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Version 2010

January 2010

ATIR Engineering Software Ltd.

Codes - EU
ATIR Engineering Software Ltd.
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responsibility for errors or omissions, or for damages resulting from the use of information contained in this
document or from the use of programs that may accompany it. In no event shall the publisher and the author be
liable for any loss of profit or any other commercial damage caused or alleged to have been caused directly or
indirectly by this document.

Disclaimer
The STRAP program has been written by a team of highly qualified engineers
and programmers and have been extensively tested. Nevertheless, the authors
of the software do not assume responsibility for the validity of the results
obtained from the programs or for the accuracy of this documentation

The user must verify his own results


The authors remind the user that the programs are to be used as a tool for
structural design and analysis, and that the engineering judgement of the user
is the final arbiter in the development of a suitable model and the interpretation
of the results.

Special thanks to:


All the people who contributed to this document, the programmers, secretaries, STRAP dealers and users.
Last not least, we want to thank EC Software who wrote the help tool called HELP & MANUAL that was used to
create this document.

Contents

Table of Contents
Foreword

Part I Codes - Eurocode

1 Eurocode
...................................................................................................................................
2
6
1.1 Beam s
.......................................................................................................................................................... 6
1.2 Colum ns
.......................................................................................................................................................... 9
1.3 Walls
.......................................................................................................................................................... 13
1.4 Seism ic - Beam
..........................................................................................................................................................
s
15
1.5 Seism ic - Colum
..........................................................................................................................................................
ns
16
1.6 Punching
.......................................................................................................................................................... 17
1.7 Slab deflections
.......................................................................................................................................................... 18
1.8 Slab reinforcem
..........................................................................................................................................................
ent
19
2 Eurocode
...................................................................................................................................
2 - Post-tensioned beams
22
2.1 Losses
.......................................................................................................................................................... 22
2.2 Shear
.......................................................................................................................................................... 25
2.3 Ultim ate m om..........................................................................................................................................................
ent
26
2.4 Deflections .......................................................................................................................................................... 27
3 Eurocode
...................................................................................................................................
3
29
3.1 Classification..........................................................................................................................................................
of sections
29
3.2 Strength of steel
.......................................................................................................................................................... 30
3.3 Shear
.......................................................................................................................................................... 31
3.4 Bending
.......................................................................................................................................................... 31
3.5 Lateral-torsional
..........................................................................................................................................................
buckling
32
3.6 Axial force - com
..........................................................................................................................................................
pression
33
3.7 Axial force - tension
.......................................................................................................................................................... 34
3.8 Com bined bending
..........................................................................................................................................................
& axial force
35
3.9 Deflections .......................................................................................................................................................... 36
3.10 Castellated/cellular
..........................................................................................................................................................
beam s
36
4 Eurocode
...................................................................................................................................
3 - cold-formed
40
4.1 Axial force - com
..........................................................................................................................................................
pression
40
4.2 Axial force - tension
.......................................................................................................................................................... 41
4.3 Bending - w ithout
..........................................................................................................................................................
LTB
42
4.4 Com bined axial
..........................................................................................................................................................
force & bending
42
4.5 Deflections .......................................................................................................................................................... 43
4.6 Effective section
..........................................................................................................................................................
properties
43
4.7 Lateral buckling
..........................................................................................................................................................
strength
44
4.8 Shear
.......................................................................................................................................................... 44
4.9 Strength of steel
.......................................................................................................................................................... 45
5 Eurocode
...................................................................................................................................
4
46
5.1 Com posite beam
..........................................................................................................................................................
s
46
5.2 Com posite colum
..........................................................................................................................................................
ns
50

Index

51

ATIR Engineering Software Ltd.

Part

I
Codes - Eurocode

Codes - Eurocode

Codes - Eurocode
Select one of the following Codes:
Eurocode 2 6
Eurocode 3 29
Eurocode 3 - cold-formed
Eurocode 4 46

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1.1

Codes - EU

Eurocode 2
The longitudinal reinforcement calculation is based on the design assumptions outlined in 4.2.1.3.3;
the following rectangular stress block is used.

The modulus of elasticity:


Concrete: Values in Code Table 3.2 are used.
Steel:
Es = 200 kN/mm
( 3.2.4.3)
The stress in reinforcement is calculated as Es strain, but not greater than fyd.
Refer to:
Beams 6
Columns 9
Beams - seismic 15
Columns - seismic 16

1.1.1

Beams
The beam design procedure includes:
calculation of moment and shear envelopes
calculation of redistributed moments and reduced shear (option)
calculation of reinforcement steel areas
calculation of links with variable spacing or bent-up bars with constant links
check of allowable deflections
Note that axial forces are ignored by the program.
Moment redistribution (optional):
Moments in continuous beams are redistributed as permitted in 5.5, according to the following
guidelines:
The support moments in the envelope are reduced up to the maximum percentage specified by the
user, but not less than the minimum percentage specified.
The maximum span moments in the envelope remain constant or are decreased (unless the minimum
redistribution requirement forces an increase in the span moment, which will generally occur in
exterior spans with stiff columns).
The shear forces in the spans are adjusted so as to maintain equilibrium of forces and moments.
For beams with columns, the moment transferred by the beam into the column before and after
redistribution is constant. This prevents redistribution in the columns and maintains equilibrium in
loading cases with horizontal loads.
Note that the program checks that the redistribution percentage does not exceed the allowable ( 5.5)
after the reinforcement is calculated, and displays warnings if required.
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Codes - Eurocode

Longitudinal reinforcement:
For the calculation of reinforcement for beams with moment and axial force, refer to slab reinforcement
19 .
Minimum reinforcement:
m in = As,m in / Ac = 0.26 (fctm/fyk) but not less than 0.0013
(Eq. 9.1N)
where:
Ac = b`d
for rectangular sections and T-sections with the flange in compression
Ac = bw d + (bf - bw ) tf for T-sections with the flange in tension
Maximum reinforcement is limited to 4%.

( 9.2.1.1 - 3)

Rectangular beams:
Referring to the following Figure, the reinforcement area is calculated as follows:
fcd = cc fck/ c
(3.15)
and
are
defined
by
the
user
in
the
Files - Setup
cc
c
option
= 0.8 - for fck

50

(3.19)

= 0.8-(fck -50)/400 - for fck > 50

(3.20)

= 1.0 - for fck

(3.21)

50

= 1.0-(fck -50)/200 - for fck > 50

(3.22)

fyd = fyk/ s
(Fig. 3.8)
is
defined
by
the
user in the Files - Setup option
s

As = M / fyd z

K = M / b d fck
The maximum depth of the compression block is defined by:
for fck 50
(x/d) m ax = (
for fck > 50

- k1) / k2

(Eq. 5.10a)

(x/d) m ax = ( - k3) / k4
(Eq. 5.10b)
where:
= the ratio of the moment after redistribution to the moment before redistribution.
k1,k2,k3,k4 are defined by the user in the Files - Setup option
Rearranging, the compression block is at its maximum when:
for fck 50
K = K' =

cc

[k2( - k1) - 0.5 ( - k1)] / k22

cc

[k4( - k3) - 0.5 ( - k3)] / k42

for fck > 50


K = K' =

With no redistribution:
for fck 50

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K = K' = 0.196 (for the default values of

cc

, , etc in the Code)

for fck > 50


K = K' is also dependent on the value of fcu
If K > K' compression reinforcement is required and is calculated from:
A's = (K - K') fck bd / fyd (d`-d')
As = (`K' fck bd / fyd z) + A's
Tee beams:
compression block entirely in flange: designed as rectangular beams.
compression block in web:

As = Asf + Asw
where:
Asf = Cf / (fyd )
Cf = fcd tf (b - bw )
Mf = Cf ( d - tf / 2 )
Mw = M - Mf
and
Asw is calculated from Mw as outlined for rectangular sections.
The maximum resistance moment of the concrete without compression reinforcement is:
Mc = K' fcu bw d +

fcd (b-bw ) (d - hf /2) tf

where K' was derived for rectangular sections.


Shear Reinforcement:
The shear stress at the face of the support is reduced to the value at a distance 'd' from the face, as
specified in 6.2.1(8). (optional)
Links only (variable spacing) - Truss Method:
VRd,s = (Asw/s)z fywd cot
VRd,max = bw z 1 fcd / (cot + tan )

( 6.2.3)
(6.8)
(6.9)

The program selects the maximum value of cot so that VRd,s does not exceed VRd,m ax
(6.6N)
1 = 0.6(1.0 - fck /250)
w,min

= (0.08 fck)/fyk

(9.5N)

The program ignores axial forces when designing for shear.

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Codes - Eurocode

Torsion:
Torsion reinforcement is calculated according to Section 6.3 of the Code.
The torsion force is always assumed by the program to be carried by the rectangular web of the beam:

The following terms are used:

The program calculates the torsion reinforcement as follows:


Transverse reinforcement (stirrups)
(6.28)
Longitudinal reinforcement:

Combined shear and torsion:


torsion is ignored if :
(TEd /TRd,c) + (VEd /VRd,c) 1.0
TRd,c = fctd tef 2Ak
VRd,c = [Crd,c(k)(100 1fck)1/3] bwd
k = 1 + (200/d) < 2.0
Crd,c = 0.18/ c
VRd,c,min = (Vmin )bwd
Vmin = 0.035 k3/2 fck1/2

(6.31)
(6.26)
(6.2a)
(d in mm)
(0.18 may be modified in the Setup option)
(6.2b)
(6.3N) (0.035 may be modified in the Setup option)

The program checks the following interaction diagram:


(TEd /TRd,max) + (VEd /VRd,max) 1.0
(6.29)
TRd,max = fcd tef 2Ak 0.5
(6.30)
= 0.6(1-fck/250)
(6.6N)
VRd,max= bwz 1 fcd /2
(6.9)
=
1
refer to "Shear" for explanation of other terms
Longitudinal spacing of links is limited to uk/8

1.1.2

(9.2.3 - 3)

Columns
minimum:

the program limits the longitudinal reinforcement to no less than:


0.10 NEd / fyd but not less than 0.002 Ac (Eq. 9.12N)

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maximum:

Reinforcement > 8%:

the program displays a warning that the reinforcement exceeds


the allowable ( 9.5.2-3)
Reinforcement > 10%: the program stops the design and displays a "No solution"
warning.

Slenderness:
A column is considered as short when:
(5.13N)
x < lim and
y < lim
where:
= lo / i
(5.14)
lo
= kl
(5.8.3.2)
k
= defined by the user
l
= clear column length = member length between ends of restraint (5.8.3.2-3)
i
= radius of inertia of the gross cross-section measured in the plane under consideration.
lim

A
B
C
n

=
=
=
=
=

20 A B C/ n
0.7
1.1
0.7
NEd,max/(Ac fcd )

(5.13N)

Note:
is calculated separately for both directions. If the column is slender in one direction and short in
the other, the column is considered as slender.
The program designs for a minimum eccentricity e o = h/30 but not less than 20 mm (6.1-4)
Short columns:
The program designs for M = MEd + NEd e i
where:
ei =
(Eq. 5.2)
i lo / 2
=
1/(100
l)
(Eq. 5.1)
i
1/300
1/200
i
l
= actual length of member

NEd e o

Slender columns:
The initial end moments are MoEd = MEd + NEd e i
The total design moment MEd = MoEd + M2

NEd e o
(Eq. 5.31)

where M2 = is the additional 2nd-order moment


The user may define the additional moment (as a magnifier factor) in each of the two major directions or
specify that the program calculate the value automatically.
The program calculates the additional moment as follows:
M2 = NEd e 2
e 2 = l o
where:
1/r =
K
=
=

/ 10 (1/r)
Kr K (1/ro )
1+
1.00
ef
0.35 +fck/200 - /150

(Eq. 5.33)
(5.8.8.2-3)
(Eq. 5.34)
(Eq. 5.37)
(5.8.8.3-4)

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ef

1/ro
yd

d
Kr
N
Nbal
Nu

= is defined by the user


= yd / 0.45d

11

(5.8.8.3-1)

= fyd / Es
=
=
=
=

h/2 + is
( Nu - N ) / ( Nu - Nbal) < 1
design ultimate axial load
design axial load capacity of a balanced section;
calculated exactly by the program.
= design ultimate capacity of a section subject to
axial load only
= 0.85 fcd Ac + fyd As

(Eq. 5.35)
(Eq. 5.36)

For both short and slender columns the imperfection moment (e i ) and additional moments (e o ) are
superimposed on the design moments as follows:
Braced columns:
The initial moment at the point of maximum additional moment is calculated as:
for columns not subject to transverse loading:
Moe = 0.6 Mo2 + 0.4 Mo1 0.4 Mo2
(5.32)
where:
Mo2 = larger factored end moment
Mo1 = smaller factored end moment
for columns subject to transverse loading:
Moe = maximum moment.
The additional moment has an approximately parabolic shape; refer to the figure below.
Unbraced columns:
The additional moment is assumed to be distributed approximately linearly over the height of the
column, with Madd applied at both ends in a manner that increases the moment at these section.
The following figure shows an example for a slender column consisting of one STRAP member, braced in
the M2 direction and unbraced in the M3 direction. The design moments at top/middle/bottom are
superimposed on the moment diagrams.

Load conditions:
The program calculates design moments at three locations in each column - top, middle and bottom. In
slender columns, the additional moment is calculated and the initial moments are modified as explained
above.
If the column is subject to transverse loads, the middle moment is taken as the maximum moment along
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Codes - EU

the span, but not less than 0.6M2 + 0.4M1


The three design moments are calculated separately for the M2 and M3 moments (M2/M3 refer to the
STRAP results). The program then checks the capacity for all three locations, i.e.
top:
middle:
bottom:

Ptop,
M2,top,
max(Ptop,Pbot), M2,mid,
Pbot,
M2,bot,

M3,top
M3,mid
M3,bot

Columns are designed either for uniaxial bending or biaxial bending


space frame columns with moments about both axes are always designed for biaxial bending
plane frame columns or space frame columns with moments about one axis are designed for uniaxial
bending if:
2
and
2
(5.38a) and x/ y
y/ x
(e y/heq )/(e x/beq ) 0.2
or
(e x/beq )/(e y/heq ) 0.2
(5.38b)
Uniaxial bending:
The program adds additional moments to the M3 moments, and create separate load conditions with
the minimum M2 moments, where both positive and negative values are generated (important for
unsymmetric sections).
For example:
M2i
0.0

M3i
15.7

M2
0.0
-7.3
7.3

M3
15.7
0.0
0.0

Biaxial bending:
The program checks for design moments about both axes; if the moments equal zero about one axis,
the program designs the column as for plane frames.
The program adds additional moments simultaneously about both axes.
In many cases, two or more STRAP members may be combined to form a column. In addition, the
support locations in the M2 and M3 directions may not be identical.
The program searches for supports at the nodes in either direction and defines "design spans". Each
"design span" is calculated separately. For example:

In each design span, the program creates the combinations of M2 and M3 moments at top/middle/
bottom of the span. The object is to ensure that the program creates a load situation that includes the

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13

maximum moments.
The program calculates the additional moment for the combined span. It then checks whether one of the
ends is in the middle third of the combined span. If yes, the program uses the additional moment at
that end and at the middle. If both ends are outside the middle third, the program uses the actual
moments.
Referring to the example in the Figure above, it calculates the load situations as follows:
Span A:
Design
Location
Top
Middle
Bottom

Design
M2
Mtop or
Mtop-Madd/2.
Mi+Madd
Mbottom+Madd/2.

moment
M3
Mi+Madd
Mi+Madd
Mbottom+Madd/2.

Tension:
Columns with a tension axial force are always designed as short columns.
The capacity of a column in pure tension is equal to Asfyd .
The capacity of columns with combined tension and bending is calculated identically to that of column
with combined compression and bending.
Shear:
The program searches for the load case with (V - VRd,c)m ax
VRd,c is calculated according to Equation (6.2a):
VRd,c = [Crd,c(k)(100

1/3
1fck)

+ k1

cp

] bwd

where:
bw d = gross area for round sections (from ACI).
As = 0.5 As for
1
k1
: defined by the user in the Files - Setup option.
k
= 1 + (200/d) < 2.0
(d in mm)
Crd,c = 0.18/ c
(0.18 may be modified in the Setup option)
VRd,c,min = (Vmin )bwd
Vmin = 0.035 k3/2 fck1/2

(6.2b)
(6.3N) (0.035 may be modified in the Setup option)

Links are detailed with uniform spacing according to the user specified parameters.
minimum diameter : maximum of - 0.25*(longitudinal bar diameter), 6 mm (9.5.3-1)
maximum spacing : minimum of - minimum dimension, 20*( min. long. bar diameter), 400 mm.
reduced by 0.6 at column ends
(9.5.3-3/4)

1.1.3

Walls
The program calculates the minimum eccentricity and slender wall additional moments for weak axis
bending according to the methods used for columns.

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Minimum eccentricity = min(H/400, h/30, 20) mm.


where:
H = storey/wall height
h = wall thickness
The effective length factor for a wall segment, k, is calculated as follows (if not defined by the user):
wall consisting of a single segment:
k = 1.0
another segment attached at one end:

segments attached at both ends:

where:
lw = net segment length
H = storey height
Reinforcement details:
No seismic loads
minimum reinforcement area = 0.002 * Aw all
maximum bar spacing = min(3*b, 400 mm).
where b = wall thickness
Seismic loads

Concentrated reinforcement at the ends of walls:


minimum area = 0.005 *Aw all - As,dist
in non-critical regions, Lconc = b.
in critical regions: Lconc = maximum of a. 1.5*b
b. 0.15*wall length
c. L'conc = x u * (1 - cu2/ cu2,c )
xu
= (vd + v) Lw
ecu2
= 0.0035
ecu2,c
= 0.0035 + 0.1 w d
wd
= is calculated according to Eq. (5.20) The program assumes when calculating o
according to Eq.(5.4) that qo=3x1.2 for Medium Ductility and qo = 4.5x1.2 for High
Ductility.
v
: the program assumes that v = 0.4%
The program checks the the concentrated reinforcement

0.005 Aconc

Note:
Concentrated reinforcement is not designed if the wall length< 4 * thickness
Distributed reinforcement:
minimum area = 0.20% * Adist
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Codes - Eurocode

15

but not less than v , where:


for < 2.0
v (V - P)/0.8 Ac Fsd
for
2.0
v 0.002
where:
= M/Vlw 3.0
maximum spacing:
High ductility: min(20 , 200) mm
Medium ductility: min(25 , 250) mm
Low ductility:
min(3b, 400) mm
Transverse reinforcement:
minimum h:
for
2.0 h Vd/0.8 Ac Fs d
0.2%
for
2.0 h
Vd-Vcd)/0.75 Ac Fs d 0.2%
where:
= M/Vlw 3.0
Vcd:
- critical region:
compression: as in EC2, ignoring the axial force.
tension
Vcd = 0.
- non-critical region:
as in EC2, considering the axial force (tension and compression)

1.1.4

Seismic - Beams
Main reinforcement: (403.3.1.5)
tension reinforcement at sections where required:
m in
min
max:

m ax

0.5fctm/fyk

(Eq. 2.12)

The program always provide minimum reinforcement but only displays a warning if the required
reinforcement exceeds max
at all sections:
at supports:
Mcap,pos > 0.5Mcap,neg
(2.7.1.2.2-2b)
at spans:
Mcap > 0.25(Mcap,neg),m ax (from other Codes)
Transverse reinforcement:
The program does not calculate the value of as specified in Sections 2.7.2.2.(3). The program does not
calculate diagonal reinforcement but only stirrups according to EC2, i.e. the program always assumes
that > -0.5 and that |Vs |max > 3(2+ ) Rdbw d.
Minimum requirements:

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1.1.5

Codes - EU

Seismic - Columns
Column seismic moments and shears are calculated as explained in Seismic - general, except for the
following:
Bending moments:
Referring to EC8 - 2.1.1.1, the program assumes that 1 = 1.00. Therefore, the sum of the beam
capacity moments at a joint are distributed to the columns above and below according to the ratio of
the design moments in the columns (instead of the relative stiffness)
Shear:
Referring to EC8 - 2.8.1.1.2 - Equation (2.24), the program assumes that MCRd = MDRd = the
maximum seismic design moment in the column (calculated from the beam capacities as explained
above), rather than the actual resisting moment of the column.
Longitudinal reinforcement:
Flexural strength at joint: (2.8.1.1)
High:
Mc > 1.35 Mb
Medium:
Mc > 1.20 Mb
Low:
No special requirement

(2.8.2.1-1)
(2.8.3.1-1)

Reinforcement ratio:
0.01 < < 0.04 (2.8.1.3-8)
Transverse reinforcement:
Hoops (spiral or circular) required over length lcr:
High:
max (1.5dc , span/5, 600 mm)
Medium:
max (1.5dc , span/6, 450 mm)
Low:
max (1.0dc , span/6, 450 mm)
Maximum spacing within lcr:
High:
min (bo/4, 5 L, 100 mm)
Medium:
min (bo/3, 7 L, 150 mm)
Low:
min (bo/2, 9 L, 200 mm)

(Eq. 2.28)
(Eq. 2.31)
(Eq. 2.34)

(Eq. 2-30)
(Eq. 2-33)
(Eq. 2-35)

Maximum spacing outside lo:


min (b, 12 L, 300
(EC2 - nonmm)
seismic)
Minimum diameter:
High:
min (bo/4, 5 L, 100 mm)
Medium:
min (bo/3, 7 L, 150 mm)
Low:
min (bo/2, 9 L, 200 mm)

(Eq. 2-30)
(Eq. 2-33)
(Eq. 2-35)

Additional requirements for High moment frames:

ATIR Engineering Software Ltd.

Codes - Eurocode

1.1.6

17

Punching
The program calculates the punching stress and reinforcement according to EC2 (2002) Section 6.4 "Punching"
The program calculates the area of single- or multiple-leg stirrup type slab shear reinforcement:

The program assumes that the distance between the radial lines of shear reinforcement at the control
perimeter is always less than 2d.
vRd,c, the punching shear resistance provided by the concrete in slabs reinforcement, is calculated as
follows:

The shear is checked at the basic control perimeter at 2d from the face of the column, as follows:
Centre column : u1, according to Section 6.4.2.
Edge column
: u1*, according to Figure 6.20a
Corner column : u1*, according to Figure 6.20b
When vEd > vRd,c , shear reinforcement is calculated from the equation:

where:
s is always assumed = d/2
Av = the cross sectional area of all legs on one peripheral line that is geometrically similar to the
perimeter of the column section, i.e. the sum of the vertical legs of stirrups 1,2,3 and 4 in the
figure above.
represents the portion of the unbalanced moment at the column-slab connection assumed to be
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transferred by shear:
Centre column:
Edge column, moment only about axis parallel to edge (towards interior):
=1.0
(6.4.3-4)
Edge column, moment about both axes (towards interior):
Corner column (moments towards interior):
= u1/u1*
(6.48)
Edge/corner column, moment towards exterior:

uout, the 'control perimeter' at which shear reinforcement is no longer required, is calculated from:
The program also checks that adjacent to the column:

1.1.7

Slab deflections
The deflections are calculated using on the effective moment of inertia, Ie , according to section 7.4.3 and
equations(7.18) and (7.19) in the Code.
For each selected deflection combination the program calculates Ie for each element in both directions,
based on the elastic moments, thereby creating new orthotropic elements with the effective properties.
The program then solves the model again to determine the slab deflection.

where:
Ig = gross moment-of-inertia, including reinforcement
Icr = cracked moment-of-inertia
M = service moment
Mcr = cracking moment
The total deflection has three components:
dt
= immediate deflection due to long-term loads (dead + sustained live)
The program uses Ie calculated from long-term loads
dt
= long-term deflection due to long-term loads
The program uses Ie calculated from long-term loads
= creep factor.
di
= immediate deflection due to other live loads (not sustained)
The program uses Ie calculated from all immediate loads
The total deflection d = dt + dt + di
= dt (1 + ) + di

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Codes - Eurocode

1.1.8

19

Slab reinforcement
This section describes the calculation method for reinforced concrete elements, beams and walls with
combined moment and axial force.

Rectangular sections:
The stress block for the case of bending only is:

where:
Md
= design moment. The value may be the STRAP moment or the Wood & Armer moment
(elements)
Mcd
= the moment corresponding to the Code compression block height in pure bending.
=
for C12/15 to C35/45: [(x/d)max = 0.45]
Mcd = 0.167 bd fck
for C40/50 and greater: [(x/d)max = 0.35]
Mcd = 0.136 bd fck
For the general case:
Nd
= design axial force. The value may be the STRAP force or the Wood & Armer force
(elements).
Transposing the axial force to the tension steel level:

Reinforcement:
There are three design cases:
Section in tension and compression:
Msd > Mcd
M = Msd - Mcd
A's = M/(d - d') 0.87fy
As = A's + Mcd/(z m in0.87fy) - Nd/0.87fy
C12/15 to C35/45:
z m in = 0.82d
C40/50 and greater: z m in = 0.86d
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Msd < Mcd


}
As = Msd / (1 - 0.5 )d0.87fy - Nd/0.87fy
Entire section in tension:

where: e = Md/Nd
Entire section in compression

the program initially checks where the concrete capacity is sufficient for equilibrium. If so,
reinforcement is not required and only minimum reinforcement is provided.
the program then tries to provide reinforcement only at the face with the greater compression. If
equilibrium of forces and moments cannot be satisfied the program provides reinforcement at both faces.
Note:
all sections are designed for minimum eccentricity
for small loads the program calculates the reinforcement based on an elastic stress distribution.
Minimum eccentricity:
Walls:
max (h/30, 20 mm) Section 6.1-4 (columns)
Beams, Slabs:
max (h/30, 20 mm) Section 6.1-4 (columns)
Minimum reinforcement:
Slabs,beams: (Section 9.2.1.1)
As,min = 0.26(fctm/fyk) bd
Walls: (Section 9.6.2)
As,min = 0.002 bh

Tee sections
Tee sections are designed similarly to rectangular sections:

ATIR Engineering Software Ltd.

Codes - Eurocode

Note:
the program assumes that the entire flange width is effective.

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22

1.2

Codes - EU

Eurocode 2 - Post-tensioned beams


The program designs the beams according to Eurocode 2, April 2002.
Losses 22
Ultimate moment
Shear 25
Deflections 27

1.2.1

26

Losses
Friction Loss:
The losses due to friction,

Pu(x), are calculated according to:


(5.45)

The loss consists of two components:


friction wobble:
friction curvature:
where:
Pm ax =prestressing force in the tendon at the jacking end
k
=the coefficients of friction, defined by the user
=cumulative angle in radians through which the tangent to the cable profile has turned, between
the jack and the current point.
x
=distance from the jack
If the user specified that the program use the estimate, then

where:
a different estimate may be specified for wobble and curvature loss.
x = distance along the strand from the point where P = Pm ax
L = Strand length
Note:
losses are calculated for a specific time "t". The number of strands jacked up to "t" and the
percentage of jacking force are defined by the user in the "jacking sequence" option.
Elastic shortening loss:
Elastic losses result from the instantaneous deformation of the concrete when the prestressing force is
applied. In posttensioned beams, a cable is shortened by the subsequent jacking of other cables in the
beam, i.e. there is no elastic shortening loss if all cables are jacked simultaneously.
In the following example, cable 'i' is jacked after cable 'j'.

The stress in the concrete at level 'j' due to the jacking of cable 'i' is:

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23

The loss of force in cable 'j" is:

where:
Pi
Ac,Ic
Es ,Ec
Aj

=
=
=
=

the initial force in cable 'i', after friction losses


Area and moment-of-inertia of the concrete section
modulus-of-elasticity of cable 'j' and the concrete
the area of cable 'j'

Note:
If the user specified that the program use the estimate for elastic shortening, then

Prior to solving the model, the program calculates Pi = (jacking force - friction loss estimate). The
elastic shortening loss in cables in other beams in the model is not calculated.
When the model is solved, a load case is created for each cable; the axial force result for this case is
equal to the axial force solution from the relevant STRAP load case less the friction loss and this value
is used to calculate the elastic shortening loss. The elastic shortening loss for cables in other beams
is also calculated because the axial loads in the entire model are calculated for each cable load case.
'draw-in' losses are considered as a post-transfer loss and are not subtracted from the jacking force
when calculating Pi.
Ec = Ec(28) for all times = 't',
Draw-in loss:
Draw-in loss is calculated taking into account the friction losses along the strand:

The program creates a mirror image of the cable force diagram at the jacking end. The loss is
calculated from

where:
P = the shaded area in the diagram above
= the draw-in length specified by the user.
Note:
If the user specified that the program use the estimate for draw-in loss, then

if a cable is jacked several times (jacking sequence), the draw in losses of the previous jacking are
eliminated by the subsequent jacking.
Time dependent losses - General:
Time dependent losses are calculated by the 'time-step' method whereby the losses are calculated at
the end of each time step and the prestressing force is reduced accordingly for the next time step.

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Note that the losses at the end of any time step are calculated relative to time at jacking to; therefore
the loss between steps tm and tn is P(tn,to) - P(tm ,to)
The time-dependent losses - creep, shrinkage and relaxation - are not independent of each other; the
total time dependent loss is calculated according to Code equation (5-46):

where:
c+s+r = relaxation and shrinkage at location x, at time t.the absolute value of the variation of stress in
the cables due to creep, and all other symbols are defined in the Code.
cs, Ct and fre are calculated as follows:
Shrinkage loss:
There are three options available in the program for calculating the shrinkage loss - the 'Code method'
and two general code independent methods:
Code method:
The shrinkage loss is calculated as:
Pshr (t) = sh Ep Ap (f,user )
where:
sh
= the shrinkage strain calculated according to Eq.(3.8):
cs
= cd + ca
cd
= the drying shrinkage strain, calculated according to Eq. (B-11).
ca
= the autogenous shrinkage strain, calculated according to Eq. (3-11).
The strain may be modified by a user defined factor.
Alternate method 1:
The user defines the total shrinkage strain e shr,tot and the time (in days) when one-half of the total
strain occurs = t0.5. The shrinkage loss is calculated as:

Alternate method 2:
The user defines the total shrinkage strain e shr,tot and a constant value Cst. The shrinkage loss is
calculated as:

Creep loss:
There are three options available in the program for calculating the creep coefficient - the 'Code method'
and two general code independent methods:
Code method:
The general creep coefficient is calculated as:
(B.1)
where:
all values are calculated according to equations(B.2) to (B.10), i.e. including the influence of cement
type, humidity, etc.
t = time when creep is calculated (days) from beam casting
to = time when load was applied (days), from beam casting
The coefficient may be modified by a user defined factor.
Alternate method 1:
The user defines the total creep factor Cu (total/elastic strain) and the time (in days) when one-half of

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25

the total creep occurs = t0.5. The creep coefficient is calculated as:

Alternate method 2:
The user defines the total creep factor Cu (total/elastic strain) and the value of the expression in the
following equation. The creep coefficient is calculated as:

Relaxation loss:
pr at time 't' is calculated according to Equations (3.30) and (3.31) for ordinary and low-relaxation
prestressing steel, respectively.

The value of 1000, (relaxation loss at 1000 hours), may be specified according to one of the following
methods:
User-defined value (e.g. when certificate is available)
Code recommended values, from Section 3.3.2(6).
The user specifies the total relaxation loss at 500,000 hours; the program then calculates 1000 from
equations (3.30) and (3.31).

1.2.2

Shear
The program calculates the shear capacity at the time requested for every point along the length of the
beam:
the effective cable forces are calculated taking into account the losses and jacking sequence at the
time requested.
at each point along the length of the beam the capacity is checked at the centre-of-gravity of the
section and at any point on the section height where there is a jump in section width; the maximum
value only is displayed for each point.
The program first calculates the cracking moment, Mcr :
Mcr = W full ften + Mo
where:
W full = modified elastic modulus, taking into account the shift of the center-of-gravity of the section
due to the cables and regular reinforcement.
ften
= fctk0.5/ c
Mo
= pty W full
pty
= stress from the cables at the tension face of the section
The shear capacity is calculated as follows:
uncracked sections (M < Mcr)

where:
cp = N/Ac < 0.2fcd
cracked sections (M

where:
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Mcr)

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Codes - EU

CRd,c = 0.18/ c
k = 1 + (200/d)
2
= As /bd
0.02
(VRd,c)m in = (vm in + 0.15 cp)bw d
VRd,m ax = cw bw z fcd (cot + tan )
where:
cw : from Eq. (6.11)
= 0.6 (1 - fck /250)
(6.6)

(6.2.b)
(6.9)

The program calculates shear reinforcement when V > Vc


Inclined strut method:
The reinforcement is calculated from the equations:
VRd,s = (Asw /s) z fyw d cot
(6.8)
VRd,m ax = cw bw z fcd (cot + tan )
(6.9)
standard method:
(Asw /s) = (V - Vc) / (0.9d fyw d)
Note:
Shear capacity is compared to the design shear only for those combinations defined as "Factored" or
"Service & factored".
The program adds/subtracts the vertical component of the cable force to the shear capacity.

1.2.3

Ultimate moment
The program calculates the ultimate moment capacity at the time requested for every point along the
length of the beam, based on the stress-strain parameters defined by the Code.

where:
= 0.8
= 0.8 - (fck - 50)/400

fck 50 MPa
fck > 50 MPa

(3.19)
(3.20)

= 1.0
= 1.0 - (fck - 50)/200

fck 50 MPa
fck > 50 MPa

(3.21)
(3.22)

ecu3
cc = 1
c = 1.5
s = 1.15
s,max = 0.02

from Table 3.1


(3.1.6)
(Table 2.1N)
(Table 2.1N)

The neutral axis location at equilibrium is calculated by an iterative procedure:


the program calculates the contribution of the concrete and tension/compression cables and regular
reinforcement, each cable and bar according to its eccentricity.

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27

losses and section properties are calculated for the specified point in time, considering only that
cables that have already been jacked.
maximum concrete strain is assumed at the compression face and the strains in the cables and
reinforcement are calculated assuming a linear distribution.
For bonded cables, the stress is calculated from the stress-strain diagram defined in "Parameters".
For unbonded cables, the program calculates effective stress, plus stress increase for the ultimate
condition, defined by the user in "Parameters".
Note:
Ultimate moment capacity is compared to the design moment only for those combinations defined as
"Factored" or "Service & factored".

1.2.4

Deflections
The displacements are calculated based on effective moment-of-inertia values at each point.
For long-term deflections, the deflections at each 'step' are calculated according to the cable forces at
that step.
Deflection due to cable forces are calculated based on the losses at the time the deflections are
calculated.
Changes in supports at certain stages change the boundary conditions of those stages for integration
of the curvature along the beam.
Immediate deflection:
the program calculates the moment-of-inertia for the full section, using modified properties due to
cables and regular reinforcement.
the program calculates the cracked moment-of-inertia using an iterative method to determine the
center-of gravity location and equilibrium condition ( C = T) at each point. A linear stress distribution
over the height of the section is assumed because the service limit state is checked.
The program first calculates the cracking moment, Mcr :
Mcr = W full ften + Mo
where:
W full = modified elastic modulus, taking into account the shift of the center-of-gravity of the section
due to the cables and regular reinforcement.
ften
= fctm
(Table 3.1)
Mo
= 0.90 pty W full bonded
(5.10.9)
0.95 pty W full unbonded
pty
= stress from the cables at the tension face of the section
The program then calculates an effective curvature, Ceff, at every point along the beam, where Ceff =
M/EIeff
for M < Mcr :
Ceff = Cfull
for M > Mcr :
Ceff = Cfull
Ccr
where:
M
= Mloads + Mcable
Cfull = curvature for the uncracked section
Cr
= curvature for the cracked section
The curvature is integrated twice, using the supports at each stage to compute the deflection.
Long-term deflection:
The program sums up the deflections for different stages. For each stage it searches for the
combination that gives the maximum creep. Only "service" or "Factored and service" combinations are
considered. The program takes into account that supports may be added/removed at different stages.

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The deflections at each stage are calculated as described in "Immediate deflection".


Note:
the program adds the shrinkage curvature to Ceff (refer to EC2 - losses
shrinkage strain)

22

for calculation of the

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Codes - Eurocode

1.3

29

Eurocode 3
The design is based on EN1993-1-1 : Eurocode 3 - Part 1-1 - General Rules for Buildings - May 2005.
The design is modified by the "UK National Annex to Eurocode 3" if the Annex is selected by the user in
the STRAP main menu Setup - Miscellaneous - Code factors option.

1.3.1

Classification of sections
Referring to Tables 5.2, the program determines the classification of every member for each combination
as follows:

in the case of biaxial bending, the program classifies the section according to "minor axis", which
always governs.
when calculating , the program assumes that the section is fully stressed and that the part of fy not
resulting from the actual axial force is caused by bending moments.

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in a "Combined beam", the program calculates the classification for each segment and uses the worst
case.
in a tapered beam, the program calculates the classification at each end and uses the worst case.
Effective Cross-section Properties of Class 4 Sections: - 6.2.2.5
The effective cross section properties of Class 4 sections are calculated using the effective widths of the
compression elements. Referring to EN 1993-1-5:

and k is calculated according to section type as follows:

The program calculates Aeff, W eff and the eccentricities e nx, e ny based on the reduced cross section
properties.

1.3.2

Strength of steel
The program allows design with all steel grades (Fe360, 430, 510, Fe E 275, Fe E 355) - a different
grade may be assigned to each member.
The program calculates the design strength, fy, for various thicknesses according to Table 3.1.

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1.3.3

31

Shear
The shear limit state is calculated as follows:

where Av is calculated as:

For tapered sections, the program calculates Fv and Av at 20 intervals along the member length
Note:
the program does not check shear buckling resistance of sections with thin webs (d/t > 69 )
according to EN 1993-1-5.

1.3.4

Bending
The program calculates all result values at: - 1/10 of span intervals, and at points of intermediate
supports. For tapered sections or combined beams with different properties, the program uses the
actual section at each point.
Note:the program does not check built-up sections with thin webs (d/t > 69 ) according to EN 1993-1-5.
Moment Capacity with Low Shear Load (VEd 0.5Vpl,Rd)
- 6.2.5
The moment capacity is calculated according to section classification as required by the Code.
Class 1 or Class 2 sections:

Mc = W pl fy/ MO

Class 3 sections:

Mc = W el fy/ MO

Class 4 sections:

Mc = W eff fy/ M1

where:
W pl
W el
W eff

=
=
=

plastic section modulus


elastic section modulus
effective section modulus, calculated as per 5.3.5.

For T-sections (major axis bending) and [-sections (minor axis bending), the program uses the value of
Wel calculated using the larger distance from the centre-of-gravity of the section.
Moment Capacity with High Shear Load (VEd > 0.5Vpl,Rd)
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The moment capacity is calculated according to section classification as required by the Code.

Mc is calculated according to the section classification (refer to 'low shear load')


Av as calculated in Shear 31 .

1.3.5

Lateral-torsional buckling
Lateral-torsional buckling is calculated individually for each segment between intermediate supports, and
separately along the top and bottom flanges.
The designer can specify the exact location of intermediate supports for each member.
The effective length of individual segments for LTB is calculated according to the 'k' value specified by the
user in the "End Conditions" option of the Postprocessor.
The program checks that:

** UK National Annex ** (NA.2.17)


rolled sections:
, LT,0 - as specified in STRAP - Setup
welded sections
= 1.00 , LT,0= 0.2
** UK National Annex ** (NA.2.18)
kc = 1/ C1
C1 = (Mcr for the actual moment diagram)/(Mcr for a uniform moment diagram)
where Mcr is the elastic critical moment for lateral-torsional buckling and is calculated according to the
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equations in Annex F of the 1992 version of EC3:

where:
C1, C2 and C3 are calculated from Tables F.1.1, F.1.2 (see below) based on the bending moment
diagram shape factor
warping factor kw = 1
( F.1.2 (4))
for I, RHS and Pipe sections: Zj = 0
for T sections: Zj is calculated according to F.1.4 (2)
If the flange direction of T,[ sections is not defined, or if a destabilizing load is defined, the program
specifies the sign of Zg such that the value of Mcr is decreased.
Referring to Table F.1.2, the program automatically determines whether a member is loaded in the
segment between adjacent intermediate supports. Members with a maximum Note that if you COMBINE
a series of unloaded members which have individual bending moment diagrams of varying slopes, the
program will consider the COMBINED beam as "loaded".
Unloaded segments: C2 = 0
Loaded segments:
Only the first two diagrams from Table F.1.2 are used to calculate C1, C2 and C3. For more general
bending moment diagrams, the program estimates which of the two cases is closer to the actual
shape, based on the end moment values.

1.3.6

Axial force - compression


The compression capacity of a member is calculated as per 6.3.1, but not greater than the value
calculated in 6.3.4.
NSd

X A A fy / M1

but:
A fy / M0

(Class 1, 2 and 3 sections)

Aeff fy / M1

(Class 4 sections)

where:
A= 1
A = Aeff /A

for Class 1, 2 and 3 sections


for Class 4 sections

Table 5.5.3 is used to determine which buckling curve in Table 6.1 is applicable, according to the
buckling axis, thickness and section type.
Slenderness = kl/r:
The program may be instructed to calculate kx and ky, the effective length factors, according to
Appendix E or the values may be input directly by the designer (a default value of 1.00 is assumed by
the program for all members).
Tapered members or combined beams with different properties:
The program calculates the exact Euler buckling load for the member and then finds an equivalent
length l1 for a member with the minimum area which gives the same Euler buckling load. The
minimum area and the length l1 are used in all the equations.
Angles, Channels and T-section Struts
Back-to-back struts
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- 4.7.13

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The calculation is carried out according to 4.7.10 and 4.7.13 of BS 5950, which is a more detailed
version of the method in Eurocode 3:
Single Angle Struts
- 4.7.10.2
Slenderness is the maximum of
kx Lx/rvv
ky Ly/rvv
0.7 Lx/rxx + 30
Chec
ked only if the member is defined as "pinned" at both ends
0.7 Ly/ryy + 30
"
"
0.7 Lx/rvv + 15
"
"
0.7 Ly/rvv + 15
"
"
where kx and ky are defined by the user - normally 0.85 or 1.00, depending on the connection
condition in 4.7.10.2 (a) and (b).
Double Angle Struts
Slenderness is the maximum of
kx Lx/rxx
0.7 Lx/rxx + 30
1.4 c

- 4.7.10.3

( 4.7.9c)

All four conditions are checked even if the member if not defined as "pinned" at both ends.
c is calculated for a single angle (using rvv). When calculating c, the program assumes Lc = L/3 to
comply with the requirement that the member should be divided into at least three segments (
4.7.13.1e) and ( c) m ax = 50.

Single Channel Struts


Slenderness is the maximum of
kx Lx/rxx
ky Ly/ryy
where kx,ky are defined by the user.

- 4.7.10.4

T-section Struts
Effective Length is the maximum of
kx Lx/rxx
ky Ly/ryy
0.7 L/rxx + 30
where kx,ky are defined by the user.

- 4.7.10.5

Note that the third condition is applied only if the member was defined as "pinned" at both ends.

1.3.7

Axial force - tension


Tension capacity is calculated as:
NEd

A fy / M0

(6.6)

0.9 Anet fy / M2

(6.7)

The designer may define an area reduction factor for tension members (a default value may be specified)
in order to specify the "Net Area of Simple Tension Members" as outlined in 6.2.2.2.

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1.3.8

35

Combined bending & axial force


Relationships are calculated according to section classification.
Local
Class 1 and Class 2 sections

(6.4.1)

where:

and n = NEd / Npl,Rd


MNx,Rd, MNy,Rd are calculated from the reduced plastic section moduli in the CONSTRADO tables,
except as follows:
T-sections, angles, double angles and double channels:
The equation with Mnx, Mny cannot be used for these sections because the relevant data is not
available; the program calculates the capacity using the equation for Class 3 sections.
RHS (from CONSTRADO tables)

Pipe (from CONSTRADO tables)

Class 3 sections
Class 1 and 3 sections - T, L, 2L

(6.2.9.2)

Class 4 sections

(6.2.9.3)

where:
Npl, Mpl,x and Mpl,y are calculated according to the section classification
e N is the shift of the centroidal axis in sections (Figure 5.3.1 and 5.3.2)
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Overall - bending and axial compression

(6.3.3)

where:
NEd, My,Ed, Mz, = design axial compression force and moments
Ed

My,Ed, Mz,Ed = moments due to the shift in the centroidal axis for Class 4 section according to
Table 6.7
y, z
= flexural buckling reduction factors according to 6.3.1
LT
= lateral-torsional buckling reduction factor according to 6.3.2
kyy,kyz ,kzy,kzz = interaction factors, calculated according to Annex B - Method 2.
** UK National Annex ** (NA.3.2)
Sections other than I, H or hollow: Class 1 and Class 2 sections are designed as Class 3 sections.

1.3.9

Deflections
The deflection check is a Serviceability calculation so the program uses the user-defined load
combinations without multiplying the elastic deflections by the load factors.
When checking the maximum deflection along the span of the member, the program ignores the
deflection of the end nodes, except in cantilevers where the maximum deflection is calculated at the free
end (unsupported node).
Maximum allowable deflections per member must be entered by the designer (a default value may be
specified).
Note:
The deflections calculated in the results are based on the section input in STRAP geometry. When
checking a different section, the Postprocessor modifies the deflection value by Inew /Iold, where:
Inew = moment-of-inertia of section being checked.
Iold = moment-of-inertia of STRAP geometry property.
When checking deflections of a "combined" beam, the program uses the length of the entire
combined beam and ignores any possible deflection support at the combined nodes. If such supports
exists, the allowable deflection parameter should be modified accordingly.
the program ignores intermediate supports (buckling and lateral-torsional) when checking deflections.

1.3.10 Castellated/cellular beams


The design is based on the following publication:
Large Web Openings for Service Integration in Composite Floors
Eurocode Design Method for Composite and Non-Composite Beams with Web Openings
The Research Fund for Coal and Steel, 2006.
The program designs the following section types:

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Codes - Eurocode

Composite sections may be defined.


The program assumes that all of the openings are vertically centered in the beams.

Section classification

Flange:
Class
1
b/tf < 9
2
b/tf < 10
3
b/tf < 14

= (235/py)

Web:
Class
2

lt

32 tw

or

lt

36 tw

or

The program carries out the same regular beam design checks at both the full section and the cut
section locations.
In addition, the program does the following four design checks:

Shear resistance of the top and bottom tees


Ved /Vc,rd
Ved

1.0

maximum shear force acting at the opening


=

Vc,
rd

shear capacity
=

Av Fy / (

mo

3)

rolled sections: Av = Anet - 2bftf + (2r + tw) tf


fabricated
Av = (dt+db ) tw
sections:

Vierendeel bending
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Class1,2 :
Class 3:

Med /Mc 1.0


Ned /Nc,rd
Med /Mc + Ned /Nc,rd 1.0

1.0

Med = V (e/4)
V = maximum shear at the opening
round opening:
e = 0.45ho = effective opening length
hexagon opening:
e=s
Class 1,2 : Mc = W pl,Rd Fy /
Class 3,4 : Mc = W el,Rd Fy/

mo
mo

Mc = reduced capacity of the T-section. The reduction is calculated according to the axial force and the
shear force acting at the section.
Ned = M/h1 + P/2
P = design axial force

h1 = distance the centers of the two T-sections


The reduced plastic/elastic modulus is calculated by reducing the section about the plastic/elastic axis
and calculating the reduced section properties
reduced area due to axial force: Aa = Ned /Fy
reduced area due to shear force: As = (2 - 1)2 Aw
(only when the shear stress is greater than 50% of the allowable,

Nc,rd = A Fy /

> 0.5)

mo

Web post buckling


V / Nb,rd

1.0

widely spaced opening (s > ho):


le = 0.7ho
V = Ved = maximum shear force acting at the opening
closely spaced opening (s ho):
le = (s2 + ho 2)
V = Vh = horizontal shear force
= 12 le/tw
according to buckling curve (c)
Nb,rd = buckling resistance - EC3 - Section 6.3

Horizontal shear acting on the web post


Vh /Vn

1.0
ATIR Engineering Software Ltd.

Codes - Eurocode

Vh = maximum shear force acting on the post


= V do /h'
Vn = shear capacity
= s tw Fy / (

mo

3)

Composite beams
A modified shear value V' is used in all calculations, where V' = V = Vcnc
Vcnc = vRd,c bw hs
bw = min (bf , bt+2hs)
bf = user-defined concrete flange width
bt = steel flange width
Vierendeel bending:
The tensile force in the bottom tee due to bending, NEd,b , is calculated as follows:
NEd,b = [MEd - Mcnc] / [h - z t - z b ] + P/2
but not less than MEd / [h + hs - 0.5hc - z b ]
where:
MEd is calculated using he modified shear value
Mcnc = Nc [z t + hs - 0.5hc]
hc = depth of compression block in the slab

Nc = compression force in the concrete flange


"No. of studs" specified by the user:
Nc= nsc Prd = 0.85 fcd beff
nsc = the number of shear studs between the point in question and the point of zero moment
Prd = the design capacity of a shear stud.
full capacity:
Nc= 0.85 fcd beff
Note:
the program calculates more accurate results if the
selected.

ATIR Engineering Software Ltd.

Design at each 1/10 of span option is

39

40

1.4

Codes - EU

Eurocode 3 - cold-formed
Code clauses in the Help refer to EC3 - Part 1.3- 1996 - Supplementary Rules for Cold-formed Thin
Gauge Members & Sheeting" , February 1996.
The program designs the following section shapes:

and additional User-defined shapes.


Sections are added to the steel section library using the Files / Utilities / Create/edit a steel sections
table option in the STRAP main menu.
Effective section properties 43
Strength of steel 45
Shear 44
Bending - without LTB 42
Axial force - tension 41
Axial force - compression 40
Deflections 43
Lateral buckling strength 44

1.4.1

Axial force - compression


The program checks that the applied compression force does not exceed the design buckling resistance
of the cross-section, calculated according to 6.2:

where:
Nsd = factored axial compression force
Nb,Rd = design buckling resistance for axial compression, calculated according to:
Nb,Rd =

Aeff fy/ M1

(6.1)

where:
Aeff = effective section area, obtained from Section 4 by assuming a uniform compressive stress
com ,Ed = fyb/ M1
= reduction factor for buckling resistance, determined from

= imperfection factor, obtained from Table 6.1


= relevant slenderness for relevant buckling mode.
The lowest value of

(6.2.b)
for flexural buckling of the member about any relevant axis, or for torsional or
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41

torsional-flexural buckling, is used.


Flexural buckling:
The appropriate buckling curve is determined from Table 6.2 according to the section type and axis of
buckling. The relative slenderness about the x and y axis is determined as follows:

l
i

=
=

buckling length for flexural buckling about the relevant axes (lx or ly)
radius of inertia about the corresponding axes (ix or iy), based on the properties of the gross
section
The relevant slenderness is calculated as follows:
}

(6.4a)

where:
cr
cr,T
cr,TF

=
=
=

cr,TF
cr,T
(6.4b)
elastic critical stress for torsional buckling, determined from 6.5a
elastic critical stress for torsional-flexural buckling, calculated for all open section types
(symmetric and non-symmetric) by solving the following equation from the AISI Cold-Formed
Steel Manual (Part III, Supplementary Information - Section 4):

x o,yo
ro

= the distances from the centroid to the shear centre along the x,y axes of the
section
= polar radius of inertia of the section about the shear centre

The program first searches for the longest segment between axial supports and calculates ex
for this segment. It then searches for the longest segment defined for LTB (i.e. between +z
and/or -z supports) that overlaps (even partially) the critical axial force segment and calculates
t.

1.4.2

Axial force - tension


The program checks that the applied tension force does not exceed the design tension resistance of the
cross-section, calculated according to 5.2:

where:
Nsd
Nt,Rd

=
=

Ag
Fn,Rd

=
=

factored axial tension force


design tension resistance, equal to the lesser of:
Nt,Rd = fya Ag/ Mo
(5.1)
Fn,Rd = Anet fu/ M2
(Table 8.1)
gross section area
net section resistance (Section 8.4)

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42

Codes - EU

Anet
fya
fu
M2

1.4.3

=
=
=
=

net section area


average yield strength
ultimate tensile strength
1.25

Bending - without LTB


The program checks that the applied moment about the relevant axis is less than the moment capacity
of the cross-section calculated according to Section 5.4 of the Code, i.e.

where:
Msd =
Mc,Rd =
Mc,Rd
Mc,Rd

moment (factored loads)


moment capacity of the cross-section, calculated from:
= fy W eff/ M1
- when W eff < W el
(5.3a)
= fya W e l/ M0
- when W eff = W el
(5.3b)

where:
W eff
= effective section modulus, based on the the effective cross-section subjected only to bending
moment
Wel
= gross elastic section modulus
Note:
The program calculates all result values at: - 1/10 of span intervals, and at points of intermediate
supports.
When computing the moment-of-inertia and elastic section modulus of flexural members, the program
uses the effective section properties calculated according to Section 5.6.2.

1.4.4

Combined axial force & bending


Compression and bending
The program checks the combined bending and compression stress according to Section 6.5:

where:
Nb,m in
Mx
My
Mcx
Mcy
Mbx

=
=
=
=
=
=

m in fyb Aeff / M1
Mx,sd + Nsd e Nx
My,sd + Nsd e Ny
fyb W eff,x,com / M1
fyb W eff,y,com / M1
LT fyb W eff,x,com / M1

All other values are calculated as explained in Section 6.5.


Tension and bending
The program checks the combined bending and tension stress according to Section 5.5:

where:
W eff,x,ten, W eff,y,ten

effective section modulus for maximum tensile stress if subject only to


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43

moment about the x-x or y-y axis respectively.


1.1

Note that when selecting a section the program also checks bending without the axial force. The
equation for combined tension and bending is less conservative than bending alone; if a section is
inadequate for bending, then combined tension and bending will not be checked.
The program checks combined bending and shear according to Section 5.10:

where:
Msd
Vsd
Mc,Rd
Vw ,Rd

1.4.5

=factored bending moment


=factored shear force
=moment resistance of the section
=shear resistance of the section

Deflections
The deflection is calculated based on the effective section properties determined according to Section 4.
The effective width of a compression element is calculated according to the compressive stress com ,Ed,
ser in the element subjected to the service limit state loading.

1.4.6

Effective section properties


The effective section properties are calculated on the basis of the effective width beff of the compression
elements. The effective width is calculated according to the compression stress com ,Ed in the relevant
element, where:
com ,Ed

fyb
M1

=
=
=

fyb/ M1
basic yield strength
1.1 = partial factor for buckling failure

(section 2.2)

Plane compression elements without stiffeners


The effective width is calculated according to Section 4.2 and is obtained from Table 4.1 (Doubly
supported compression elements) and Table 4.2 (Outstand compression elements).
Plane compression elements with edge stiffeners
The first and last elements of a section are assumed to be stiffeners (lips) if the length of the segment
is less than 28 mm; otherwise they are assumed to be unstiffened elements.
The effective width is calculated according to Section 4.3.2:
only single-edge folds may be calculated (Figure 4.2.a)
The effective section properties are calculated according to Section 4.3.2.2 - General Procedure
Plane compression elements with intermediate stiffeners
The program assumes that the following elements have intermediate stiffeners if the projection is
smaller than 28 mm:

The effective width is calculated according to Section 4.3.3. The effective section properties are
calculated according to Section 4.3.3.2 - General Procedure.

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1.4.7

Codes - EU

Lateral buckling strength


The program calculates all result values at: - 1/10 of span intervals, and at points of intermediate
supports.
The designer can specify the exact location of intermediate supports for each member.
Lateral-torsional buckling is calculated individually for each segment between intermediate supports, and
separately along the top and bottom flanges; the calculation is done separately for positive moments
(supports on bottom flange only are considered) and for negative moments (supports on top flange only
are considered).
For laterally unbraced segments subject to lateral buckling, the factored load moment shall not exceed
the design buckling resistance moment:

where:
Msd
Mb,Rd

1.4.8

= design moment
= design buckling resistance moment, calculated according to section 6.3.

Shear
The program checks that the actual shear force is less than the allowable shear resistance of the web,
i.e.
Vsd

Vw ,Rd

according to Section 5.8.


The shear resistance of the web Vw ,Rd is the lesser of the shear buckling resistance Vb,Rd and the
plastic buckling resistance Vpl,Rd:
shear buckling resistance - Vb,Rd:
Vb,Rd = (hw /sin ) t fbv/ M1
where:
hw
=
=
t
=
M1
=
fbv
=

sw
fyb
E

=
=
=

(5.13)

web height between midlines of flanges


slope of the web relative to flanges
web thickness
1.1
shear buckling strength, is calculated according to Table 5.2, based on the value of
where

},

slant height of web


basic yield strength
21,000 N/mm

plastic shear resistance - Vpl,Rd:


Vpl,Rd = (hw /sin ) t (fbv/ 3)/ Mo

(5.14)

where:
M0 = 1.1
and all other symbols are explained above.
Vpl,Rd is checked only if sw /t

72 (fyb/fy) ( M0/ M1)


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45

where:
= (235/fyb)
fy
= fya if the conditions of Section 3.1.2 are satisfied; otherwise fy = fyb
Note:
For sections with a number of segments parallel to the direction of shear, the program calculates Vr
for each segment and uses the sum (lips are not considered as segments).
For combined shear and moments, refer to Combined forces 42 .

1.4.9

Strength of steel
The program allows for design in all grades of steel - a different grade may be assigned to each member.
The increase in strength due to cold-forming is calculated according to Section 3.1.2 if the option is
selected by the user. The increased average yield strength fya is substituted for fy when calculating
axial capacity, flexural capacity and combined stresses
fya

= fyb + (fu - fyb) knt/Ag


(fu + fyb)/2

(3.1)

where:
Ag
k
n
t

=
=
=
=

gross cross-sectional area


5
number of 90 bends in the cross-section with internal radius r
nominal thickness

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5t

46

1.5

Codes - EU

Eurocode 4
Composite beams 46
Composite columns 50

1.5.1

Composite beams
This section details the method used by the program to select steel sections for composite beams when
using the Eurocode 4 composite design code.
The user specifies the topping dimensions, properties and reinforcement, parameters that specify the
type of shear connection, details on short term vs. long term loading, etc. The program then selects the
lightest steel section that provides the required composite section capacity (the topping dimensions are
not modified by the program during the steel beam selection process).
The program differentiates between areas of positive (sagging) and negative (hogging) moment:
positive moments:
designed as composite sections
negative moments: designed as non-composite steel sections according to Eurocode 4 (with the
addition of reinforcement in the slab, if specified).

Materials
Structural steel:
py, the design strength of the structural steel, is determined according to Eurocode 4.
Concrete:
The nominal concrete grade (C25 to C50) is specified by the user. The program assumes that the
topping is stressed to a uniform compression of 0.85 fcu/1.5.
C25 concrete is assumed to be "lightweight"
Modulus of elasticity :
Modular ratio = Es /Ec

Section types
The program can design the following section types:

Classification
Negative moments:
Classification according to Eurocode 4.
Positive moments:
Classification according to Eurocode 4, except that the section is assumed to be in compression from
the topping to plastic neutral axis of the composite section and in tension below the plastic neutral
axis.

Shear - vertical

(section 4.4.2)

The steel beam is designed to resist the entire vertical shear force in accordance with Eurocode 3.
Refer to Eurocode 3- Shear 31 .
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Shear - longitudinal

47

(section 6.2)

The user specifies the following input in the Default/Parameters option:


capacity of a single shear connector
actual number of connectors per beam in the positive moment region, or
program to calculate number of connectors required in the positive moment region for full shear
connection.
If the user specifies the number of connectors in the positive moment region and the number is less than
the number required to develop the positive moment capacity of the section, the program designates the
beam as having a "partial shear connection" and reduces the bending capacity accordingly (see below).
The number of connectors in negative moment regions cannot be specified. The program assumes full
shear connection in the negative moment region if topping reinforcement is specified; hence the user
should not specify topping reinforcement if the required number of connectors cannot be provided.
The program calculates the number of studs as follows:
positive moment region :
np = 2 F/Fstud
where:
Fstud
= capacity of a single shear connector * 0.85
F
= min(F1, F2)
F1
= maximum force in the steel section = A fy /1.1
F2
= maximum force in the concrete section = 0.85 fc Ac/1.5
The force must be taken on both sides of the point of maximum positive moment; hence the factor '2'.
negative moment region (only if the user specifies topping reinforcement):
nn = k FA/Fstud
where:
Fstud
=
F
=
k
=

capacity of a single shear connector * 0.85


As fy /1.15
2 if there a negative moment at both ends; otherwise k = 1

Output:
topping As =0

np = total number of shear connectors required in the positive moment region

:
topping As specified

np +nn = total number of studs required in the positive and negative moment
: regions, and
nn = total number of studs required in the negative moment regions (on a
separate line)

Note:
If multiple load cases are defined, detailed results for all load cases must be displayed to determine
the required distribution of shear connectors.
it is the user's responsibility to detail the spacing of the studs along the length of the beam.

Bending - Positive moment


The moment capacity of the section for positive moment is calculated according to section 4.4:
Class 1 plastic web:
plastic moment capacity
Class 2 compact web:
plastic moment capacity
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Class 3 semi-compact
web:
Class 4 slender web:

reduced plastic moment capacity


reduced elastic moment capacity

The calculation of S, the plastic section modulus, assumes that:


the topping width is reduced by the factor 0.85 fcu/1.5/py
topping area in tension (below the 'plastic neutral axis') is ignored
for partial shear connections (see above), the program calculates the theoretical topping height that
provides a full shear connection and uses this reduced width to calculate the plastic section modulus.

for Class 1 or Class 2 webs with high shear load (Fv > 0.5 Pv), the program calculates the reduced
moment capacity Mcv according to the Code.
The calculation of Z, the elastic section modulus, assumes that:
the topping width is reduced by the factor:
short-term loading: n = Es /Ec
long-term loading: n = Es /Ec, where is specified by the user in the Default/Parameters option.
topping area in tension is ignored
For partial shear connection, the flange width bf is reduced by the factor (Vcap/Vreq)
partial connection.

1, the degree of

The program carries out the following design checks:

where:
M1
= moment
M2
= moment
M3
= moment
Mcs = moment
Mc1, Mc2, Mc3 =

due to load applied to steel (non-composite) beam


due to short-term load
due to long-term load
capacity of steel beam only, calculated according to Eurocode 3 31 .
moment capacity corresponding to M1, M2 and M3, respectively, calculated as
explained above, but subject to the following limitation: S < kZ:

Bending - Negative moment


The Default/Parameters option allow the user to define topping reinforcement that will increase the
negative moment capacity.
The moment capacity of the section for negative moment is calculated assuming:
no topping reinforcement: steel section capacity according to Eurocode 3 31
topping reinforcement:
the area of the reinforcement is added to the section when calculating S:

Reinforcement should not be specified if the shear connectors required for full shear connection
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49

cannot be provided in the region of negative moments.


The program carries out the following design checks:

where:
M
= M1 + M2 + M3
Mc = capacity of section with reinforcement
M1, M2, M3, Mcs = as defined above

Lateral-torsional buckling
The program assumes that the top flange is continuously supported by the concrete topping. The LTB
capacity of the bottom flange is calculated according to Eurocode 3 32 .

Deflections
The program calculates the total span deflection

as follows:

= (M1) + (M2) + (M3)


where:
M1, M2, M3 = as defined above (bending)
(M1) :
calculated using the moment of inertia of the steel beam only
(M2) = the moment-of-inertia is calculated assuming that the topping width is reduced according to
a modular ratio n = Es /Ec
(M3) = the moment-of-inertia is calculated assuming that the topping width is reduced according to
a modular ratio n
Es /Ec, where is specified by the user in the Default/Parameters
option
The increased deflection arising from partial shear connection is determined from EC4, assuming
unpropped construction:
=

c + 0.3 (1 - Na/Np) ( s - c

where:
Na = actual number of shear connectors
Np = number of shear connectors required for full shear connection
c
= deflection for full shear connection as calculated above
s
= deflection for the steel beam acting alone

Axial force
The Default/Parameters option allow the user to specify one of the following design options:
ignore axial force
axial force taken by steel beam only (capacity according to Eurocode 3 33 )

Combined bending and axial force


Design check according to equations in Eurocode 3

Composite castellated/cellular beams


Refer to Castellated beams - composite
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35

50

1.5.2

Codes - EU

Composite columns
The program calculates the axial capacity of composite columns according to section 4.8.3 - "Simplified
Method of Design".
Note that the concrete is ignored when calculating the flexural capacity of the section.
The plastic resistance to compression is calculated by adding the plastic resistances of the column
components:
Npl,Rd = Aa fy /1.1 + Ac (0.85fck )/1.5 + As fsk /1.15
for filled circular sections:
Npl,Rd = Aa fy /1.1 + Ac (fck )/1.5 + As fsk /1.15
where:
Aa, fy
Ac, fck
As , fsk

- refers to the structural steel section


- refers to the concrete area
- refers to the additional reinforcement

The effective elastic flexural stiffness of cross sections is calculated as:


(EI)e = EaIa + 0.8 (Ec/1.35) Ic + Es Is
where:
Ea, Ia
Ec, Ic
Es , Is

- refers to the structural steel section


- refers to the concrete area
- refers to the additional reinforcement

ATIR Engineering Software Ltd.

Index

Index
-CCodes
Eurocodes
5
Cold-formed
40

-EEurocode 2
6, 22
Eurocode 3
29
Cold-formed
40
Eurocode 4
46

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