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Eliassen Transverse Circulation Note

(Hsu, Tien-Yiao)
May 6, 2015

1 Governing Equation
The governing equations in cylindrical coordinate (r, h, ) are
du (
v)

= f+
v
dt
r
r
(
dv
v)

= f+
u
+F
dt
r
r

= g
z
0
ru w
+
+
=0
t
rr
z
Q
d
=
dt
Cp

(
v)
= f+
v
r
r
dm
= rF
dt

= g
z
0
ru w
+
=0
rr
z
d
=J
dt

(1a)
(1b)
(1c)
(1d)
(1e)

(2a)
(2b)
(2c)
(2d)
(2e)

Here we adopt z = [1 (p/p0 ) ](Cp 0 /g), pseudo-density (z) = /0 (whose derivation can be found in
appendix A) and absolute angular momentum m = rv + 1/2f r2 . Equations in (2) are reduced from (1). The
assumptions are:
1. Radial force balances fast. (dt u = 0)
2. All the quantities are axisymmetric. ( = 0)

Eliassen Transverse Circulation

From now on we will denote as for simplicity. Using Maxwell relation we can quickly get the desired
equation


g
1 m2
=

= 3
(3)
r z
z r
0 r
r z
Now we use angular conservation equation and thermodynamic equation to construct desired equation. First
multiply angular equation by 2m get dt m2 = 2mrF , and substitute u = z , w = 1r r r
m2
r m2
m2

+
= 2mrF
t
z x
rr z

+
=J
t
z x rr z

(4a)
(4b)

We apply thermal wind relation by doing


(
)
(
)
g (4b)
1 (4a)

g J
1 2mF
3

A
+B
+
B
+C
=
2
0 r
r z
r
rr
z
z
rr
z
0 r
r
z

(5)

where
A :=

g
,
0 z

B :=

For simplicity, we dene


L :=

g
1 m2
= 3
,
0 r
r z

C :=

1 m2
r3 r

(
)
(
)
r

+B
+C
A
+
B
rr
z
z
rr
z

(6)

(7)

Eciency

From Appendix B we have the conversion rate in terms of vertical velocity. However, we can rewrite it in
terms of heating J. We make the following operations

r
g
rdr dz
(8)
C=
rr
0
g
=

rdr dz (Integral by part with = 0 on boundary)


(9)
0 r

=
L rdr dz ( is a function such that L := (g/0 )/r.)
(10)

=
L rdr dz (Self-adjoint property of L )
(11)
(
)

g J
1 2mF
=
r
2
dr dz [ Using (5) ]
(12)
0 r
r
z
(
)
(
)

g
r
2m
=
Q
rdr dz +
vF
rdr dz
Cp 0 rr
vr2 z
)r=rmax
)z=zT
(
(
J
2mF

gr
dz +

dr
(13)
0
r
r=0
z=0
(Integral by part, expand J into Q and change F into F v)
A naive boundary condition of r is that r = 0 on boundary so that last two terms vanish. Then we dene
heating eciency and dynamical eciency as follows

H :=

g
r
Cp 0 rr

(14)

D :=

2m
vr2 z

(15)

Thus we can dene average eciency


C = H H + D D

(16)

where

H :=
H :=

Q rdr dz

QH rdr dz
H

D :=

(17)
(18)

D :=
2

vF rdr dz

(19)

vF D rdr dz
D

(20)

A z coordinate
Then we need to dene new vertical coordinate z
[
( ) ]
Cp 0
p
z :=
1
g
p0

(21)

where 0 stands for appropriate mean potential temperature.


The idea of this coordinate can be seen from the hydrostatic approximation. If we make use of T = (p/p0 ) ,
then
p
pg
=

h
R (p/p0 )

(22)

( )1

p =
p0 p0
Cp
{
[
( ) ]}
Cp 0
p

1
g =
g
p0
0

= g
z
0

(23)
(24)
(25)

In correspond we thus have the pseudo-density dened as


z := h
h

=
=
=
z
g z
0

(26)
(27)

Express and using ideal gas law,


p0
(z) =
0 R

(
)(1)/
zg
1
= 0 (1)/
Cp 0

(28)

where 0 := p0 /0 R. Now we see is only a function of z (or ) !

Energy Flow

Multiply momentum equation by u, v and w, respectively. Then add them together and apply continuity
equation to get
[
]
2
k
+ gw + vF, k := v
= (k + )V
(29)
t
0
2
Integrate with respect to whole space to get kinetic energy time derivative (with non-crossing boundary
condition)

dK
=
dt

}|

gw rdr dz +
0

}|

vF rdr dz

(30)

As for potential energy we integrate Cp T


dA
=
dt

T
Cp
rdr dz =
t

}|

Q rdr dz

}|

gw rdr dz
0

(31)

In a nutshell,
dK
=C+D
dt
dA
=HC
dt

(32a)
(32b)

From non-axissymetric to axissymetric

Dene the average


( ) :=

1
2

( ) d
0

(33)