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Evolution of GSM towards UMTS explained in terms of

generations:
The entire cellular systems
since introduced has
effectively been replaced at
times.
These major changes are
referred to as a new
generation of cellular
systems.

The Dream (intention)


2G and 2.5G systems are incompatible around the

world.

Worldwide devices need to have multiple technologies


inside of them, i.e. tri-band phones, dual-mode phones

To develop a single standard that would be

accepted around the world

One device should be able to work anywhere !


Increased data rate
Maximum 2048Kbps

Access to Information from Anyplace,


Anytime
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The reality
Different standards with some operators in

America and the rest of the world

Difficulties
World wide identical available spectrum
Agreement on the encoding/decoding
technique used

3G UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunications Service) is


a third-generation (3G): broadband, packet-based
transmission of text, digitized voice, video, multimedia at
data rates up to 2 Mbps .

UMTS is based on the Global System for Mobile (GSM)


communication standard. It is also endorsed by major
standards bodies and manufacturers as the planned
standard for mobile users around the world.

Once UMTS is fully available, computer and phone users


can be constantly attached to the Internet wherever they
travel and, as they roam will have the same set of
capabilities. Users will have access through a combination
of terrestrial and satellite transmissions.
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Major difference
GSM: TDMA and FDMA
UMTS: Wide-band code division multiple access
(WCDMA)

CDMA
Power

TDMA
Power

Traffic channels: different


users
are
assigned
unique
code
and
transmitted over the
same frequency band,
for example, WCDMA
and CDMA2000
Traffic channels: different time
slots are allocated to different
users, for example, DAMPS and
GSM

FDMA
Power

Traffic channels: different frequency


bands are allocated to different users ,
for example, AMPS and TACS
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Advantage
FDMA

1. Simple Implementation

Defect
Defect
1. Frequency Reuse
2. privacy

AMPS, TACS

1.Privacy

1. Need synchronized of
frame

CDMA

1. Reduction the interference

IS95,
W-CDMA

2. Diversity Hand-over

1. Sophisticated power
control for mobile

TDMA
GSM, PDC

3. Privacy

Multiple access method

DS-CDMA (DS: Direct Spread)

Duplexing method

FDD/TDD (Frequency Division Duplex/Time Division


Duplex)

Inter-cell synchronization

Asynchronous

Bandwidth

5 MHZ

Chip rate

3.84 Mcps

Carrier spacing

Flexible with 100/200kHz

Frame length Unit

10 ms

Data modulation

Downlink: QPSK, Uplink: BPSK

Multi-rate concept

Variable spreading factor

Maximum data rate

2 Mbps (indoor)/384 kbps (mobile)

Channel coding

Convolution coding
Turbo code for High data rate

BPSK: Binary phase shift keying

QPSK: Quadrature phase shift keying

UMTS

UMTS-FDD

UMTS-TDD

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FDD (Frequency Division Duplex)

Mobile Terminal

Base station

TDD (Time Division Duplex)

TS
Up

Mobile Terminal
TS: Time slot

TS
Down

Base station
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Intended

Data Rates

Actual data rates will be effected by


Interference (other devices, background, buildings)
Amount of other traffic
The speed that the device is moving
Maximum movement speed for high date rate
is 10 Kmph
a fast walker will lose this rate.

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Macro Cell
These cover a large area and will give slow access.
144 Kbps max speed of 500 Km/h.
Low data rate.

Micro Cell
These should cover a medium area.
384 Kbps max speed 120 Km/h.
Medium data rate.

Pico Cell
Less than 100 metres.
2 Mbps max speed of 10 Km/h.
High data rate.

Difficult to predict
Actual distances and bandwidth depend on local conditions
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Types of Cells and Base station to use them


Cells will operate in a hierarchy overlaying each

other

Global
Satellite
Suburban
Urban
In-Building

Macro-Cell

Micro-Cell

Pico-Cell

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Cell breathing

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16

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In UMTS cell size is tightly interrelated with its capacity

Cell breathing describes a constant change of the range of a

geographical area covered by a Node B cell based on the amount


of traffic currently using that transmitter. When a cell becomes
heavily loaded, it shrinks. Subscriber traffic is then redirected to a
neighboring cell that is more lightly loaded, which is called load
balancing.

Interference increases noise in signal

UE on the cell edge is transmitting with max power


Another UE becomes active results in increased

interference
The received signal from the UE on the cell edge is too
weak and communication becomes impossible
Restriction of participants needed
Effective cell size decreases with increasing number of
users
There is a trade-off between capacity and coverage
Results in cell breathing and imposes greater difficulties on
network planning
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FDD
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General Core Network Architecture


The UMTS Core Network (CN) can be seen as the basic
platform for all communication services provided to the
UMTS subscribers

The CN is functionally further divided into two domains:


circuit switched domain(CS) and packet switched domain (PS)

1-Circuit Switched CN:

The CS domain refers to the set of all CN entities offering a CS type


connection.

2-Packet-Switched CN:

the PS domain offers "PS type connection", which


transports the user information using autonomous
concatenation of bits called packets. The information is
split into separated but related packets before being
transmitted and is reassembled at the receiving end.
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General Core Network Architecture


Iu

Node B
Node B

USIM
Cu

Iub

ME

RNC

MSC/
VLR

Iur

GMSC

HLR

Node B
RNC
Node B

UE

UTRAN

SGSN

GGSN
CN

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External Networks

U
u

MSC

Mobile switching center


Serves ME at its current location for circuit switch service

GMSC

Gateway MSC
Serves UMTS where it is connected to ext .CS NW

HLR

Home Location Register


The database storing the master copy of a users profile

VLR

Visitor Location Register


The database holding a copy of a visiting users profile .

GGSN

Gateway serving GPRS support node


the node that is accessed by the packet data network it contains routing
information for PSattached users.

SGSN

Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN)


Router for Packet Switched Services .

Node B

3G base station
Handles radio channel,multiplexing,demultilexing of data & voice

RNC

Radio RN controller

Controls & manages multiple base stations


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There are four major new interfaces


defined in UMTS:
Iu
The interface between UTRAN and the
CN
Iur
The Interface between different RNCs

Iub
The interface between the Node B
and the RNC

Uu
The air interface
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Logical channel: an information


stream dedicated to the transfer of a
specific type of information
Transport channel: described by how
data are transferred
Physical channel: defined by the
frequency, phase (I,Q) and code
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Control channels (C-plane information)

Synchronisation Control Channel (DL)


Broadcast Control Channel (DL)
Paging Control Channel (DL)
Common Control Channel (UL&DL)
Dedicated Control Channel (UL&DL)
Shared Control Channel
ODMA Dedicated Control Channel

Traffic channels (U-plane information)


Dedicated Traffic Channel (DL&UL)
ODMA Dedicated Traffic Channel
Common Traffic CHannel
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Physical layer provides data transport support to


higher layers via Transport Channels
Rate Matching/ Dematching.
Multiplexing/ Demultiplexing different

Transport Channels into/from a Coded


Composite Transport Channel
(CCTRCH).
Mapping/ Demapping of CCTRCH
into/from Physical Channels.
Modulation and Spreading /
Demodulation and Despreading.
Power Weighting and combining of
physical channels.
RF Processing.
Error detection.
Encoding/decoding.
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DATA

3840 Kcps

Coding
&
Interleaving

Channelization
Code

Scrambling
Code

1st Step: Channelization


Variable Rate Spreading ( According to user data rate)

Transmissions from a single source are separated by Channelization codes:


Based on OVSF technique (Orthogonal Variable Spreading Factor)
Allows spreading to be changed while maintaining orthogonality
between codes

2nd Step: Scrambling Code


Gold sequence code of length : 2^(24)-1
needed to separate terminals or base stations from each other
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Downlink (Node B to UE )

Scrambling Code: Identifies cell (sector).


Channelization Code: Identifies user channels in cell (Sector).

Scrambling Code A
Scrambling Code B
Channelization
Channelization
Channelization Code 2
Code 3
Code 1
Channelization
Code 1
Channelization
Code 2

Channelization
Code 1 Channelization
Code 2
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Scrambling Code C

Up Link (UE to Node B )

Scrambling Code: Identifies user terminal.


Channelization Code: Identifies channels in user terminal.

Channelization
Code 1

Scrambling Code A
Channelization
Code 1

Scrambling Code B

Channelization
Code 1

Scrambling Code C

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Narrow Band
Spreading
Signal
Code 1
A

Wide Band
Signal
(Multiple Signal)

Despreading

(Receiver A)

Code 1
A

C
B
A

User-A
Code 2

User-A
(Receiver B)

Code 2

De-spreading
Code

User-B
Code 3

Narrow Band
Signal

(Receiver C)

User-B

Code 3

User-C

User-C

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001

encoder
1-11-1

-11-11 -11-11 1-11-1

010

encoder
11-1-1

-1-111 11-1-1 -1-111

110

encoder
1-1-11

1-1-11 1-1-11 -111-1

-1 -1 -1 3 1 1 -3 1 -1 -1 3 -1

-1-1-13 11-31 -1-13-1


1-11-1

decoder

-4 -4 4

001

-1-1-13 11-31 -1-13-1


11-1-1

decoder

-4 4 -4

010

decoder

4 4 -4

110

-1 -1 -1 3 1 1 -3 1 -1 -1 3 -1
-1-1-13 11-31 -1-13-1
1-1-11

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Rake

C
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RAKE Receiver
Finger Circuit
RX

Finger Circuit

Combiner
Combined
Signal

Finger Circuit
Searcher
Electric
Power

Electric Power

Calculation

Output Power

Multiple Signal 1
Multiple Signal 2
Multiple Signal 3
Delay Time

Delay Time

Delay Profile
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Open loop techniques are used during the initial access


before communication between the UE and node B has
been fully established. It simply operates by making a
measurement of the received signal strength and thereby
estimating the transmitter power required. As the transmit
and receive frequencies are different, the path losses in
either direction will be different and therefore this method
cannot be any more than a good estimate.
Closed loop techniques Once the UE has accessed the
system and is in communication with the node B, closed loop
techniques are used. A measurement of the signal strength is
taken in each time slot. As a result of this a power control bit
is sent requesting the power to be stepped up or down. This
process is undertaken on both the up and downlinks.

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The basic mean of handover is to provide


the continuous connection when moving
among cells.
Any failures within the UMTS handover (or
UMTS handoff) procedure will lead to
dropped calls which will in turn result in user
dissatisfaction and ultimately it may lead to
users changing networks.
There are three types :
Hard handover
Soft handover
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Softer handover

Hard handover is applied when the users


equipment communicates with only just one
Node B. Connection with the old Node B is broken
before the new connection is established.
Handover is executed after the signal strength
from neighbors cell exceeding the signal strength
from the current cell

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Soft handover occurs when a UE is in the


overlapping coverage area of two cells. Links to the
two base stations can be established simultaneously
and in this way the UE can communicate with two
base stations. By having more than one link active
during the handover process.

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In the downlink direction. In the mobile station the


signals received from the two different base
stations are combined using Rake receiver. In the
uplink direction the received signals are routed to
the RNC. in the RNC the two signals are compared
on a frame-by-frame basis and the best candidate
is selected.
after each interleaving period; i.e. every 10, 20, 40
or 80ms. As the outer loop power control algorithm
measures the SNR of received uplink signals at a
rate between 10 and 100Hz, this information is used
to select the frame with the best quality during the
soft handover
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similar to soft handover. The main difference


between these two handovers that a UE is located
in the coverage area of two sectors of one Node B
.the Node B combines the data from more than
one cell to obtain good quality data from the UE.

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in the uplink, the signals received by the Node B,


the signals from the two sectors can be routed to
the same RAKE receiver and then combined to
provide an enhanced signal.
In the downlink, the different sectors of the Node B
use different scrambling codes. To overcome this,
different fingers of the RAKE receiver apply the
appropriate de-spreading or de-scrambling codes
to the received signals. Once this has been done,
they can be combined as before.

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What is QOS?
Quality of Service (QOS) is the mechanism insuring that a service

can be delivered to the end user in an acceptable time-frame


and that the service properties are stable over time within
predefined boundaries.
QOS a the total outcome of the service performance,
measured in terms of speed, accuracy and reliability.
From the network point of view QOS refers to the capability to
provide different network services to different network traffic.
Different services translate into different characteristics for the
network flows, for example: bandwidth, error ratio, delay
QOS does not create additional network resource - it does not
create additional bandwidth for example - but allow for the
existing network resources to be managed in order to provide
predictable parameters for network resource
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The end user could be a terminal or even

another 3G network. The end-to-end QOS


UMTS requirement implies that QOS
management is needed in all involved
domains: wireless domain, IP core, external IP
network.

Figure 1: End-to-end connectivity


possibilities.
Two Terminal Equipment (TE) could use
just the Wireless and UMTS domain to
communicate, like in case [A], or the
external network domain could be
involved, like in case [B] .

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