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Eurocode STRAP

© All Rights Reserved

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9 просмотров52 страницыEurocode STRAP

© All Rights Reserved

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January 2010

Codes - EU

ATIR Engineering Software Ltd.

All rights reserved. No parts of this work may be reproduced in any form or by any means - graphic, electronic, or

mechanical, including photocopying, recording, taping, or information storage and retrieval systems - without the

written permission of the authors.

Products that are referred to in this document may be either trademarks and/or registered trademarks of the

respective owners. The publisher and the author make no claim to these trademarks.

While every precaution has been taken in the preparation of this document, the publisher and the author assume no

responsibility for errors or omissions, or for damages resulting from the use of information contained in this

document or from the use of programs that may accompany it. In no event shall the publisher and the author be

liable for any loss of profit or any other commercial damage caused or alleged to have been caused directly or

indirectly by this document.

Disclaimer

The STRAP program has been written by a team of highly qualified engineers

and programmers and have been extensively tested. Nevertheless, the authors

of the software do not assume responsibility for the validity of the results

obtained from the programs or for the accuracy of this documentation

The authors remind the user that the programs are to be used as a tool for

structural design and analysis, and that the engineering judgement of the user

is the final arbiter in the development of a suitable model and the interpretation

of the results.

All the people who contributed to this document, the programmers, secretaries, STRAP dealers and users.

Last not least, we want to thank EC Software who wrote the help tool called HELP & MANUAL that was used to

create this document.

Contents

Table of Contents

Foreword

1 Eurocode

...................................................................................................................................

2

6

1.1 Beam s

.......................................................................................................................................................... 6

1.2 Colum ns

.......................................................................................................................................................... 9

1.3 Walls

.......................................................................................................................................................... 13

1.4 Seism ic - Beam

..........................................................................................................................................................

s

15

1.5 Seism ic - Colum

..........................................................................................................................................................

ns

16

1.6 Punching

.......................................................................................................................................................... 17

1.7 Slab deflections

.......................................................................................................................................................... 18

1.8 Slab reinforcem

..........................................................................................................................................................

ent

19

2 Eurocode

...................................................................................................................................

2 - Post-tensioned beams

22

2.1 Losses

.......................................................................................................................................................... 22

2.2 Shear

.......................................................................................................................................................... 25

2.3 Ultim ate m om..........................................................................................................................................................

ent

26

2.4 Deflections .......................................................................................................................................................... 27

3 Eurocode

...................................................................................................................................

3

29

3.1 Classification..........................................................................................................................................................

of sections

29

3.2 Strength of steel

.......................................................................................................................................................... 30

3.3 Shear

.......................................................................................................................................................... 31

3.4 Bending

.......................................................................................................................................................... 31

3.5 Lateral-torsional

..........................................................................................................................................................

buckling

32

3.6 Axial force - com

..........................................................................................................................................................

pression

33

3.7 Axial force - tension

.......................................................................................................................................................... 34

3.8 Com bined bending

..........................................................................................................................................................

& axial force

35

3.9 Deflections .......................................................................................................................................................... 36

3.10 Castellated/cellular

..........................................................................................................................................................

beam s

36

4 Eurocode

...................................................................................................................................

3 - cold-formed

40

4.1 Axial force - com

..........................................................................................................................................................

pression

40

4.2 Axial force - tension

.......................................................................................................................................................... 41

4.3 Bending - w ithout

..........................................................................................................................................................

LTB

42

4.4 Com bined axial

..........................................................................................................................................................

force & bending

42

4.5 Deflections .......................................................................................................................................................... 43

4.6 Effective section

..........................................................................................................................................................

properties

43

4.7 Lateral buckling

..........................................................................................................................................................

strength

44

4.8 Shear

.......................................................................................................................................................... 44

4.9 Strength of steel

.......................................................................................................................................................... 45

5 Eurocode

...................................................................................................................................

4

46

5.1 Com posite beam

..........................................................................................................................................................

s

46

5.2 Com posite colum

..........................................................................................................................................................

ns

50

Index

51

Part

I

Codes - Eurocode

Codes - Eurocode

Codes - Eurocode

Select one of the following Codes:

Eurocode 2 6

Eurocode 3 29

Eurocode 3 - cold-formed

Eurocode 4 46

40

1.1

Codes - EU

Eurocode 2

The longitudinal reinforcement calculation is based on the design assumptions outlined in 4.2.1.3.3;

the following rectangular stress block is used.

Concrete: Values in Code Table 3.2 are used.

Steel:

Es = 200 kN/mm

( 3.2.4.3)

The stress in reinforcement is calculated as Es strain, but not greater than fyd.

Refer to:

Beams 6

Columns 9

Beams - seismic 15

Columns - seismic 16

1.1.1

Beams

The beam design procedure includes:

calculation of moment and shear envelopes

calculation of redistributed moments and reduced shear (option)

calculation of reinforcement steel areas

calculation of links with variable spacing or bent-up bars with constant links

check of allowable deflections

Note that axial forces are ignored by the program.

Moment redistribution (optional):

Moments in continuous beams are redistributed as permitted in 5.5, according to the following

guidelines:

The support moments in the envelope are reduced up to the maximum percentage specified by the

user, but not less than the minimum percentage specified.

The maximum span moments in the envelope remain constant or are decreased (unless the minimum

redistribution requirement forces an increase in the span moment, which will generally occur in

exterior spans with stiff columns).

The shear forces in the spans are adjusted so as to maintain equilibrium of forces and moments.

For beams with columns, the moment transferred by the beam into the column before and after

redistribution is constant. This prevents redistribution in the columns and maintains equilibrium in

loading cases with horizontal loads.

Note that the program checks that the redistribution percentage does not exceed the allowable ( 5.5)

after the reinforcement is calculated, and displays warnings if required.

ATIR Engineering Software Ltd.

Codes - Eurocode

Longitudinal reinforcement:

For the calculation of reinforcement for beams with moment and axial force, refer to slab reinforcement

19 .

Minimum reinforcement:

m in = As,m in / Ac = 0.26 (fctm/fyk) but not less than 0.0013

(Eq. 9.1N)

where:

Ac = b`d

for rectangular sections and T-sections with the flange in compression

Ac = bw d + (bf - bw ) tf for T-sections with the flange in tension

Maximum reinforcement is limited to 4%.

( 9.2.1.1 - 3)

Rectangular beams:

Referring to the following Figure, the reinforcement area is calculated as follows:

fcd = cc fck/ c

(3.15)

and

are

defined

by

the

user

in

the

Files - Setup

cc

c

option

= 0.8 - for fck

50

(3.19)

(3.20)

(3.21)

50

(3.22)

fyd = fyk/ s

(Fig. 3.8)

is

defined

by

the

user in the Files - Setup option

s

As = M / fyd z

K = M / b d fck

The maximum depth of the compression block is defined by:

for fck 50

(x/d) m ax = (

for fck > 50

- k1) / k2

(Eq. 5.10a)

(x/d) m ax = ( - k3) / k4

(Eq. 5.10b)

where:

= the ratio of the moment after redistribution to the moment before redistribution.

k1,k2,k3,k4 are defined by the user in the Files - Setup option

Rearranging, the compression block is at its maximum when:

for fck 50

K = K' =

cc

cc

K = K' =

With no redistribution:

for fck 50

Codes - EU

cc

K = K' is also dependent on the value of fcu

If K > K' compression reinforcement is required and is calculated from:

A's = (K - K') fck bd / fyd (d`-d')

As = (`K' fck bd / fyd z) + A's

Tee beams:

compression block entirely in flange: designed as rectangular beams.

compression block in web:

As = Asf + Asw

where:

Asf = Cf / (fyd )

Cf = fcd tf (b - bw )

Mf = Cf ( d - tf / 2 )

Mw = M - Mf

and

Asw is calculated from Mw as outlined for rectangular sections.

The maximum resistance moment of the concrete without compression reinforcement is:

Mc = K' fcu bw d +

Shear Reinforcement:

The shear stress at the face of the support is reduced to the value at a distance 'd' from the face, as

specified in 6.2.1(8). (optional)

Links only (variable spacing) - Truss Method:

VRd,s = (Asw/s)z fywd cot

VRd,max = bw z 1 fcd / (cot + tan )

( 6.2.3)

(6.8)

(6.9)

The program selects the maximum value of cot so that VRd,s does not exceed VRd,m ax

(6.6N)

1 = 0.6(1.0 - fck /250)

w,min

= (0.08 fck)/fyk

(9.5N)

Codes - Eurocode

Torsion:

Torsion reinforcement is calculated according to Section 6.3 of the Code.

The torsion force is always assumed by the program to be carried by the rectangular web of the beam:

Transverse reinforcement (stirrups)

(6.28)

Longitudinal reinforcement:

torsion is ignored if :

(TEd /TRd,c) + (VEd /VRd,c) 1.0

TRd,c = fctd tef 2Ak

VRd,c = [Crd,c(k)(100 1fck)1/3] bwd

k = 1 + (200/d) < 2.0

Crd,c = 0.18/ c

VRd,c,min = (Vmin )bwd

Vmin = 0.035 k3/2 fck1/2

(6.31)

(6.26)

(6.2a)

(d in mm)

(0.18 may be modified in the Setup option)

(6.2b)

(6.3N) (0.035 may be modified in the Setup option)

(TEd /TRd,max) + (VEd /VRd,max) 1.0

(6.29)

TRd,max = fcd tef 2Ak 0.5

(6.30)

= 0.6(1-fck/250)

(6.6N)

VRd,max= bwz 1 fcd /2

(6.9)

=

1

refer to "Shear" for explanation of other terms

Longitudinal spacing of links is limited to uk/8

1.1.2

(9.2.3 - 3)

Columns

minimum:

0.10 NEd / fyd but not less than 0.002 Ac (Eq. 9.12N)

10

Codes - EU

maximum:

the allowable ( 9.5.2-3)

Reinforcement > 10%: the program stops the design and displays a "No solution"

warning.

Slenderness:

A column is considered as short when:

(5.13N)

x < lim and

y < lim

where:

= lo / i

(5.14)

lo

= kl

(5.8.3.2)

k

= defined by the user

l

= clear column length = member length between ends of restraint (5.8.3.2-3)

i

= radius of inertia of the gross cross-section measured in the plane under consideration.

lim

A

B

C

n

=

=

=

=

=

20 A B C/ n

0.7

1.1

0.7

NEd,max/(Ac fcd )

(5.13N)

Note:

is calculated separately for both directions. If the column is slender in one direction and short in

the other, the column is considered as slender.

The program designs for a minimum eccentricity e o = h/30 but not less than 20 mm (6.1-4)

Short columns:

The program designs for M = MEd + NEd e i

where:

ei =

(Eq. 5.2)

i lo / 2

=

1/(100

l)

(Eq. 5.1)

i

1/300

1/200

i

l

= actual length of member

NEd e o

Slender columns:

The initial end moments are MoEd = MEd + NEd e i

The total design moment MEd = MoEd + M2

NEd e o

(Eq. 5.31)

The user may define the additional moment (as a magnifier factor) in each of the two major directions or

specify that the program calculate the value automatically.

The program calculates the additional moment as follows:

M2 = NEd e 2

e 2 = l o

where:

1/r =

K

=

=

/ 10 (1/r)

Kr K (1/ro )

1+

1.00

ef

0.35 +fck/200 - /150

(Eq. 5.33)

(5.8.8.2-3)

(Eq. 5.34)

(Eq. 5.37)

(5.8.8.3-4)

Codes - Eurocode

ef

1/ro

yd

d

Kr

N

Nbal

Nu

= yd / 0.45d

11

(5.8.8.3-1)

= fyd / Es

=

=

=

=

h/2 + is

( Nu - N ) / ( Nu - Nbal) < 1

design ultimate axial load

design axial load capacity of a balanced section;

calculated exactly by the program.

= design ultimate capacity of a section subject to

axial load only

= 0.85 fcd Ac + fyd As

(Eq. 5.35)

(Eq. 5.36)

For both short and slender columns the imperfection moment (e i ) and additional moments (e o ) are

superimposed on the design moments as follows:

Braced columns:

The initial moment at the point of maximum additional moment is calculated as:

for columns not subject to transverse loading:

Moe = 0.6 Mo2 + 0.4 Mo1 0.4 Mo2

(5.32)

where:

Mo2 = larger factored end moment

Mo1 = smaller factored end moment

for columns subject to transverse loading:

Moe = maximum moment.

The additional moment has an approximately parabolic shape; refer to the figure below.

Unbraced columns:

The additional moment is assumed to be distributed approximately linearly over the height of the

column, with Madd applied at both ends in a manner that increases the moment at these section.

The following figure shows an example for a slender column consisting of one STRAP member, braced in

the M2 direction and unbraced in the M3 direction. The design moments at top/middle/bottom are

superimposed on the moment diagrams.

Load conditions:

The program calculates design moments at three locations in each column - top, middle and bottom. In

slender columns, the additional moment is calculated and the initial moments are modified as explained

above.

If the column is subject to transverse loads, the middle moment is taken as the maximum moment along

ATIR Engineering Software Ltd.

12

Codes - EU

The three design moments are calculated separately for the M2 and M3 moments (M2/M3 refer to the

STRAP results). The program then checks the capacity for all three locations, i.e.

top:

middle:

bottom:

Ptop,

M2,top,

max(Ptop,Pbot), M2,mid,

Pbot,

M2,bot,

M3,top

M3,mid

M3,bot

space frame columns with moments about both axes are always designed for biaxial bending

plane frame columns or space frame columns with moments about one axis are designed for uniaxial

bending if:

2

and

2

(5.38a) and x/ y

y/ x

(e y/heq )/(e x/beq ) 0.2

or

(e x/beq )/(e y/heq ) 0.2

(5.38b)

Uniaxial bending:

The program adds additional moments to the M3 moments, and create separate load conditions with

the minimum M2 moments, where both positive and negative values are generated (important for

unsymmetric sections).

For example:

M2i

0.0

M3i

15.7

M2

0.0

-7.3

7.3

M3

15.7

0.0

0.0

Biaxial bending:

The program checks for design moments about both axes; if the moments equal zero about one axis,

the program designs the column as for plane frames.

The program adds additional moments simultaneously about both axes.

In many cases, two or more STRAP members may be combined to form a column. In addition, the

support locations in the M2 and M3 directions may not be identical.

The program searches for supports at the nodes in either direction and defines "design spans". Each

"design span" is calculated separately. For example:

In each design span, the program creates the combinations of M2 and M3 moments at top/middle/

bottom of the span. The object is to ensure that the program creates a load situation that includes the

Codes - Eurocode

13

maximum moments.

The program calculates the additional moment for the combined span. It then checks whether one of the

ends is in the middle third of the combined span. If yes, the program uses the additional moment at

that end and at the middle. If both ends are outside the middle third, the program uses the actual

moments.

Referring to the example in the Figure above, it calculates the load situations as follows:

Span A:

Design

Location

Top

Middle

Bottom

Design

M2

Mtop or

Mtop-Madd/2.

Mi+Madd

Mbottom+Madd/2.

moment

M3

Mi+Madd

Mi+Madd

Mbottom+Madd/2.

Tension:

Columns with a tension axial force are always designed as short columns.

The capacity of a column in pure tension is equal to Asfyd .

The capacity of columns with combined tension and bending is calculated identically to that of column

with combined compression and bending.

Shear:

The program searches for the load case with (V - VRd,c)m ax

VRd,c is calculated according to Equation (6.2a):

VRd,c = [Crd,c(k)(100

1/3

1fck)

+ k1

cp

] bwd

where:

bw d = gross area for round sections (from ACI).

As = 0.5 As for

1

k1

: defined by the user in the Files - Setup option.

k

= 1 + (200/d) < 2.0

(d in mm)

Crd,c = 0.18/ c

(0.18 may be modified in the Setup option)

VRd,c,min = (Vmin )bwd

Vmin = 0.035 k3/2 fck1/2

(6.2b)

(6.3N) (0.035 may be modified in the Setup option)

Links are detailed with uniform spacing according to the user specified parameters.

minimum diameter : maximum of - 0.25*(longitudinal bar diameter), 6 mm (9.5.3-1)

maximum spacing : minimum of - minimum dimension, 20*( min. long. bar diameter), 400 mm.

reduced by 0.6 at column ends

(9.5.3-3/4)

1.1.3

Walls

The program calculates the minimum eccentricity and slender wall additional moments for weak axis

bending according to the methods used for columns.

14

Codes - EU

where:

H = storey/wall height

h = wall thickness

The effective length factor for a wall segment, k, is calculated as follows (if not defined by the user):

wall consisting of a single segment:

k = 1.0

another segment attached at one end:

where:

lw = net segment length

H = storey height

Reinforcement details:

No seismic loads

minimum reinforcement area = 0.002 * Aw all

maximum bar spacing = min(3*b, 400 mm).

where b = wall thickness

Seismic loads

minimum area = 0.005 *Aw all - As,dist

in non-critical regions, Lconc = b.

in critical regions: Lconc = maximum of a. 1.5*b

b. 0.15*wall length

c. L'conc = x u * (1 - cu2/ cu2,c )

xu

= (vd + v) Lw

ecu2

= 0.0035

ecu2,c

= 0.0035 + 0.1 w d

wd

= is calculated according to Eq. (5.20) The program assumes when calculating o

according to Eq.(5.4) that qo=3x1.2 for Medium Ductility and qo = 4.5x1.2 for High

Ductility.

v

: the program assumes that v = 0.4%

The program checks the the concentrated reinforcement

0.005 Aconc

Note:

Concentrated reinforcement is not designed if the wall length< 4 * thickness

Distributed reinforcement:

minimum area = 0.20% * Adist

ATIR Engineering Software Ltd.

Codes - Eurocode

15

for < 2.0

v (V - P)/0.8 Ac Fsd

for

2.0

v 0.002

where:

= M/Vlw 3.0

maximum spacing:

High ductility: min(20 , 200) mm

Medium ductility: min(25 , 250) mm

Low ductility:

min(3b, 400) mm

Transverse reinforcement:

minimum h:

for

2.0 h Vd/0.8 Ac Fs d

0.2%

for

2.0 h

Vd-Vcd)/0.75 Ac Fs d 0.2%

where:

= M/Vlw 3.0

Vcd:

- critical region:

compression: as in EC2, ignoring the axial force.

tension

Vcd = 0.

- non-critical region:

as in EC2, considering the axial force (tension and compression)

1.1.4

Seismic - Beams

Main reinforcement: (403.3.1.5)

tension reinforcement at sections where required:

m in

min

max:

m ax

0.5fctm/fyk

(Eq. 2.12)

The program always provide minimum reinforcement but only displays a warning if the required

reinforcement exceeds max

at all sections:

at supports:

Mcap,pos > 0.5Mcap,neg

(2.7.1.2.2-2b)

at spans:

Mcap > 0.25(Mcap,neg),m ax (from other Codes)

Transverse reinforcement:

The program does not calculate the value of as specified in Sections 2.7.2.2.(3). The program does not

calculate diagonal reinforcement but only stirrups according to EC2, i.e. the program always assumes

that > -0.5 and that |Vs |max > 3(2+ ) Rdbw d.

Minimum requirements:

16

1.1.5

Codes - EU

Seismic - Columns

Column seismic moments and shears are calculated as explained in Seismic - general, except for the

following:

Bending moments:

Referring to EC8 - 2.1.1.1, the program assumes that 1 = 1.00. Therefore, the sum of the beam

capacity moments at a joint are distributed to the columns above and below according to the ratio of

the design moments in the columns (instead of the relative stiffness)

Shear:

Referring to EC8 - 2.8.1.1.2 - Equation (2.24), the program assumes that MCRd = MDRd = the

maximum seismic design moment in the column (calculated from the beam capacities as explained

above), rather than the actual resisting moment of the column.

Longitudinal reinforcement:

Flexural strength at joint: (2.8.1.1)

High:

Mc > 1.35 Mb

Medium:

Mc > 1.20 Mb

Low:

No special requirement

(2.8.2.1-1)

(2.8.3.1-1)

Reinforcement ratio:

0.01 < < 0.04 (2.8.1.3-8)

Transverse reinforcement:

Hoops (spiral or circular) required over length lcr:

High:

max (1.5dc , span/5, 600 mm)

Medium:

max (1.5dc , span/6, 450 mm)

Low:

max (1.0dc , span/6, 450 mm)

Maximum spacing within lcr:

High:

min (bo/4, 5 L, 100 mm)

Medium:

min (bo/3, 7 L, 150 mm)

Low:

min (bo/2, 9 L, 200 mm)

(Eq. 2.28)

(Eq. 2.31)

(Eq. 2.34)

(Eq. 2-30)

(Eq. 2-33)

(Eq. 2-35)

min (b, 12 L, 300

(EC2 - nonmm)

seismic)

Minimum diameter:

High:

min (bo/4, 5 L, 100 mm)

Medium:

min (bo/3, 7 L, 150 mm)

Low:

min (bo/2, 9 L, 200 mm)

(Eq. 2-30)

(Eq. 2-33)

(Eq. 2-35)

Codes - Eurocode

1.1.6

17

Punching

The program calculates the punching stress and reinforcement according to EC2 (2002) Section 6.4 "Punching"

The program calculates the area of single- or multiple-leg stirrup type slab shear reinforcement:

The program assumes that the distance between the radial lines of shear reinforcement at the control

perimeter is always less than 2d.

vRd,c, the punching shear resistance provided by the concrete in slabs reinforcement, is calculated as

follows:

The shear is checked at the basic control perimeter at 2d from the face of the column, as follows:

Centre column : u1, according to Section 6.4.2.

Edge column

: u1*, according to Figure 6.20a

Corner column : u1*, according to Figure 6.20b

When vEd > vRd,c , shear reinforcement is calculated from the equation:

where:

s is always assumed = d/2

Av = the cross sectional area of all legs on one peripheral line that is geometrically similar to the

perimeter of the column section, i.e. the sum of the vertical legs of stirrups 1,2,3 and 4 in the

figure above.

represents the portion of the unbalanced moment at the column-slab connection assumed to be

ATIR Engineering Software Ltd.

18

Codes - EU

transferred by shear:

Centre column:

Edge column, moment only about axis parallel to edge (towards interior):

=1.0

(6.4.3-4)

Edge column, moment about both axes (towards interior):

Corner column (moments towards interior):

= u1/u1*

(6.48)

Edge/corner column, moment towards exterior:

uout, the 'control perimeter' at which shear reinforcement is no longer required, is calculated from:

The program also checks that adjacent to the column:

1.1.7

Slab deflections

The deflections are calculated using on the effective moment of inertia, Ie , according to section 7.4.3 and

equations(7.18) and (7.19) in the Code.

For each selected deflection combination the program calculates Ie for each element in both directions,

based on the elastic moments, thereby creating new orthotropic elements with the effective properties.

The program then solves the model again to determine the slab deflection.

where:

Ig = gross moment-of-inertia, including reinforcement

Icr = cracked moment-of-inertia

M = service moment

Mcr = cracking moment

The total deflection has three components:

dt

= immediate deflection due to long-term loads (dead + sustained live)

The program uses Ie calculated from long-term loads

dt

= long-term deflection due to long-term loads

The program uses Ie calculated from long-term loads

= creep factor.

di

= immediate deflection due to other live loads (not sustained)

The program uses Ie calculated from all immediate loads

The total deflection d = dt + dt + di

= dt (1 + ) + di

Codes - Eurocode

1.1.8

19

Slab reinforcement

This section describes the calculation method for reinforced concrete elements, beams and walls with

combined moment and axial force.

Rectangular sections:

The stress block for the case of bending only is:

where:

Md

= design moment. The value may be the STRAP moment or the Wood & Armer moment

(elements)

Mcd

= the moment corresponding to the Code compression block height in pure bending.

=

for C12/15 to C35/45: [(x/d)max = 0.45]

Mcd = 0.167 bd fck

for C40/50 and greater: [(x/d)max = 0.35]

Mcd = 0.136 bd fck

For the general case:

Nd

= design axial force. The value may be the STRAP force or the Wood & Armer force

(elements).

Transposing the axial force to the tension steel level:

Reinforcement:

There are three design cases:

Section in tension and compression:

Msd > Mcd

M = Msd - Mcd

A's = M/(d - d') 0.87fy

As = A's + Mcd/(z m in0.87fy) - Nd/0.87fy

C12/15 to C35/45:

z m in = 0.82d

C40/50 and greater: z m in = 0.86d

ATIR Engineering Software Ltd.

20

Codes - EU

}

As = Msd / (1 - 0.5 )d0.87fy - Nd/0.87fy

Entire section in tension:

where: e = Md/Nd

Entire section in compression

the program initially checks where the concrete capacity is sufficient for equilibrium. If so,

reinforcement is not required and only minimum reinforcement is provided.

the program then tries to provide reinforcement only at the face with the greater compression. If

equilibrium of forces and moments cannot be satisfied the program provides reinforcement at both faces.

Note:

all sections are designed for minimum eccentricity

for small loads the program calculates the reinforcement based on an elastic stress distribution.

Minimum eccentricity:

Walls:

max (h/30, 20 mm) Section 6.1-4 (columns)

Beams, Slabs:

max (h/30, 20 mm) Section 6.1-4 (columns)

Minimum reinforcement:

Slabs,beams: (Section 9.2.1.1)

As,min = 0.26(fctm/fyk) bd

Walls: (Section 9.6.2)

As,min = 0.002 bh

Tee sections

Tee sections are designed similarly to rectangular sections:

Codes - Eurocode

Note:

the program assumes that the entire flange width is effective.

21

22

1.2

Codes - EU

The program designs the beams according to Eurocode 2, April 2002.

Losses 22

Ultimate moment

Shear 25

Deflections 27

1.2.1

26

Losses

Friction Loss:

The losses due to friction,

(5.45)

friction wobble:

friction curvature:

where:

Pm ax =prestressing force in the tendon at the jacking end

k

=the coefficients of friction, defined by the user

=cumulative angle in radians through which the tangent to the cable profile has turned, between

the jack and the current point.

x

=distance from the jack

If the user specified that the program use the estimate, then

where:

a different estimate may be specified for wobble and curvature loss.

x = distance along the strand from the point where P = Pm ax

L = Strand length

Note:

losses are calculated for a specific time "t". The number of strands jacked up to "t" and the

percentage of jacking force are defined by the user in the "jacking sequence" option.

Elastic shortening loss:

Elastic losses result from the instantaneous deformation of the concrete when the prestressing force is

applied. In posttensioned beams, a cable is shortened by the subsequent jacking of other cables in the

beam, i.e. there is no elastic shortening loss if all cables are jacked simultaneously.

In the following example, cable 'i' is jacked after cable 'j'.

The stress in the concrete at level 'j' due to the jacking of cable 'i' is:

Codes - Eurocode

23

where:

Pi

Ac,Ic

Es ,Ec

Aj

=

=

=

=

Area and moment-of-inertia of the concrete section

modulus-of-elasticity of cable 'j' and the concrete

the area of cable 'j'

Note:

If the user specified that the program use the estimate for elastic shortening, then

Prior to solving the model, the program calculates Pi = (jacking force - friction loss estimate). The

elastic shortening loss in cables in other beams in the model is not calculated.

When the model is solved, a load case is created for each cable; the axial force result for this case is

equal to the axial force solution from the relevant STRAP load case less the friction loss and this value

is used to calculate the elastic shortening loss. The elastic shortening loss for cables in other beams

is also calculated because the axial loads in the entire model are calculated for each cable load case.

'draw-in' losses are considered as a post-transfer loss and are not subtracted from the jacking force

when calculating Pi.

Ec = Ec(28) for all times = 't',

Draw-in loss:

Draw-in loss is calculated taking into account the friction losses along the strand:

The program creates a mirror image of the cable force diagram at the jacking end. The loss is

calculated from

where:

P = the shaded area in the diagram above

= the draw-in length specified by the user.

Note:

If the user specified that the program use the estimate for draw-in loss, then

if a cable is jacked several times (jacking sequence), the draw in losses of the previous jacking are

eliminated by the subsequent jacking.

Time dependent losses - General:

Time dependent losses are calculated by the 'time-step' method whereby the losses are calculated at

the end of each time step and the prestressing force is reduced accordingly for the next time step.

24

Codes - EU

Note that the losses at the end of any time step are calculated relative to time at jacking to; therefore

the loss between steps tm and tn is P(tn,to) - P(tm ,to)

The time-dependent losses - creep, shrinkage and relaxation - are not independent of each other; the

total time dependent loss is calculated according to Code equation (5-46):

where:

c+s+r = relaxation and shrinkage at location x, at time t.the absolute value of the variation of stress in

the cables due to creep, and all other symbols are defined in the Code.

cs, Ct and fre are calculated as follows:

Shrinkage loss:

There are three options available in the program for calculating the shrinkage loss - the 'Code method'

and two general code independent methods:

Code method:

The shrinkage loss is calculated as:

Pshr (t) = sh Ep Ap (f,user )

where:

sh

= the shrinkage strain calculated according to Eq.(3.8):

cs

= cd + ca

cd

= the drying shrinkage strain, calculated according to Eq. (B-11).

ca

= the autogenous shrinkage strain, calculated according to Eq. (3-11).

The strain may be modified by a user defined factor.

Alternate method 1:

The user defines the total shrinkage strain e shr,tot and the time (in days) when one-half of the total

strain occurs = t0.5. The shrinkage loss is calculated as:

Alternate method 2:

The user defines the total shrinkage strain e shr,tot and a constant value Cst. The shrinkage loss is

calculated as:

Creep loss:

There are three options available in the program for calculating the creep coefficient - the 'Code method'

and two general code independent methods:

Code method:

The general creep coefficient is calculated as:

(B.1)

where:

all values are calculated according to equations(B.2) to (B.10), i.e. including the influence of cement

type, humidity, etc.

t = time when creep is calculated (days) from beam casting

to = time when load was applied (days), from beam casting

The coefficient may be modified by a user defined factor.

Alternate method 1:

The user defines the total creep factor Cu (total/elastic strain) and the time (in days) when one-half of

Codes - Eurocode

25

the total creep occurs = t0.5. The creep coefficient is calculated as:

Alternate method 2:

The user defines the total creep factor Cu (total/elastic strain) and the value of the expression in the

following equation. The creep coefficient is calculated as:

Relaxation loss:

pr at time 't' is calculated according to Equations (3.30) and (3.31) for ordinary and low-relaxation

prestressing steel, respectively.

The value of 1000, (relaxation loss at 1000 hours), may be specified according to one of the following

methods:

User-defined value (e.g. when certificate is available)

Code recommended values, from Section 3.3.2(6).

The user specifies the total relaxation loss at 500,000 hours; the program then calculates 1000 from

equations (3.30) and (3.31).

1.2.2

Shear

The program calculates the shear capacity at the time requested for every point along the length of the

beam:

the effective cable forces are calculated taking into account the losses and jacking sequence at the

time requested.

at each point along the length of the beam the capacity is checked at the centre-of-gravity of the

section and at any point on the section height where there is a jump in section width; the maximum

value only is displayed for each point.

The program first calculates the cracking moment, Mcr :

Mcr = W full ften + Mo

where:

W full = modified elastic modulus, taking into account the shift of the center-of-gravity of the section

due to the cables and regular reinforcement.

ften

= fctk0.5/ c

Mo

= pty W full

pty

= stress from the cables at the tension face of the section

The shear capacity is calculated as follows:

uncracked sections (M < Mcr)

where:

cp = N/Ac < 0.2fcd

cracked sections (M

where:

ATIR Engineering Software Ltd.

Mcr)

26

Codes - EU

CRd,c = 0.18/ c

k = 1 + (200/d)

2

= As /bd

0.02

(VRd,c)m in = (vm in + 0.15 cp)bw d

VRd,m ax = cw bw z fcd (cot + tan )

where:

cw : from Eq. (6.11)

= 0.6 (1 - fck /250)

(6.6)

(6.2.b)

(6.9)

Inclined strut method:

The reinforcement is calculated from the equations:

VRd,s = (Asw /s) z fyw d cot

(6.8)

VRd,m ax = cw bw z fcd (cot + tan )

(6.9)

standard method:

(Asw /s) = (V - Vc) / (0.9d fyw d)

Note:

Shear capacity is compared to the design shear only for those combinations defined as "Factored" or

"Service & factored".

The program adds/subtracts the vertical component of the cable force to the shear capacity.

1.2.3

Ultimate moment

The program calculates the ultimate moment capacity at the time requested for every point along the

length of the beam, based on the stress-strain parameters defined by the Code.

where:

= 0.8

= 0.8 - (fck - 50)/400

fck 50 MPa

fck > 50 MPa

(3.19)

(3.20)

= 1.0

= 1.0 - (fck - 50)/200

fck 50 MPa

fck > 50 MPa

(3.21)

(3.22)

ecu3

cc = 1

c = 1.5

s = 1.15

s,max = 0.02

(3.1.6)

(Table 2.1N)

(Table 2.1N)

the program calculates the contribution of the concrete and tension/compression cables and regular

reinforcement, each cable and bar according to its eccentricity.

Codes - Eurocode

27

losses and section properties are calculated for the specified point in time, considering only that

cables that have already been jacked.

maximum concrete strain is assumed at the compression face and the strains in the cables and

reinforcement are calculated assuming a linear distribution.

For bonded cables, the stress is calculated from the stress-strain diagram defined in "Parameters".

For unbonded cables, the program calculates effective stress, plus stress increase for the ultimate

condition, defined by the user in "Parameters".

Note:

Ultimate moment capacity is compared to the design moment only for those combinations defined as

"Factored" or "Service & factored".

1.2.4

Deflections

The displacements are calculated based on effective moment-of-inertia values at each point.

For long-term deflections, the deflections at each 'step' are calculated according to the cable forces at

that step.

Deflection due to cable forces are calculated based on the losses at the time the deflections are

calculated.

Changes in supports at certain stages change the boundary conditions of those stages for integration

of the curvature along the beam.

Immediate deflection:

the program calculates the moment-of-inertia for the full section, using modified properties due to

cables and regular reinforcement.

the program calculates the cracked moment-of-inertia using an iterative method to determine the

center-of gravity location and equilibrium condition ( C = T) at each point. A linear stress distribution

over the height of the section is assumed because the service limit state is checked.

The program first calculates the cracking moment, Mcr :

Mcr = W full ften + Mo

where:

W full = modified elastic modulus, taking into account the shift of the center-of-gravity of the section

due to the cables and regular reinforcement.

ften

= fctm

(Table 3.1)

Mo

= 0.90 pty W full bonded

(5.10.9)

0.95 pty W full unbonded

pty

= stress from the cables at the tension face of the section

The program then calculates an effective curvature, Ceff, at every point along the beam, where Ceff =

M/EIeff

for M < Mcr :

Ceff = Cfull

for M > Mcr :

Ceff = Cfull

Ccr

where:

M

= Mloads + Mcable

Cfull = curvature for the uncracked section

Cr

= curvature for the cracked section

The curvature is integrated twice, using the supports at each stage to compute the deflection.

Long-term deflection:

The program sums up the deflections for different stages. For each stage it searches for the

combination that gives the maximum creep. Only "service" or "Factored and service" combinations are

considered. The program takes into account that supports may be added/removed at different stages.

28

Codes - EU

Note:

the program adds the shrinkage curvature to Ceff (refer to EC2 - losses

shrinkage strain)

22

Codes - Eurocode

1.3

29

Eurocode 3

The design is based on EN1993-1-1 : Eurocode 3 - Part 1-1 - General Rules for Buildings - May 2005.

The design is modified by the "UK National Annex to Eurocode 3" if the Annex is selected by the user in

the STRAP main menu Setup - Miscellaneous - Code factors option.

1.3.1

Classification of sections

Referring to Tables 5.2, the program determines the classification of every member for each combination

as follows:

in the case of biaxial bending, the program classifies the section according to "minor axis", which

always governs.

when calculating , the program assumes that the section is fully stressed and that the part of fy not

resulting from the actual axial force is caused by bending moments.

30

Codes - EU

in a "Combined beam", the program calculates the classification for each segment and uses the worst

case.

in a tapered beam, the program calculates the classification at each end and uses the worst case.

Effective Cross-section Properties of Class 4 Sections: - 6.2.2.5

The effective cross section properties of Class 4 sections are calculated using the effective widths of the

compression elements. Referring to EN 1993-1-5:

The program calculates Aeff, W eff and the eccentricities e nx, e ny based on the reduced cross section

properties.

1.3.2

Strength of steel

The program allows design with all steel grades (Fe360, 430, 510, Fe E 275, Fe E 355) - a different

grade may be assigned to each member.

The program calculates the design strength, fy, for various thicknesses according to Table 3.1.

Codes - Eurocode

1.3.3

31

Shear

The shear limit state is calculated as follows:

For tapered sections, the program calculates Fv and Av at 20 intervals along the member length

Note:

the program does not check shear buckling resistance of sections with thin webs (d/t > 69 )

according to EN 1993-1-5.

1.3.4

Bending

The program calculates all result values at: - 1/10 of span intervals, and at points of intermediate

supports. For tapered sections or combined beams with different properties, the program uses the

actual section at each point.

Note:the program does not check built-up sections with thin webs (d/t > 69 ) according to EN 1993-1-5.

Moment Capacity with Low Shear Load (VEd 0.5Vpl,Rd)

- 6.2.5

The moment capacity is calculated according to section classification as required by the Code.

Class 1 or Class 2 sections:

Mc = W pl fy/ MO

Class 3 sections:

Mc = W el fy/ MO

Class 4 sections:

Mc = W eff fy/ M1

where:

W pl

W el

W eff

=

=

=

elastic section modulus

effective section modulus, calculated as per 5.3.5.

For T-sections (major axis bending) and [-sections (minor axis bending), the program uses the value of

Wel calculated using the larger distance from the centre-of-gravity of the section.

Moment Capacity with High Shear Load (VEd > 0.5Vpl,Rd)

ATIR Engineering Software Ltd.

- 6.2.8

32

Codes - EU

The moment capacity is calculated according to section classification as required by the Code.

Av as calculated in Shear 31 .

1.3.5

Lateral-torsional buckling

Lateral-torsional buckling is calculated individually for each segment between intermediate supports, and

separately along the top and bottom flanges.

The designer can specify the exact location of intermediate supports for each member.

The effective length of individual segments for LTB is calculated according to the 'k' value specified by the

user in the "End Conditions" option of the Postprocessor.

The program checks that:

rolled sections:

, LT,0 - as specified in STRAP - Setup

welded sections

= 1.00 , LT,0= 0.2

** UK National Annex ** (NA.2.18)

kc = 1/ C1

C1 = (Mcr for the actual moment diagram)/(Mcr for a uniform moment diagram)

where Mcr is the elastic critical moment for lateral-torsional buckling and is calculated according to the

ATIR Engineering Software Ltd.

Codes - Eurocode

33

where:

C1, C2 and C3 are calculated from Tables F.1.1, F.1.2 (see below) based on the bending moment

diagram shape factor

warping factor kw = 1

( F.1.2 (4))

for I, RHS and Pipe sections: Zj = 0

for T sections: Zj is calculated according to F.1.4 (2)

If the flange direction of T,[ sections is not defined, or if a destabilizing load is defined, the program

specifies the sign of Zg such that the value of Mcr is decreased.

Referring to Table F.1.2, the program automatically determines whether a member is loaded in the

segment between adjacent intermediate supports. Members with a maximum Note that if you COMBINE

a series of unloaded members which have individual bending moment diagrams of varying slopes, the

program will consider the COMBINED beam as "loaded".

Unloaded segments: C2 = 0

Loaded segments:

Only the first two diagrams from Table F.1.2 are used to calculate C1, C2 and C3. For more general

bending moment diagrams, the program estimates which of the two cases is closer to the actual

shape, based on the end moment values.

1.3.6

The compression capacity of a member is calculated as per 6.3.1, but not greater than the value

calculated in 6.3.4.

NSd

X A A fy / M1

but:

A fy / M0

Aeff fy / M1

(Class 4 sections)

where:

A= 1

A = Aeff /A

for Class 4 sections

Table 5.5.3 is used to determine which buckling curve in Table 6.1 is applicable, according to the

buckling axis, thickness and section type.

Slenderness = kl/r:

The program may be instructed to calculate kx and ky, the effective length factors, according to

Appendix E or the values may be input directly by the designer (a default value of 1.00 is assumed by

the program for all members).

Tapered members or combined beams with different properties:

The program calculates the exact Euler buckling load for the member and then finds an equivalent

length l1 for a member with the minimum area which gives the same Euler buckling load. The

minimum area and the length l1 are used in all the equations.

Angles, Channels and T-section Struts

Back-to-back struts

ATIR Engineering Software Ltd.

- 4.7.10

- 4.7.13

34

Codes - EU

The calculation is carried out according to 4.7.10 and 4.7.13 of BS 5950, which is a more detailed

version of the method in Eurocode 3:

Single Angle Struts

- 4.7.10.2

Slenderness is the maximum of

kx Lx/rvv

ky Ly/rvv

0.7 Lx/rxx + 30

Chec

ked only if the member is defined as "pinned" at both ends

0.7 Ly/ryy + 30

"

"

0.7 Lx/rvv + 15

"

"

0.7 Ly/rvv + 15

"

"

where kx and ky are defined by the user - normally 0.85 or 1.00, depending on the connection

condition in 4.7.10.2 (a) and (b).

Double Angle Struts

Slenderness is the maximum of

kx Lx/rxx

0.7 Lx/rxx + 30

1.4 c

- 4.7.10.3

( 4.7.9c)

All four conditions are checked even if the member if not defined as "pinned" at both ends.

c is calculated for a single angle (using rvv). When calculating c, the program assumes Lc = L/3 to

comply with the requirement that the member should be divided into at least three segments (

4.7.13.1e) and ( c) m ax = 50.

Slenderness is the maximum of

kx Lx/rxx

ky Ly/ryy

where kx,ky are defined by the user.

- 4.7.10.4

T-section Struts

Effective Length is the maximum of

kx Lx/rxx

ky Ly/ryy

0.7 L/rxx + 30

where kx,ky are defined by the user.

- 4.7.10.5

Note that the third condition is applied only if the member was defined as "pinned" at both ends.

1.3.7

Tension capacity is calculated as:

NEd

A fy / M0

(6.6)

0.9 Anet fy / M2

(6.7)

The designer may define an area reduction factor for tension members (a default value may be specified)

in order to specify the "Net Area of Simple Tension Members" as outlined in 6.2.2.2.

Codes - Eurocode

1.3.8

35

Relationships are calculated according to section classification.

Local

Class 1 and Class 2 sections

(6.4.1)

where:

MNx,Rd, MNy,Rd are calculated from the reduced plastic section moduli in the CONSTRADO tables,

except as follows:

T-sections, angles, double angles and double channels:

The equation with Mnx, Mny cannot be used for these sections because the relevant data is not

available; the program calculates the capacity using the equation for Class 3 sections.

RHS (from CONSTRADO tables)

Class 3 sections

Class 1 and 3 sections - T, L, 2L

(6.2.9.2)

Class 4 sections

(6.2.9.3)

where:

Npl, Mpl,x and Mpl,y are calculated according to the section classification

e N is the shift of the centroidal axis in sections (Figure 5.3.1 and 5.3.2)

ATIR Engineering Software Ltd.

36

Codes - EU

(6.3.3)

where:

NEd, My,Ed, Mz, = design axial compression force and moments

Ed

My,Ed, Mz,Ed = moments due to the shift in the centroidal axis for Class 4 section according to

Table 6.7

y, z

= flexural buckling reduction factors according to 6.3.1

LT

= lateral-torsional buckling reduction factor according to 6.3.2

kyy,kyz ,kzy,kzz = interaction factors, calculated according to Annex B - Method 2.

** UK National Annex ** (NA.3.2)

Sections other than I, H or hollow: Class 1 and Class 2 sections are designed as Class 3 sections.

1.3.9

Deflections

The deflection check is a Serviceability calculation so the program uses the user-defined load

combinations without multiplying the elastic deflections by the load factors.

When checking the maximum deflection along the span of the member, the program ignores the

deflection of the end nodes, except in cantilevers where the maximum deflection is calculated at the free

end (unsupported node).

Maximum allowable deflections per member must be entered by the designer (a default value may be

specified).

Note:

The deflections calculated in the results are based on the section input in STRAP geometry. When

checking a different section, the Postprocessor modifies the deflection value by Inew /Iold, where:

Inew = moment-of-inertia of section being checked.

Iold = moment-of-inertia of STRAP geometry property.

When checking deflections of a "combined" beam, the program uses the length of the entire

combined beam and ignores any possible deflection support at the combined nodes. If such supports

exists, the allowable deflection parameter should be modified accordingly.

the program ignores intermediate supports (buckling and lateral-torsional) when checking deflections.

The design is based on the following publication:

Large Web Openings for Service Integration in Composite Floors

Eurocode Design Method for Composite and Non-Composite Beams with Web Openings

The Research Fund for Coal and Steel, 2006.

The program designs the following section types:

Codes - Eurocode

The program assumes that all of the openings are vertically centered in the beams.

Section classification

Flange:

Class

1

b/tf < 9

2

b/tf < 10

3

b/tf < 14

= (235/py)

Web:

Class

2

lt

32 tw

or

lt

36 tw

or

The program carries out the same regular beam design checks at both the full section and the cut

section locations.

In addition, the program does the following four design checks:

Ved /Vc,rd

Ved

1.0

=

Vc,

rd

shear capacity

=

Av Fy / (

mo

3)

fabricated

Av = (dt+db ) tw

sections:

Vierendeel bending

ATIR Engineering Software Ltd.

37

38

Codes - EU

Class1,2 :

Class 3:

Ned /Nc,rd

Med /Mc + Ned /Nc,rd 1.0

1.0

Med = V (e/4)

V = maximum shear at the opening

round opening:

e = 0.45ho = effective opening length

hexagon opening:

e=s

Class 1,2 : Mc = W pl,Rd Fy /

Class 3,4 : Mc = W el,Rd Fy/

mo

mo

Mc = reduced capacity of the T-section. The reduction is calculated according to the axial force and the

shear force acting at the section.

Ned = M/h1 + P/2

P = design axial force

The reduced plastic/elastic modulus is calculated by reducing the section about the plastic/elastic axis

and calculating the reduced section properties

reduced area due to axial force: Aa = Ned /Fy

reduced area due to shear force: As = (2 - 1)2 Aw

(only when the shear stress is greater than 50% of the allowable,

Nc,rd = A Fy /

> 0.5)

mo

V / Nb,rd

1.0

le = 0.7ho

V = Ved = maximum shear force acting at the opening

closely spaced opening (s ho):

le = (s2 + ho 2)

V = Vh = horizontal shear force

= 12 le/tw

according to buckling curve (c)

Nb,rd = buckling resistance - EC3 - Section 6.3

Vh /Vn

1.0

ATIR Engineering Software Ltd.

Codes - Eurocode

= V do /h'

Vn = shear capacity

= s tw Fy / (

mo

3)

Composite beams

A modified shear value V' is used in all calculations, where V' = V = Vcnc

Vcnc = vRd,c bw hs

bw = min (bf , bt+2hs)

bf = user-defined concrete flange width

bt = steel flange width

Vierendeel bending:

The tensile force in the bottom tee due to bending, NEd,b , is calculated as follows:

NEd,b = [MEd - Mcnc] / [h - z t - z b ] + P/2

but not less than MEd / [h + hs - 0.5hc - z b ]

where:

MEd is calculated using he modified shear value

Mcnc = Nc [z t + hs - 0.5hc]

hc = depth of compression block in the slab

"No. of studs" specified by the user:

Nc= nsc Prd = 0.85 fcd beff

nsc = the number of shear studs between the point in question and the point of zero moment

Prd = the design capacity of a shear stud.

full capacity:

Nc= 0.85 fcd beff

Note:

the program calculates more accurate results if the

selected.

39

40

1.4

Codes - EU

Eurocode 3 - cold-formed

Code clauses in the Help refer to EC3 - Part 1.3- 1996 - Supplementary Rules for Cold-formed Thin

Gauge Members & Sheeting" , February 1996.

The program designs the following section shapes:

Sections are added to the steel section library using the Files / Utilities / Create/edit a steel sections

table option in the STRAP main menu.

Effective section properties 43

Strength of steel 45

Shear 44

Bending - without LTB 42

Axial force - tension 41

Axial force - compression 40

Deflections 43

Lateral buckling strength 44

1.4.1

The program checks that the applied compression force does not exceed the design buckling resistance

of the cross-section, calculated according to 6.2:

where:

Nsd = factored axial compression force

Nb,Rd = design buckling resistance for axial compression, calculated according to:

Nb,Rd =

Aeff fy/ M1

(6.1)

where:

Aeff = effective section area, obtained from Section 4 by assuming a uniform compressive stress

com ,Ed = fyb/ M1

= reduction factor for buckling resistance, determined from

= relevant slenderness for relevant buckling mode.

The lowest value of

(6.2.b)

for flexural buckling of the member about any relevant axis, or for torsional or

ATIR Engineering Software Ltd.

Codes - Eurocode

41

Flexural buckling:

The appropriate buckling curve is determined from Table 6.2 according to the section type and axis of

buckling. The relative slenderness about the x and y axis is determined as follows:

l

i

=

=

buckling length for flexural buckling about the relevant axes (lx or ly)

radius of inertia about the corresponding axes (ix or iy), based on the properties of the gross

section

The relevant slenderness is calculated as follows:

}

(6.4a)

where:

cr

cr,T

cr,TF

=

=

=

cr,TF

cr,T

(6.4b)

elastic critical stress for torsional buckling, determined from 6.5a

elastic critical stress for torsional-flexural buckling, calculated for all open section types

(symmetric and non-symmetric) by solving the following equation from the AISI Cold-Formed

Steel Manual (Part III, Supplementary Information - Section 4):

x o,yo

ro

= the distances from the centroid to the shear centre along the x,y axes of the

section

= polar radius of inertia of the section about the shear centre

The program first searches for the longest segment between axial supports and calculates ex

for this segment. It then searches for the longest segment defined for LTB (i.e. between +z

and/or -z supports) that overlaps (even partially) the critical axial force segment and calculates

t.

1.4.2

The program checks that the applied tension force does not exceed the design tension resistance of the

cross-section, calculated according to 5.2:

where:

Nsd

Nt,Rd

=

=

Ag

Fn,Rd

=

=

design tension resistance, equal to the lesser of:

Nt,Rd = fya Ag/ Mo

(5.1)

Fn,Rd = Anet fu/ M2

(Table 8.1)

gross section area

net section resistance (Section 8.4)

42

Codes - EU

Anet

fya

fu

M2

1.4.3

=

=

=

=

average yield strength

ultimate tensile strength

1.25

The program checks that the applied moment about the relevant axis is less than the moment capacity

of the cross-section calculated according to Section 5.4 of the Code, i.e.

where:

Msd =

Mc,Rd =

Mc,Rd

Mc,Rd

moment capacity of the cross-section, calculated from:

= fy W eff/ M1

- when W eff < W el

(5.3a)

= fya W e l/ M0

- when W eff = W el

(5.3b)

where:

W eff

= effective section modulus, based on the the effective cross-section subjected only to bending

moment

Wel

= gross elastic section modulus

Note:

The program calculates all result values at: - 1/10 of span intervals, and at points of intermediate

supports.

When computing the moment-of-inertia and elastic section modulus of flexural members, the program

uses the effective section properties calculated according to Section 5.6.2.

1.4.4

Compression and bending

The program checks the combined bending and compression stress according to Section 6.5:

where:

Nb,m in

Mx

My

Mcx

Mcy

Mbx

=

=

=

=

=

=

m in fyb Aeff / M1

Mx,sd + Nsd e Nx

My,sd + Nsd e Ny

fyb W eff,x,com / M1

fyb W eff,y,com / M1

LT fyb W eff,x,com / M1

Tension and bending

The program checks the combined bending and tension stress according to Section 5.5:

where:

W eff,x,ten, W eff,y,ten

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1.1

Note that when selecting a section the program also checks bending without the axial force. The

equation for combined tension and bending is less conservative than bending alone; if a section is

inadequate for bending, then combined tension and bending will not be checked.

The program checks combined bending and shear according to Section 5.10:

where:

Msd

Vsd

Mc,Rd

Vw ,Rd

1.4.5

=factored shear force

=moment resistance of the section

=shear resistance of the section

Deflections

The deflection is calculated based on the effective section properties determined according to Section 4.

The effective width of a compression element is calculated according to the compressive stress com ,Ed,

ser in the element subjected to the service limit state loading.

1.4.6

The effective section properties are calculated on the basis of the effective width beff of the compression

elements. The effective width is calculated according to the compression stress com ,Ed in the relevant

element, where:

com ,Ed

fyb

M1

=

=

=

fyb/ M1

basic yield strength

1.1 = partial factor for buckling failure

(section 2.2)

The effective width is calculated according to Section 4.2 and is obtained from Table 4.1 (Doubly

supported compression elements) and Table 4.2 (Outstand compression elements).

Plane compression elements with edge stiffeners

The first and last elements of a section are assumed to be stiffeners (lips) if the length of the segment

is less than 28 mm; otherwise they are assumed to be unstiffened elements.

The effective width is calculated according to Section 4.3.2:

only single-edge folds may be calculated (Figure 4.2.a)

The effective section properties are calculated according to Section 4.3.2.2 - General Procedure

Plane compression elements with intermediate stiffeners

The program assumes that the following elements have intermediate stiffeners if the projection is

smaller than 28 mm:

The effective width is calculated according to Section 4.3.3. The effective section properties are

calculated according to Section 4.3.3.2 - General Procedure.

44

1.4.7

Codes - EU

The program calculates all result values at: - 1/10 of span intervals, and at points of intermediate

supports.

The designer can specify the exact location of intermediate supports for each member.

Lateral-torsional buckling is calculated individually for each segment between intermediate supports, and

separately along the top and bottom flanges; the calculation is done separately for positive moments

(supports on bottom flange only are considered) and for negative moments (supports on top flange only

are considered).

For laterally unbraced segments subject to lateral buckling, the factored load moment shall not exceed

the design buckling resistance moment:

where:

Msd

Mb,Rd

1.4.8

= design moment

= design buckling resistance moment, calculated according to section 6.3.

Shear

The program checks that the actual shear force is less than the allowable shear resistance of the web,

i.e.

Vsd

Vw ,Rd

The shear resistance of the web Vw ,Rd is the lesser of the shear buckling resistance Vb,Rd and the

plastic buckling resistance Vpl,Rd:

shear buckling resistance - Vb,Rd:

Vb,Rd = (hw /sin ) t fbv/ M1

where:

hw

=

=

t

=

M1

=

fbv

=

sw

fyb

E

=

=

=

(5.13)

slope of the web relative to flanges

web thickness

1.1

shear buckling strength, is calculated according to Table 5.2, based on the value of

where

},

basic yield strength

21,000 N/mm

Vpl,Rd = (hw /sin ) t (fbv/ 3)/ Mo

(5.14)

where:

M0 = 1.1

and all other symbols are explained above.

Vpl,Rd is checked only if sw /t

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where:

= (235/fyb)

fy

= fya if the conditions of Section 3.1.2 are satisfied; otherwise fy = fyb

Note:

For sections with a number of segments parallel to the direction of shear, the program calculates Vr

for each segment and uses the sum (lips are not considered as segments).

For combined shear and moments, refer to Combined forces 42 .

1.4.9

Strength of steel

The program allows for design in all grades of steel - a different grade may be assigned to each member.

The increase in strength due to cold-forming is calculated according to Section 3.1.2 if the option is

selected by the user. The increased average yield strength fya is substituted for fy when calculating

axial capacity, flexural capacity and combined stresses

fya

(fu + fyb)/2

(3.1)

where:

Ag

k

n

t

=

=

=

=

5

number of 90 bends in the cross-section with internal radius r

nominal thickness

5t

46

1.5

Codes - EU

Eurocode 4

Composite beams 46

Composite columns 50

1.5.1

Composite beams

This section details the method used by the program to select steel sections for composite beams when

using the Eurocode 4 composite design code.

The user specifies the topping dimensions, properties and reinforcement, parameters that specify the

type of shear connection, details on short term vs. long term loading, etc. The program then selects the

lightest steel section that provides the required composite section capacity (the topping dimensions are

not modified by the program during the steel beam selection process).

The program differentiates between areas of positive (sagging) and negative (hogging) moment:

positive moments:

designed as composite sections

negative moments: designed as non-composite steel sections according to Eurocode 4 (with the

addition of reinforcement in the slab, if specified).

Materials

Structural steel:

py, the design strength of the structural steel, is determined according to Eurocode 4.

Concrete:

The nominal concrete grade (C25 to C50) is specified by the user. The program assumes that the

topping is stressed to a uniform compression of 0.85 fcu/1.5.

C25 concrete is assumed to be "lightweight"

Modulus of elasticity :

Modular ratio = Es /Ec

Section types

The program can design the following section types:

Classification

Negative moments:

Classification according to Eurocode 4.

Positive moments:

Classification according to Eurocode 4, except that the section is assumed to be in compression from

the topping to plastic neutral axis of the composite section and in tension below the plastic neutral

axis.

Shear - vertical

(section 4.4.2)

The steel beam is designed to resist the entire vertical shear force in accordance with Eurocode 3.

Refer to Eurocode 3- Shear 31 .

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Shear - longitudinal

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(section 6.2)

capacity of a single shear connector

actual number of connectors per beam in the positive moment region, or

program to calculate number of connectors required in the positive moment region for full shear

connection.

If the user specifies the number of connectors in the positive moment region and the number is less than

the number required to develop the positive moment capacity of the section, the program designates the

beam as having a "partial shear connection" and reduces the bending capacity accordingly (see below).

The number of connectors in negative moment regions cannot be specified. The program assumes full

shear connection in the negative moment region if topping reinforcement is specified; hence the user

should not specify topping reinforcement if the required number of connectors cannot be provided.

The program calculates the number of studs as follows:

positive moment region :

np = 2 F/Fstud

where:

Fstud

= capacity of a single shear connector * 0.85

F

= min(F1, F2)

F1

= maximum force in the steel section = A fy /1.1

F2

= maximum force in the concrete section = 0.85 fc Ac/1.5

The force must be taken on both sides of the point of maximum positive moment; hence the factor '2'.

negative moment region (only if the user specifies topping reinforcement):

nn = k FA/Fstud

where:

Fstud

=

F

=

k

=

As fy /1.15

2 if there a negative moment at both ends; otherwise k = 1

Output:

topping As =0

:

topping As specified

np +nn = total number of studs required in the positive and negative moment

: regions, and

nn = total number of studs required in the negative moment regions (on a

separate line)

Note:

If multiple load cases are defined, detailed results for all load cases must be displayed to determine

the required distribution of shear connectors.

it is the user's responsibility to detail the spacing of the studs along the length of the beam.

The moment capacity of the section for positive moment is calculated according to section 4.4:

Class 1 plastic web:

plastic moment capacity

Class 2 compact web:

plastic moment capacity

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Class 3 semi-compact

web:

Class 4 slender web:

reduced elastic moment capacity

the topping width is reduced by the factor 0.85 fcu/1.5/py

topping area in tension (below the 'plastic neutral axis') is ignored

for partial shear connections (see above), the program calculates the theoretical topping height that

provides a full shear connection and uses this reduced width to calculate the plastic section modulus.

for Class 1 or Class 2 webs with high shear load (Fv > 0.5 Pv), the program calculates the reduced

moment capacity Mcv according to the Code.

The calculation of Z, the elastic section modulus, assumes that:

the topping width is reduced by the factor:

short-term loading: n = Es /Ec

long-term loading: n = Es /Ec, where is specified by the user in the Default/Parameters option.

topping area in tension is ignored

For partial shear connection, the flange width bf is reduced by the factor (Vcap/Vreq)

partial connection.

1, the degree of

where:

M1

= moment

M2

= moment

M3

= moment

Mcs = moment

Mc1, Mc2, Mc3 =

due to short-term load

due to long-term load

capacity of steel beam only, calculated according to Eurocode 3 31 .

moment capacity corresponding to M1, M2 and M3, respectively, calculated as

explained above, but subject to the following limitation: S < kZ:

The Default/Parameters option allow the user to define topping reinforcement that will increase the

negative moment capacity.

The moment capacity of the section for negative moment is calculated assuming:

no topping reinforcement: steel section capacity according to Eurocode 3 31

topping reinforcement:

the area of the reinforcement is added to the section when calculating S:

Reinforcement should not be specified if the shear connectors required for full shear connection

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The program carries out the following design checks:

where:

M

= M1 + M2 + M3

Mc = capacity of section with reinforcement

M1, M2, M3, Mcs = as defined above

Lateral-torsional buckling

The program assumes that the top flange is continuously supported by the concrete topping. The LTB

capacity of the bottom flange is calculated according to Eurocode 3 32 .

Deflections

The program calculates the total span deflection

as follows:

where:

M1, M2, M3 = as defined above (bending)

(M1) :

calculated using the moment of inertia of the steel beam only

(M2) = the moment-of-inertia is calculated assuming that the topping width is reduced according to

a modular ratio n = Es /Ec

(M3) = the moment-of-inertia is calculated assuming that the topping width is reduced according to

a modular ratio n

Es /Ec, where is specified by the user in the Default/Parameters

option

The increased deflection arising from partial shear connection is determined from EC4, assuming

unpropped construction:

=

c + 0.3 (1 - Na/Np) ( s - c

where:

Na = actual number of shear connectors

Np = number of shear connectors required for full shear connection

c

= deflection for full shear connection as calculated above

s

= deflection for the steel beam acting alone

Axial force

The Default/Parameters option allow the user to specify one of the following design options:

ignore axial force

axial force taken by steel beam only (capacity according to Eurocode 3 33 )

Design check according to equations in Eurocode 3

Refer to Castellated beams - composite

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35

50

1.5.2

Codes - EU

Composite columns

The program calculates the axial capacity of composite columns according to section 4.8.3 - "Simplified

Method of Design".

Note that the concrete is ignored when calculating the flexural capacity of the section.

The plastic resistance to compression is calculated by adding the plastic resistances of the column

components:

Npl,Rd = Aa fy /1.1 + Ac (0.85fck )/1.5 + As fsk /1.15

for filled circular sections:

Npl,Rd = Aa fy /1.1 + Ac (fck )/1.5 + As fsk /1.15

where:

Aa, fy

Ac, fck

As , fsk

- refers to the concrete area

- refers to the additional reinforcement

(EI)e = EaIa + 0.8 (Ec/1.35) Ic + Es Is

where:

Ea, Ia

Ec, Ic

Es , Is

- refers to the concrete area

- refers to the additional reinforcement

Index

Index

-CCodes

Eurocodes

5

Cold-formed

40

-EEurocode 2

6, 22

Eurocode 3

29

Cold-formed

40

Eurocode 4

46

51

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