selector spool in the correct
position. The selector and pressure control valve
includes a neutralizer valve. Neutralizer valve (12)
prevents pressurized oil from being supplied to the
selector spool unless the engine is started with the
transmission control in the NEUTRAL position.
When the operator selects drive, the ECM for the
power train closes downshift solenoid (3) and opens
upshift solenoid (4). The upshift solenoid supplies
pressurized oil to the rotary actuator. This causes
the rotary actuator to rotate. This turns the selector
spool in the selector and pressure control valve.
Pilot oil is directed by the selector spool to the
individual valves for clutch 2 and clutch 6.

Solenoid valve (9) for the torque converter lockup


clutch is closed. This allows torque converter drive
as the machine accelerates. As the machine speed
matches the engine speed, the ECM for the power
train sends an electrical signal to the solenoid valve
for the torque converter lockup clutch. This allows
a pilot oil supply to the modulating valve (8) for
the torque converter lockup clutch. This causes
the torque converter lockup clutch to engage
direct drive between the engine and the planetary
transmission.
The ECM reads the information from the engine
output speed sensor and from the transmission
output speed sensor. The ECM shifts the
transmission at predetermined speeds.
Table 2

SPEED SELECTION
SPEED

ENGAGED CLUTCHES

NEUTRAL

REVERSE speed

3 & 7

FIRST speed

2 & 6

SECOND speed

1 & 6

THIRD speed

3 & 6

FOURTH speed

1 & 5

FIFTH speed

3 & 5

SIXTH speed

1 & 4

SEVENTH speed

3 & 4

i01545381

Power Train Electronic Control


System
SMCS Code: 4800
Control of the power train is achieved by
electronically controlled hydraulic actuation. Control
of the power train is maintained by the electronic
control module.
The electronic control module is also responsible
for controlling the other systems that are used on
the machine.
The ECM receives inputs from different sensors and
from operator requests. The ECM sends electronic
signals in order to control transmission shifts and
other power train components.
The ECM receives the following inputs:

Engine output speed

25
Power Train
Systems Operation Section

Transmission output speed


Selected gear
Position of the transmission control lever
Position of the selector spool
Position of the hoist lever
Differential lock switch
Position of the engine compression brake control
Transmission hold
Key start switch
High gear limit
Status of the parking brake
Status of the service brakes
System faults
The following functions are carried out by the ECM:

Automatic transmission shifts


Direct drive (torque converter lockup)
Transmission hold
Overspeed control
Directional shift management
Protection against abusive shifts
The ECM also carries out other functions which
include control of the secondary steering system
and control of the hoist system.
The ECM will also control default mode operation in
the event of electrical failure.
A service technician can use Caterpillar ET to
communicate with the ECM. The service technician
can interrogate the ECM for details of faults and the
service technician can monitor operating conditions.

26
Power Train
Systems Operation Section

Power Train Electronic Control


System

g00808163

Illustration 22
Block diagram of the power train electronic control system
(1) Service tool connector
(2) CAT Data Link
(3) Caterpillar Monitoring System
(4) Caterpillar Monitoring System service
connector
(5) Electronic control module (ECM)

(6) Torque converter lockup clutch solenoid


(7) Downshift solenoid
(8) Upshift solenoid
(9) Transmission gear sensor
(10) Transmission control
(11) Engine

Seven hydraulically activated clutches in


transmission (14) provide seven forward speeds
and one reverse speed. Speed selections and
direction selections are made manually by using
transmission control (10).
The power train electronic control system
electronically controls the shifting of the
transmission. In order for the transmission to be
shifted to the desired speed and the desired
direction, the ECM (5) receives the operator input
from transmission control (10). The ECM sends a
signal to downshift solenoid (7) or upshift solenoid
(8). The downshift solenoid and the upshift solenoid
turn the rotary actuator which turns the selector
spool in the selector and pressure control valve.
The modulating valves in the pressure control valve
modulate the oil pressure of the clutches that are
selected.

(12) Engine speed sensor


(13) Torque converter
(14) Transmission
(15) Transmission output speed sensors
(two)

A modulating valve is also used to control oil


pressure to the torque converter lockup clutch. Pilot
oil is supplied to the modulating valve for the torque
converter lockup clutch by torque converter lockup
clutch solenoid (6). The torque converter lockup
clutch provides direct drive between the engine and
the transmission planetary.
The power train ECM uses input signals from
the following components to ensure correct
engagement of the clutches: engine speed sensor
(12) and transmission output speed sensors (15).
The power train ECM also controls the following
functions: interaxle differential lock, axle differential
locks, hoist control, and secondary steering system.

27
Power Train
Systems Operation Section

Electronic Control Module

Sensors In The Power Train

The electronic control module (ECM) is located at


the right rear side of the cab. The ECM controls
the shifting of the transmission. The transmission
control sends the operator input to the ECM. The
operator input indicates the desired speed for
the transmission and the desired direction for the
transmission. The ECM makes decisions that are
based on the input information and on the memory
information. After the ECM receives the input
information and the memory information, the ECM
sends a corresponding response to the outputs.
The inputs and the outputs are connected to the
machine harness by two 40-pin connectors.

Sensors provide information to the power train


electronic control module (ECM) about changing
conditions. The sensor signal changes proportionally
to the changing conditions. The following type of
sensor signals are recognized by the power train
ECM.

Frequency signals: The frequency (Hz) of the

sensor signal varies as the condition changes.

Transmission Gear Sensor

Inputs
The machine has several input devices. Input
devices inform the ECM of the operating conditions
of the machine. The machine has two types of
inputs, switch inputs and sensor inputs. The switch
inputs of the ECM are provided with the following
signals from the switches: an open, a ground, and
a +battery. Sensors provide a constantly changing
signal to the ECM.

Outputs
The ECM responds to decisions by sending
electrical signals through the outputs. The outputs
can create an action or the outputs can provide
information to the ECM.

Input/Output
The CAT Data Link is used to communicate with the
other electronic control modules on the machine.
The CAT Data Link is bidirectional. The CAT Data
Link allows the sharing of information with other
electronic controls.

The ECM receives the harness code input from


the Caterpillar Monitoring System.

The ECM sends the following information to the

Caterpillar Monitoring System: engine speed,


machine ground speed, parking brake switch
status, transmission speed selection, and service
code of the transmission.

The monitoring system displays this information


for the operator or for service personnel.

The ECM communicates with the engine ECM in


order to allow controlled throttle shifting.

Illustration 23

g00616555

Transmission Gear Sensor

The transmission gear sensor is an input to the


Power Train ECM. The sensor tells the ECM the
position of the rotary actuator and the selector
spool. The sensor is connected mechanically to the
rotary actuator of the transmission.

28
Power Train
Systems Operation Section

Speed Sensors (Engine Output and


Transmission Output)

i01562748

Output Transfer Gears


Lubrication System
SMCS Code: 1300; 3159
The lubrication of the output transfer gears is
achieved by a separate hydraulic system from
the hydraulic system that serves the planetary
transmission and the torque converter . The
lubrication system for the output transfer gears also
provides oil for the axle differential locks and for the
interaxle differential lock that is located in the case
for the output transfer gears.

Illustration 24

g00288428

Typical Speed Sensor

There are two transmission output speed sensors


and one engine output speed sensor on the
machine. The speed sensors are inputs of the
ECM. These speed sensors are frequency sensors.
Frequency sensors produce a signal (Hz) which
varies as the condition changes. The sensor
generates a sine wave signal from the gear teeth
as the gear teeth pass the sensor. The sensor
produces a signal that equals one pulse per gear
tooth. This signal is sent to the ECM. The ECM
measures the frequency of the signal in order to
determine the speed of the condition. The ECM
receives signals from the speed sensors. The ECM
uses the input from the speed sensors in order
to determine the speed of the system. The ECM
uses the input from the speed sensors in order to
regulate transmission shifts. Each speed sensor has
two connections to the ECM (+ and ).
For all of the speed sensors, connector contact
2 is the signal line and connector contact 1 is
the return line. Two transmission speed sensors
measure transmission output speed in order to
provide protection against failure.
Note: The speed sensors are used to diagnose
each other during normal operation. The ECM
periodically checks the value from the speed
sensor. If an incorrect value is found, the ECM will
log a service code that indicates a fault for a speed
sensor circuit.

Charging and Scavenging Pump


for the Output Transfer Gears and
Differential Locks

Illustration 25

g00797836

Charging and scavenging pump for the output transfer gears and
differential locks

Charging and scavenging pump (1) supplies oil


for the lubrication of the output transfer gears. The
charging and scavenging pump also supplies oil for
the control of the interaxle differential lock and the
axle differential locks. The charging and scavenging
pump is driven from the engine flywheel via an idler
gear.

29
Power Train
Systems Operation Section

Oil Filter for the Output Transfer


Gears

A second solenoid controls the oil to the axle


differential locks.
The priority valve gives priority to the oil supply
for the differential locks over the oil supply to the
output transfer gears.
The relief valve regulates the maximum pressure in
the output transfer gears and the differential lock
system.
Oil from the solenoid and relief valve enters the
case for the output transfer gears at the top. The oil
is gravity fed to the output transfer gears.

Illustration 26

g00790144

Magnetic Screen for the Output


Transfer Gears

Oil filter for the output transfer gears

Oil is supplied to oil filter (2) from the gear pump.


The oil filter is located behind the cab on the left of
the machine. The base of the oil filter contains a
bypass valve in order to allow the oil to continue to
the output transfer gears in the event of a blockage
in the oil filter. A switch notifies the operator in the
event of a blockage in the oil filter.

Solenoid and Relief Valve


Illustration 28

g00797837

Magnetic screen for the output transfer gears

Oil is scavenged from the case of the output transfer


gears through magnetic screen (4). The magnetic
screen collects any ferrous debris that may be
present in the oil for the output transfer gears.

Illustration 27

g00797846

Solenoid and relief valve

Oil from the oil filter is then fed to solenoid and relief
valve (3) that is mounted on the case of the output
transfer gears.
The solenoid and relief valve provides oil to the
output transfer gears and the differential locks.
The solenoid and relief valve incorporates two
solenoid valves, a priority valve and a relief valve.
One solenoid in the solenoid and relief valve
controls the oil to the interaxle differential lock and
the oil to the solenoid valve for the axle differential
locks.

30
Power Train
Systems Operation Section
i01540730

Pressure Control Valve


(Transmission)
SMCS Code: 3074

Transmission Pressure Control


Valve

Illustration 29

g00797930

31
Power Train
Systems Operation Section
Pressure control valve (1) has seven modulation
reduction valves (2) for the transmission planetary
and one modulation reduction valve (3) for the
torque converter lockup clutch. There is one
modulation reduction valve for each clutch in the
transmission planetary. Each modulation reduction
valve acts separately. This is known as Individual
Clutch Modulation (ICM). The modulation reduction
valves control the amount of pressure that will be
used for clutch engagement and for the release of
the clutch. The modulation reduction valves also
determine the duration of clutch engagement.
Each load piston body (4) has an identification letter
for the purposes of disassembly and assembly.
Pilot passages (5) are connected to passages
from the rotary selector spool of the selector and
pressure control valve. Pump oil from the selector
and pressure control valve is in passage (6). Drain
passages (7) are connected to the transmission
case reservoir.
All of the modulation reduction valves operate in a
similar way, so only the basic operation is provided.

The Beginning of a Shift and the Clutch


is Filling

Illustration 30

g00799039

32
Power Train
Systems Operation Section
When a shift is started, pilot passage (5) receives
pilot oil at the correct sequence from the rotary
selector spool. Selector piston (8) and load
piston (9) move against the force of springs (10).
Modulation reduction valve (11) moves against
the force of spring (12). Passage (13) is blocked
to drain passage (14). Passage (13) is open to
passage (6). The pump oil now begins to fill the
clutch. The pressure of the oil that is filling the clutch
is balanced against the force of springs (10) as the
springs are compressed by the selector piston. This
is the primary pressure for the clutch. The primary
pressure helps to fill the clutch smoothly in order to
avoid harsh transmission shifts.
As the oil flows to passage (13), oil is able to flow
through load piston orifice (15) and passage (16).

Completed Shift with an Engaged Clutch

Illustration 31

g00799037

33
Power Train
Systems Operation Section
After the clutch is full of oil, the pressure of the
pump oil in the selected clutch increases. The
pressure of the oil that is flowing through the load
piston orifice increases. This oil goes between
selector piston (8) and load piston (9). The oil
moves the load piston against springs (10). This
further increases the compression of the springs.
As the springs are compressed, the force of the
springs is increased. The pressure of the oil in the
clutch is balanced against the force of springs (10).
This allows an increase in the oil pressure in the
clutch. Clutch oil flows through an orifice in the
modulation reduction valve (11). Ball check valve
(17) opens and oil flows into the slug chamber at
the left end of the modulation reduction valve.
The pressure in the clutch is now at the maximum.
Modulation reduction valve (11) moves to the right
and to the left in order to maintain a constant
pressure in passage (13).
The amount of time that is necessary for the
maximum pressure in the clutch to be reached is
dependent on the size of load piston orifice (15) and
the force of springs (10). The force of springs (10)
can be adjusted by using shims in load piston (9).

34
Power Train
Systems Operation Section

Shift with a Released Clutch

Illustration 32

When a clutch is disengaged, pilot passage (5) is


open in order to drain through the rotary selector
spool. The force of springs (10) moves selector
piston (8) fully to the right against load piston
body (18). Passage (16) is now aligned with drain
passage (19). The force of springs (10) moves load
piston (9) fully to the right against selector piston (8).
Modulation reduction valve (11) is moved fully to
the right by the force of spring (12). In this position,
pump oil in passage (6) cannot flow into passage
(13). Passage (6) is open to drain passage (14) and
the pressure in the clutch is released. Decay orifice
(20) in drain passage (19) controls the amount of
time that is necessary for the clutch pressure to
release.

g00799065

35
Power Train
Systems Operation Section

Torque Converter Lockup Clutch

Illustration 33

The operation of the modulating valve for the torque


converter lockup clutch is identical to the operation
of the modulating valves for the clutches in the
transmission planetary. Pilot oil is supplied by the
transmission oil pump. The pilot oil is controlled by
the torque converter lockup solenoid.
The torque converter lockup solenoid is located
alongside the downshift solenoid and the upshift
solenoid.
The modulating valve for the torque converter
lockup clutch is mounted on the transmission
pressure control valve.
The Power Train Electronic Control Module (Power
Train ECM) will energize the torque converter lockup
clutch solenoid when direct drive is necessary.
During direct drive, the engine is mechanically
connected to the transmission by the activation of
the lockup clutch.
When direct drive is not necessary, the torque
converter lockup clutch solenoid is deactivated. The
pilot oil supply to the modulating valve for the torque
converter lockup clutch is cut off. The machine will
then be in torque converter drive. The engine will
be hydraulically connected to the transmission.
Engaging the Lockup Clutch

g00799196

When the Power Train ECM activates the lockup


clutch solenoid, pilot oil from the transmission pump
is allowed to flow into pilot oil passage (21).
As pilot oil flows into the pilot oil passage, selector
piston (22) and load piston (23) are moved to the
right against the force of spring (24). Drain passage
(25) is blocked. Spring (24) pushes modulation
reduction valve (26) against the force of spring
(27). As modulation reduction valve (26) moves
to the right, drain passage (28) is blocked, and
pressurized oil is allowed to flow from passage (6) to
passage (29) to the torque converter lockup clutch.
Oil in passage (29) also flows through load piston
orifice (30). This oil goes between selector piston
(22) and load piston (23). This moves load piston
(23) further to the right.

36
Power Train
Systems Operation Section
The pressure of the clutch oil in passage (29)
increases after the clutch is full of oil. Some of the
oil from passage (29) goes through orifice (31) in
modulation reduction valve (26). This oil opens
ball check valve (32). The oil then goes into slug
chamber (33). This pressure helps the springs push
both modulation reduction valve (26) and load
piston (23) back to the left. The oil that is flowing
through load piston orifice (30) is delivered at a fixed
rate. While load piston (3) is controlled by the oil
from load piston orifice (30), modulation reduction
valve (26) moves up and down. This causes the
pressure in the lockup clutch to increase gradually.
This gradual increase due to the movement of
the spool is called modulation. The modulation
of modulation reduction valve (26) maintains a
constant pressure in passage (29). When load
piston (23) goes fully against the stop, modulation
stops. The pressure in the lockup clutch is now at
the maximum. The lockup clutch is fully engaged.
The amount of time that is necessary for the
maximum pressure in the lockup clutch to be
reached is dependent on the size of load piston
orifice (30) and the force of spring (24). The force
of spring (24) can be adjusted by using shims in
load piston (23).
Releasing the Lockup Clutch
When pilot oil passage (21) does not receive pilot
oil, the force of spring (24) moves selector piston
(22) to the left against load piston body (34). This
uncovers drain passage (25). Oil between selector
piston (22) and load piston (23) drains through
drain passage (25).
Passage (35) is now aligned with drain passage
(25). The force of spring (24) moves load piston
(23) fully against selector piston (22). Modulation
reduction valve (26) moves up to the fullest extent
as a result of the force of spring (24). In this position,
pump oil in passage (6) cannot go into passage
(29). Passage (29) is now open to drain passage
(28). The pressure in the lockup clutch is released.
Note: Drain passages (25), (28), (19), (14), and (27)
are connected. The return oil goes into the torque
converter sump.

37
Power Train
Systems Operation Section
i01540704

Selector and Pressure Control


Valve (Transmission)
SMCS Code: 3157; 5117

Illustration 34

The selector and pressure control valve controls the


flow of oil that goes to the pressure control valve.
The selector and pressure control valve consists of
five valves. The following chart provides the basic
function of each valve.

g00800393

38
Power Train
Systems Operation Section

Neutralizer Valve

Table 3

Operation Of The Components In The Selector


And Pressure Control Valve
Valve

Function

Priority
reduction valve
(2)

This valve controls the pressure


of the pilot oil that is available to
rotary selector spool (4).

Neutralizer
valve (3)

When the transmission is not in


NEUTRAL and the engine is started,
this valve stops the flow of pilot oil
to rotary selector spool (4).

Rotary selector
spool (4)

The rotary selector spool sends


pilot oil to the appropriate
transmission clutches.

Relief valve
(12)

This valve controls the maximum


pressure in the transmission
hydraulic system.

Torque
converter inlet
relief valve (11)

This valve controls the maximum inlet


oil pressure to the torque converter.

Priority Reduction Valve


At the selector and pressure control valve, the oil
from the transmission oil pump flows to several
locations. The oil flows through passage (1) to
priority reduction valve (2). The oil flows through an
orifice in the priority reduction valve. This oil opens
a check valve. The oil then flows to the upper end
of priority reduction valve (2).
As the oil pressure increases, the priority reduction
valve is moved downward against the force of the
spring. The pressure of the oil that is flowing from
priority reduction valve (2) to neutralizer valve (3) is
controlled by the priority reduction valve.
As priority reduction valve (2) moves downward,
pump oil in passage (1) is able to flow through
through passage (13). Some of this oil flows to relief
valve (12). Relief valve (12) controls the maximum
pressure in passages (1), (13), and (8). Some of
the oil from passage (13) flows through passage
(8) to the pressure control valve. This oil is used
to fill the clutches in the transmission. Some of the
oil from passage (13) also flows to rotary selector
spool (4). This oil activates neutralizer valve (3).
When the rotary selector spool is in the NEUTRAL
position, oil is able to flow to chamber (14). This
causes neutralizer valve (3) to move downward.
When neutralizer valve (3) is moved downward, the
oil flows into chamber (5) of rotary selector spool
(4). Chamber (5) has a screen that filters the oil.
This oil is able to flow to the pressure control valve.
This pressure oil is the pilot oil that controls the
movement of the selector pistons in the pressure
control valve.

Neutralizer valve (3) will not allow movement of the


machine if the engine is started and rotary selector
spool (4) is not in the NEUTRAL position.
When the engine is started and the transmission is
in NEUTRAL, pressure oil from passage (13) flows
to rotary selector spool (4). The pressure oil then
flows to chamber (14). The pressure in chamber
(14) moves neutralizer valve (3) downward against
the force of the spring. This allows pilot oil to go
around the neutralizer valve to chamber (5) of the
rotary selector spool. The clutches can be engaged
in the transmission.
As neutralizer valve (3) moves downward, pilot oil
is able to flow through an orifice in the neutralizer
valve to the upper end of the neutralizer valve.
Neutralizer valve (3) is now held in the open position
by the pressure of the pilot oil.
When rotary selector spool (4) is moved from the
NEUTRAL position, pressure oil from passage (13)
cannot go to chamber (14). Chamber (14) is now
open to chamber (6) because of the position of
rotary selector spool (4).
When the machine is not in NEUTRAL and the
engine is started, the position of rotary selector
spool (4) stops the flow of pump oil to chamber
(14). Neutralizer valve (3) will not move downward in
order to provide oil to chamber (5). No oil can flow
to the selector pistons of the pressure control valve.
The clutches in the transmission will not engage.

Rotary Selector Spool


Rotary selector spool (4) determines the selector
pistons in the pressure control valve that receive
pilot oil and the selector pistons that are drained.
Orifices in the spool provide the correct sequence in
order for the clutches to engage. A rotary actuator
is mechanically connected to the upper end of
the rotary selector spool. The rotary actuator is
hydraulically controlled by the upshift solenoid and
the downshift solenoid. The rotary actuator turns
rotary selector spool (4). The transmission gear
switch is also connected to the upper end of the
spool. The transmission gear switch communicates
with the Power Train Electronic Control Module.
Cam (7) is fastened to the lower end of the spool.
Springs (9) are in contact with cam (7). The springs
provide detent positions in order to hold the spool
in each selected speed position.

39
Power Train
Systems Operation Section
Chamber (5) of rotary selector spool (4) contains
pilot oil. The position of the spool will send this pilot
oil through a passage to the pressure control valve.
The oil flows to a selector piston. This causes the
selector piston to move. This will cause a clutch
to engage in the transmission. Chamber (5) has a
screen which stops foreign material from entering
the pressure control valve.
The clutches of the transmission that are
disengaged return any pressure oil that is in the
selector pistons to chamber (6). Chamber (6) allows
the oil to go to the transmission case reservoir.
In the NEUTRAL position, rotary selector spool (4)
sends pump oil to chamber (14) in order to move
neutralizer valve (3). In the other speed positions,
chamber (14) is blocked from pump oil and open
to chamber (6).

Relief Valve
Relief valve (12) controls the maximum pressure in
the transmission hydraulic system. Pump oil comes
from passage (13) to relief valve (12). The oil flows
through an orifice in the relief valve. This opens a
poppet valve. Oil fills the chamber between the
poppet and the slug. As the pressure increases, the
oil moves relief valve (12) upward against the force
of the spring. When the pressure of the oil reaches
the relief pressure, relief valve (12) allows oil to flow
through passage (10) to the torque converter.
The pressure setting of relief valve (12) can be
changed by the removal or the addition of shims
inside the spool of the relief valve.

Torque Converter Inlet Relief Valve


Torque converter inlet relief valve (11) controls the
maximum oil pressure that is going into the torque
converter. Oil that flows past relief valve (12) will
then flow to the torque converter. If the pressure of
the oil reaches the relief pressure, torque converter
inlet relief valve (11) will open. The oil will flow to
the transmission case reservoir until the pressure is
reduced to less than the maximum pressure that is
required for the torque converter.

40
Power Train
Systems Operation Section
i01541642

Rotary Actuator
(Transmission)
SMCS Code: 3166

Illustration 35

The rotary actuator is controlled by downshift


solenoid (1) and upshift solenoid (2). Pressure oil
from either solenoid flows into chamber (3). The
pressure oil presses against stationary vane (12)
and against rotary vane (14) of rotor (15). This
pressure oil causes the rotor to turn. Rotor (15) is
mechanically connected to the rotary selector spool.
The rotary selector spool is part of the selector and
pressure control valve. Rotor (15) turns the rotary
selector spool.
During an upshift, pressure oil from the upshift
solenoid flows through passage (9). This causes
upshift valve (10) to move to the left. Drain passage
(11) is now closed by the upshift valve. The pressure
oil flows into upshift valve (10). This moves ball (8)
to the left and oil flows into chamber (13) between
stationary vane (12) and rotary vane (14). This
causes rotor (15) to turn in a clockwise direction.

g00802458

The oil that is in chamber (3) on the opposite side


of rotary vane (14) presses against downshift valve
(4). This causes ball (7) to move to the right side.
Oil is then blocked from flowing through passage
(6). As the rotor turns, the oil in chamber (3) pushes
downshift valve (4) to the right until the valve opens
drain passage (5). The oil that is in chamber (3) is
now able to drain.
When the rotary selector spool and rotor (15)
achieve the correct speed position, the transmission
gear switch that is connected to the rotary selector
spool sends an electrical signal to the Power Train
Electronic Control Module (Power Train ECM). The
Power Train ECM closes the upshift solenoid. This
stops the flow of pressure oil in passage (9). The
movement of rotor (15) then stops.
During a downshift, pressure oil from the downshift
solenoid flows through passage (6). Downshift valve
(4) is moved to the left. This closes drain passage
(5). The pressure oil from passage (6) goes into
downshift valve (4). The pressure oil moves ball (7)
to the left and oil flows into chamber (3). This causes
rotor (15) to turn in a counterclockwise direction.

41
Power Train
Systems Operation Section
The oil that is in chamber (13) presses against
upshift valve (10). This causes ball (8) to move to
the right. This stops oil from going through passage
(9). As the rotor turns, the oil in chamber (13)
pushes the upshift valve to the right until drain
passage (11) is open to chamber (13).
When the rotor achieves the correct speed position,
the Power Train ECM deactivates the downshift
solenoid. Pressure oil in passage (6) is stopped.
This stops the movement of rotor (15).
When the transmission is in the NEUTRAL position,
rotor (15) is in the position that is shown. The
downshift solenoid is always activated in the
NEUTRAL position so that the rotor is locked in
position.

42
Power Train
Testing and Adjusting Section

Testing and Adjusting


Section

5. Install the steering frame lock. Refer to Operation


and Maintenance Manual, SEBU7498.
6. Place blocks in front of the wheels and behind
the wheels.

Troubleshooting

7. Make sure that all oil pressure is released before


any fittings, hoses or components are worked on.
i01526102

Machine Preparation for


Troubleshooting
SMCS Code: 3000-035

When testing and adjusting the transmission and


power train, move the machine to an area clear of
obstructions, with safe exhaust ventilation for the
exhausts. Sudden movement of the machine or release of oil under pressure can cause injury to persons on or near the machine. To prevent possible
injury, do the procedure that follows before testing
and adjusting the transmission and power train.
1. Move the machine to a smooth horizontal
location. Move away from any machines that are
working and any personnel.

8. Push on the brake pedal many times until there


is no brake oil pressure.
Visual checks are the first steps in order to
troubleshoot a problem. The visual checks find the
problems that can be quickly corrected. If the visual
checks do not show any problems, the operational
checks are the next steps. The operational checks
permit the identification of possible problems with
the machine during operation.
i01556822

General Troubleshooting
Information
SMCS Code: 3000-035
When you are attempting to define a problem with
the power train, it is necessary to perform the
procedures that are contained in this section.
A visual inspection of the system must be carried
out in order to eliminate many of the less complex
problems.
Upon completion of a visual inspection, if the cause
of the problem has not been diagnosed, carry out
operational checks of the system.

Illustration 36

g00792760

Dump body prop

2. Raise the dump body of the truck. Install the


dump body prop in order to support the dump
body.
3. Ensure that the transmission control is in the
NEUTRAL position. Move the parking brake
control to the ENGAGED position and stop the
engine.
4. Permit only one operator on the machine. Either
keep other personnel away from the machine, or
keep other personnel in the sight of the operator.

If both visual inspection and operational checks


have been carried out and there is still no clear
indication of the cause of the problem then it will be
necessary to refer to the troubleshooting procedures
and the test procedures that are contained in this
manual.
Troubleshooting a system such as the power
train is a complex operation. Refer to the various
troubleshooting sections in this manual for specific
routines for troubleshooting.

43
Power Train
Testing and Adjusting Section
This list of possible problems and possible
corrections will only provide an indication of the
location of a problem and the repairs that are
required. It is important to remember that a problem
is not necessarily caused by a single part, but by
the relation of one part to a number of other parts.
This information cannot provide all the possible
problems and corrections. It is necessary for service
personnel to define the problem. Any repairs may
then be carried out.
i01526104

Visual Inspection
SMCS Code: 3000-035
Perform a visual inspection at the beginning
of troubleshooting a problem. Ensure that the
transmission control is in the NEUTRAL position.
Move the parking brake control to the ENGAGED
position and stop the engine.

Do not check for leaks with your hands. Pin hole


(very small) leaks can result in a high velocity oil
stream that will be invisible close to the hose. This
oil can penetrate the skin and cause personal injury. Use cardboard or paper to locate pin hole
leaks.
1. Check the oil levels for the various components
of the power train.
Check the oil level for the torque converter
and the transmission. Refer to Operation and
Maintenance Manual, SEBU7498, Torque
Converter and Transmission Oil Level - Check.
Check the oil level for the transfer gear. Refer to
Operation and Maintenance Manual, SEBU7498,
Transfer Gear Oil Level - Check.
Check the oil levels for the differentials and final
drives. Refer to Operation and Maintenance
Manual, SEBU7498, Differential and Final Drive
Oil Level - Check.
2. Check the level of the coolant in the engine
cooling system. Refer to Operation and
Maintenance Manual, SEBU7498, Cooling
System Level - Check.
Note: Engine coolant passes through the oil cooler
for the transmission in order to cool the torque
converter and the transmission oil.
3. Check for leaks.

Inspect all oil lines, hoses, and connections for


damage or for leaks. Look for oil on the ground
under the machine.
Note: If oil can leak out of a fitting or a connection,
air can leak into the system. Air in the system can
be as bad as a low oil level.
4. Check the electrical system.
Inspect the harnesses and the electrical
connectors for the ECM. Refer to Electrical
Schematic, RENR5136.
With the engine start switch and the battery
disconnect switch in the OFF position, check
the 20 ampere fuse for the Electronic Control
Module. If the fuse is open, replace the fuse.
Refer to Operation and Maintenance Manual,
SEBU7498, Fuses - Replace.
Inspect the electrical harnesses for damaged
wires or for broken wires. Disconnect each
connector and look for pins and sockets that
have been bent, broken, or removed. Look for
any foreign material inside the connectors. The
connectors must be tightened with normal force.
The connectors must be disconnected with the
same amount of force.
Check the Electronic Control Module. Refer to
Systems Operation, Troubleshooting, Testing and
Adjusting, RENR3442, Power Train Electronic
Control System.
5. Check the batteries.
Turn the battery disconnect switch to the ON
position and check the condition of the batteries.
6. Check the filters and the screens.
Inspect the suction screen for the torque
converter and the transmission. Clean the
suction screen for the torque converter and
the transmission. Refer to Operation and
Maintenance Manual, SEBU7498, Torque
Converter Scavenge Screen - Clean.
Inspect the oil filter for the torque converter
and the transmission. Refer to Operation and
Maintenance Manual, SEBU7498, Torque
Converter and Transmission Oil Filter - Replace
in order to remove the oil filter. Refer to Operation
and Maintenance Manual, SEBU7498, Oil Filter
- Inspect in order to inspect the oil filter.

44
Power Train
Testing and Adjusting Section
Note: The oil filter for the torque converter and
the transmission has a bypass valve which allows
oil to bypass the oil filter elements when the inlet
pressure to the oil filter rises due to a blockage
in the oil filter. Any oil that does not go through
the filter elements goes directly into the hydraulic
circuit. Dirty oil causes restrictions in valve orifices,
sticking valves, etc.
Inspect the oil filter for the transfer gear. Refer to
Operation and Maintenance Manual, SEBU7498,
Transfer Gear Oil Filter - Replace in order to
remove the oil filter. Refer to Operation and
Maintenance Manual, SEBU7498, Oil Filter Inspect in order to inspect the oil filter.
Note: The oil filter for the transfer gear has a
bypass valve which allows oil to bypass the oil filter
elements when the inlet pressure to the oil filter
rises due to a blockage in the oil filter. Any oil that
does not go through the filter elements goes directly
into the hydraulic circuit. Dirty oil causes restrictions
in valve orifices, sticking valves, etc. The oil filter
for the transfer gear incorporates a switch, which
illuminates an indicator in the cab. This indicator
alerts the operator of a restriction in the oil filter for
the transfer gear.
Inspect the magnetic screen for the torque
converter and the transmission. Refer to
Operation and Maintenance Manual, SEBU7498,
Torque Converter Scavange Screen - Clean.
The magnetic screen for the torque converter
and the transmission is located within the
suction screen for the torque converter and the
transmission.
Inspect the magnetic screen for the transfer gear.
Refer to Operation and Maintenance Manual,
SEBU7498, Transfer Gear Magnetic Screen Clean.
Magnets separate the ferrous particles from the
nonferrous particles.
This is a list of some of the particles that may be
found in the filter elements:

Aluminum particles give the indication of


torque converter failure or sleeve bearing
failure.

Bronze particles give the indication of sleeve


bearing failure.

Rubber particles give the indication of rubber


seal or hose failure.

Shiny steel particles give the indication of


pump failure.

Iron chips, steel chips or plastic particles

give the indication of broken components in


transmission or transfer gears.

If any contamination is found in the filter elements


or the screens, all the components of the
transmission hydraulic system must be cleaned.
Do not use any damaged parts. Any damaged
parts must be removed and new Caterpillar parts
must be installed.
i01556743

Operational Checks
SMCS Code: 3000-035
Operate the machine in each direction and in
all speeds. Operate the interaxle differential and
operate the axle differentials. Check that the power
train is operating correctly in all functions. If the
power train is not operating correctly refer to the
troubleshooting information that is contained in
this manual. Use the troubleshooting information in
order to investigate the problem.
The checks for troubleshooting that are included
in this manual are designed to guide service
personnel in a correct troubleshooting procedure.
The checks and procedures are set in sequence in
order to find problems and causes quickly.
The checks for troubleshooting should be carried
out in order. Do not proceed to the next check until
the current check has been carried out fully. If the
correct result for the check is found, go directly to
the next check.
Take note of all warnings and notices in these
checks. You must read all the warnings and the
notices before you start a check. Before carrying out
a procedure, it is important to read the procedure
thoroughly.
The checks that follow can be used to find many of
the problems that may occur during the operation
of the machine. The checks that follow can also
give an indication of the part of the system that has
the problem.

45
Power Train
Testing and Adjusting Section
i01545887

Torque Converter
Troubleshooting
SMCS Code: 3101-035
Note: The troubleshooting information is intended to
aid in diagnosing a given problem. The possible
causes are ordered from the most probable cause
to the least probable cause. The possible causes
should be examined in order until the problem is
resolved.
Refer to Systems Operation, Testing and Adjusting,
Machine Preparation for Troubleshooting
before you perform any testing and adjusting or
troubleshooting.
Prior to carrying out troubleshooting on the torque
converter, use Caterpillar ET in order to diagnose
any fault codes that may be present. Refer to
Systems Operation, Troubleshooting,Testing and
Adjusting , RENR3442, Power Train Electronic
Control System.
If fault codes are present, repair the cause of the
fault code.

The Torque Converter or the


Transmission is Overheating
Possible Cause
1. The machine may have been operated
incorrectly.

Operate the machine in the correct manner.


Refer to Operation and Maintenance Manual,
SEBU7498.
2. The level of the engine coolant is lower than the
specification.

Check the engine coolant level. Refer to


Systems Operation, Testing and Adjusting,
Visual Inspection.
3. The power train oil level is lower than the
specification.

Check the power train oil level. Refer to


Systems Operation, Testing and Adjusting,
Visual Inspection.
4. The engine cooling system and the fan drive
system may not be functioning correctly.

Refer to Systems Operation, Testing and


Adjusting, RENR5126, Hoist, Steering,
Suspension, and Fan Drive Systems for further
information regarding the fan drive system.

Refer to Systems Operation, Testing and

Adjusting, RENR1362 for more information on


the engines for the 740.

5. There is debris and damaged components in


the power train.

Inspect the oil filter for debris.


Determine the origin of the debris and repair
the damaged component.

Change the oil in the power train and install a


new oil filter.

6. The coolant flow through the transmission oil


cooler is below the specification.
7. The oil flow through the transmission oil cooler is
below the specification.

Check the oil pressure to the transmission oil


cooler. Refer to Systems Operation, Testing
and Adjusting, Power Train Pressures.

8. The inlet relief pressure for the torque converter


may not be within the specification.

Check the inlet relief pressure for the torque


converter. Refer to Systems Operation, Testing
and Adjusting, Power Train Pressures.

Adjust the torque converter inlet relief valve.


Refer to Systems Operation, Testing and
Adjusting, Transmission Hydraulic Control Test and Adjust.
9. The torque converter is worn or damaged.

Inspect the components of the torque converter


for wear or damage. Refer to Disassembly and
Assembly, RENR5139, Torque Converter Disassemble and Assemble.

10. The torque converter lockup clutch is not


functioning correctly.

Test the function of the torque converter lockup


clutch. Refer to Systems Operation, Testing
and Adjusting, Power Train Pressures.

The Torque Converter Lockup


Clutch Does Not Engage
Possible Cause
1. There may be an electrical fault between the
ECM for the power train and the solenoid for the
torque converter lockup clutch.

46
Power Train
Testing and Adjusting Section

Check the wiring and check the connectors for


damage. Refer to Systems Operation, Testing
and Adjusting, Visual Inspection.

Repair any damage that is found in the wiring


harness or replace any loose connections that
are found.
2. The power train oil level is below the specification.

Check the power train oil level. Refer to


Systems Operation, Testing and Adjusting,
Visual Inspection.
3. There is debris and damaged components in
the power train.

Inspect the oil filter for debris.


Determine the origin of the debris and repair
the damaged component.

Change the oil in the power train and install a


new oil filter.
4. The pressure of the oil in the transmission
hydraulic control system may not be within the
specification.

Test the pressures of the oil in the transmission


hydraulic control system. Make any
necessary repairs or adjustments. Refer to
Systems Operation, Testing and Adjusting,
Transmission Hydraulic Control - Test and
Adjust.
5. The solenoid for the torque converter lockup
clutch does not function correctly.

Check the operation of the solenoid for the


torque converter lockup clutch before the
engine start switch is turned off. Refer to
Systems Operation, Testing and Adjusting,
Transmission Hydraulic Control - Test and
Adjust.

6. The modulating valve for the torque converter


lockup clutch may not be functioning correctly.

Check the operation of the modulating


valve for the torque converter lockup clutch.
Systems Operation, Testing and Adjusting,
Transmission Hydraulic Control System - Test
and Adjust.
7. Components in the torque converter lockup
clutch may be worn.

Check the oil pressure in the torque converter


lockup clutch. Refer to Systems Operation,
Testing and Adjusting, Power Train Pressures
- Test.

Check the condition of the piston in the torque


converter lockup clutch. Refer to Disassembly
and Assembly, RENR5139, Torque Converter
- Disassemble and Assemble.

The Torque Converter Lockup


Clutch Does Not Disengage and the
Engine Dies at Low Speed
Possible Cause
1. There may be an electrical fault between the
ECM for the power train and the solenoid for the
torque converter lockup clutch.

Check the wiring and check the connectors for


damage. Refer to Systems Operation, Testing
and Adjusting, Visual Inspection.

Repair any damage that is found in the wiring


harness or replace any loose connections that
are found.
2. There is debris and damaged components in
the power train.

Inspect the oil filter for debris. Refer to Systems


Operation, Testing and Adjusting, Visual
Inspection.

Determine the origin of the debris and repair


the damaged component.

Change the oil in the power train and install a


new oil filter.
3. The solenoid for the torque converter lockup
clutch does not function correctly.

Check the operation of the solenoid for the


torque converter lockup clutch before the
engine start switch is turned off. Refer to
Systems Operation, Testing and Adjusting,
Transmission Hydraulic Control - Test and
Adjust.
4. The modulating valve for the torque converter
lockup clutch may not be functioning correctly.

Check the operation of the modulating

valve for the torque converter lockup clutch.


Systems Operation, Testing and Adjusting,
Transmission Hydraulic Control System - Test
and Adjust.

47
Power Train
Testing and Adjusting Section
5. The piston in the torque converter lockup clutch
may be sticking.

Check the oil pressure in the torque converter


lockup clutch. Refer to Systems Operation,
Testing and Adjusting, Power Train Pressures
- Test.

3. The pressure of the oil in the transmission


hydraulic control system may not be within the
specification.

Test the pressures of the oil in the transmission

Check the condition of the piston in the torque

hydraulic control system. Make any necessary


repairs or adjustments. Refer to Systems
Operation, Testing and Adjusting, Power Train
Pressures.

converter lockup clutch. Refer to Disassembly


and Assembly, RENR3448, Torque Converter
- Disassemble and Assemble.

4. One or more individual valves for the transmission


clutches may not be functioning correctly.

i01554329

Transmission Planetary
Troubleshooting

Test the individual valves for the transmission


clutches. Refer to Systems Operation, Testing
and Adjusting, Transmission Hydraulic Control
- Test and Adjust.
5. There may be a blockage in the selector spool.

SMCS Code: 3160-035


Note: The troubleshooting information is given to aid
in diagnosing a given problem. The possible causes
are ordered from the most probable cause to the
least probable cause. The possible causes should
be examined in order until the problem is resolved.
Refer to Systems Operation, Testing and Adjusting,
Machine Preparation for Troubleshooting
before you perform any testing and adjusting or
troubleshooting.
Prior to carrying out troubleshooting on the
transmission planetary group, use Caterpillar
ET in order to diagnose any fault codes that
may be present. Refer to Systems Operation,
Troubleshooting, Testing and Adjusting, RENR3442,
Power Train Electronic Control System.

Troubleshooting the Transmission


The Machine Will Not Move
Possible Cause
1. The transmission control may be faulty.

Test the transmission control for correct


operation and recalibrate the transmission
control. Refer to Systems Operation,
Troubleshooting, Testing and Adjusting,
RENR3442, Transmission Control (Shift Lever)
- Calibrate.
2. The power train oil level is lower than the
specification.

Check the power train oil level. Refer to

Systems Operation, Testing and Adjusting,


Visual Inspection.

Test the pilot pressure for the transmission


hydraulic control system and test the clutch
pressures. Refer to Systems Operation, Testing
and Adjusting, Transmission Hydraulic Control
- Test and Adjust. If the clutch pressures are
low and the pilot pressure is normal, remove
the selector spool from the selector and
pressure control valve and inspect the selector
spool for blockages.
6. The neutralizer valve in the selector and pressure
control valve may be preventing the machine
from engaging a gear.

The selector spool was not in the NEUTRAL


position when the engine was started. Move
the transmission control to the NEUTRAL
position and stop the engine. Restart the
engine and attempt to engage a forward gear.

Test the correct function of the neutralizer


valve. Refer to Systems Operation, Testing and
Adjusting, Transmission Hydraulic Control Test and Adjust.
7. The wiring harness for the power train may be
damaged.

Check the wiring and check the connectors for


damage. Refer to Systems Operation, Testing
and Adjusting, Visual Inspection.

Repair any damage that is found in the wiring


harness or replace any loose connections that
are found.
8. The screen inside the selector spool in the
transmission hydraulic control may be blocked.

Inspect the screen and clean the screen. Refer


to Systems Operation, Testing and Adjusting,
Visual Inspection.

48
Power Train
Testing and Adjusting Section
9. There is debris and damaged components in
the power train.

Inspect the oil filter for debris. Refer to Systems


Operation, Testing and Adjusting, Visual
Inspection.

Determine the origin of the debris and repair

Allow the oil in the transmission to warm up


fully.

6. There may be a fault in the transmission ECM.

Refer to Systems Operation, Troubleshooting,


Testing and Adjusting, RENR3442, Power
Train Electronic Control System.

the damaged components.

Change the oil in the power train and install a

7. The power train oil level is lower than the


specification.

new oil filter.


10. There may be a mechanical failure of another
major component in the power train.

Check the power train components for

Check the power train oil level. Refer to

Systems Operation, Testing and Adjusting,


Visual Inspection.

8. The service brakes may not be released fully.

damage.

Check the correct operation of the service


The Transmission Stays in One Gear or
The Transmission Will Not Shift Correctly
Possible Cause
1. The wiring harness for the power train may be
damaged. The wiring to the upshift solenoid or
the downshift solenoid may be damaged.

Check the wiring and check the connectors for


damage. Refer to Systems Operation, Testing
and Adjusting, Visual Inspection.

Repair any damage that is found in the wiring


harness or replace any loose connections that
are found.
2. The transmission hold switch may be engaged.

Release the transmission hold switch. Refer


to Operation and Maintenance Manual,
SEBU7498, Transmission Control.
3. The high gear limit for the transmission may have
been selected.

Check if a high gear limit has been selected.


Refer to Operation and Maintenance Manual,
SEBU7498, Changing Speed and Direction.
4. The transmission control lever may not be in the
FLOAT position.

Move the transmission control lever to the


FLOAT position.
5. The transmission oil may be cold.

Check the temperature of the transmission oil.

brakes. Refer to Systems Operation, Testing


and Adjusting, RENR5139, Braking System.

9. The transmission output speed sensors may be


faulty.

Check the connections on the transmission


output speed sensors. Refer to Systems
Operation, Testing and Adjusting, Visual
Inspection.

Test the transmission output speed sensors.

Refer to Systems Operation, Troubleshooting,


Testing and Adjusting, RENR3442, Power
Train Electronic Control System.

10. The transmission may be operating in an


elevated shift point mode.

Check the correct function of the ECM and the


inputs to the ECM. Refer to Systems Operation,
Testing and Adjusting, RENR3442, Power
Train Electronic Control System.
11. The pressure of the oil in the transmission
hydraulic control system may not be within the
specification.

Test the pressures of the oil in the transmission


hydraulic control system. Make any necessary
repairs or adjustments. Refer to Systems
Operation, Testing and Adjusting, Power Train
Pressures.
12. One or more of the individual valves for the
transmission clutches may not be functioning
correctly.

49
Power Train
Testing and Adjusting Section

Test the function of the individual valves

for the transmission clutches. Refer to


Systems Operation, Testing and Adjusting,
Transmission Hydraulic Control - Test and
Adjust.

13. The decay orifice in one of the individual valves


for the transmission clutches may be blocked.

Inspect the individual valves and clear any


blockages in the decay orifices.

14. The drain orifice in the end of the selector spool


in the transmission hydraulic control may be
blocked.

Inspect the selector spool and clear any


blockages in the selector spool.
15. There is debris and damaged components in
the power train.

Inspect the oil filter for debris. Refer to Systems


Operation, Testing and Adjusting, Visual
Inspection.

Determine the origin of the debris and repair


the damaged components.

Change the oil in the power train and install a


new oil filter.
16. The seals on the piston in the transmission
clutch may be leaking.

Check the pressure of the oil in the clutch under


full engagement. Refer to Systems Operation,
Testing and Adjusting, Transmission Hydraulic
Control System - Test and Adjust.
17. There may be damaged components in the
clutches for the transmission.

Inspect the oil for debris. Refer to Systems


Operation, Testing and Adjusting, Visual
Inspection.

Inspect the clutches for damage. Refer to


Disassembly and Assembly, RENR5138,
Transmission Planetary - Disassemble and
Assemble.

Check that the disks and the plates are within


the specified dimensions. Refer to Disassembly
and Assembly, RENR5138, Transmission
Planetary - Disassemble and Assemble.

Check the springs in the clutches. Refer to

Service Manual, RENR5133, Power Train


Specifications for the correct specifications
for the springs in the transmission clutches.

18. The torque converter lockup clutch may not be


operating and there may be insufficient ground
speed for a transmission shift.

Test the operation of the torque converter


lockup clutch. Refer to Systems Operation,
Testing and Adjusting, Transmission Hydraulic
Control - Test and Adjust.

The Transmission Slips In One Gear


Possible Cause
1. The power train oil level is lower than the
specification.

Check the power train oil level. Refer to

Systems Operation, Testing and Adjusting,


Visual Inspection.

2. One of the individual valves for the transmission


clutches may not be functioning correctly.

Test the individual valves. Refer to


Systems Operation, Testing and Adjusting,
Transmission Hydraulic Control System - Test
and Adjust.

A load piston plug may not be installed in the


individual valve for the transmission clutches
that may be affected. Check that the load
piston plugs are correctly installed in the
individual valves.

3. The seals on the piston in one of the transmission


clutches may be leaking.

Check the pressure of the oil in the clutch under


full engagement. Refer to Systems Operation,
Testing and Adjusting, Transmission Hydraulic
Control - Test and Adjust.

4. There may be damaged components in the


clutches for the transmission.

Inspect the oil for debris. Refer to Systems


Operation, Testing and Adjusting, Visual
Inspection.

Inspect the clutches for damage. Refer to

Disassembly and Assembly, RENR5138,


Transmission Planetary - Disassemble and
Assemble.

Check that the disks and the plates are within


the specified dimensions. Refer to Disassembly
and Assembly, RENR5138, Transmission
Planetary - Disassemble and Assemble.

Check the springs in the clutches. Refer to


Service Manual, RENR5133, Power Train
Specifications for the correct specifications
for the springs in the transmission clutches.

50
Power Train
Testing and Adjusting Section
5. There is debris and damaged components in
the power train.

Inspect the oil filter for debris. Refer to Systems


Operation, Testing and Adjusting, Visual
Inspection.

Check the torque converter inlet pressure.


Refer to Systems Operation, Testing and
Adjusting, Power Train Pressures.

Replace the torque converter inlet relief


valve. Refer to Disassembly and Assembly,
RENR5138, Power Train.

Determine the origin of the debris and repair


the damaged components.

Change the oil in the power train and install a


new oil filter.

The Transmission Is Overheating


Possible Cause
1. The power train oil level is outside the
specifications.

Check the power train oil level. Refer to


Systems Operation, Testing and Adjusting,
Visual Inspection.
2. The machine may have been operated
incorrectly.

Operate the machine in the correct manner.


Refer to Operation and Maintenance Manual,
SEBU7498.
3. The level of the engine coolant is lower than the
specification.

Check the engine coolant level. Refer to

Systems Operation, Testing and Adjusting,


Visual Inspection.

4. The engine cooling system and the fan drive


system may not be functioning correctly.

Refer to Systems Operation, Testing and


Adjusting, RENR5136, Hoist, Steering,
Suspension, and Fan Drive Systems for further
information regarding the fan drive system.

Refer to Systems Operation, Testing and


Adjusting, RENR1363.

5. The coolant flow through the transmission oil


cooler is below the specification.
6. The oil flow through the transmission oil cooler is
below the specification.

Check the oil pressure to the transmission oil


cooler. Refer to Systems Operation, Testing
and Adjusting, Power Train Pressures.

7. The torque converter inlet pressure is outside


specifications.

8. The torque converter outlet pressure is outside


specifications.

Check the torque converter outlet pressure.


Refer to Systems Operation, Testing and
Adjusting, Power Train Pressures.
9. There is debris and damaged components in
the power train.

Inspect the oil filter for debris. Refer to Systems


Operation, Testing and Adjusting, Visual
Inspection.

Determine the origin of the debris and repair


the damaged component.

Change the oil in the power train and install a


new oil filter.
10. The torque converter lockup clutch may not be
functioning correctly.

Test the correct function of the torque converter


lockup clutch. Refer to Systems Operation,
Testing and Adjusting, Transmission Hydraulic
Control - Test and Adjust.

The Transmission Does Not Shift


Smoothly
Possible Cause
1. The power train oil level is lower than the
specification.

Check the power train oil level. Refer to

Systems Operation, Testing and Adjusting,


Visual Inspection.

2. The primary pressures for the transmission


clutches may be incorrect.

Test the primary pressures for the transmission


clutches. Refer to Systems Operation, Testing
and Adjusting, Transmission Hydraulic Control
- Test and Adjust.

Adjust the primary pressures for the

transmission clutches if the primary pressures


are incorrect.

51
Power Train
Testing and Adjusting Section
3. There is debris and damaged components in
the power train.

Inspect the oil filter for debris. Refer to Systems


Operation, Testing and Adjusting, Visual
Inspection.

Determine the origin of the debris and repair


the damaged components.

Change the oil in the power train and install a


new oil filter.
4. The pressure of the oil in the transmission
hydraulic control system may not be within the
specification.

Test the pressures of the oil in the transmission


hydraulic control system. Make any necessary
repairs or adjustments. Refer to Systems
Operation, Testing and Adjusting, Power Train
Pressures.
5. The torque converter lockup clutch may still be
engaged during shifts.

Check the correct operation of the


torque converter lockup clutch. Refer to
Systems Operation, Testing and Adjusting,
Transmission Hydraulic Control.
6. The transmission may be operating in an
elevated shift point mode.

Check the correct function of the ECM and the


inputs to the ECM. Refer to Systems Operation,
Testing and Adjusting, RENR3442, Power
Train Electronic Control System.
7. There may be a fault with the controlled throttle
shifting function.

Investigate the correct functioning of the

controlled throttle shifting. Refer to Systems


Operation, Testing and Adjusting, RENR3442,
Power Train Electronic Control System.

The Transmission Hesitates During


Shifting
Possible Cause
1. One or more individual valves for the transmission
clutches may not be functioning correctly.

Test the individual valves for the transmission


clutches. Refer to Systems Operation, Testing
and Adjusting, Transmission Hydraulic Control
- Test and Adjust.

2. The pressure of the oil in the transmission


hydraulic control system may not be within the
specification.

Test the pressures of the oil in the transmission


hydraulic control system. Make any necessary
repairs or adjustments. Refer to Systems
Operation, Testing and Adjusting, Power Train
Pressures.
3. There is debris and damaged components in
the power train.

Inspect the oil filter for debris. Refer to Systems


Operation, Testing and Adjusting, Visual
Inspection.

Determine the origin of the debris and repair


the damaged components.

Change the oil in the power train and install a


new oil filter.
4. The power train oil level is outside the
specification.

Check the power train oil level. Refer to


Systems Operation, Testing and Adjusting,
Visual Inspection.
5. The seals on the piston in the transmission clutch
may be leaking.

Check the pressure of the oil in the clutch under


full engagement. Refer to Systems Operation,
Testing and Adjusting, Transmission Hydraulic
Control - Test and Adjust.

6. There may be damaged components in the


clutches for the transmission.

Inspect the oil for debris. Refer to Systems


Operation, Testing and Adjusting, Visual
Inspection.

Inspect the clutches for damage. Refer to

Disassembly and Assembly, RENR5138,


Transmission Planetary - Disassemble and
Assemble.

Check that the disks and the plates are within


the specified dimensions. Refer to Disassembly
and Assembly, RENR5138, Transmission
Planetary - Disassemble and Assemble.

Check the springs in the clutches. Refer to


Service Manual, RENR5123, Power Train
Specifications for the correct specifications
for the springs in the transmission clutches.
7. The torque converter lockup clutch may not
engage correctly after a shift.

52
Power Train
Testing and Adjusting Section

Check the correct operation of the torque


converter lockup clutch.

Inspect the torque converter lockup clutch for

damage. Refer to Disassembly and Assembly,


RENR5138, Torque Converter - Disassemble
and Assemble.
i01528148

Interaxle Differential
Troubleshooting

Check the circuit. If there is a blown fuse,

replace the blown fuse. Refer to Operation


and Maintenance Manual, SEBU7498, Fuses
- Replace and Schematic, RENR5136,
Electrical Systems. If there is damage to the
wiring harness, repair the damage. If there is a
faulty switch, replace the faulty switch.

3. The oil supply to the solenoid and relief valve


may not be sufficient.

Test the oil supply to the solenoid and relief


valve . Refer to Systems Operation, Testing
and Adjusting, Interaxle Differential - Test.

SMCS Code: 3287-035


Note: The troubleshooting information is intended to
aid in diagnosing a given problem. The possible
causes are ordered from the most probable cause
to the least probable cause. The possible causes
should be examined in order until the problem is
resolved.
Refer to Systems Operation, Testing and Adjusting,
Machine Preparation for Troubleshooting
before you perform any testing and adjusting or
troubleshooting.
Prior to carrying out troubleshooting on the interaxle
differential lock, use Caterpillar ET in order to
diagnose any fault codes that may be present. Refer
to Systems Operation, Troubleshooting, Testing
and Adjusting, RENR3442, Power Train Electronic
Control System.
If fault codes are present, repair the source of the
fault code.

4. The solenoid that controls the interaxle differential


in the solenoid and relief valve is not functioning
correctly.

Test the solenoid for correct operation. Refer


to Systems Operation, Testing and Adjusting,
Interaxle Differential - Test.
5. The seals on the piston in the interaxle differential
may be leaking.

The pressure of the oil in the interaxle


differential may be lower than the specification.
Check the pressure of the oil when the
interaxle differential is engaged. Refer to
Systems Operation, Testing and Adjusting,
Power Train Pressures.
6. There is debris or damaged components in the
interaxle differential or in the transfer gear.

Inspect the oil filter and inspect the magnetic


screen for debris.

The Interaxle Differential Does Not


Engage

Determine the origin of the debris and repair

Possible Causes

Change the oil. Clean the magnetic screen

1. The hoses or the lines in the hydraulic system for


the output transfer gears may be damaged.

Inspect the condition of the lines. Refer to

Systems Operation, Testing and Adjusting,


Visual Inspection.

2. The electrical circuit for the interaxle differential


lock may have a blown fuse, or there may be a
faulty switch or a damaged wire.

or replace the damaged component.


and install a new Caterpillar oil filter.

7. The disks and plates of the interaxle differential


may be worn or damaged.

Inspect the condition of the disks and plates

in the interaxle differential. Replace the disks


and the plates if the disks and the plates are
worn or damaged. Refer to Disassembly and
Assembly, RENR5139, Power Train.

The Interaxle Differential Does Not


Disengage
A failure of the interaxle differential can cause wind
up in the power train. This may be noticeable as an
increase in the effort of steering.

53
Power Train
Testing and Adjusting Section
Possible Causes
1. The solenoid that controls the interaxle differential
in the solenoid and relief valve may be sticking.

Check the operation of the solenoid. Refer


to Systems Operation, Testing and Adjusting,
Interaxle Differetial - Test.

Check the pressure of the oil for the interaxle


differential when the interaxle differential is
unselected. Refer to Systems Operation,
Testing and Adjusting, Interaxle Differential
- Test.

2. There is debris or damaged components in the


interaxle differential or in the transfer gear.

Inspect the oil filter and inspect the magnetic


screen for debris.

Determine the origin of the debris and repair

All Three Axle Differentials Will Not


Lock When The Axle Differential
Locks Are Engaged
Possible Causes
1. The electrical circuit for the interaxle differential
lock may have a blown fuse, or there may be a
faulty switch or a damaged wire.

Check the circuit. If there is a blown fuse,


replace the blown fuse. Refer to Operation
and Maintenance Manual, SEBU7498, Fuses
- Replace and Schematic, RENR5136,
Electrical Systems. If there is damage to the
wiring harness, repair the damage. If there is a
faulty switch, replace the faulty switch.
2. The oil supply to the solenoid and relief valve
that is located on the output transfer gears may
not be sufficient.

or replace the damaged component.

Test the oil supply to the solenoid and relief


Change the oil. Clean the magnetic screen
and install an new Caterpillar oil filter.

3. The piston in the interaxle differential may be


sticking.

valve. Refer to Systems Operation, Testing and


Adjusting, Interaxle Differential - Test.
3. The oil supply to the solenoid valve for the axle
differentials may not be sufficient.

Test the solenoid for the interaxle differential

Check the oil pressure in the interaxle

differential when the interaxle differential is


unselected. Refer to Systems Operation,
Testing and Adjusting, Power Train Pressures
. If the oil pressure is normal, the piston may
be sticking. Inspect the lockup clutch for
correct operation. Refer to Disassembly and
Assembly, RENR5139, Power Train.
i01528161

Differential Troubleshooting
SMCS Code: 3258-035
Note: The troubleshooting information is intended to
aid in diagnosing a given problem. The possible
causes are ordered from the most probable cause
to the least probable cause. The possible causes
should be examined in order until the problem is
resolved.
Refer to Systems Operation, Testing and Adjusting,
Machine Preparation for Troubleshooting
before you perform any testing and adjusting or
troubleshooting.
Prior to carrying out troubleshooting on the axle
differential locks, use Caterpillar ET in order to
diagnose any fault codes that may be present. Refer
to Systems Operation, Troubleshooting, Testing
and Adjusting, RENR3442, Power Train Electronic
Control System.

lock in the solenoid and relief valve for correct


operation. Refer to Systems Operation, Testing
and Adjusting, Interaxle Differential - Test.

4. The solenoid for the axle differential locks in


the solenoid and relief valve is not functioning
correctly.

Test the solenoid for correct operation. Refer

to Systems Operation, Testing and Adjusting,


Differential - Test.

5. There may be leaks in the oil lines to the


differentials.

Visually inspect the lines to the differentials.


Refer to Systems Operation, Testing and
Adjusting, Visual Inspection.
6. The seals on the piston in the differential locks
may be leaking. An oil line inside the axle may
be leaking.

Check the level of the oil in the axle. Refer to


Testing and Adjusting, Visual Inspection.

7. The disks and plates of the clutch on the


differential locks may be worn or damaged.

54
Power Train
Testing and Adjusting Section

Inspect the condition of the disks and plates

in the differential. Replace the disks and the


plates if the disks and the plates are damaged
or worn. Refer to Disassembly and Assembly,
RENR5139, Power Train.

The Axle Differential On One Or


More Axles Will Not Lock When The
Differential Lock Switch Is Engaged
Possible Causes
1. There may be leaks in the oil lines to the
differential.

Visually inspect the lines to the differential.


Refer to Systems Operation, Testing and
Adjusting, Visual Inspection.

Visually inspect the lines to the output transfer


gears. Refer to Systems Operation, Testing
and Adjusting, Visual Inspection.

2. The seals on the piston in the differential lock


may be leaking. An oil line inside the axle may
be leaking.

Check the level of the oil in the axle. Refer to


Testing and Adjusting, Visual Inspection.

Visually inspect the lines to the output transfer


gears. Refer to Systems Operation, Testing
and Adjusting, Visual Inspection.
3. The disks and plates of the clutch on the
differential lock may be worn or damaged.

Inspect the condition of the disks and the

plates in the differential. Replace the disks


and the plates if the disks and the plates are
worn or damaged. Refer to Disassembly and
Assembly, RENR5139, Power Train.

4. An axle shaft may be damaged or broken.

Check the condition of the axle shaft on


the axle that will not lock. Replace the
axle shaft if the axle shaft is not within the
specification. Refer to Disassembly and
Assembly, RENR5139, Power Train.

55
Power Train
Testing and Adjusting Section

Testing and Adjusting

Torque Converter Pressures


i01579055

Power Train Pressures

Testing the Pilot Pressure for the Torque


Converter Lockup Clutch
1. Ensure that the engine is stopped and that
the parking brake control is in the ENGAGED
position.

SMCS Code: 3000-PX

Personal injury or death can result from sudden


machine movement.

2. Raise the cab. Refer to Operation and


Maintenance Manual, SEBU7498, Cab - Tilt.

Sudden movement of the machine can cause injury to persons on or near the machine.
Prevent possible injury by performing the procedure that follows before working on the machine.
NOTICE
Do not connect or disconnect hose fittings to or from
the quick disconnect nipples when there is pressure in
the system. This will prevent damage to the seals that
are in the fitting.
Illustration 37

Refer to Systems Operation, Testing and Adjusting,


Machine Preparation For Troubleshooting
before you perform any testing and adjusting or
troubleshooting.
Before you carry out any testing, ensure that
you have read the procedure and that you have
understood the procedure.

g00805203

3. Remove the plug from test point (1). Install the


correct fitting and the correct hose assembly
from the 1U-5482 Pressure Adapter Group into
test point (1). Attach the opposite end of the
hose assembly to the 0 to 4000 kPa (0 to 580 psi)
pressure gauge in the 1U-5481 Pressure Gauge
Group.

Note: Make sure that the filters and the screens are
clean before you test any pressures. Make sure
that the oil is at operating temperature before you
perform these tests.
Table 4

Required Tools
Part
Number

Description

Qty

1U-5481

Pressure Gauge Group

1U-5482

Pressure Adapter Group

8T-5200

Generator and Counter


Signal Group

Illustration 38

FT-2796

Connector Harness

4. Disconnect the wiring harness from upshift


solenoid (2), downshift solenoid (3) and torque
converter lockup clutch solenoid (4).

It will be necessary to raise the cab in order to gain


access to the various pressure test points for the
power train. The guards beneath the engine and
the transmission may require lowering.

g00804806

5. Connect the wiring harness from the downshift


solenoid to the torque converter lockup clutch
solenoid.
6. Lower the cab. Take care to ensure that the
hose assembly is not trapped when the cab is
lowered.

56
Power Train
Testing and Adjusting Section
7. Ensure that the transmission control is in the
NEUTRAL position and that the parking brake
is engaged. Press and hold the service brake
pedal.
8. Start the engine and run the engine at low idle.
9. Observe the pressure gauge. With the oil at
normal operating temperature, the pilot oil
pressure for the torque converter lockup clutch
must be within the values that are shown in Table
7.
10. Stop the engine and raise the cab. Remove
the fitting and the hose from test point (1) and
replace the plug.
11. Reconnect the wiring harness correctly to the
upshift solenoid, the downshift solenoid and the
torque converter lockup clutch solenoid.

Illustration 40

g00805199

5. Remove the small cover from the transmission


cover.

Testing the Initial Pressure for the Torque


Converter Lockup Clutch
The pressure in the torque converter lockup
clutch can be measured at test point (D) on the
transmission pressure control valve.
1. Ensure that the engine is stopped and that
the parking brake control is in the ENGAGED
position.
2. Raise the cab. Refer to Operation and
Maintenance Manual, SEBU7498, Cab - Tilt.

Illustration 41

g00811590

6V-6064 Transmission Test Cover

3. Remove the transmission cover from the top of


the transmission.

6. Install the 6V-6064 Transmission Test Cover in


the place of the small cover. Use four bolts to
hold the test cover in position.
7. Replace the transmission cover on the top of
the transmission. Use four bolts to hold the test
cover in position.

Illustration 39

g00804801

Modulating Valve for the Torque Converter Lockup Clutch

4. Remove load piston plug (5).


Note: Care must be taken in order to ensure that the
plug is not dropped into the transmission.

Illustration 42

g00804800

57
Power Train
Testing and Adjusting Section
8. Install the correct hose assembly from the
1U-5482 Pressure Adapter Group to test point
(D). Use a suitable 90 fitting. Attach the opposite
end of the hose assembly to the 4000 kPa
(580 psi) pressure gauge in the 1U-5481
Pressure Gauge Group.

Illustration 44

g00805199

18. Remove the 6V-6064 Transmission Test Cover


from the transmission cover and install the small
cover to the transmission cover.
Illustration 43

g00804806

19. Replace the transmission cover.

9. Disconnect the wiring harness from downshift


solenoid (2), upshift solenoid (3) and torque
converter lockup clutch solenoid (4).

20. Reconnect the wiring harness correctly to the


upshift solenoid, the downshift solenoid and the
torque converter lockup clutch solenoid.

10. Connect the wiring harness for the downshift


solenoid to the torque converter lockup clutch
solenoid.

Testing the Torque Converter Lockup


Clutch Pressure

11. Lower the cab. Take care to ensure that the


hose assembly is not trapped when the cab is
lowered.
12. Ensure that the transmission control is in the
NEUTRAL position and that the parking brake
is engaged. Press the service brake pedal and
hold the service brake pedal.
13. Start the engine and run the engine at low idle.

The pressure in the torque converter lockup


clutch can be measured at test point (D) on the
transmission pressure control valve.
1. Ensure that the engine is stopped and that
the parking brake control is in the ENGAGED
position.
2. Raise the cab. Refer to Operation and
Maintenance Manual, SEBU7498, Cab - Tilt.

14. Observe the pressure gauge. With the oil at


normal operating temperature, the initial oil
pressure for the torque converter lockup clutch
must be within the values that are shown in Table
7.
15. Stop the engine and raise the cab. Remove the
fitting and the hose from test point (D).
16. Remove the transmission cover with the
6V-6064 Transmission Test Cover from the top
of the transmission.
17. Replace load piston plug (5).

Illustration 45

g00805199

3. Remove the small cover from the transmission


cover on the top of the transmission planetary.

58
Power Train
Testing and Adjusting Section
6. Disconnect the wiring harness from downshift
solenoid (2), upshift solenoid (2) and torque
converter lockup clutch solenoid (4).
7. Connect the wiring harness for the downshift
solenoid to the torque converter lockup clutch
solenoid.
8. Lower the cab. Take care to ensure that the
hose assembly is not trapped when the cab is
lowered.

Illustration 46

g00811590

9. Ensure that the transmission control is in the


NEUTRAL position and that the parking brake
is engaged. Press the service brake pedal and
hold the service brake pedal.

6V-6064 Transmission Test Cover

10. Start the engine and run the engine at low idle.
4. Install the 6V-6064 Transmission Test Cover in
the place of the small cover. Use four bolts to
hold the test cover in position.

11. Observe the pressure gauge. With the oil at


normal operating temperature, the maximum oil
pressure for the torque converter lockup clutch
must be within the values that are shown in Table
7.
12. Stop the engine and raise the cab. Remove the
fitting and the hose from test point (D).
13. Remove the 6V-6064 Transmission Test Cover.
14. Replace the small cover on the top of the
transmission.

Illustration 47

g00804800

5. Install the correct hose assembly from the


1U-5482 Pressure Adapter Group to test point
(D) on the pressure control valve. Use a suitable
90 fitting. Attach the opposite end of the hose
assembly to the 0 to 4000 kPa (0 to 580 psi)
pressure gauge in the 1U-5481 Pressure Gauge
Group.

15. Reconnect the wiring harness correctly to the


upshift solenoid, the downshift solenoid and the
torque converter lockup clutch solenoid.

Inlet Relief Pressure for the Torque


Converter

Illustration 49

g00811233

The relief pressure of the torque converter inlet


can be measured at test point (6). Test point (6) is
located on the left side of the transmission.
Illustration 48

g00804806

59
Power Train
Testing and Adjusting Section
1. Ensure that the engine is stopped and that
the parking brake control is in the ENGAGED
position.

Testing the Pressure for the Transmission


Oil Pump

2. Raise the cab. Refer to Operation and


Maintenance Manual, SEBU7498, Cab - Tilt.
3. Disconnect the fitting (6). Install a suitable
swivel tee between fitting (6) and the line to the
transmission pump drive housing. Install the
correct fitting and the correct hose assembly
from the 1U-5482 Pressure Adapter Group to
the swivel tee. Attach the opposite end of the
hose assembly to the 0 to 4000 kPa (0 to 580 psi)
pressure gauge in the 1U-5481 Pressure Gauge
Group.
4. Lower the cab. Take care to ensure that the
hose assembly is not trapped when the cab is
lowered.
5. Ensure that the transmission control is in the
NEUTRAL position and that the parking brake
is engaged. Press and hold the service brake
pedal.
6. Start the engine and operate the engine at low
idle. Observe the pressure gauge. With the oil
at normal operating temperature, the main relief
pressure must be within the values that are
shown in Table 7.
7. Operate the engine at high idle. Observe the
pressure gauge. With the oil at normal operating
temperature, the torque converter inlet pressure
must be within the values in Table 7.
8. Stop the engine and raise the cab. Remove the
fitting and the hose from the swivel tee and
remove the swivel tee from fitting (6). Reconnect
the line to fitting (6).

Pressures For The Transmission


Hydraulic Control System

Illustration 51

g00804803

The pressure of the oil from the transmission oil


pump is regulated by the main relief valve in the
transmission selector and pressure control valve.
The main relief pressure for the transmission
hydraulic control can be measured at test point (7)
on the right side of the transmission.
1. Ensure that the engine is stopped and that
the parking brake control is in the ENGAGED
position.
2. Raise the cab. Refer to Operation and
Maintenance Manual, SEBU7498, Cab - Tilt.
3. Install the correct hose assembly from the
1U-5482 Pressure Adapter Group on test
point (7). Attach the opposite end of the hose
assembly to the 0 to 4000 kPa (0 to 580 psi)
pressure gauge in the 1U-5481 Pressure Gauge
Group.
4. Lower the cab. Take care to ensure that the
hose assembly is not trapped when the cab is
lowered.
5. Start the engine and operate the engine at low
idle. Observe the pressure gauge. With the oil at
normal operating temperature, the relief pressure
for the transmission hydraulic control must be
within the values that are shown in Table 7.
6. Operate the engine at high idle. Observe
the pressure gauge. With the oil at normal
operating temperature, the relief pressure for the
transmission hydraulic control must be within the
values that are shown in Table 7.
7. Stop the engine and raise the cab. Remove the
hose from test point (7).

Illustration 50

g00811858

60
Power Train
Testing and Adjusting Section

Testing the Pilot Pressure for the


Transmission Hydraulic Control System

Illustration 54

g00811590

6V-6064 Transmission Test Cover


Illustration 52

g00811592

The pilot oil pressure for the transmission hydraulic


control can be measured at test point (8) on the
selector and pressure control valve.
1. Ensure that the engine is stopped and that
the parking brake control is in the ENGAGED
position.
2. Raise the cab. Refer to Operation and
Maintenance Manual, SEBU7498, Cab - Tilt.
3. Remove the transmission cover from the top of
the transmission.

5. Install the 6V-6064 Transmission Test Cover to


the transmission cover in the place of the small
cover. Use four bolts to hold the test cover in
position.
6. Remove the plug from test point (8). Install the
correct fitting and the correct hose assembly
from the 1U-5482 Pressure Adapter Group on
test point (8).
7. Feed the hose through an opening in the
6V-6064 Transmission Test Cover. To prevent
the spraying of oil, use a piece of plastic or
use a piece of paper with the cover. Attach
the opposite end of the hose assembly to the
0 to 4000 kPa (0 to 580 psi) pressure gauge in
the 1U-5481 Pressure Gauge Group.
8. Replace the transmission cover on the top of the
transmission.
9. Lower the cab. Take care to ensure that the
hose assembly is not trapped when the cab is
lowered.
10. Ensure that the transmission control is in the
NEUTRAL position and that the parking brake
is engaged. Press the service brake pedal and
hold the service brake pedal.

Illustration 53

g00805199

11. Start the engine and run the engine at low idle.
4. Remove the small cover from the transmission
cover.

12. Observe the pressure gauge. With the oil at


normal operating temperature, the pilot oil
pressure for the transmission hydraulic control
system must be within the values that are shown
in Table 7.
13. Stop the engine and raise the cab.
14. Remove the transmission cover with the
6V-6064 Transmission Test Cover from the top
of the transmission.

61
Power Train
Testing and Adjusting Section
15. Remove the fitting and the hose from test point
(8) and replace the plug.

Illustration 57
Illustration 55

g00805199

g00805199

5. Remove the small cover from the transmission


cover.

16. Remove the 6V-6064 Transmission Test Cover


from the transmission cover and install the small
cover to the transmission cover.
17. Replace the transmission cover.

Testing the Initial Pressures for the


Individual Transmission Clutches
1. Ensure that the engine is stopped and that
the parking brake control is in the ENGAGED
position.
2. Raise the cab. Refer to Operation and
Maintenance Manual, SEBU7498, Cab - Tilt.

Illustration 58

g00811590

6V-6064 Transmission Test Cover

6. Install the 6V-6064 Transmission Test Cover in


the place of the small cover. Use four bolts to
hold the test cover in position.

Illustration 56

g00805205

3. Remove the transmission cover from the top of


the transmission.
4. Remove seven load piston plugs (9) from the
individual valves.
Note: Ensure that the plugs are not dropped into
the transmission.

62
Power Train
Testing and Adjusting Section
16. Observe the pressure gauges for the
transmission clutches that are used in NEUTRAL.
Refer to Tables 5 and 6. With the oil at normal
operating temperature, the primary pressure
for the oil in the transmission clutches must be
within the values that are shown in Table 8.
17. Decrease the engine speed to low idle.
18. Move the transmission control to the DRIVE
position.
19. Increase the engine speed to high idle.
Illustration 59

g00804800

Installation of the test gauges for pressure


(A) Test Point for Clutch 3
(B) Test Point for Clutch 1
(C) Test Point for Clutch 2
(D) This pressure tap is used for the torque converter lockup clutch.
(E) Test Point for Clutch 5
(F) Test Point for Clutch 4
(G) Test Point for Clutch 6
(H) Test Point for Clutch 7

7. Install 6V-4143 Coupler, 3B-6552 Elbow,


6V-3079 Hose, 6V-4142 Fitting, 6V-4144
Coupler and 8T-0855 Pressure Gauge to test
points (A), (B), (C), (E), (F), (G), and (H).
8. Disconnect the drive shaft to the front axle from
the output yoke of the output transfer gear.
Refer to Disassembly and Assembly, RENR5139,
Power Train. Retract the drive shaft away from
the output yoke and secure the drive shaft.
9. Disconnect the drive shaft between the output
transfer gear and the hitch from the output yoke
of the output transfer gear. Refer to Disassembly
and Assembly, RENR5139, Power Train. Retract
the drive shaft away from the output yoke and
secure the drive shaft.
10. Remove the wiring harness from the two
transmission output speed sensors. Connect a
8T-5200 Signal Generator to the speed sensors.
Use a FT-2796 Connector Harness.

20. Observe the gauges for the transmission clutch


that is used in FIRST gear. Refer to Tables 5 and
6. With the oil at normal operating temperature,
the initial pressure for the oil in the transmission
clutch must be within the values that are shown
in Table 8.
21. Decrease the engine speed to low idle.
22. Start the signal generator. Refer to Special
Instruction, SEHS8579, Use of 8T-5200 Signal
Generator / Counter Group.
23. Increase the frequency of the signal from the
signal generator until the transmission shifts from
first gear to second gear.
24. Increase the engine speed to high idle.
25. Observe the gauges for the transmission
clutches that are used in SECOND gear. Refer to
Tables 5 and 6. With the oil at normal operating
temperature, the initial pressure for the oil in the
transmission clutches must be within the values
that are shown in Table 8.
26. Decrease the engine speed to low idle.
27. Increase the frequency of the signal from the
signal generator and observe the initial pressures
for each transmission gear.

11. Route the FT-2796 Connector Harness so that


the signal generator can be mounted in the cab.

28. Once the transmission is in SEVENTH gear and


the pressures have been obtained for each
clutch, reduce the frequency of the signal from
the signal generator until the output is zero.

12. Lower the cab. Ensure that the hoses to the


gauges and the connector harness is not
trapped.

29. Move the transmission control to the REVERSE


position. Increase the engine speed to high idle
and observe the clutch pressures.

13. Ensure that the parking brake control is in the


ENGAGED position.

30. Decrease the engine speed to low idle.

14. Start the engine and run the engine at low idle.

31. Move the transmission control to the NEUTRAL


position and stop the engine.

15. Increase the engine speed to high idle.

63
Power Train
Testing and Adjusting Section
32. Compare the actual initial pressures that were
recorded with the pressures that are provided
in Table 8.
33. After the pressures are recorded, remove the
test equipment and remove the transmission
cover from the top of the transmission.
34. Replace load piston plugs (9).

Illustration 62

g00811590

6V-6064 Transmission Test Cover

3. Install the 6V-6064 Transmission Test Cover in


the place of the small cover. Use four bolts to
hold the test cover in position.

Illustration 60

g00805199

35. Remove the 6V-6064 Transmission Test Cover


from the transmission cover and install the small
cover to the transmission cover.
36. Replace the transmission cover.
37. Replace the drive shafts to the machine. Refer to
Disassembly and Assembly, RENR5139, Power
Train.

Testing the Maximum Pressures for the


Transmission Clutches
1. Raise the cab. Refer to Operation and
Maintenance Manual, SEBU7498, Cab - Tilt.

Illustration 63

g00804800

Installation of the test gauges for pressure


(A) Test Point for Clutch 3
(B) Test Point for Clutch 1
(C) Test Point for Clutch 2
(D) This pressure tap is used for the torque converter lockup clutch.
(E) Test Point for Clutch 5
(F) Test Point for Clutch 4
(G) Test Point for Clutch 6
(H) Test Point for Clutch 7

4. Install 6V-4143 Coupler, 3B-6552 Elbow,


6V-3079 Hose, 6V-4142 Fitting, 6V-4144
Coupler and 8T-0855 Pressure Gauge to test
points (A), (B), (C), (E), (F), (G), and (H).

Illustration 61

g00805199

2. Remove the small cover from the large cover.

64
Power Train
Testing and Adjusting Section
16. Increase the engine speed to high idle.
17. Observe the gauges for the transmission
clutch that is used in FIRST gear. Refer to
Tables 5 and 6. With the oil at normal operating
temperature, the maximum pressure for the oil in
the transmission clutch must be within the values
that are shown in Table 9.
18. Decrease the engine speed to low idle.
19. Start the signal generator. Refer to Special
Instruction, SEHS8579, Use of 8T-5200 Signal
Generator / Counter Group.
Illustration 64

g00804806

5. Disconnect the wiring harness from torque


converter lockup clutch solenoid (4).
Note: This will allow the testing of transmission
clutch pressures in torque converter drive without
disconnecting the drive shaft from the transmission
planetary.
6. Remove the wiring harness from the two
transmission output speed sensors. Connect a
8T-5200 Signal Generator to the speed sensors.
Use a FT-2796 Connector Harness.
7. Route the FT-2796 Connector Harness so that
the signal generator can be mounted in the cab.
8. Lower the cab. Ensure that the hoses to the
gauges and the connector harness is not
trapped.
9. Ensure that the parking brake control is in the
ENGAGED.
10. Start the engine and run the engine at low idle.
11. Increase the engine speed to high idle.
12. Observe the pressure gauges for the
transmission clutches that are used in NEUTRAL.
Refer to Tables 5 and 6. With the oil at normal
operating temperature, the maximum pressure
for the oil in the transmission clutches must be
within the values that are shown in Table 9.
13. Decrease the engine speed to low idle.
14. Press and hold the service brakes.
15. Move the transmission control to the DRIVE
position.
Note: The engine will be turning against the torque
converter, so there may be some small movement
and vibration of the machine.

20. Increase the frequency of the signal from the


signal generator until the transmission shifts from
first gear to second gear.
21. Increase the engine speed to high idle.
22. Observe the gauges for the transmission
clutches that are used in SECOND gear. Refer to
Tables 5 and 6. With the oil at normal operating
temperature, the maximum pressure for the oil
in the transmission clutches must be within the
values that are shown in Table 9.
23. Decrease the engine speed to low idle.
24. Increase the frequency of the signal from the
signal generator and observe the maximum
pressures for each transmission gear at high idle.
25. Once the transmission is in SEVENTH gear and
the pressures have been obtained for each
clutch, reduce the frequency of the signal from
the signal generator until the output is zero.
26. Move the transmission control to the REVERSE
position.
27. Increase the engine speed to high idle and
observe the clutch pressures.
28. Decrease the engine speed to low idle.
29. Move the transmission control to the NEUTRAL
position and stop the engine.
30. Compare the actual clutch pressures that were
recorded with the pressures that are provided
in Table 9.
31. After the pressures are recorded, remove the
test equipment.

65
Power Train
Testing and Adjusting Section

Illustration 65

g00805199

Illustration 67

g00804806

32. Remove the 6V-6064 Transmission Test Cover


from the transmission cover and install the small
cover to the transmission cover.

4. Disconnect the wiring harness from downshift


solenoid (2), upshift solenoid (3) and torque
converter lockup clutch solenoid (4).

33. Reconnect the wiring harness to the torque


converter lockup clutch solenoid.

5. Connect the wiring harness for upshift solenoid


(2) to the downshift solenoid (3) and connect the
wiring harness for the downshift solenoid to the
upshift solenoid.

Testing the Upshift Pressure

6. Lower the cab and start the engine. Ensure that


the parking brake is engaged.
7. Press and hold the service brakes.
8. Start the engine and operate the engine at low
idle. The transmission will upshift through the
gears to SEVENTH gear.
9. Observe the pressure gauge. With the oil at
normal operating temperature, the pressure of
the upshift oil must be within the values that are
shown in Table 7.
Illustration 66

g00811379

The upshift pressure can be measured at test point


(10) on the right side of the transmission.
1. Raise the cab. Refer to Operation and
Maintenance Manual, SEBU7498, Cab - Tilt.
2. Install the correct hose assembly from the
1U-5482 Pressure Adapter Group on test
point (10). Attach the opposite end of the hose
assembly to the 0 to 1000 kPa (0 to 145 psi)
pressure gauge in the 1U-5481 Pressure Gauge
Group.
3. Ensure that the transmission shift lever is in the
NEUTRAL position.

10. Stop the engine and raise the cab.


11. Reconnect the wiring harness correctly to the
upshift solenoid, the downshift solenoid and the
torque converter lockup clutch solenoid.
12. Remove the hose and the gauges from test
point (10).

66
Power Train
Testing and Adjusting Section

Testing the Downshift Pressure

The pressure of the lubrication oil for the


transmission planetary can be measured at test
point (12).
1. Raise the cab. Refer to Operation and
Maintenance Manual, SEBU7498, Cab - Tilt.
2. Install the correct hose assembly from the
1U-5482 Pressure Adapter Group on test
point (12). Attach the opposite end of the hose
assembly to the 0 to 400 kPa (0 to 58 psi)
pressure gauge in the 1U-5481 Pressure Gauge
Group.

Illustration 68

g00811379

The downshift pressure can be measured at test


point (11) on the right side of the transmission.

3. Lower the cab. Take care to ensure that the


hose assembly is not trapped when the cab is
lowered.
4. Start the engine.

1. Raise the cab. Refer to Operation and


Maintenance Manual, SEBU7498, Cab - Tilt.

5. With the transmission in NEUTRAL, run the


engine at low idle. Record the pressure that is
displayed on the gauge.

2. Install the correct hose assembly from the


1U-5482 Pressure Adapter Group on test
point (11). Attach the opposite end of the hose
assembly to the 0 to 1000 kPa (0 to 145 psi)
pressure gauge in the 1U-5481 Pressure Gauge
Group.

6. Run the engine at high idle and record the


pressure that is displayed on the gauge. With the
oil at normal operating temperature, the pressure
for the lubrication oil for the transmission
planetary must be within the values that are
shown in Table 7.

3. Start the engine and operate the engine at low


idle. Observe the pressure gauge. With the oil at
normal operating temperature, the pressure of
the downshift oil must be within the values that
are shown in Table 7.

7. Stop the engine.


8. Raise the cab and remove the hose from test
point (12).

Output Transfer Gears and


Differential Lock Pressures

4. Stop the engine and raise the cab.


5. Remove the hose and the gauges from test point
(11).

Testing the Transmission Lubrication


Pressure

Illustration 70

g00811680

Pressure test point for the oil to the output transfer gear and the
differentials

Illustration 69

g00812105

The supply pressure for the output transfer gear


can be measured at test point (13).

67
Power Train
Testing and Adjusting Section
Note: The pressure for the differential locks can
also be measured at test point (13). Ensure
that the interaxle differential lock and the axle
differential locks are not selected. This may cause
damage to the gauge that is used to measure the
pressure of the oil.

Front Axle Differential

1. Install the correct hose assembly from the


1U-5482 Pressure Adapter Group on test
point (13). Attach the opposite end of the hose
assembly to the 0 to 1000 kPa (0 to 145 psi)
pressure gauge in the 1U-5481 Pressure Gauge
Group.
2. Start the engine and operate the engine at low
idle. Observe the pressure gauge. With the oil at
normal operating temperature, the pressure of
the lubrication oil for the transfer gears must be
within the values that are shown in Table 7.
3. Operate the engine at high idle. Observe the
pressure gauge. With the oil at normal operating
temperature, the pressure of the lubrication oil
for the transfer gears must be within the values
in Table 7.

Illustration 71

g00811250

Line for the differential locks on the trailer

1. Disconnect line (14) to the rear axles and insert


6V-9508 Face Seal Plug into the line. Plug the
line in order to prevent contamination of the oil.

Shut off the engine.


The clutch pressure for the interaxle differential lock
can be measured at test point (13).
1. Install the correct hose assembly from the
1U-5482 Pressure Adapter Group on test
point (13). Attach the opposite end of the hose
assembly to the 0 to 4000 kPa (0 to 580 psi)
pressure gauge in the 1U-5481 Pressure Gauge
Group.
Illustration 72

2. Start the engine and operate the engine at low


idle. Select the interaxle differential lock. Refer to
Operation and Maintenance Manual, Differential
Lock Control. Observe the pressure gauge.
With the oil at normal operating temperature, the
pressure of the oil in the lockup clutch of the
interaxle differential must be within the values
in Table 7.
3. Select the axle differential locks. Refer to
Operation and Maintenance Manual, Differential
Lock Control. Observe the pressure gauge.
With the oil at normal operating temperature,
the pressure of the oil in the lockup clutches of
the axle differentials must be within the values
in Table 7.

g00811254

Line for the front axle differential lock

2. Disconnect line (15) from the elbow in the front


axle. Insert 8T-8902 Tee between the line and
the elbow in the front axle.
3. Install the correct hose assembly from the
1U-5482 Pressure Adapter Group on the
8T-8902 Tee. Attach the opposite end of the
hose assembly to the 0 to 4000 kPa (0 to 580 psi)
pressure gauge in the 1U-5481 Pressure Gauge
Group.
4. Start the engine and run the engine at low idle.
5. Select the interaxle differential lock and select
the axle differential lock.

Shut off the engine.


The pressures in the individual axle differentials can
be measured.

6. Observe the pressure gauge. With the oil at


normal operating temperature, the oil pressure in
the clutch for the front axle differential must be
within the values that are shown in Table 7.
Shut off the engine.

68
Power Train
Testing and Adjusting Section

Center Axle Differential

Illustration 75
Illustration 73

g00811254

g00811261

Line for the center axle differential lock

Line for the front axle differential lock

1. Disconnect line (15) from the elbow in the front


axle and insert 6V-9508 Face Seal Plug into the
line. Plug the fitting on the front axle in order to
prevent contamination of the oil.

3. Disconnect line (17) from the elbow in the center


axle and insert 8T-8902 Tee between the line
and the elbow in the front axle.
4. Install the correct hose assembly from the
1U-5482 Pressure Adapter Group on the
8T-8902 Tee. Attach the opposite end of the
hose assembly to the 0 to 4000 kPa (0 to 580 psi)
pressure gauge in the 1U-5481 Pressure Gauge
Group.
5. Start the engine and run the engine at low idle.
6. Select the interaxle differential lock and select
the axle differential lock.

Illustration 74

g00811260

Line for the rear axle differential lock

2. Disconnect line (16) from the elbow in the rear


axle and insert 6V-9508 Face Seal Plug into the
line. Plug the fitting on the center axle in order to
prevent contamination of the oil.

7. Observe the pressure gauge. With the oil at


normal operating temperature, the oil pressure in
the clutch for the center axle differential must be
within the values that are shown in Table 7.
Shut off the engine.

Rear Axle Differential Lock

Illustration 76
Line for the front axle differential lock

g00811254

69
Power Train
Testing and Adjusting Section
1. Disconnect line (15) from the elbow in the front
axle and insert 6V-9508 Face Seal Plug into the
line. Plug the fitting on the front axle in order to
prevent contamination of the oil.

7. Observe the pressure gauge. With the oil at


normal operating temperature, the oil pressure
in the clutch for the rear axle differential must be
within the values that are shown in Table 7.
Shut off the engine.

Specifications For The Oil


Pressures In The Power Train
Table 5

SPEED SELECTION

Illustration 77

SPEED

ENGAGED CLUTCHES

REVERSE speed

3 & 7

NEUTRAL

FIRST speed

2 & 6

SECOND speed

1 & 6

THIRD speed

3 & 6

FOURTH speed

1 & 5

FIFTH speed

3 & 5

SIXTH speed

1 & 4

SEVENTH speed

3 & 4

g00811261

Line for the center axle differential lock

2. Disconnect line (17) from the elbow in the center


axle and insert 6V-9508 Face Seal Plug into the
line. Plug the fitting on the center axle in order to
prevent contamination of the oil.

Table 6

Individual Valves for Transmission Clutches

Illustration 78

g00811260

Line for the rear axle differential lock

3. Disconnect line (16) from the elbow in the rear


axle and insert 8T-8902 Tee between the line
and the elbow in the front axle.
4. Install the correct hose assembly from the
1U-5482 Pressure Adapter Group on the
8T-8902 Tee. Attach the opposite end of the
hose assembly to the 0 to 4000 kPa (0 to 580 psi)
pressure gauge in the 1U-5481 Pressure Gauge
Group.
5. Start the engine and run the engine at low idle.
6. Select the interaxle differential lock and select
the axle differential lock.

Clutch

Station

70
Power Train
Testing and Adjusting Section
Table 7

Test Point

Description

Specified Value

Pilot Pressure for the Torque Converter


Lockup Clutch

1655 138 kPa (240 20 psi)

Primary Pressure For The Torque


Converter Lockup Clutch

965 35 kPa (140 5 psi)

Pressure For The Torque Converter


Lockup Clutch

2345 70 kPa (340 10 psi)

Relief Pressure for The Torque


Converter Inlet (High Idle)

530 35 kPa (77 5 psi)

Relief Pressure For The Torque


Converter Inlet (Low Idle)

115 20 kPa (17 3 psi)

Relief Pressure For The Transmission


Hydraulic Control (High Idle)

3100 70 kPa (450 10 psi)

Relief Pressure For The Transmission


Hydraulic Control (Low Idle)

2725 70 kPa (395 10 psi)

Pilot Pressure For The Transmission


Hydraulic Control

1655 135 kPa (240 20 psi)

12

Transmission Lubrication Oil (Low Idle)

30 10 kPa (4.5 1.5 psi)

12

Transmission Lubrication Oil (High Idle)

270 14 kPa (39 2 psi)

13

Output Transfer Gear Lubrication


and Differential Locks

240 105 kPa (35 15 psi)

13

Interaxle Differential Gear and


Differential Locks

2755 345 kPa (400 50 psi)

14,15, 16,17

Axle Differential Locks

2755 345 kPa (400 50 psi)

71
Power Train
Testing and Adjusting Section
Table 8

Initial Clutch Pressure


A

Clutch

No. 3

No. 1

No. 2

No. 5

No. 4

No. 6

No. 7

Speed
Position

Engaged
Clutches

Pressure

Pressure

Pressure

Pressure

Pressure

Pressure

Pressure

345 + 50 35 kPa
(50 + 7
- 5 psi)

3 and 7

517 + 50 100 kPa (75


+ 7 - 15 psi)

345 + 50 35 kPa (50


+ 7 - 5 psi)

462 + 50 100 kPa


(67 + 7 15 psi)

345 + 50 35 kPa (50


+ 7 - 5 psi)

345 + 50 35 kPa (50


+ 7 - 5 psi)

Station(1)

(1)

2 and 6

1 and 6

345 + 50 35 kPa
(50 + 7
- 5 psi)

3 and 6

517 + 50 100 kPa (75


+ 7 - 15 psi)

345 + 50 35 kPa (50


+ 7 - 5 psi)

1 and 5

345 + 50 35 kPa
(50 + 7
- 5 psi)

420 + 50 100 kPa


(61 + 7 15 psi)

3 and 5

517 + 50 100 kPa (75


+ 7 - 15 psi)

420 + 50 100 kPa


(61 + 7 15 psi)

1 and 4

345 + 50 35 kPa
(50 + 7
- 5 psi)

380 + 50
- 100 kPa
(55 7 psi)

3 and 4

517 + 50 100 kPa (75


+ 7 - 15 psi)

380 + 50
- 100 kPa
(55 7 psi)

Station D is not used.

72
Power Train
Testing and Adjusting Section
Table 9

Maximum Clutch Pressure


A

Clutch

No. 3

No. 1

No. 2

No. 5

No. 4

No. 6

No. 7

Engaged
Clutches

Pressure

Pressure

Pressure

Pressure

Pressure

Pressure

Pressure

2895 +
240 100 kPa
(420 + 35
- 15 psi)

3 and 7

1760 + 240
- 100 kPa
(255 + 35 15 psi)

2930
280 kPa
(425 40 psi)

1980 + 240
- 100 kPa
(287 + 35 15 psi)

2930 + 240 100 kPa (425


+ 35 - 15 psi)

1 and 6

2895 +
240 100 kPa
(420 + 35
- 15 psi)

2930 + 240 100 kPa (425


+ 35 - 15 psi)

3 and 6

1760 + 240
- 100 kPa
(255 + 35 15 psi)

2930 + 240 100 kPa (425


+ 35 - 15 psi)

1970 + 240
- 100 kPa
(286 + 35 15 psi)

1970 + 240
- 100 kPa
(286 + 35 15 psi)

1450 + 240
- 100 kPa
(210 + 35 15 psi)

1450 + 240
- 100 kPa
(210 + 35 15 psi)

Station(1)

Speed
Position

1 and 5

2895 +
240 100 kPa
(420 + 35
- 15 psi)

3 and 5

1760 + 240
- 100 kPa
(255 + 35 15 psi)

1 and 4

2895 +
240 100 kPa
(420 + 35
- 15 psi)

3 and 4

1760 + 240
- 100 kPa
(255 + 35 15 psi)

7
(1)

2 and 6

Station D is not used.

73
Power Train
Testing and Adjusting Section
i01545903

Transmission Hydraulic
Control - Test and Adjust
SMCS Code: 3073-025; 3073-081

Transmission Hydraulic Control


System
Main Relief Pressure
Oil is supplied by the transmission oil pump that is
mounted on the torque converter housing.
The oil from the pump passes through the
transmission oil filter that is mounted on the right
side of the engine.
The pressure of the oil that is supplied by the
transmission oil pump is controlled by the main relief
valve that is located in the transmission selector
and pressure control valve.
Test the pressure of the oil from the transmission
oil pump. Refer to Systems Operation, Testing and
Adjusting, Power Train Pressures. If the pressure
of the oil from the transmission oil pump is lower
than the specification at both low idle and at high
idle, there may be a failure of the transmission oil
pump. Alternatively, there may be damage to one or
more of the seals in the transmission clutches. Test
the individual clutches. Refer to Systems Operation,
Testing and Adjusting, Power Train Pressures.
The transmission oil pump cannot be serviced. It is
necessary to replace the transmission oil pump.
If the pressure of the oil from the transmission oil
pump is too low at low idle but correct at high idle,
the setting of the relief valve may be too low.

g00804541

Illustration 79

Adjustment of relief valve (1) is achieved by the


addition or removal of spacers (2).
The addition of spacers will increase the setting
of the relief valve. The removal of spacers will
decrease the setting of the relief valve. Refer to
Table 10 for the correct selection of spacers.
Table 10

Chart of Spacers for Adjustment of the Relief Valve(1)

If the pressure of the oil from the transmission oil


pump is too high, the setting of the relief valve is
too high.

(1)

Spacer

Thickness

Change in
Pressure

145-0105
Spacer

0.25 mm
(0.010 inch)

41 kPa (6.0 psi)

145-0106
Spacer

0.90 mm
(0.035 inch)

145 kPa
(21.0 psi)

145-0107
Spacer

1.60 mm
(0.063 inch)

261 kPa
(37.9 psi)

Before an adjustment is made, ensure that the valve spring


is not weak or broken. Refer to Specifications, RENR5133,
Power Train.

74
Power Train
Testing and Adjusting Section

Pilot Pressure for the Transmission


Hydraulic Control Valve

Table 11

Chart of Spacers for the Adjustment of the


Priority Reduction Valve(1)
Spacer

Thickness

Change in
Pressure

5M-3492 Spacer

0.25 mm
(0.010 inch)

17 kPa (2.5 psi)

7M-1397 Spacer

0.91 mm
(0.036 inch)

60 kPa (8.7 psi)

(1)

Before an adjustment is made, ensure that the valve spring


is not weak or broken. Refer to Specifications, RENR5133,
Power Train.

Testing the Function of the Neutralizer


Valve
The neutralizer valve prevents the transmission
from selecting a gear if the engine is started and
the selector spool is not in the NEUTRAL position.
The following procedure may be used to test the
function of the neutralizer valve.
1. Stop the engine and engage the parking brake.
Raise the cab.
2. Ensure that the transmission shift lever is in the
NEUTRAL position.
Illustration 80

g00804588

The pilot pressure for the transmission hydraulic


control valve is determined by priority reduction
valve (3).

3. Disconnect the wiring harness from the upshift


and downshift solenoids and from the torque
converter lockup clutch solenoid.

Test the pilot pressure for the transmission hydraulic


control. Refer to Systems Operation, Testing and
Adjusting, Power Train Pressures.
If the pressure is lower than the specification, the
setting of the priority reduction valve is too low.
If the pressure is higher than the specification, the
setting of the priority reduction valve is too high.
Adjustment of priority reduction valve (3) is achieved
by the addition or removal of spacers (4).
The addition of spacers will increase the setting
of the relief valve. The removal of spacers will
decrease the setting of the relief valve. Refer to
table 10 for the correct selection of spacers.

Illustration 81

g00810209

4. Remove the plug for the selector spool from


the left side of the transmission case while the
engine is stopped.

75
Power Train
Testing and Adjusting Section
5. Use a 9S-1721 Extension (1/4 inch square
drive) and a 9U-6635 Reversible Ratchet to turn
the transmission rotary selector spool. When the
ratchet is fully turned in a clockwise direction,
the rotary selector spool is in the NEUTRAL
position. The order of the detent positions is
NEUTRAL, REVERSE, REVERSE 1, and FIRST
speed through SEVENTH speed.

Torque Converter Inlet Relief Pressure


Testing and Adjusting

Note: Detent position REVERSE is not used in this


application.
Note: There is approximately 30 degrees of rotation
between each detent of the rotary selector spool.
6. Rotate the selector spool to the FIRST speed
position.
7. Lower the cab and start the engine. Ensure that
the service brakes are engaged.
8. Correct operation of the neutralizer valve will
prevent the engagement of the clutches for
FIRST speed regardless of the position of the
selector spool.
9. Stop the engine and raise the cab.
10. Return the selector spool to the NEUTRAL
position and replace the wiring harness to the
upshift and downshift solenoids and from the
torque converter lockup clutch solenoid.
11. Replace the plug for the selector spool.

Torque Converter
The Torque converter is supplied with oil on two
levels. The torque converter is supplied with oil in
order to allow the transfer of power through the
torque converter. A separate circuit exists for the
control of the lockup function of the torque converter
in order to provide direct drive from the engine to
the transmission.

Illustration 82

g00808310

The oil for the torque converter is supplied by the


transmission selector and pressure control valve.
The pressure of this oil is regulated by the torque
converter inlet relief valve (6).
Test the inlet relief pressure for the torque converter.
Refer to Systems Operation, Testing and Adjusting,
Power Train Pressures. If the inlet relief pressure
for the torque converter is incorrect , bench test
the torque converter inlet relief valve. If the setting
of the torque converter inlet relief valve is incorrect,
5M-9622 Shims can be added or removed from
behind the spring in the relief valve.
If the setting of the torque converter inlet relief valve
is correct, but the pressure of the oil in the torque
converter is lower than the specification, there may
be an incorrect supply of oil to the torque converter
inlet relief valve. Test the setting of the main relief
valve for the transmission hydraulic control system.
If the supply of oil to the torque converter inlet
relief valve is satisfactory, there may be a problem
with the torque converter that allows oil to be lost.
Remove the torque converter from the machine and
investigate possible damage. Refer to Disassembly
and Assembly, RENR5139, Power Train.

76
Power Train
Testing and Adjusting Section

Torque Converter Lockup Clutch


The torque converter lockup clutch is controlled by
a modulating valve that is mounted on the pressure
control valve for the transmission.

7. If the solenoid does not appear to function,


disconnect the connector for the solenoid valve.
Check the resistance of the windings of the coil
in the solenoid.
The resistance of the windings in the solenoid
should be 32.6
1.6
.

The correct pressure for the torque converter lockup


clutch is dependent upon the correct adjustment
and the correct operation of the modulating valve
for the torque converter lockup clutch.

If the resistance of the windings is outside the


specifications replace the solenoid.

The modulating valve for the torque converter


lockup clutch is controlled by a pilot oil supply that
is controlled by the torque converter lockup clutch
solenoid.

If the solenoid coil is energized, the problem may


lie with the solenoid cartridge. The problem could
be a bent solenoid stem, a spring that is weak or
broken, or a screen that is dirty or plugged.

To test the function of the solenoid valve for the


torque converter lockup clutch, test the pressure
of the pilot oil from the solenoid valve. Refer to
Systems Operation, Testing and Adjusting, Power
Train Pressures. If the pressure of the pilot oil
from the torque converter lockup clutch solenoid is
outside the specifications, there may be a fault with
the supply of oil to the solenoid.

If the torque converter lockup clutch solenoid is


functioning correctly and the pilot oil supply to the
modulating valve is correct, there is a problem
with the modulating valve for the torque converter
lockup clutch.

Measure the main relief pressure for the transmission


hydraulic control.

The following tests are required in order to


determine the correct function of the modulating
valve for the torque converter lockup clutch:

Testing and Adjusting of the Modulating Valve for


the Torque Converter Lockup Clutch

If the main relief pressure for the transmission


hydraulic control is correct, there is a problem with
the torque converter lockup clutch solenoid.

Maximum pressure in the torque converter lockup

Testing the Torque Converter Lockup Clutch


Solenoid

Initial pressure in the torque converter lockup

1. Ensure that the machine is parked on a level


surface and that the parking brake control is
engaged.

Correct Pressure decay in the clutch

2. Move the key start switch to the ON position. Do


not start the engine.
3. Raise the cab.
4. Disconnect the wires from the upshift solenoid,
the downshift solenoid and the torque converter
lockup clutch solenoid.
5. Connect the harness from the downshift solenoid
to the torque converter lockup clutch solenoid.
6. Use a tag wire to check that the solenoid coil
is energized. If the tag wire is attracted to the
solenoid coil, this indicates that the solenoid coil
is energized. If the tag wire does not indicate
that the solenoid coil is energized, the problem
may be in the electrical circuit.

clutch
clutch

Test the maximum pressure of the oil in the


torque converter lockup clutch. Refer to Systems
Operation, Testing and Adjusting, Power Train
Pressures.
If there is no pressure in the torque converter
lockup clutch, there may be a problem with the
pilot supply to the modulating valve for the torque
converter lockup clutch. Test the function of the
torque converter lockup clutch solenoid.

77
Power Train
Testing and Adjusting Section
If the initial pressure is too low, the load piston
spring or the setting of the modulating valve may
be incorrect.

Illustration 83

g00808385

If the solenoid is functioning correctly and the


pilot supply to the modulating valve is within the
specifications, load piston (8) or selector piston (9)
may be sticking, or load piston spring (10) may be
weak or broken. Remove the modulating valve and
inspect the modulating valve for damage. Refer to
Disassembly and Assembly, RENR5139, Power
Train.
If the pressure in the torque converter lockup clutch
is lower than the specification, there are a number
of possible causes.

The initial pressure for the torque converter


lockup clutch may be incorrect.

g00811113

Illustration 84

If the initial pressure is too high, it is probable that


there is an incorrect load piston spring, or that the
setting of the modulating valve is incorrect.
Remove the modulating valve and inspect the
spring. Measure the rate of the spring. Refer to
Specifications, RENR5133, Power Train.
If the rate of the spring is correct, shims (13) must
be added or removed from behind the load piston
spring. Refer to Table 12 for the correct shims to
use in order to adjust the initial pressure setting of
the modulating valve.

Load piston plug (11) may not be installed.


Table 12

Load piston orifice (12) may be blocked.

Chart of Shims for the Modulating Valve for the


Torque Converter Lockup Clutch(1)

Load piston (8) may be sticking within selector

Pt. No. for


Shims

Thickness

Change in Initial
Pressure

8J-4452 Shim

0.12 mm
(0.005 inch)

10 kPa (1.5 psi)

2S-0675 Spacer

0.40 mm
(0.016 inch)

32 kPa (4.7 psi)

9J-1330 Shim

0.79 mm
(0.031 inch)

62 kPa (9.0 psi)

piston (9).

Load piston spring (10) may be broken or weak.


Test the initial pressure for the torque converter
lockup clutch. Refer to Systems Operation, Testing
and Adjusting, Power Train Pressures.
While the cover of the transmission is removed,
check that load piston plug (11) is installed correctly.
If the initial pressure is correct and the load
piston plug is installed correctly, the load piston
orifice could be blocked. it will be necessary to
remove the modulating valve in order to inspect the
internal components for damage or for blockages.
Disassembly and Assembly, RENR5139, Power
Train
Testing and Adjusting the Initial Pressure for the
Torque Converter Lockup Clutch
The problems that are listed above may also
contribute to providing an incorrect initial pressure.

(1)

Before an adjustment is performed, be certain that the valve


springs are not weak or broken.

Carry out the adjustment of the modulating valve


and repeat the tests for initial pressure and for
maximum pressure.

78
Power Train
Testing and Adjusting Section

Testing the Transmission Clutches


Before testing and adjusting the individual valves
for the transmission clutches, it is important to
determine that the various components of the
selector and pressure control valve are functioning
correctly. Perform the procedures that are provided
earlier in this section in order to determine that the
main relief pressure and the pilot pressure for the
transmission hydraulic control are correct.

Testing the Upshift and the Downshift


Solenoids
The upshift solenoid and the downshift solenoids are
supplied with oil by the transmission oil pump. Use
the following procedure in order to test the function
of the upshift solenoid and the downshift solenoid.
1. Connect suitable test gauges to the test points
in order to test the upshift pressure and the
downshift pressure. Refer to Systems Operation,
Testing and Adjusting, Power Train Pressures.
2. Connect a suitable gauge to the test point for the
transmission oil pump pressure. Refer to Systems
Operation, Testing and Adjusting, Power Train
Pressures.

7. Observe the gauges. The gauge for the


transmission oil pump pressure and for downshift
solenoid (16) must read the same value. The
gauge for upshift solenoid (15) must read 0 kPa
(0 psi).
If the gauge for the downshift solenoid does
not read the same value as the gauge for the
pressure at the transmission oil pump, there is a
fault with the downshift solenoid valve.
If the gauge for the upshift solenoid is reading
the same value as the gauge for the transmission
oil pump pressure, then there is a fault with the
upshift solenoid valve.
8. If the solenoid does not appear to function,
disconnect the connector for the solenoid valve.
Check the resistance of the windings of the coil
in the solenoid.
The resistance of the windings in the solenoid
should be 32.6
1.6
.
If the resistance of the windings is outside the
specifications replace the solenoid.
9. Stop the engine and raise the cab.
10. With the key start switch in the ON position, use
a tag wire to check that the solenoid coil of the
downshift solenoid is energized. If the tag wire is
attracted to the solenoid coil, this indicates that
the solenoid coil is energized. If the tag wire does
not indicate that the solenoid coil is energized,
the problem may be in the electrical circuit.
11. Connect the wiring for the upshift solenoid to the
downshift solenoid and connect the wiring for the
downshift solenoid to the upshift solenoid.

Illustration 85

g00810205

12. Lower the cab. Take care to ensure that the


hose assemblies are not trapped when the cab
is lowered.

3. Disconnect the wires from torque converter


lockup clutch solenoid (14).

13. Ensure that the parking brake is engaged and


press the service brake pedal.

4. Lower the cab. Take care to ensure that the


hose assemblies are not trapped when the cab
is lowered.

14. Start the engine. Run the engine at low idle in


NEUTRAL.

5. Start the engine. Run the engine at low idle in


NEUTRAL.
6. Ensure that the parking brake is engaged and
press the service brake pedal.

Note: The engine will be turning against the torque


converter and the transmission will shift to SEVENTH
gear.
15. Observe the gauges. The gauge for the
transmission oil pump pressure and for the
upshift solenoid must read the same value. The
gauge for the downshift solenoid must read
0 kPa (0 psi).

79
Power Train
Testing and Adjusting Section
If the gauge for the upshift solenoid does not
read the same value as the gauge for the
transmission oil pump pressure, there is a fault
with the upshift solenoid valve.
If the gauge for the downshift solenoid is reading
the same value as the gauge for the transmission
oil pump pressure, there is a fault with the
downshift solenoid valve.

Test the maximum pressure of the oil in the


transmission clutches. Refer to Systems Operation,
Testing and Adjusting, Power Train Pressures.
If there is no pressure in the transmission clutches,
there may be a problem with the pilot supply to the
pressure control valve.
Testing the Pilot Supply for Transmission
Clutches

16. Stop the engine.


17. Raise the cab.
18. With the key start switch in the ON position, use
a tag wire to check that the solenoid coil of the
upshift solenoid is energized. If the tag wire is
attracted to the solenoid coil, this indicates that
the solenoid coil is energized.
19. If the solenoid does not appear to function,
disconnect the connector for the solenoid valve.
Check the resistance of the windings of the coil
in the solenoid.
The resistance of the windings in the solenoid
should be 32.6
1.6
.

Test the pressure of the pilot supply to the individual


valves. Refer to Systems Operation, Testing and
Adjusting, Power Train Pressures.
If there is no pilot supply pressure to the individual
valves, the neutralizer valve may not be functioning
correctly. Test the function of the neutralizer valve. If
the neutralizer valve is functioning correctly, there
may be a problem with the downshift solenoid or
the upshift solenoid.
If the neutralizer valve, the upshift solenoid and the
downshift solenoid are functioning correctly, there
may be a blockage in the screen that is inside the
selector spool.

If the resistance of the windings is outside the


specifications replace the solenoid.
20. Return the wiring harness to the correct
solenoids. Disconnect the test gauges and lower
the cab.

Testing and Adjusting the Individual


Valves for Clutch Engagement
The correct engagement of the clutches in
the transmission planetary is dependent upon
the correct operation and adjustment of the
individual valve in the pressure control valve of the
transmission hydraulic control system.
Clutch engagement is dependent upon two factors,
the supply of pilot oil to the individual valves in the
pressure control valve and the supply of pressurized
oil for clutch engagement.
The supply of pilot oil to the individual valves is
controlled by the selector spool in the selector and
pressure control valve.
The following tests are required in order to
determine the correct function of the individual
valves for the transmission clutches:

Maximum pressure in the transmission clutches


Initial pressure in the transmission clutches
Pilot pressure to the individual valves

Illustration 86

g00810977

Remove the selector spool and clean the screen.


If the pilot supply to the individual valves is within
the specifications, load piston (17) or selector
piston (18) may be sticking, or load piston spring
(19) may be weak or broken. Remove the individual
valve and inspect the components for damage.
Refer to Disassembly and Assembly, RENR5139,
Power Train.
If the pressure in the transmission clutch is lower
than the specification, there are a number of
possible causes.

80
Power Train
Testing and Adjusting Section
If the initial pressure is too high, it is probable that
there is an incorrect load piston spring, or that the
setting of the modulating valve is incorrect.
Remove the modulating valve and inspect load
piston springs (19). Measure the rate of the springs.
Refer to Specifications, RENR5133, Power Train.
If the rates of the springs are correct, shims (22)
must be added or removed from behind the load
piston spring. Refer to Table 13 for the correct
shims to use in order to adjust the initial pressure
setting of the modulating valve.

Illustration 87

g00808493

The initial pressure for the transmission clutches


may be incorrect.

Load piston plug (20) may not be installed.


Load piston orifice (21) may be blocked.
Load piston (17) may be sticking within selector
piston (18).

Load piston spring (19) may be broken or weak.


If problems occur with the engagement of
transmission clutches, it is first necessary to test
the primary pressures in the clutches. Refer to
Systems Operation, Testing and Adjusting, Power
Train Pressures.
If the initial pressures are correct and the load
piston plugs are installed correctly, the load piston
orifice could be blocked. it will be necessary to
remove the modulating valve in order to inspect the
internal components for damage or for blockages.
Disassembly and Assembly, RENR5139, Power
Train
Testing and Adjusting the Initial Pressure For The
Transmission Clutches
The problems that are listed above may also
contribute to providing an incorrect initial pressure.
If the initial pressure is too low, the load piston
springs may be incorrect, or the setting of the
modulating valve may be incorrect.

81
Power Train
Testing and Adjusting Section
Table 13

Shims for the Pressure Control Valve


Pressure Change per Shim
A

Engaged Clutch

Thickness of Shim

Pressure
change

Pressure
change

Pressure
change

Pressure
change

Pressure
change

Pressure
change

Pressure
change

17 kPa
(2.5 psi)

14 kPa
(2.0 psi)

17 kPa
(2.5 psi)

Station

(1)

5J-2721 Shim
0.13 mm (0.005 inch)

16 kPa
(2.3 psi)

14 kPa
(2.0 psi)

20 kPa
( 2.9 psi)

17 kPa
(2.5 psi)

6J-3993 Shim
0.25 mm (0.01 inch)

32 kPa
(4.6 psi)

28 kPa
(4.1 psi)

41 kPa
(5.9 psi)

35 kPa
(5.1 psi)

28 kPa
(4.1 psi)

33 kPa
(4.8 psi)

33 kPa
(4.8 psi)

56 kPa
(8.1 psi)

45 kPa
(6.5 psi)

53 kPa
(7.7 psi)

53 kPa
(7.7 psi)

109 kPa
(15.8 psi)

87 kPa
(12.6 psi)

103 kPa
(14.9 psi)

103 kPa
(14.9 psi)

4M-1751 Spacer
0.41 mm (0.016 inch)

50 kPa
(7.3 psi)

45 kPa
(6.5 psi)

65 kPa
(9.4 psi)

5J-1036 Shim
0.80 mm (0.031 inch)
(1)

98 kPa
(14.2 psi)

87 kPa
(12.6 psi)

125 kPa
(18.2 psi)

Station Dis not used.

Table 14

Specifications and Identification of the Components of the Pressure Control Valve


Location of the Load
Piston Body (1)

Thickness Of The
Load Piston Orifice

4.58 mm
(0.180 inch)

2.54 mm
(0.100 inch)

4.58 mm
(0.180 inch)

4.58 mm
(0.180 inch)

2.54 mm
(0.100 inch)

4.58 mm
(0.180
inch)

4.58 mm
(0.180
inch)

Color of the Outer


Spring Of the Load
Piston

Light blue
color

Light green
color

Yellow color

Light blue
color

Light blue
color

Light blue
color

Light blue
color

Color of the Inner


Spring Of the Load
Piston

Light green
color

Light blue
color

Light blue
color

Yellow color

Orange
color

Light blue
color

Light blue
color

Size of the Decay


Orifice

1.57 mm
(0.062 inch)

1.98 mm
(0.078 inch)

1.57 mm
(0.062 inch)

1.98 mm
(0.078 inch)

1.98 mm
(0.078 inch)

1.57 mm
(0.062
inch)

Color of the Decay


Orifice

Green color

Red color

Green color

Red color

Red color

Green
color

(1)

The location of the load piston body is identical to the location for the valve.

Carry out the adjustment of the modulating valve


and repeat the tests for initial pressure and for
maximum pressure.

82
Power Train
Testing and Adjusting Section
i01558815

Transmission Shift Points Test


SMCS Code: 3030-081

4. Route the FT-2796 Connector Harness so that


the signal generator can be mounted in the cab.

Table 15

Tools Needed
8T-5200

FT-2796

3. Remove the wiring harness from the two


transmission output speed sensors (2). Connect
a 8T-5200 Signal Generator to the two
transmission output speed sensors. Use a
FT-2796 Connector Harness.

Qty

Generator and
Counter Signal
Group

Connector
Harness

5. Lower the cab. Ensure that the connector


harness is not trapped.
6. Ensure that the parking brake control is in the
ENGAGED position.

1. Raise the cab. Refer to Operation and


Maintenance Manual, SEBU7498, Cab - Tilt.

Illustration 90

Illustration 88

g00810044

2. Disconnect the wiring harness from the torque


converter lockup clutch solenoid (1).
Note: This will allow testing of the shift points for the
transmission without disconnecting the drive shaft
from the transmission planetary.

g00764819

7. Connect a computer with ET software to the


diagnostics socket by using the communications
adapter. The diagnostics socket is located at the
right side of the seat for the operator.
8. Turn the engine start switch to the ON. Start the
engine.
Switch on the computer and open up the ET
software.
9. Check that the computer detects the three
electronic control modules.
10. Select Transmission.
11. Use ET in order to check that the service brakes
and the parking brake are functioning correctly.
12. When you have ensured that the service brakes
and the parking brake are functioning correctly,
set ET to monitor the engine output speed, the
transmission output speed and the actual gear.
13. Press and hold the service brakes.

Illustration 89

g00810031

14. With the engine at low idle, move the


transmission control to the DRIVE position.

83
Power Train
Testing and Adjusting Section
Note: The engine will be turning against the torque
converter, so there may be some small movement
and vibration of the machine.

Table 16

Modified Shift Points At Nominal Engine Speed

15. Start the signal generator. Refer to Special


Instruction, SEHS8579, 8T-5200 Signal
Generator.
16. Observe the actual gear indicator.
17. Observe the computer and increase the
frequency of the signal from the signal generator
until the torque converter lockup clutch attempts
to engage. As the solenoid is not connected this
will not occur. , It will be possible to observe
the attempt of the ECM to engage the torque
converter lockup clutch by using ET. Record the
frequency of the signal from the signal generator
as the ECM attempts to engage the torque
converter lockup clutch. Refer to Table 16 and
Table 17 for the correct shift points.
18. Increase the frequency of the signal from the
signal generator until the transmission shifts to
second gear. Record the frequency of the signal
from the signal generator as the transmission
shifts to second gear. Refer to Table 16 and
Table 17 for the correct shift points.
19. Increase the frequency of the signal from the
signal generator and observe the shift points for
each of the transmission gears.
20. Once the transmission is in SEVENTH gear,
reduce the frequency of the signal from the signal
generator. Record the frequency of the signal
from the signal generator as the transmission
moves from SEVENTH gear to SIXTH gear.
21. Repeat this procedure for each gear until the
transmission is in FIRST gear.
22. Move the transmission control to the NEUTRAL
position and stop the engine.
23. Compare the shift points that were recorded
with the shift points that are provided in Table
16 and Table 17.

Upshift

Signal Generator
Frequency

1C to 1L

218

1 to 2

404

2 to 3

553

3 to 4

750

4 to 5

1008

5 to 6

1367

6 to 7

1843

Downshift

Signal Generator
Frequency

7 to 6

1422

6 to 5

1056

5 to 4

779

4 to 3

580

3 to 2

427

2 to1

312

1L to 1T

218

Table 17

Shift Point At Nominal Engine Speed


Upshift

Signal Generator
Frequency

1C to 1L

218

1 to 2

315

2 to 3

430

3 to 4

583

4 to 5

784

5 to 6

1063

6 to 7

1329

Downshift

The shift points for the transmission are modified


when certain actions are carried out. Engaging
the brakes will result in the modification of the
transmission shift points. Table 16 contains these
modified shift points.

Signal Generator
Frequency

7 to 6

1317

6 to 5

978

5 to 4

721

Use the information in Table 16 for this procedure.

4 to 3

537

Table 17 provides the normal transmission shift


points.

3 to 2

396

2 to1

289

1L to 1T

194

84
Power Train
Testing and Adjusting Section
24. Once the test has been completed, remove the
connector harness from the transmission and
replace the wiring harness for the transmission
output speed sensors. Replace the wiring
harness for the torque converter lockup clutch
solenoid.
i01522493

Interaxle Differential - Test

Select the interaxle differential lock and test the


pressure of the oil at test point (1). Refer to Systems
Operation, Testing and Adjusting, Power Train
Pressures.
If both pressures are below the specification, it
is possible that relief valve (3) is not functioning
correctly. Replace the relief valve and test the oil
pressures again.

Testing The Solenoid

SMCS Code: 3287-081


The interaxle differential lock is controlled by the
solenoid and relief valve group that is mounted
on the transfer gear. The solenoid and relief valve
group features a solenoid valve that controls the oil
pressure to the interaxle differential lock and to the
solenoid valve that controls the oil pressure to the
axle differential locks. A relief valve is also included
in the solenoid and relief valve group in order to
regulate the maximum oil pressure to the differential
locks.
Refer to Systems Operation, Testing and Adjusting,
Machine Preparation for Troubleshooting
before you perform any testing and adjusting or
troubleshooting.
Prior to starting with checks on the interaxle
differential, use Caterpillar ET in order to diagnose
any fault codes that may be present. Refer to
Systems Operation, Troubleshooting, Testing and
Adjusting, RENR3442, Power Train Electronic
Control System.

Testing The Oil Supply To the


Interaxle Differential

Illustration 92

g00790937

To test the function of solenoid (2) in the solenoid


and relief valve group, run the engine at low idle
and test the pressure at test point (1). Refer to
Systems Operation, Testing and Adjusting, Power
Train Pressures. Observe the gauge and select the
interaxle differential lock.
If a rise in the pressure is noted, then the solenoid
is allowing oil to the interaxle differential lock.
If a pressure rise is noted, the solenoid and the
related electrical circuit are functioning correctly.
If there is no rise in the pressure, then the solenoid
plunger is not moving.
If a pressure rise is not noted, use a tag wire to
check that the solenoid coil is energized. If the tag
wire is attracted to the solenoid coil, this indicates
that the solenoid coil is energized. The problem
is in the solenoid cartridge. The problem could
be a bent solenoid stem, a screen that is dirty or
plugged, or a spring that is weak or broken.

Illustration 91

g00790900

Test the supply pressure for the transfer gear at test


point (1). Refer to Systems Operation, Testing and
Adjusting, Power Train Pressures.

If the tag wire does not indicate that the solenoid


coil is energized, the problem may be in the
electrical circuit.
Test the interaxle differential lock. If the solenoid
does not function correctly, the problem may lie with
the switch for the interaxle differential lock or with
the wiring harness of the machine.

85
Power Train
Testing and Adjusting Section
If the solenoid does not appear to function,
disconnect the connector for the solenoid valve.
Check the resistance of the windings of the coil in
the solenoid.
The resistance of the windings in the solenoid
should be 32.6
1.6
.
If the resistance of the windings is outside the
specifications replace the solenoid.

Pressure In The Interaxle


Differential Lock

Prior to starting with checks on the axle differentials,


use Caterpillar ET in order to diagnose any fault
codes that may be present. Refer to Systems
Operation, Troubleshooting, Testing and Adjusting,
RENR3442, Power Train Electronic Control System.
Visually inspect the lines to the axle differentials
and inspect the components of the control system.
Inspect the oil in the system for the transfer gear and
the differential locks. Refer to Systems Operation,
Testing and Adjusting, Visual Inspection.

Testing The Oil Supply To The Axle


Differentials

If the solenoid and relief valve group is functioning


correctly and the pressure to the interaxle differential
is correct, a failure of the interaxle differential to
lock could be due to leakage past the seals of the
clutch. A failure could also be a result of damage to
the internal components of the interaxle differential.
Inspect the oil filter and the magnetic screen
for debris that may indicate damage to the
internal components of the clutch for the interaxle
differential. Refer to Systems Operation, Testing and
Adjusting, Visual Inspection.
i01528327

Differential - Test
SMCS Code: 3258-081

The axle differential locks can only be selected if


the interaxle differential lock is also selected. Oil
to the solenoid valve for the axle differential locks
is supplied by the solenoid valve for the interaxle
differential lock. Both the solenoid valves are
located in the solenoid and relief valve group that
is mounted on the transfer gear.
Test the supply pressure to the solenoid and relief
valve group. Refer to Systems Operation, Testing
and Adjusting, Interaxle Differential - Test.
Test the operation of the solenoid in the solenoid
and relief valve group that controls the interaxle
differential. Refer to Systems Operation, Testing and
Adjusting, Interaxle Differential - Test.
If oil is being supplied to the solenoid valve, test the
solenoid valve for correct operation.

Testing the Solenoid


To test the solenoid valve that controls the axle
differentials, test the pressure of the oil supply to the
solenoid valve and test the pressure of the oil supply
from the solenoid valve to the axle differentials.
The solenoid valve for the axle differentials is
located above the oil filter for the transfer gear on
the inside of the front frame assembly.
Illustration 93

g00793260

The axle differential locks are controlled by solenoid


valve (1) that is mounted on solenoid and relief
valve group (2). The solenoid valve controls the flow
of the oil from the solenoid and relief valve group
to the clutches for the axle differential locks when
the solenoid is activated.
Refer to Systems Operation, Testing and Adjusting,
Machine Preparation for Troubleshooting
before you perform any testing and adjusting or
troubleshooting.
Illustration 94

g00793263

86
Power Train
Testing and Adjusting Section
1. Disconnect line (3) from the elbow in the front
axle and insert 6V-9508 Face Seal Plug into
the line.

5. Select the axle differential locks. The pressure


that is displayed on the gauge that is connected
to the line (4) must rise to the same value as the
pressure that is displayed on the gauge that is
connected to test point (5).
If the same pressure is displayed on both gauges,
the solenoid valve is functioning correctly.
The solenoid valve is not functioning correctly if
a pressure is not displayed on the gauge that is
connected to the solenoid valve.

Illustration 95

g00793264

2. Disconnect line (4) and insert a suitable


adapter and a suitable hose from the 1U-5482
Pressure Adapter Group into the line. Attach the
opposite end of the hose assembly to one of the
0 to 3400 kPa (0 to 580 psi) pressure gauges in
the 1U-5481 Pressure Gauge Group.

If a pressure rise is not noted, use a tag wire to


check that the solenoid coil is energized. If the tag
wire is attracted to the solenoid coil, this indicates
that the solenoid coil is energized. The problem is
in the solenoid valve. The problem could be a bent
solenoid stem, a screen that is dirty or plugged, or
a spring that is weak or broken.
If the tag wire does not indicate that the solenoid
coil is energized, the problem may be in the
electrical circuit.
If the solenoid does not appear to function,
disconnect the connector for the solenoid valve.
Check the resistance of the windings of the coil in
the solenoid.
The resistance of the windings in the solenoid
should be 32.6
1.6
.
If the resistance of the solenoid windings is outside
the specifications replace the solenoid.
If the resistance of the solenoid windings is within
the specifications, the problem may lie with the
switch for the axle differential locks or with the
wiring harness of the machine.

Illustration 96

g00793289

3. Install the correct hose assembly from the


1U-5482 Pressure Adapter Group on test
point (5). Attach the opposite end of the
hose assembly to one of the 0 to 3400 kPa
(0 to 580 psi) pressure gauges in the 1U-5481
Pressure Gauge Group.
4. Start the engine and operate the engine at
low idle. Select the interaxle differential lock.
Observe the pressure gauges. The gauge that is
connected to line (4) should not read a pressure.
With the oil at normal operating temperature,
the correct pressure must be displayed on the
gauge that is connected to test point (5). Refer
to Systems Operation, Testing and Adjusting,
Power Train Pressures.

Testing The Pressure In The Axle


Differential Locks
Test the pressures for the individual axle differential
locks. Refer to Systems Operation, Testing and
Adjusting, Power Train Pressures.
If the pressure in an individual axle differential lock
is observed to be lower than the specification, there
may be an internal leak in the axle. Check the
level of the oil in the axle. Refer to Operation and
Manual, SEBU7498. If the level of the oil in the axle
is higher than the specification, there may be a leak
in the seals on the piston of the axle differential lock
or there is a leak in the lines for the axle differential
lock that are inside the axle. Repair the seals or
repair the damaged line.

87
Power Train
Testing and Adjusting Section
If the pressure in an individual axle differential lock
is observed to be within the specification, the piston
in the axle differential lock clutch may be sticking
or there may be damage to the plates and to the
disks in the axle differential lock. Inspect the oil in
the axle for debris that may indicate damage to the
axle differential lock. Refer to Systems Operation,
Testing and Adjusting, Visual Inspection. Debris in
the oil may indicate damage to the axle differential.
Remove the axle differential and inspect the axle
differential for damage. Refer to Disassembly and
Assembly, RENR5139, Differential - Disassemble
and Assemble.

88
Power Train
Index Section

Index
D
Differential - Test.................................................... 85
Testing The Oil Supply To The Axle
Differentials ...................................................... 85
Testing The Pressure In The Axle Differential
Locks................................................................ 86
Testing the Solenoid........................................... 85
Differential (Center Axle) ....................................... 15
Differential (Front and Rear Axle) .......................... 13
Differential Troubleshooting ................................... 53
All Three Axle Differentials Will Not Lock When
The Axle Differential Locks Are Engaged......... 53
The Axle Differential On One Or More Axles Will
Not Lock When The Differential Lock Switch Is
Engaged........................................................... 54
F
Final Drive ............................................................. 18
G
General Information...............................................
Tractor Arrangement ..........................................
Trailer Arrangement ...........................................
General Troubleshooting Information ....................
Graphic Color Codes .............................................

5
5
5
42
4

Output Transfer Gears Lubrication System ...........


Charging and Scavenging Pump for the Output
Transfer Gears and Differential Locks ..............
Magnetic Screen for the Output Transfer Gears..
Oil Filter for the Output Transfer Gears ..............
Solenoid and Relief Valve ..................................

28
28
29
29
29

P
Power Train Electronic Control System ................. 24
Electronic Control Module.................................. 27
Power Train Electronic Control System .............. 26
Sensors In The Power Train ............................... 27
Power Train Hydraulic System ............................... 19
Output Transfer Gears and Differentials............. 22
Torque Converter and Transmission .................. 19
Power Train Pressures........................................... 55
Output Transfer Gears and Differential Lock
Pressures ......................................................... 66
Pressures For The Transmission Hydraulic Control
System ............................................................. 59
Specifications For The Oil Pressures In The Power
Train ................................................................. 69
Torque Converter Pressures .............................. 55
Pressure Control Valve (Transmission).................. 30
Transmission Pressure Control Valve ................ 30
R
Rotary Actuator (Transmission) ............................. 40

I
Important Safety Information .................................
Interaxle Differential...............................................
Interaxle Differential - Test .....................................
Pressure In The Interaxle Differential Lock ........
Testing The Oil Supply To the Interaxle
Differential ........................................................
Testing The Solenoid .........................................
Interaxle Differential Troubleshooting ....................
The Interaxle Differential Does Not Disengage..
The Interaxle Differential Does Not Engage ......

2
11
84
85
84
84
52
52
52

S
Selector and Pressure Control Valve
(Transmission) .....................................................
Neutralizer Valve ................................................
Priority Reduction Valve.....................................
Relief Valve ........................................................
Rotary Selector Spool........................................
Torque Converter Inlet Relief Valve....................
Systems Operation Section ...................................

Machine Preparation for Troubleshooting .............. 42

Table of Contents...................................................
Testing and Adjusting ............................................
Testing and Adjusting Section ...............................
Torque Converter...................................................

O
Operational Checks ............................................... 44
Output Transfer Gears ........................................... 9

37
38
38
39
38
39
4

3
55
42
6

89
Power Train
Index Section
Torque Converter Troubleshooting ........................
The Torque Converter Lockup Clutch Does
Not Disengage and the Engine Dies at Low
Speed...............................................................
The Torque Converter Lockup Clutch Does Not
Engage.............................................................
The Torque Converter or the Transmission is
Overheating......................................................
Transmission Hydraulic Control .............................
Transmission Hydraulic Control - Test and Adjust..
Testing the Transmission Clutches.....................
Torque Converter ...............................................
Transmission Hydraulic Control System ............
Transmission Planetary .........................................
Transmission Planetary Troubleshooting ...............
Troubleshooting the Transmission......................
Transmission Shift Points - Test.............................
Troubleshooting .....................................................

45
46
45
45
23
73
78
75
73
8
47
47
82
42

V
Visual Inspection ................................................... 43

90
Power Train
Index Section

91
Power Train
Index Section

2001 Caterpillar
All Rights Reserved

Printed in U.S.A.