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Indian Polity 2015

Table of Contents
INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................................................. 11
Need for a constitution............................................................................................................................................. 12
Types of constitutions ............................................................................................................................................... 12

15

Written and Unwritten constitutions ..................................................................................................................... 12


federal and unitary constitutions............................................................................................................................. 13

20

confederation ............................................................................................................................................................ 13
constitutionalism ...................................................................................................................................................... 13

LS

indian constitution: milestones in history ................................................................................................................ 14


legislature of various countries ................................................................................................................................. 24

IA

bicameral countries .................................................................................................................................................. 25


SALIENT FEATURES OF THE INDIAN CONSTITUTION................................................................ 27

Power resides with the people .................................................................................................................................. 27

TO

rule of law prevails .................................................................................................................................................. 27


social document ........................................................................................................................................................ 27
written constitution .................................................................................................................................................. 27

TU

preamble ................................................................................................................................................................... 28
federal structure........................................................................................................................................................ 28
parliamentary government ....................................................................................................................................... 29

separation of powers................................................................................................................................................. 30

PS

secular state .............................................................................................................................................................. 31


independent judiciary............................................................................................................................................... 31

judicial review .......................................................................................................................................................... 32


fundamental rights................................................................................................................................................... 32
directive principles of state policy ............................................................................................................................ 32
fundamental duties .................................................................................................................................................. 32
flexibility of constitution and its basic structure ..................................................................................................... 33
universal adult suffrage ........................................................................................................................................... 33
emergency provisions................................................................................................................................................. 33
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Indian Polity 2015


independent agencies ................................................................................................................................................ 34
PREAMBLE.............................................................................................................................................................. 35
Purpose ..................................................................................................................................................................... 35
nature and scope....................................................................................................................................................... 35
preamble: an aid to interpretation........................................................................................................................... 40
limitations of preamble as an internal aid to construction .................................................................................... 41

15

CITIZENSHIP ......................................................................................................................................................... 42
Parliaments power to regulate right of Citizenship by law and the Citizenship Act, 1955 ................................ 43

20

Idea of Justice I- Fundamental Rights ................................................................................................................ 45


What is Justice? ....................................................................................................................................................... 45

LS

Nature of Fundamental Rights ............................................................................................................................... 45


The constitution of india ......................................................................................................................................... 47

IA

contents ..................................................................................................................................................................... 47
Fundamental Rights-Contents ................................................................................................................................. 62

Right to Equality ..................................................................................................................................................... 62

TO

Right to Freedom ..................................................................................................................................................... 63


Right against Exploitation...................................................................................................................................... 67
Right to Freedom of Religion .................................................................................................................................. 67

TU

Cultural and Educational Rights ........................................................................................................................... 68


Right to Constitutional Remedies ........................................................................................................................... 68

Idea of Justice II-Directive Principles of State Policy..................................................................................... 70


Features of Directive Principles of State Policy ...................................................................................................... 70

PS

Directive Principles of State Policy: Contents ......................................................................................................... 71


Directive Principles of State Policy and Fundamental Rights- Inter-Relationship ............................................... 73

Parliamentary Democracy ..................................................................................................................................... 75


Characteristics of the Parliamentary Form of Government ................................................................................... 75
Constitutional or Nominal and Real Executive ..................................................................................................... 75
Plural Executive....................................................................................................................................................... 76
Ministerial Responsibility and Collective Responsibility........................................................................................ 76
Parliamentary Sovereignty ...................................................................................................................................... 77
Parliamentary Control over Administration .......................................................................................................... 78
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INDIAN FEDERALISM: NATURE AND PROBLEMS ............................................................................ 79
Written Constitution................................................................................................................................................ 79
Supremacy of the Constitution................................................................................................................................. 79
Rigid Constitution ................................................................................................................................................... 79
Division of Powers ................................................................................................................................................... 80
Independent Judiciary .............................................................................................................................................. 80

15

Bicameral Legislature.............................................................................................................................................. 80
Unitary features of the Indian Constitution ........................................................................................................... 80

20

A Strong Centre........................................................................................................................................................ 80
Single Citizenship .................................................................................................................................................... 81

LS

Single Constitution for Union and State ................................................................................................................ 81


Centre Can Change the Name and Boundaries of States ...................................................................................... 81

IA

Single Unified Judiciary .......................................................................................................................................... 81


Unequal Representation of States in the Rajya Sabha .......................................................................................... 81

Common All-India Services ..................................................................................................................................... 82

TO

Emergency Provisions............................................................................................................................................... 82
Political Executive at the Union Level ................................................................................................................... 82
THE PRESIDENT OF INDIA............................................................................................................................ 83

TU

Powers of the President............................................................................................................................................ 83


Executive Powers ..................................................................................................................................................... 83

Legislative Powers ................................................................................................................................................... 84


Financial Powers ..................................................................................................................................................... 85

PS

Judicial Powers ........................................................................................................................................................ 86


Emergency Powers.................................................................................................................................................... 86

Consequence of the Proclamation ............................................................................................................................ 87


Financial Emergency ............................................................................................................................................... 88
Position of the President .......................................................................................................................................... 88
Steps to Curb Presidents Power-Amendment of Article 74 ................................................................................... 88
Working of the Constitution .................................................................................................................................... 89

VICE-PRESIDENT ................................................................................................................................................ 93
Functions .................................................................................................................................................................. 93
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The Council of Ministers ....................................................................................................................................... 94
Composition.............................................................................................................................................................. 94
THE CONSTITUTION (NINETY-FIRST AMENDMENT) ACT, 2003......................................... 94
Council of Ministers and Cabinet ........................................................................................................................... 95
Functions of the Cabinet.......................................................................................................................................... 96
Executive Functions ................................................................................................................................................. 96

15

Legislative functions ................................................................................................................................................ 96


Financial powers ..................................................................................................................................................... 96

20

Cabinet Committees ................................................................................................................................................. 97


N. Gopalaswamy Ayyangar Committees Report ................................................................................................... 98

LS

Recommendations of the Administrative Reforms Commission .......................................................................... 100


Ministries and Departments ................................................................................................................................. 101

IA

Working of the Ministries/Departments .............................................................................................................. 101


The Secretariat ...................................................................................................................................................... 102

Executive Organization of the Department.......................................................................................................... 102

TO

MINISTRIES/DEPARTMENTS OF THE GOVERNMENT ............................................................... 103


THE PRIME MINISTER .................................................................................................................................. 106
Appointment of the Prime Minister ..................................................................................................................... 106

TU

The Prime Minister as the Head of the Council of Ministers ............................................................................. 107
The Prime Minister and the Parliament ............................................................................................................. 108

The Link Between the President and Cabinet..................................................................................................... 108


Spokesman of the Government on Foreign Policy................................................................................................ 109

PS

The Prime Ministers Control over Intelligence Agencies .................................................................................... 109


Administrative and Executive Functions of the Prime Minister ........................................................................ 109

Position of the Prime Minister ............................................................................................................................. 110


PMO...................................................................................................................................................................... 110

THE PARLIAMENT .......................................................................................................................................... 112


The Lok Sabha ..................................................................................................................................................... 112
Speaker of the Lok Sabha..................................................................................................................................... 114
Power and Functions of the Speaker ................................................................................................................... 114
The Rajya Sabha .................................................................................................................................................. 116
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Rajya Sabha: Its Composition ............................................................................................................................. 116
Leader of the House.......................................................................................................................................... 118
Power and Functions of the Rajya Sabha ........................................................................................................... 120
Legislative Powers ................................................................................................................................................ 121
Constitutional Amendments ................................................................................................................................. 121
The Role of the Rajya Sabha ............................................................................................................................... 122

15

Power of the Parliament ...................................................................................................................................... 122


Financial Powers .................................................................................................................................................. 123

20

The Finance Commission ..................................................................................................................................... 124


Appointment .......................................................................................................................................................... 124

LS

Composition........................................................................................................................................................... 124
Functions of Finance Commission .............................................................................................................. 125

IA

Finance Commission ........................................................................................................................................ 125


Year of Establishment ...................................................................................................................................... 125

Chairman ......................................................................................................................................................... 125

TO

Operational Duration ...................................................................................................................................... 125


Finance Commission And Planning Commission ............................................................................................... 126
Judicial Powers ..................................................................................................................................................... 127

TU

Parliamentary Committees ................................................................................................................................... 128


PARLIAMENTARY TERMS .......................................................................................................................... 131

ANTI-DEFECTION LAW ................................................................................................................................ 138


Provisions of the Act ............................................................................................................................................. 138

PS

Disqualification .................................................................................................................................................... 138


THE SUPREME COURT OF INDIA ........................................................................................................... 148

The Appointment Of Judges ................................................................................................................................. 148


Qualification of Judges ......................................................................................................................................... 149
Tenure ................................................................................................................................................................... 149
Removal................................................................................................................................................................. 149
Salary of the Judges .............................................................................................................................................. 149
Prohibition of Practice after Retirement .............................................................................................................. 150
The seat of the supreme court................................................................................................................................ 150
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Supreme court: a court of record ........................................................................................................................... 150
Jurisdiction and powers of the supreme court....................................................................................................... 151
Original Jurisdiction ............................................................................................................................................. 151
Appellate Jurisdiction ........................................................................................................................................... 152
Advisory Jurisdiction............................................................................................................................................. 153
Writ Jurisdiction ................................................................................................................................................... 153

15

Supreme Court And Judicial Review ................................................................................................................... 154


Judicial Review of the Constitutional Amendments ............................................................................................ 155

20

Judicial Review of Legislative Enactments and Ordinances .............................................................................. 155


HIGH COURT ..................................................................................................................................................... 157

LS

Organisation Of High Court ................................................................................................................................ 157


Appointment of Judges .......................................................................................................................................... 157

IA

Qualifications of Judges ........................................................................................................................................ 158


Oath or Affirmation ............................................................................................................................................. 158

Tenure of Judges.................................................................................................................................................... 158

TO

Removal of Judges ................................................................................................................................................. 158


Salaries and Allowances....................................................................................................................................... 159
Transfer of Judges ................................................................................................................................................. 159

TU

Acting Chief Justice............................................................................................................................................... 159


Additional and Acting Judges .............................................................................................................................. 160

Retired Judges ....................................................................................................................................................... 160


Independence of High court .................................................................................................................................. 160

PS

Jurisdiction and Powers of high court.................................................................................................................. 161


Control over Subordinate Courts .......................................................................................................................... 164

A Court of Record ................................................................................................................................................. 164


Power of Judicial Review ..................................................................................................................................... 165

GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTS ....................................................................................................................... 167


Structure of accounts and flow of funds............................................................................................................... 167
Consolidated fund of india ................................................................................................................................... 167
Contingency fund of india .................................................................................................................................... 168
Public account ....................................................................................................................................................... 168
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COMPTROLLER AND AUDITOR GENERAL OF INDIA ................................................................ 169
Audit Jurisdiction ................................................................................................................................................. 169
Nature of Audit..................................................................................................................................................... 169
ELECTION COMMISSION ............................................................................................................................ 171
Composition........................................................................................................................................................... 171
Independence ......................................................................................................................................................... 172

15

Powers and functions............................................................................................................................................ 172


UNION PUBLIC SERVICE COMMISSION.............................................................................................. 174

20

Historical background .......................................................................................................................................... 174


Provisions for independent working of the upsc ................................................................................................... 174

LS

Composition........................................................................................................................................................... 175
Functions ............................................................................................................................................................... 175

IA

ATTORNEY GENERAL AND SOLICITOR GENERAL OF INDIA ............................................... 177


Appointment and term .......................................................................................................................................... 177

Duties and functions ............................................................................................................................................. 177

TO

Rights and limitations .......................................................................................................................................... 177


SOLICITOR GENERAL OF INDIA............................................................................................................. 179
CENTRAL INFORMATION COMMISSION .......................................................................................... 180

TU

Composition........................................................................................................................................................... 180
Tenure and service conditions ............................................................................................................................... 180

Powers and functions............................................................................................................................................ 181


CENTRAL VIGILANCE COMMISSION .................................................................................................. 182

PS

Composition........................................................................................................................................................... 182
Functions ............................................................................................................................................................... 182

Jurisdiction ............................................................................................................................................................ 183


Constitutional Protection to Civil Servants ......................................................................................................... 183
Constitutional Safeguards .................................................................................................................................... 184

ADMINISTRATIVE REFORMS IN INDIA .............................................................................................. 185


Reports on Indian Administration, 1946-1997.................................................................................................. 185
Indian Institute of Public Administration (IIPA) .............................................................................................. 186
Administrative Reforms Commission (1966-1970) ............................................................................................ 186
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FIFTH PAY COMMISSION AND ADMINISTRATIVE REFORMS ....................................................... 187
Second Administrative Reforms Commission (2005) ......................................................................................... 188
NATIONAL COMMISSION FOR SCs ................................................................................................... 190
Evolution of the commission ................................................................................................................................. 190
Functions of the commission ................................................................................................................................. 190
Report of the commission ...................................................................................................................................... 191

15

Powers of the commission ..................................................................................................................................... 191


NATIONAL COMMISSION FOR STs ................................................................................................... 192

20

Functions of the commission ................................................................................................................................. 192


Report of the commission ...................................................................................................................................... 192

LS

Powers of the commission ..................................................................................................................................... 193


National Human Rights Commission ............................................................................................................. 194

IA

Preamble To The Universal Declaration Of Human Rights, 1948 .................................................................. 194


Constitution of National Human Rights Commission........................................................................................ 194

Removal of a Member of the Commission ........................................................................................................... 195

TO

Term of Office of Members ................................................................................................................................... 195


Officers and Staff of the Commission .................................................................................................................. 195
Functions and Powers of the Commission ........................................................................................................... 195

TU

Powers Relating to Enquiries ............................................................................................................................... 196


STATE ADMINISTRATION ......................................................................................................................... 198

THE GOVERNOR ............................................................................................................................................. 198


Appointment of the Governor ............................................................................................................................... 198

PS

Selection of Type of Persons as Governor ............................................................................................................. 198


Term ...................................................................................................................................................................... 199

Transfer of the Governor....................................................................................................................................... 199


Emoluments........................................................................................................................................................... 199
Immunities ............................................................................................................................................................ 199
Power of the Governor .......................................................................................................................................... 200
Position of the Governor ....................................................................................................................................... 202
Position of the Governor After 1967 ................................................................................................................... 204

THE CHIEF MINISTER................................................................................................................................... 206


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Appointment of the Chief Minister....................................................................................................................... 206
Powers and Functions .......................................................................................................................................... 206
Allocation of Portfolios ......................................................................................................................................... 206
COUNCIL OF MINISTERS ............................................................................................................................. 208
Chief Secretary ...................................................................................................................................................... 209
EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENTS/DIRECTORATES ................................................................................... 211

15

ADVOCATE GENERAL OF THE STATE ............................................................................................... 213


Appointment and term .......................................................................................................................................... 213

20

Duties and functions ............................................................................................................................................. 213


CENTRE-STATE RELATIONS..................................................................................................................... 214

LS

Legislative relations ......................................................................................................................................... 214


Administrative relations ................................................................................................................................. 216

IA

Financial relations ............................................................................................................................................ 219


STATE INFORMATION COMMISSION ................................................................................................. 221

Composition ...................................................................................................................................................... 221

TO

Tenure and service conditions...................................................................................................................... 221


Powers and functions ...................................................................................................................................... 222
STATE PUBLIC SERVICE COMMISSION .............................................................................................. 223

TU

Composition........................................................................................................................................................... 223
Removal................................................................................................................................................................. 223
Independence ......................................................................................................................................................... 224

Functions ............................................................................................................................................................... 224

PS

Joint state public service commission .................................................................................................................... 225


SPECIAL STATUS OF JAMMU & KASHMIR ......................................................................................... 227

Features Of J&K Constitution............................................................................................................................. 227

Panchayati Raj ....................................................................................................................................................... 229


The Concept Of Panchayati Raj .................................................................................................................. 229
G.V.K. Rao Committee (1985) ................................................................................................................. 230
L.M.Singhvi Committee (1986) ................................................................................................................ 230
THE CONSTITUTION (SEVENTY-THIRD AMENDMENT) ACT, 1992 ................................ 230
Urban Local Government................................................................................................................................... 238
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PS

TU

TO

IA

LS

20

15

The Constitution (74th Amendment) Act, 1992 ...................................................................................... 238

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BASIC LAWS IN INDIA

Table of Contents
RIGHT TO INFORMATION ACT 2005 ........................................................................................................................ 2
Overview of the RTI Act 2005 ........................................................................................................................................ 2
How the RTI Act has Helped: Success Stories ................................................................................................................ 6

15

Issues in Implementation of the RTI Act 2005 .............................................................................................................. 7


Large Pendency of Cases before Information Commissions ....................................................................................... 7

20

Who is Eligible to Seek Information? ............................................................................................................................. 9


Rights Conferred on Citizens under the Act .................................................................................................................... 9

LS

Process for Making a Request for Information and Appeal ......................................................................................... 10


Obligations of Public Authorities under the Act............................................................................................................ 12
Maintenance of Records ................................................................................................................................................. 13

IA

Procedure to be followed by PIO for Disposal of Request for Information .................................................................. 14


Fee for Seeking Information........................................................................................................................................... 14

Time Limit for Supply of Information .......................................................................................................................... 17

TO

Table summarizes the time limit for disposal of applications in different situations: ................................................. 17
Third Party Information................................................................................................................................................ 18
CYBER LAWS IN INDIA ............................................................................................................................................... 19

TU

Governing Laws ............................................................................................................................................................. 19


Scope and applicability .................................................................................................................................................. 19
The major acts, which got amended after enactment of ITA ....................................................................................... 20

PS
C

CONSUMER PROTECTION AND NATIONAL CONSUMER DISPUTES REDRESSAL COMMISSION ... 22


CONFONET Project ..................................................................................................................................................... 23
Consumer Rights............................................................................................................................................................. 23
Department of Consumer Affairs ................................................................................................................................... 24

Bureau of Indian Standards.......................................................................................................................................... 24


BIS Hallmark ................................................................................................................................................................ 25
ISI Mark ........................................................................................................................................................................ 25

EXPORTS AND IMPORT LAWS ................................................................................................................................. 26


COMPETITION PROTECTION LAWS ....................................................................................................................... 31

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Fundamentals of Economics 2015

Table of Contents
WHAT IS ECONOMICS .................................................................................................................................................................................... 9
Economic Systems ................................................................................................................................................................................................ 10
Microeconomics and Macroeconomics .......................................................................................................................................................... 10

15

Positive and Normative Economics ................................................................................................................................................................ 11


Normative economics .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 11

20

Supply and Demand ............................................................................................................................................................................................ 11


Perfect Competition ............................................................................................................................................................................................. 13
Monopoly ................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 13

LS

The Sources of Monopoly .................................................................................................................................................................................. 14


The Concept of Imperfect Competition ........................................................................................................................................................ 14

IA

Monopolistic Competition ................................................................................................................................................................................. 14


Non price Competition ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 14

Oligopoly ................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 15

TO

Income Inequality ................................................................................................................................................................................................ 15


Why do wages differ? ........................................................................................................................................................................................... 15
Measuring Income Inequality ........................................................................................................................................................................... 16

TU

The Lorenz Curve ................................................................................................................................................................................................ 16


What is Free Trade .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 18
Freer Trade and World Trade Organization ............................................................................................................................................... 18

PS
C

The Working of WTO ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 21


Implementation Issues and the Future........................................................................................................................................................... 22
Customs Duties ..................................................................................................................................................................................................... 23
Subsidies.................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 23

Domestic support: the boxes ............................................................................................................................................................................. 23


Market Access........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 24
Export subsidies .................................................................................................................................................................................................... 24
Criticism .................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 24
Mechanisms for developing countries ............................................................................................................................................................ 25
Special Safeguard Mechanism .......................................................................................................................................................................... 25

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Ministerial conferences ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 25
Doha Round ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 25
PRODUCTION, INCOME, AND EMPLOYMENT ............................................................................................................................... 27
GDP .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 28
The Expenditure Approach to GDP ............................................................................................................................................................... 28

15

Other Approaches To GDP ............................................................................................................................................................................... 29


The Value-Added Approach ............................................................................................................................................................................. 29
The Factor Payments Approach ...................................................................................................................................................................... 29

20

Measuring GDP: A Summary ........................................................................................................................................................................... 30


Real versus Nominal GDP ................................................................................................................................................................................. 30

LS

Purchasing Power Parity .................................................................................................................................................................................... 31


EMPLOYMENT AND UNEMPLOYMENT ............................................................................................................................................. 31
Types of Unemployment .................................................................................................................................................................................... 32

IA

THE BUSINESS CYCLE .................................................................................................................................................................................. 34

INJECTIONS AND LEAKAGES .................................................................................................................................................................. 35


ANATOMY OF INFLATION ........................................................................................................................................................................ 36

TO

What is inflation? .................................................................................................................................................................................................. 36


Laspeyres Price Index :An Easy Formula to Calculate Price Level ....................................................................................................... 37

TU

WHY DOES INFLATION OCCUR? ............................................................................................................................................................ 37


Supply Shock/Cost-Push Inflation ................................................................................................................................................................... 38
Demand-Pull Inflation ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 38

PS
C

German Hyperinflation: Too Much Money Chasing Too Few Goods! ................................................................................................ 40
Why worry about inflation? ............................................................................................................................................................................... 40
Getting the Inflation Rate Right ...................................................................................................................................................................... 42
Consumer Price Indices (CPIs) ........................................................................................................................................................................ 42

Headline Inflation ................................................................................................................................................................................................ 43


Core Inflation ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 43
Policies For Controlling Inflation .................................................................................................................................................................... 44
FISCAL POLICY ................................................................................................................................................................................................. 54
Classical Economics............................................................................................................................................................................................. 54
Keynesian Economics.......................................................................................................................................................................................... 54

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Expansionary Fiscal Policy ................................................................................................................................................................................ 54
Increased Government Spending .................................................................................................................................................................... 54
Contractionary Fiscal Policy ............................................................................................................................................................................. 55
The Effects of Government Spending ............................................................................................................................................................ 55
Built-In Stabilizers ................................................................................................................................................................................................ 56

15

Difference between revenue and capital flows ............................................................................................................................................. 56


Indias fiscal policy architecture ....................................................................................................................................................................... 56
MONETARY POLICY ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 58

20

The Three Functions of Money ....................................................................................................................................................................... 58


The Money Supply ............................................................................................................................................................................................... 59

LS

BUDGET, DEFICITS, AND TAXATION ................................................................................................................................................. 61


Origin of the Budget ............................................................................................................................................................................................ 61
What is the size of the budget? ......................................................................................................................................................................... 62

IA

EXPENDITURE, REVENUE, & DEFICIT ................................................................................................................................................ 62

Types of Expenditure and Revenue ................................................................................................................................................................ 62


Types of Deficit ..................................................................................................................................................................................................... 63

TO

Size and Composition of Deficits ..................................................................................................................................................................... 64


PRINCIPLES OF TAXATION ...................................................................................................................................................................... 67

TU

Types of Taxes ...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 67


Composition of Taxes ......................................................................................................................................................................................... 68
Goods and Services Tax ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 69

PS
C

RESERVE BANK OF INDIA .......................................................................................................................................................................... 70


Functions of RBI ................................................................................................................................................................................................... 71
Organisation .......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 71
Monetary Management ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 73

Monetary Policy in India .................................................................................................................................................................................... 73


Monetary Policy Framework ............................................................................................................................................................................. 74
Institutional Mechanism for Monetary Policy-making .............................................................................................................................. 75
Issuer of Currency ................................................................................................................................................................................................ 76
Currency Management ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 77
Currency Distribution ......................................................................................................................................................................................... 77

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Coin Distribution.................................................................................................................................................................................................. 78
Special Type of Notes .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 78
Exchange of Notes................................................................................................................................................................................................ 78
Combating Counterfeiting ................................................................................................................................................................................. 79
Banker and Debt Management to Government .......................................................................................................................................... 79

15

Banker to the central Government .................................................................................................................................................................. 79


Banker to the State Government ...................................................................................................................................................................... 80
Management of Public Debt ............................................................................................................................................................................. 80

20

Banker to Banks .................................................................................................................................................................................................... 80


Reserve Bank as Banker to Banks .................................................................................................................................................................... 81

LS

Lender of Last Resort .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 81


Financial Regulation and Supervision ........................................................................................................................................................... 82
Regulatory and Supervisory Functions .......................................................................................................................................................... 82

IA

Foreign Exchange Reserves Management .................................................................................................................................................... 91

Deployment of Reserves ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 92


Foreign Exchange Management ...................................................................................................................................................................... 92

TO

Evolution ................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 92
Liberalised Approach .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 93

TU

Exchange Rate Policy .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 94


Market Operations ............................................................................................................................................................................................... 95
Monetary Operations .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 95

PS
C

Domestic Foreign Exchange Market Operations ........................................................................................................................................ 96


Money Market ....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 96
Payment and Settlement Systems .................................................................................................................................................................... 97
Developmental Role............................................................................................................................................................................................. 98

Rural credit ............................................................................................................................................................................................................ 98


Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises Development ............................................................................................................................. 101
Export Credit ....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 102
Financial Inclusion ............................................................................................................................................................................................. 102
Customer Service ................................................................................................................................................................................................ 103
THE FINANCIAL SYSTEM ......................................................................................................................................................................... 105

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Financial intermediation and the flow of funds......................................................................................................................................... 105
Lenders and borrowers ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 105
Financial intermediaries ................................................................................................................................................................................... 106
Financial instruments ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 106
Financial markets ............................................................................................................................................................................................... 106

15

Cash and derivatives markets ......................................................................................................................................................................... 107


Spot and forward markets ................................................................................................................................................................................ 108
Primary and secondary markets ..................................................................................................................................................................... 108

20

Exchanges and over-the-counter markets .................................................................................................................................................... 108


Major stock exchanges (top 21 by market capitalization), as at 31 December 2012 ....................................................................... 108

LS

International Stock Indexes ............................................................................................................................................................................ 110


Functions of the financial system ................................................................................................................................................................... 113
THE FOREIGN EXCHANGE MARKET ................................................................................................................................................ 115

IA

The market defined ........................................................................................................................................................................................... 115

Characteristics ..................................................................................................................................................................................................... 116


Instruments .......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 116

TO

Exchange rates .................................................................................................................................................................................................... 116


Swaps ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 117

TU

Futures contracts ................................................................................................................................................................................................ 117


Options .................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 117
Participants........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 118

PS
C

Commercial banks ............................................................................................................................................................................................. 118


Non-bank financial institutions ...................................................................................................................................................................... 118
Firms and corporations ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 118
Central banks ....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 118

THE MONEY MARKET ................................................................................................................................................................................ 119


Definition............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 119
Everything You Need to know about Money Market .............................................................................................................................. 119
THE EQUITY MARKET ............................................................................................................................................................................... 139
Characteristics ..................................................................................................................................................................................................... 139
Instruments .......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 140

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Ordinary shares ................................................................................................................................................................................................... 140
Preference shares ................................................................................................................................................................................................ 140
Depository receipts ............................................................................................................................................................................................. 141
Exchange traded funds ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 141
ETFs in India ....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 142

15

Schemes ................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 142


Asset Size .............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 142
Investment banks ................................................................................................................................................................................................ 143

20

Venture capitalists .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 143


Market cap of Top Indian Companies ......................................................................................................................................................... 144

LS

Financial Times Global 500 ............................................................................................................................................................................ 144


Fortune Global 500 ............................................................................................................................................................................................ 145
Fortune 2013 list ................................................................................................................................................................................................. 145

IA

Indian Companies in Fortune 500 ................................................................................................................................................................ 146

List of Indian businesswomen ........................................................................................................................................................................ 148


The Derivatives Market .................................................................................................................................................................................... 150

TO

All about Derivatives (Question and Answer Format)............................................................................................................................. 150


SECTORS OF THE ECONOMY ................................................................................................................................................................ 151

TU

Primary, Secondary, Tertiary, Quaternary, and Quinary ...................................................................................................................... 151


ECONOMIC PLANNING ............................................................................................................................................................................. 153
Essentials of Economic Planning ................................................................................................................................................................... 153

PS
C

Importance of Economic Planning with respect to Mixed Economy & Under-Developed Countries ....................................... 154
Stages of Economic Development ................................................................................................................................................................. 156
State vs. Market ................................................................................................................................................................................................... 156
Types of Economic Planning .......................................................................................................................................................................... 157

Planning by Inducements ................................................................................................................................................................................ 157


Planning by Directions...................................................................................................................................................................................... 157
Physical and Financial Planning .................................................................................................................................................................... 158
Centralised Planning and Decentralised Planning ................................................................................................................................... 159
Structural and Functional Planning .............................................................................................................................................................. 159
Indicative and Imperative Planning .............................................................................................................................................................. 159

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Democratic and Totalitarian Planning ........................................................................................................................................................ 160
Fixed Plan and Rolling Plan Fixed Plan ..................................................................................................................................................... 160
Merits of Fixed Planning: ................................................................................................................................................................................. 160
Demerits of Fixed Planning:............................................................................................................................................................................ 160
Rolling Plan .......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 161

15

Merits of Rolling Plan: ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 161


Demerits of Rolling Plan: ................................................................................................................................................................................. 161
Short-term, Medium and Long-term Planning .......................................................................................................................................... 161

20

Corrective and Developmental Planning .................................................................................................................................................... 161


Capitalist and Socialist Planning ................................................................................................................................................................... 162

LS

Planning under Mixed Economy ................................................................................................................................................................... 162


Neo-classical counterrevolution ...................................................................................................................................................................... 163
REFERENCE ...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 163

IA

BANKING SECTOR IN INDIA .................................................................................................................................................................. 164

History of Indian Banking System ................................................................................................................................................................ 165


Classification ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 165

TO

Basel III ................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 166


MICROFINANCE ............................................................................................................................................................................................ 166

TU

Salient Features of Microfinance ................................................................................................................................................................... 167


Gaps In Financial System and Need For Microfinance .......................................................................................................................... 167
Channels of Micro Finance ............................................................................................................................................................................. 167

PS
C

Controversy on MFI .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 168


BANKING SECTOR REFORMS ................................................................................................................................................................ 170
Asset Classification ............................................................................................................................................................................................ 172
Regulations for Asset Classification .............................................................................................................................................................. 172

Weak Public Sector Banks ............................................................................................................................................................................... 173


PLANNING OVER THE YEARS ............................................................................................................................................................... 175
TWELFTH FIVE-YEAR PLAN (2012-2017) ............................................................................................................................................ 178
Difference Between Growth and Development ......................................................................................................................................... 179
BALANCE OF TRADE................................................................................................................................................................................... 179
The Balance Of Payments Sub-Division ...................................................................................................................................................... 180

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COMPOSITION OF FOREIGN TRADE ................................................................................................................................................ 181
IMPORT POLICY: THE PRE-REFORM PERIOD............................................................................................................................... 185
Export Policy: The Pre-Reform Period ........................................................................................................................................................ 185
The Three Phases of Export Policy ............................................................................................................................................................... 185
Export Promotion Policies: An Overall View ............................................................................................................................................ 185

15

FOREIGN TRADE POLICY (2009-14) ...................................................................................................................................................... 187


TYPES OF UNEMPLOYMENT .................................................................................................................................................................. 187
Disguised Unemployment ................................................................................................................................................................................ 188

PS
C

TU

TO

IA

LS

20

The Phillips Curve ............................................................................................................................................................................................. 188

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Ecology & Environment 2015

STRUCTURE AND TYPES OF ENVIRONMENT ..................................................................................................... 4


Ecology : Meaning And Definitions ................................................................................................................................. 4

15

Ecological Niche................................................................................................................................................................ 4
Ecosystem........................................................................................................................................................................... 5

20

Meaning And Concept ...................................................................................................................................................... 5


Properties of Ecosystems .................................................................................................................................................... 5

LS

Types of Ecosystems ........................................................................................................................................................... 7


BIOSPHERE AS AN ECOSYSTEM................................................................................................................................ 8

IA

System ................................................................................................................................................................................ 8
The Biosphere .................................................................................................................................................................... 8

Biogeochemical Cycles ....................................................................................................................................................... 9

TO

TERRESTRIAL ECOSYSTEMSTHE BIOMES....................................................................................................... 10


Natural vegetation of the world ..................................................................................................................................... 11
Climatic Gradients And Vegetation Types .................................................................................................................... 12

TU

Forest Biome ................................................................................................................................................................... 12


Low-Latitude Rainforest ................................................................................................................................................ 13
Monsoon Forest ............................................................................................................................................................... 14

PS
C

Subtropical Evergreen Forest .......................................................................................................................................... 15


Mid-latitude Deciduous Forest ....................................................................................................................................... 17
Needle Leaf Forest .......................................................................................................................................................... 18

Sclerophyll Forest ............................................................................................................................................................ 19


Savanna and Grassland Biomes .................................................................................................................................... 21
Grassland Biome ............................................................................................................................................................ 23
Desert and Tundra Biomes ............................................................................................................................................ 24
Desert Biome ................................................................................................................................................................... 24
Tundra Biome................................................................................................................................................................. 26

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Ecology & Environment 2015


MARINE BIOMES ........................................................................................................................................................... 29
Main Characteristic Features ......................................................................................................................................... 29
Types of Marine Biomes ................................................................................................................................................. 30
Marine Biological Communities .................................................................................................................................... 31

15

Plantkton Community .................................................................................................................................................... 32


Phytoplanktons .............................................................................................................................................. 32

(1)

20

Nekton Community ......................................................................................................................................................... 34


Benthos Community........................................................................................................................................................ 34
Ecological Productivity ................................................................................................................................................... 35

LS

Food Chains in Marine Biome ...................................................................................................................................... 35


HUMAN INFLUENCE ON RADIATION ................................................................................................................... 36

IA

Heat Balance .................................................................................................................................................................. 36


CORAL BLEACHING ..................................................................................................................................................... 39

URBANIZATION AND CLIMATE .............................................................................................................................. 41

TO

Urbanization and Heat Island ...................................................................................................................................... 41


BIO-DIVERSITY, BIO-SPHERE RESERVE AND WILDLIFE CONSERVATION............................................. 42

TU

Biodiversity: Meaning and Definitions .......................................................................................................................... 42


BIODIVERSITY HOTSPOTS ........................................................................................................................................ 44
CONSERVATION OF BIODIVERSITY ....................................................................................................................... 45

PS
C

List of Biosphere Reserves ............................................................................................................................................... 46


Coral Gardening ............................................................................................................................................................. 50
Biosphere Reserve ............................................................................................................................................................ 50
Evolution of the Concept................................................................................................................................................. 50

Zoning of Biosphere Reserve........................................................................................................................................... 51


Functional Pattern of Biosphere Reserve ....................................................................................................................... 52
Core Area......................................................................................................................................................................... 52
Buffer Zone ..................................................................................................................................................................... 53
Transition Area............................................................................................................................................................... 53

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Ecology & Environment 2015


Clustered Biosphere Reserve ............................................................................................................................................ 54
BIODIVERSITY (WILDLIFE) CONSERVATION IN INDIA ................................................................................. 55
Wildlife Status in India ................................................................................................................................................. 55
National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan (NBSAP) Project ............................................................................ 56

15

Biodiversity (Biological Diversity) Act........................................................................................................................... 57


Bio-safety Protocol........................................................................................................................................................... 57

20

WETLANDS & MANGROVES ..................................................................................................................................... 59


NATIONAL PARKS ......................................................................................................................................................... 60
Protected areas of India for an overview of all Indian protected areas ........................................................................ 60

LS

DISASTER MANAGEMENT AND ENVIRONMENTAL LAWS IN INDIA ........................................................ 66


Earthquake-Prone Areas ................................................................................................................................................. 66

IA

Cyclone-Prone Areas ........................................................................................................................................................ 68


Tidal Surge-prone Areas ................................................................................................................................................. 69

Flood-Prone Areas ........................................................................................................................................................... 70

TO

Drought-Prone Areas....................................................................................................................................................... 70
Zone 1 ............................................................................................................................................................................. 71

TU

Zone 2 ............................................................................................................................................................................. 71
Zone 3 ............................................................................................................................................................................. 73
NATIONAL POLICY ON DISASTER MANAGEMENT .......................................................................................... 74

PS
C

Responsibilities of NDMA .............................................................................................................................................. 75


ENVIRONMENTAL LAWS ........................................................................................................................................... 76
Union List-I Entries ....................................................................................................................................................... 77
Environmental Protection Act (EPA), 1986 ................................................................................................................ 77

Definitions under Section 2 of EPA .............................................................................................................................. 77


General Powers of Central Govt. Under EPA, 1986 ................................................................................................... 78
General Environmental Laws ........................................................................................................................................ 78

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General Geography 2015

Table of Contents
THE SCOPE OF GEOGRAPHY ........................................................................................................................................................... 5

15

The Earths Four Spheres ...................................................................................................................................................................... 6


THE GEOGRAPHERS TOOLS ........................................................................................................................................................... 9

20

Latitude ................................................................................................................................................................................................ 10
Longitude ............................................................................................................................................................................................. 12
Map Scale ............................................................................................................................................................................................ 13

LS

Isolines .................................................................................................................................................................................................. 14
Digital Technology in Geography ....................................................................................................................................................... 16

IA

Remote Sensing .................................................................................................................................................................................... 17


Global Positioning Systems ................................................................................................................................................................. 18

Geographic Information Systems ........................................................................................................................................................ 19


EARTHSUN GEOMETRY AND THE SEASONS ....................................................................................................................... 21

TO

Our Place in Space .............................................................................................................................................................................. 21


The Shape of Earth ............................................................................................................................................................................. 21

TU

Earths Orbit Around the Sun ............................................................................................................................................................ 22


The Earths Rotation and Axial Tilt ................................................................................................................................................. 23
The Seasons .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 25

PS
C

Solstice and Equinox ........................................................................................................................................................................... 26


THE GLOBAL ENERGY SYSTEM................................................................................................................................................... 29
The Electromagnetic Spectrum............................................................................................................................................................ 29
Composition of the Atmosphere ........................................................................................................................................................... 30

Constant Gases..................................................................................................................................................................................... 30
Variable Gases ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 30
Particulates .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 34
Heat Transfer ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 35
Flow of Solar Radiation in the Atmosphere ...................................................................................................................................... 36
Interaction of Solar Radiation and the Earths Surface ................................................................................................................... 38

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The Global Radiation Budget ............................................................................................................................................................ 40
GLOBAL TEMPERATURE PATTERNS ......................................................................................................................................... 44
The Troposphere ................................................................................................................................................................................... 44
The Stratosphere .................................................................................................................................................................................. 44
The Mesosphere .................................................................................................................................................................................... 46

15

The Thermosphere ................................................................................................................................................................................ 46


Large-Scale Geographic Factors That Influence Air Temperature ................................................................................................... 46

20

Local Factors That Influence Air Temperature ................................................................................................................................. 48


Human Interactions: The Urban Effect on Temperature ................................................................................................................. 49

LS

Other Local Factors That Influence Temperature ............................................................................................................................. 50


The Annual Range of Surface Temperature (A Holistic Assessment)............................................................................................... 50
ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE, WIND, AND GLOBAL CIRCULATION .................................................................................. 53

IA

Factors That Influence Air Pressure ................................................................................................................................................... 53

Atmospheric Pressure Systems ............................................................................................................................................................. 54


Low-Pressure Systems .......................................................................................................................................................................... 54

TO

High-Pressure Systems ......................................................................................................................................................................... 55


The Direction of Airflow ..................................................................................................................................................................... 57

TU

Unequal Heating of Land Surfaces.................................................................................................................................................... 57


Coriolis Force ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 57
Global Pressure and Atmospheric Circulation ................................................................................................................................... 59

PS
C

Midlatitude Circulation ...................................................................................................................................................................... 61


Polar Circulation ................................................................................................................................................................................. 63
Seasonal Migration of Pressure Systems ............................................................................................................................................. 65
Local Wind Systems ............................................................................................................................................................................ 66

LandSea Breezes................................................................................................................................................................................ 67
Topographic Winds ............................................................................................................................................................................. 67
Oceanic Circulation Gyres and Thermo-haline Circulation .............................................................................................................. 68
El Nio................................................................................................................................................................................................. 70
Key Concepts To Remember About Oceanic Circulation ................................................................................................................... 71
ATMOSPHERIC MOISTURE AND PRECIPITATION ................................................................................................................ 72

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The Hydrosphere and the Hydrologic Cycle........................................................................................................................................ 72
Humidity .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 73
Maximum, Specific, and Relative Humidity ..................................................................................................................................... 74
Dew-Point Temperature ...................................................................................................................................................................... 76
Key Concepts To Remember about Atmospheric Humidity ............................................................................................................... 78

15

Adiabatic Processes .............................................................................................................................................................................. 78


The Dry Adiabatic Lapse Rate ........................................................................................................................................................... 79

20

The Wet Adiabatic Lapse Rate .......................................................................................................................................................... 80


Cloud Classification ............................................................................................................................................................................ 80

LS

Fog ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 84
Precipitation......................................................................................................................................................................................... 84
Types of Precipitation .......................................................................................................................................................................... 85

IA

Precipitation Processes ......................................................................................................................................................................... 86

Air Masses and Fronts ........................................................................................................................................................................ 91


Air Masses ............................................................................................................................................................................................ 91

TO

Fronts ................................................................................................................................................................................................... 93
Key Concepts To Remember About Air Masses And Fronts .............................................................................................................. 94

TU

Evolution and Character of Midlatitude Cyclones ............................................................................................................................ 94


Upper Airflow and the 500-mb Pressure Surface .............................................................................................................................. 96
Interaction of Upper Airflow and Surface Airflow ........................................................................................................................... 97

PS
C

Cyclogenesis .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 98
Key Concepts To Remember About The Formation Of Midlatitude Cyclones .............................................................................. 100
GLOBAL CLIMATES AND GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE .................................................................................................... 101
Climate and the Factors That Affect It........................................................................................................................................... 101

Kppen Climate Classification ........................................................................................................................................................ 102


THE GLOBAL DISTRIBUTION AND CHARACTER OF SOILS ........................................................................................... 106
Soil-Forming (Pedogenic) Processes .................................................................................................................................................. 106
Soil-Forming Factors ........................................................................................................................................................................ 107
Key Concepts to Remember about Pedogenic Processes And Soil-Forming Factors ....................................................................... 111
Soil Profiles (Reading the Soil) ....................................................................................................................................................... 111

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Soil horizons. ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 111
PLATE TECTONICS ......................................................................................................................................................................... 116
Continental and Oceanic Crust........................................................................................................................................................ 117
Plate Boundaries .............................................................................................................................................................................. 118
Divergent Margins ............................................................................................................................................................................ 118

15

Continental Rifting .......................................................................................................................................................................... 118


Seafloor Spreading ............................................................................................................................................................................ 118

20

Convergent Margins.......................................................................................................................................................................... 119


Subduction Zone Trenches ............................................................................................................................................................... 120

LS

Back-Arc Basins................................................................................................................................................................................ 120


Continental Collision........................................................................................................................................................................ 121
Accretion and Subduction ................................................................................................................................................................ 121

IA

Mountain Building .......................................................................................................................................................................... 122

Transform Faults.............................................................................................................................................................................. 122


Hot Spots........................................................................................................................................................................................... 122

TO

Volcanoes And Volcanism ................................................................................................................................................................ 123


Six Types of Eruptions ..................................................................................................................................................................... 125

TU

The Major Types of Volcanic Landforms ....................................................................................................................................... 126


Stratovolcanoes ................................................................................................................................................................................. 126
Shield Volcanoes ............................................................................................................................................................................... 128

PS
C

Submarine Volcanoes........................................................................................................................................................................ 128


Calderas ............................................................................................................................................................................................ 128
Complex Volcanoes ........................................................................................................................................................................... 128
Pyroclastic Cones............................................................................................................................................................................... 129

Volcanic Fields.................................................................................................................................................................................. 129


Fissure Vents ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 129
Volcanoes Related to Plate Boundaries ........................................................................................................................................... 131
Rift Volcanoes ................................................................................................................................................................................... 132
Intra plate Volcanism ....................................................................................................................................................................... 133
EARTHQUAKES ................................................................................................................................................................................ 134

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General Geography 2015


The Causes of Earthquakes .............................................................................................................................................................. 134
Natural Forces .................................................................................................................................................................................. 134
Tectonics ............................................................................................................................................................................................ 134
Volcanism .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 135
Artificial Induction........................................................................................................................................................................... 136

15

Reservoir Induction ........................................................................................................................................................................... 136


Seismology and Nuclear Explosions ................................................................................................................................................. 136

20

The Effects of Earthquakes .............................................................................................................................................................. 137


Surface Phenomena .......................................................................................................................................................................... 137

LS

Tsunamis ........................................................................................................................................................................................... 137


Seiches................................................................................................................................................................................................ 139
WEATHERING AND MASS MOVEMENT .................................................................................................................................. 139

IA

Mechanical Weathering ................................................................................................................................................................... 141

Chemical Weathering ....................................................................................................................................................................... 143


Human Interactions: Acid Rain ...................................................................................................................................................... 144

TO

Key Concepts To Remember About Weathering .............................................................................................................................. 145


Mass Wasting ................................................................................................................................................................................... 146

TU

Rockfall ............................................................................................................................................................................................. 147


Soil Creep .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 147
Landslides ......................................................................................................................................................................................... 148

PS
C

Avalanches ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 149

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Indian Geography 2015

Table of Contents
INDIALOCATION, EXTENT AND PHYSICAL FEATURES ..................................................................................................... 9
Location and Extent ............................................................................................................................................................................. 9

15

India at a Glance .................................................................................................................................................................................. 9


Indias Neighbours .............................................................................................................................................................................. 10

20

Political Divisions ............................................................................................................................................................................... 11


THE PHYSICAL FEATURES ............................................................................................................................................................ 12
THE NORTHERN MOUNTAINS ...................................................................................................................................................... 13

LS

Origin of the Himalayan Mountain System ...................................................................................................................................... 13


The Himalaya Mountains .................................................................................................................................................................. 15

IA

The Himalaya Ranges ........................................................................................................................................................................ 15


The Trans-Himalayan Ranges ........................................................................................................................................................... 18

The Eastern Hills ................................................................................................................................................................................ 18


Significance of the Northern Mountains ............................................................................................................................................ 19

TO

THE NORTHERN PLAINS ................................................................................................................................................................ 21


The Rajasthan Plain .......................................................................................................................................................................... 22
The Punjab-Haryana Plains .............................................................................................................................................................. 23

TU

The Ganga Plain ................................................................................................................................................................................ 23


The Brahmaputra Plain ..................................................................................................................................................................... 24
Significance of the Northern Plains ................................................................................................................................................... 24

PS
C

The Peninsular Plateaus..................................................................................................................................................................... 24


Plateaus of Peninsular India ............................................................................................................................................................. 25
Hill Ranges of Peninsular India ........................................................................................................................................................ 27
The Western Ghats or Sahyadris ....................................................................................................................................................... 27
The Eastern Ghats .............................................................................................................................................................................. 29

Significance of Peninsular Plateau .................................................................................................................................................... 29


Comparison between the Himalayan & the Peninsular Rivers ....................................................................................................... 30
The Coastal Plains and the Islands ................................................................................................................................................... 30
The Western Coastal Plain ................................................................................................................................................................ 31
The Eastern Coastal Plain ................................................................................................................................................................. 32
Significance of Coastal Plains ............................................................................................................................................................ 33

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Indian Geography 2015


The Indian Islands.............................................................................................................................................................................. 33
INDIATHE CLIMATIC CONDITIONS .......................................................................................................................................... 34
Factors Affecting the Climate of India .............................................................................................................................................. 34
Salient Features of the Climate of India ........................................................................................................................................... 36
MECHANISM OF MONSOONS ......................................................................................................................................................... 37
CYCLE OF SEASONS ........................................................................................................................................................................... 39

15

The Cold Weather Season................................................................................................................................................................... 39


The Hot Weather Season .................................................................................................................................................................... 40

20

The Southwest Monsoon Season ......................................................................................................................................................... 41


The Retreating Monsoon Season ........................................................................................................................................................ 44
Distribution of Annual Rainfall ........................................................................................................................................................ 44

LS

IndiaWithdrawal of Monsoon ......................................................................................................................................................... 46


Areas of Very Heavy Rainfall............................................................................................................................................................. 46
Characteristics of Rainfall in India ................................................................................................................................................... 47

IA

El- NINO AND THE INDIAN MONSOON ....................................................................................................................................... 48


Somalian Current................................................................................................................................................................................ 50

Burst of Monsoon ................................................................................................................................................................................ 50

TO

DROUGHTS ........................................................................................................................................................................................... 51
FLOODS................................................................................................................................................................................................... 53
Flood Prone Areas of India ................................................................................................................................................................ 53

TU

RIVER BASINS OF INDIA ................................................................................................................................................................. 54


TYPES OF LAKES ................................................................................................................................................................................ 57
Main Lakes of India ........................................................................................................................................................................... 59
WATER RESOURCES OF INDIA ..................................................................................................................................................... 64

PS
C

Water Harvesting in India ................................................................................................................................................................. 66


Rain-water Harvesting........................................................................................................................................................................ 67
The Inter-State Water Disputes .......................................................................................................................................................... 71
International Agreements for Surface Water Resources .................................................................................................................... 72

The Indus Water Treaty ..................................................................................................................................................................... 72


National Water Grid .......................................................................................................................................................................... 73
The Ganga-Kaveri Link Canal .......................................................................................................................................................... 73
The Brahmaputra-Ganga Link Canal .............................................................................................................................................. 75
The Narmada Link Canal to Gujarat and Rajasthan .................................................................................................................... 75
The Chambal Link Canal .................................................................................................................................................................. 75
Links between the Rivers of the Western Ghats to the East ............................................................................................................. 75

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Indian Geography 2015


The National Water Policy ................................................................................................................................................................ 76
MAIN WATERFALLS OF INDIA ...................................................................................................................................................... 77
SOILS OF INDIA ................................................................................................................................................................................... 81
Types of Soils in India ........................................................................................................................................................................ 81
Alluvial Soil ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 81
Black Soil ............................................................................................................................................................................................ 82

15

Red Soil ............................................................................................................................................................................................... 83


Laterite Soil ......................................................................................................................................................................................... 84

20

Mountain Soil ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 84


Desert Soil ............................................................................................................................................................................................ 85
Soil Erosion ......................................................................................................................................................................................... 86

LS

Land Use Planning ............................................................................................................................................................................ 88


NATURAL VEGETATION OF INDIA .............................................................................................................................................. 89
Tropical Evergreen Forests .................................................................................................................................................................. 92

IA

Tropical Deciduous Forests ................................................................................................................................................................. 92


Tropical Thorn Forests ....................................................................................................................................................................... 93

The Littoral or Tidal Forests ............................................................................................................................................................. 93

TO

The Mountain Forests ......................................................................................................................................................................... 94


Forest Cover in India .......................................................................................................................................................................... 94
National Forest Policy ........................................................................................................................................................................ 96

TU

Classification of Forests ...................................................................................................................................................................... 98


INDIAN IRRIGATION ...................................................................................................................................................................... 100
Geographical Factors Favouring Irrigation in India .................................................................................................................... 101
Means of Irrigation .......................................................................................................................................................................... 101

PS
C

Tank Irrigation ................................................................................................................................................................................ 102


Merits of Tank Irrigation ................................................................................................................................................................ 102
Demerits of Tank Irrigation ............................................................................................................................................................ 102
Well and Tube-Well Irrigation........................................................................................................................................................ 103

Merits of Well and Tube well Irrigation ........................................................................................................................................ 103


Demerits of Well and Tube Well Irrigation ................................................................................................................................... 104
Canal Irrigation ............................................................................................................................................................................... 104
Merits of Canals Irrigation ............................................................................................................................................................. 105
Demerits of Canal Irrigation ........................................................................................................................................................... 105

MINERALS IN INDIA-I .................................................................................................................................................................... 106


Iron ore, Manganese, Bauxite and Limestone ................................................................................................................................ 106

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Indian Geography 2015


Types of Minerals ............................................................................................................................................................................. 106
Distribution of Minerals .................................................................................................................................................................. 107
IRON ORE ............................................................................................................................................................................................ 107
Types of Iron Ore .............................................................................................................................................................................. 107
Reserves of Iron Ore .......................................................................................................................................................................... 108
MANGANESE ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 111

15

Areas of Manganese Production In India ....................................................................................................................................... 112


BAUXITE ............................................................................................................................................................................................. 113

20

Reserves of Bauxite in India ............................................................................................................................................................ 114


Areas of Bauxite Production ........................................................................................................................................................... 116
Consumption and Trade .................................................................................................................................................................. 117

LS

LIMESTONE ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 117


Areas of Limestone Production ........................................................................................................................................................ 117
MINERALS IN INDIA-II................................................................................................................................................................... 119

IA

Coal and Petroleum ......................................................................................................................................................................... 119


Types of Coal .................................................................................................................................................................................... 119

Occurrence of Coal In India ............................................................................................................................................................ 120

TO

The Gondwana Coalfields ............................................................................................................................................................... 120


The Tertiary Coalfields .................................................................................................................................................................... 121
Inventory of Geological Resources of Coal In India ....................................................................................................................... 121

TU

Areas of Coal Production in India .................................................................................................................................................. 122


Consumption of Coal In India ........................................................................................................................................................ 123
Problems of Coal Mining In India ................................................................................................................................................. 124
PETROLEUM ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 124

PS
C

Reserves of Petroleum in India ........................................................................................................................................................ 125


Areas of Petroleum Production ........................................................................................................................................................ 125
AGRICULTURE IN INDIA ............................................................................................................................................................. 131
Types of Farming in India .............................................................................................................................................................. 131

Agricultural Seasons......................................................................................................................................................................... 133


Kharif Season ................................................................................................................................................................................... 133
Rabi Season ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 133
Zaid Season ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 134
Green Revolution in India ............................................................................................................................................................... 134
Merits of the High Yielding Varieties ............................................................................................................................................. 134
Geographical Constraints in the Adoption of New Seeds .............................................................................................................. 136

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Indian Geography 2015


RAINBOW REVOLUTION............................................................................................................................................................... 139
DRY FARMING .................................................................................................................................................................................. 140
Significant Features of Dry Farming ................................................................................................................................................... 140
Crops ....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 141
Main Problems of Dry Farming...................................................................................................................................................... 142
AGRICULTURE IN INDIA-MAJOR CROPS-1 ............................................................................................................................. 143

15

Rice, Wheat, Millets and Pulses ..................................................................................................................................................... 143


Rice ................................................................................................................................................................................................... 143

20

Conditions for Growth of Rice ........................................................................................................................................................ 143


Methods of Rice Cultivation in India ............................................................................................................................................. 144
Areas of Rice Production ................................................................................................................................................................. 144

LS

WHEAT ................................................................................................................................................................................................ 145


Conditions for Growth of Wheat .................................................................................................................................................... 145
Methods of Wheat Cultivation in India ......................................................................................................................................... 145

IA

Millets ............................................................................................................................................................................................... 146


Jowar................................................................................................................................................................................................. 146

Bajra ................................................................................................................................................................................................. 147

TO

Conditions for Growth of Bajra ...................................................................................................................................................... 147


Areas of Bajra Production ............................................................................................................................................................... 147
Ragi .................................................................................................................................................................................................. 147

TU

Conditions for Growth of Ragi ....................................................................................................................................................... 147


Areas of Ragi Production ................................................................................................................................................................ 147
Pulses ................................................................................................................................................................................................ 148
Gram ................................................................................................................................................................................................. 148

PS
C

Arhar or Tur ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 148


Masur or Lentil ................................................................................................................................................................................ 148
AGRICULTURE IN INDIA-MAJOR CROPS-II ............................................................................................................................ 149
Sugar Cane, Oilseeds, Cotton and Jute ........................................................................................................................................... 149

Sugar Cane ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 149


Conditions for Growth of Sugar cane ............................................................................................................................................. 149
Sugar Cane Cultivation in India .................................................................................................................................................... 150
Areas of Sugar Cane Production ..................................................................................................................................................... 150
Comparison Between North India and South India for Sugar Cane Cultivation ....................................................................... 151
Problems of Sugar Cane Cultivation in India ............................................................................................................................... 151
Oilseeds.............................................................................................................................................................................................. 152

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Groundnut ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 152
Conditions for growth of Groundnuts ............................................................................................................................................. 152
Areas of Groundnut Production ...................................................................................................................................................... 153
Sesamum (Til) .................................................................................................................................................................................. 153
Conditions for growth of Sesamum (Til) ........................................................................................................................................ 153
Areas of Sesamum (Til) Production ................................................................................................................................................ 154

15

Rapeseed and Mustard .................................................................................................................................................................... 154


Conditions for Growth of Rapeseed and Mustard ......................................................................................................................... 154

20

Areas of Rapeseed and Mustard Production .................................................................................................................................. 154


Linseed .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 154
Conditions for Growth of Linseed ................................................................................................................................................... 155

LS

Areas of Linseed Production ............................................................................................................................................................ 155


Castor Seed ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 155
Conditions for Growth of Castor Seed ............................................................................................................................................ 155

IA

Areas of Castor Seed Production ..................................................................................................................................................... 155


Sunflower Seed ................................................................................................................................................................................. 156

Conditions for Growth of Sunflower Seed ...................................................................................................................................... 156

TO

Areas of Sunflower Seed Production ............................................................................................................................................... 156


Cotton Seed ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 156
Soyabean ........................................................................................................................................................................................... 156

TU

Conditions for Growth of Soyabean ................................................................................................................................................ 156


Areas of Soyabean Production ......................................................................................................................................................... 157
COCONUT ............................................................................................................................................................................................ 157
Conditions for Growth of Coconut .................................................................................................................................................. 157

PS
C

Cultivation ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 157


Areas ................................................................................................................................................................................................. 157
COTTON ............................................................................................................................................................................................... 157
Conditions for Growth of Cotton .................................................................................................................................................... 158

Types of Cotton ................................................................................................................................................................................. 158


Methods of Cultivation .................................................................................................................................................................... 158
Areas of Cotton Production ............................................................................................................................................................. 159

JUTE...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 160
Conditions for Growth of Jute ......................................................................................................................................................... 160
Method of Cultivation and Processing ............................................................................................................................................ 160
Areas of Jute Production .................................................................................................................................................................. 161

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Indian Geography 2015


AGRICULTURE IN INDIA-MAJOR CROPS-III .......................................................................................................................... 162
Tea, Coffee and Rubber ................................................................................................................................................................... 162
Tea .................................................................................................................................................................................................... 162
Types of Tea...................................................................................................................................................................................... 162
Conditions for Growth of Tea ......................................................................................................................................................... 162
Methods of Cultivation .................................................................................................................................................................... 163

15

Areas of Tea Production .................................................................................................................................................................. 164


COFFEE................................................................................................................................................................................................ 164

20

Types of Coffee .................................................................................................................................................................................. 164


Conditions for Growth of Coffee ..................................................................................................................................................... 165
Methods of Cultivation and Processing........................................................................................................................................... 165

LS

Areas of Coffee Production .............................................................................................................................................................. 166


RUBBER .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 166
Conditions for Growth of Rubber .................................................................................................................................................... 167

IA

Methods of Cultivation .................................................................................................................................................................... 167


Areas of Rubber Production ............................................................................................................................................................. 168

INDIA-INDUSTRIES ......................................................................................................................................................................... 169

TO

Growth of Industries In India ......................................................................................................................................................... 169


Liberalisation ................................................................................................................................................................................... 170
Location of Industries ...................................................................................................................................................................... 170

TU

Classification of Industries .............................................................................................................................................................. 172


Major Industrial Regions of India .................................................................................................................................................. 173
SPECIAL ECONOMIC ZONE (SEZ) .............................................................................................................................................. 175
Defining Feature .............................................................................................................................................................................. 175

PS
C

Objectives of Special Economic Zone .............................................................................................................................................. 175


Historical Perspective ....................................................................................................................................................................... 175
Conditions for Ideal SEZ ................................................................................................................................................................ 176
Special Economic Zones of India .................................................................................................................................................... 176

INDIA-AGROBASED INDUTSRIES............................................................................................................................................ 177


Sugar Industry .................................................................................................................................................................................. 177
Location of Sugar Industry .............................................................................................................................................................. 177
Distribution of Sugar Industry ........................................................................................................................................................ 177
Difference between Sugar Industry Of Northern And Southern India .......................................................................................... 178
THE TEXTILE INDUSTRIES ........................................................................................................................................................ 179
Cotton Textiles.................................................................................................................................................................................. 179

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Growth and Development ................................................................................................................................................................ 179
Location of Cotton Textile Industry ................................................................................................................................................ 179
Distribution of Cotton Textile Industry In India ........................................................................................................................... 180
Silk Textiles ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 182
Distribution of Silk Textile Mills In India .................................................................................................................................... 182
Jute Textiles ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 183

15

Growth and Development ................................................................................................................................................................ 183


Location of Jute Industry In India.................................................................................................................................................. 184

20

Distribution of Jute Mills In India ................................................................................................................................................. 184


Woollen Textiles ............................................................................................................................................................................... 185
Distribution of Woollen Mills In India .......................................................................................................................................... 185

LS

INDIA-MINERAL-BASED INDUSTRIES ..................................................................................................................................... 186


The Iron and Steel Industry ............................................................................................................................................................ 186
Growth and Development ................................................................................................................................................................ 186

IA

Locational Factors ........................................................................................................................................................................... 187


Distribution of Iron and Steel Industry .......................................................................................................................................... 187

Problems of Iron And Steel Industry In India................................................................................................................................ 192

TO

Heavy Engineering ........................................................................................................................................................................... 193


Industrial Machinery ....................................................................................................................................................................... 193
Machine Tools .................................................................................................................................................................................. 194

TU

Railway Equipment ......................................................................................................................................................................... 194


Automobile Industry ......................................................................................................................................................................... 195
Shipbuilding Industry ...................................................................................................................................................................... 195
Aircraft Industry .............................................................................................................................................................................. 196

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C

Petrochemicals .................................................................................................................................................................................. 196


Electronics Industry .......................................................................................................................................................................... 197
Means of Transport .......................................................................................................................................................................... 198
Waterways ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 199

REFRENCE ......................................................................................................................................................................................... 201


International Airports of India ....................................................................................................................................................... 201
Major Ports in India ....................................................................................................................................................................... 202
Important National Highways........................................................................................................................................................ 202
The Konkan Railway ...................................................................................................................................................................... 205
The Railway Zones .......................................................................................................................................................................... 205
The Main Scheduled Tribes of India .............................................................................................................................................. 206

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General Science 2015


Table of Contents
GENERAL SCIENCE, MATHEMATICS, AND TECHNOLOGY 32

15

What is the difference between science and technology?..................................................................................................... 34


How does an independent variable differ from a dependent variable? ............................................................................. 34

20

What is high technology or high tech? ................................................................................................................................ 34


What is nanotechnology? .................................................................................................................................................... 34

LS

How large is a nanometer? ................................................................................................................................................. 35


What is the oldest continuously published scientific journal? ............................................................................................ 35
When was the first Nobel Prize awarded? ......................................................................................................................... 35

IA

Who are the youngest and oldest Nobel Laureates in the areas of physics, chemistry, and physiology or medicine? ....... 35

Are there any multiple Nobel Prize winners? ..................................................................................................................... 35

TO

Who was the first woman to receive the Nobel Prize? ....................................................................................................... 36
How many women have been awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry, Physics, or Physiology or Medicine? .................. 36
When was the first time two women shared the Nobel Prize in the same field? .............................................................. 36

TU

Is there a Nobel Prize in mathematics? .............................................................................................................................. 37


What is the Turing Award? ............................................................................................................................................... 37
NUMBERS ........................................................................................................................................................................ 38

PS
C

What are Roman numerals? .............................................................................................................................................. 38


What are Fibonacci numbers? ............................................................................................................................................ 38
What is a perfect number? .................................................................................................................................................. 38

How large is a googol? ........................................................................................................................................................ 38


COMPUTERS ................................................................................................................................................................... 40
What is an algorithm? ........................................................................................................................................................ 40
What was the name of the personal computer introduced by Apple in the early 1980s? ................................................. 40
Whats the difference between a bit and a byte? ......................................................................................................... 40
What is a silicon chip?........................................................................................................................................................ 40
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What are the sizes of silicon chips? ..................................................................................................................................... 41
What is the central processing unit of a computer?............................................................................................................ 41
How is the speed of a CPU measured? .............................................................................................................................. 41
What is the difference between RAM and ROM? ............................................................................................................. 41
What are some newer forms of portable storage media? .................................................................................................... 41

15

What is a USB port? .......................................................................................................................................................... 42


Is assembly language the same thing as machine language? ............................................................................................. 42

20

Who invented the COBOL computer language? ................................................................................................................ 43


Which was the first widely used high-level programming language? ................................................................................ 43

LS

How did the Linux operating system get its name? ........................................................................................................... 43
Open-source software (OSS) ................................................................................................................................................ 43

IA

What is a pixel? .................................................................................................................................................................. 43


INTERNET........................................................................................................................................................................ 44

What is the Internet? .......................................................................................................................................................... 44

TO

Who coined the term information superhighway? .......................................................................................................... 44


Who invented the World Wide Web? ................................................................................................................................ 44

TU

What is the client/server principle and how does it apply to the Internet? ....................................................................... 45
What is a Uniform Resource Locator, or URL? ............................................................................................................... 45
What are some common top level domain (TLD) suffixes? ............................................................................................... 45

PS
C

What is the most popular search engine? ........................................................................................................................... 45


When was Google founded?................................................................................................................................................ 46
What is spam?..................................................................................................................................................................... 46
What is Wi-Fi? ................................................................................................................................................................... 46

When was the term Web 2.0 first used? ............................................................................................................................ 46


What is Web 2.0? ............................................................................................................................................................... 46
Web 3.0 ............................................................................................................................................................................... 47
What is inertia? .................................................................................................................................................................. 49
What is superconductivity? ................................................................................................................................................. 49
What are some practical applications of superconductivity? ............................................................................................. 49
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What is string theory? ......................................................................................................................................................... 49
What is the role of friction in striking a match? ............................................................................................................... 50
What is friction? ................................................................................................................................................................. 50
Why is a lubricant, such as oil, often used to counter the force of friction? ...................................................................... 50
Why do golf balls have dimples?......................................................................................................................................... 50

15

Does water running down a drain rotate in a different direction in the Northern versus the Southern Hemisphere? .... 50
What is the speed of light? .................................................................................................................................................. 51

20

What are the primary colors in light? ................................................................................................................................ 51


How do polarized sunglasses reduce glare? ........................................................................................................................ 51

LS

Why does the color of clothing appear different in sunlight than it does in a store under fluorescent light? ................... 51
What is the difference between special and general relativity? .......................................................................................... 51

IA

How do sound waves differ from light waves? .................................................................................................................. 52


Does sound travel faster in air or water? ........................................................................................................................... 52

Who was the first person to break the sound barrier? ........................................................................................................ 52

TO

When is a sonic boom heard?.............................................................................................................................................. 52


What is the Doppler Effect? ............................................................................................................................................... 53

TU

What is a decibel? ............................................................................................................................................................... 53


What are the characteristics of alpha, beta, and gamma radiation? ................................................................................ 53
ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM ............................................................................................................................ 54

PS
C

How does an electromagnet work? ..................................................................................................................................... 54


If a magnetic bar is cut in two, will it yield a north pole and a South Pole magnet? ..................................................... 54
How do permanent magnets differ from temporary magnets? ........................................................................................... 54
What materials are used to make the most powerful permanent magnets? ...................................................................... 54

Why is static electricity greater in winter than summer? ................................................................................................... 54


How do dryer sheets and hair conditioner reduce or prevent static electricity? ................................................................. 55
How did the electrical term ampere originate? .................................................................................................................. 55
How did the electrical unit volt originate? ........................................................................................................................ 55
How did the electrical unit watt originate? ....................................................................................................................... 55
What materials are the best and worst conductors of electricity? ...................................................................................... 55
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General Science 2015


How do lead-acid batteries work? ...................................................................................................................................... 56
MATTER ............................................................................................................................................................................ 56
What is an atom? ............................................................................................................................................................... 56
Who is generally regarded as the discoverer of the electron, the proton, and the neutron? ............................................... 56
What is a chemical bond?................................................................................................................................................... 56

15

What are the major types of bonds?.................................................................................................................................... 56


When was the first atomic theory proposed? ...................................................................................................................... 57

20

Who proposed the modern theory of the atom? ................................................................................................................... 57


Who invented the cyclotron? ............................................................................................................................................... 57

LS

What is the fourth state of matter?..................................................................................................................................... 57


What is the difference between nuclear fission and nuclear fusion?.................................................................................. 58

IA

How did the quark get its name? ....................................................................................................................................... 58


What are subatomic particles?............................................................................................................................................ 58

Why is liquid water denser than ice? ................................................................................................................................. 59

TO

What substance, other than water, is less dense as a solid than as a liquid? ................................................................... 59
CHEMICAL ELEMENTS ............................................................................................................................................... 59

TU

Who are some of the founders of modern chemistry? .......................................................................................................... 59


Who developed the periodic table? ...................................................................................................................................... 59
What are the alkali metals? ............................................................................................................................................... 60

PS
C

What are the alkaline Earth metals? ................................................................................................................................. 61


What are the transition elements? ...................................................................................................................................... 61
What are the transuranic chemical elements and the names for elements 102 to 109? .................................................. 61
Which are the only two elements in the periodic table named after women?.................................................................... 62

Which elements are the noble metals? ............................................................................................................................. 62


What distinguishes gold and silver as elements? ................................................................................................................ 62
What is Harkins rule? ....................................................................................................................................................... 63
What are some chemical elements whose symbols are not derived from their English names? ......................................... 63
Which elements are liquid at room temperature?............................................................................................................... 63
Which chemical elements are the most abundant on Earth? ............................................................................................. 63
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General Science 2015


Why are the rare gases and rare Earth elements called rare? ........................................................................................ 63
What is an isotope? ............................................................................................................................................................. 64
Which elements have the most isotopes? ............................................................................................................................. 64
What is heavy water?.......................................................................................................................................................... 64
What does half-life mean?................................................................................................................................................... 64

15

Which elements have the highest and lowest boiling points? ............................................................................................. 64
Which element has the highest density? .............................................................................................................................. 65

20

What is the density of air? .................................................................................................................................................. 65


Which elements are the hardest and softest? ...................................................................................................................... 65

LS

What are isomers? ............................................................................................................................................................... 65


What are the gas laws?....................................................................................................................................................... 66

IA

What is a Lewis acid? ........................................................................................................................................................ 66


Alloys List ............................................................................................................................................................................ 66

What is the Kelvin temperature scale? ............................................................................................................................... 74

TO

How are Celsius temperatures converted into Fahrenheit temperatures? .......................................................................... 74


How is absolute zero defined? ......................................................................................................................................... 75

TU

Does hot water freeze faster than cold? .............................................................................................................................. 75


What is STP? ..................................................................................................................................................................... 75
What is the pH scale? ......................................................................................................................................................... 75

PS
C

What is nuclear magnetic resonance? ................................................................................................................................. 76


What is a mole in chemistry?.............................................................................................................................................. 76
ASTRONOMY AND SPACE........................................................................................................................................... 77
What was the Big Bang? ................................................................................................................................................... 77

What is the Big Crunch theory? ......................................................................................................................................... 77


How old is the universe? ..................................................................................................................................................... 77
How old is the solar system? ............................................................................................................................................... 77
What are quasars? .............................................................................................................................................................. 78
STARS ................................................................................................................................................................................ 78
What is a supernova? .......................................................................................................................................................... 78
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General Science 2015


What are the four types of nebulae? ................................................................................................................................... 78
Why do stars twinkle?......................................................................................................................................................... 79
What is a binary star? ........................................................................................................................................................ 79
What is a black hole?.......................................................................................................................................................... 79
What is a pulsar? ................................................................................................................................................................ 79

15

What is the most massive star? ........................................................................................................................................... 80


Which stars are the brightest? ............................................................................................................................................. 80

20

What is the Milky Way? .................................................................................................................................................... 80


What is the Big Dipper? ..................................................................................................................................................... 80

LS

Where is the North Star? .................................................................................................................................................... 81


Which star is the closest to Earth? ..................................................................................................................................... 81

IA

What is the ecliptic? ............................................................................................................................................................ 81


Why does the color of the sun vary? .................................................................................................................................... 81

How long does it take light from the sun to reach Earth?................................................................................................. 81

TO

How long is a solar cycle? ................................................................................................................................................... 81


What is a solar flare? ......................................................................................................................................................... 82

TU

What is the sunspot cycle? ................................................................................................................................................... 82


What is solar wind? ............................................................................................................................................................ 82
When do solar eclipses happen? .......................................................................................................................................... 82

PS
C

PLANETS AND MOONS ................................................................................................................................................ 83


How far are the planets from the sun? ............................................................................................................................... 83
Which are the hottest and coldest planets? ......................................................................................................................... 83
Which planets have rings? .................................................................................................................................................. 84

What are the colors of the planets? ..................................................................................................................................... 85


What is the gravitational force on each of the planets, the moon, and the sun relative to Earth? .................................. 85
Which planets are visible to the naked eye?........................................................................................................................ 85
Which planets are called inferior planets and which are superior planets? ............................................................... 85
Is a day the same on all the planets? .................................................................................................................................. 86
What are the Jovian and terrestrial planets? ..................................................................................................................... 86
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What is unique about the rotation of the planet Venus? ................................................................................................... 86
Is it true that the rotation speed of Earth varies? .............................................................................................................. 86
Is Earth closer to the sun in winter than in summer in the Northern Hemisphere? ......................................................... 87
What is the precession of the equinoxes? ............................................................................................................................. 87
How many dwarf planets are in the solar system? ............................................................................................................ 87

15

What is a small Solar System body? .................................................................................................................................. 87


What are Kuiper Belt Objects? ........................................................................................................................................... 87

20

How far is the moon from Earth? ...................................................................................................................................... 88


How many moons does each planet have? .......................................................................................................................... 88

LS

What are the phases of the moon? ...................................................................................................................................... 88


What are moonquakes? ....................................................................................................................................................... 89

IA

Why does the moon always keep the same face toward Earth? ......................................................................................... 89
What are the names of the full moon during each month?................................................................................................ 89

Is the moon really blue during a blue moon?...................................................................................................................... 89

TO

Why do lunar eclipses happen? ........................................................................................................................................... 90


What is the difference between a hunters moon and a harvest moon? ............................................................................. 91

TU

What is the largest crater on the moon? ............................................................................................................................. 91


What is the Genesis rock? ................................................................................................................................................... 91
COMETS AND METEORITES ..................................................................................................................................... 91

PS
C

Where are asteroids found? ................................................................................................................................................. 91


From where do comets originate? ....................................................................................................................................... 92
How does a meteorite differ from a meteoroid?.................................................................................................................. 92
When do meteor showers occur? .......................................................................................................................................... 92

OBSERVATION AND MEASUREMENT ................................................................................................................... 93


Who was the first Astronomer Royal? ................................................................................................................................ 93
What is a light year?........................................................................................................................................................... 93
Besides the light year, what other units are used to measure distances in astronomy? ..................................................... 93
What are the differences between reflecting and refracting telescopes?.............................................................................. 93
For whom is the Hubble Space Telescope named? ............................................................................................................. 94
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General Science 2015


EXPLORATION ............................................................................................................................................................... 94
What is the difference between zero-gravity and microgravity? ......................................................................................... 94
What is meant by the phrase greening of the galaxy? .................................................................................................... 94
When was the Outer Space Treaty signed? ........................................................................................................................ 94
Who was the first man in space? ........................................................................................................................................ 95

15

Who was the first woman in space? ................................................................................................................................... 95


Who was the first space tourist? ......................................................................................................................................... 96

20

What are the liquid fuels used by the space shuttles? ......................................................................................................... 96
What was the cause of the Columbia space shuttle disaster? ............................................................................................ 96

LS

What is the purpose of the International Space Station (ISS)? ........................................................................................ 96


When was the first module of the International Space Station launched?....................................................................... 96

IA

Which nations contribute to the International Space Station? ......................................................................................... 97


What are the Van Allen belts?............................................................................................................................................ 98

Why is the sky blue? ............................................................................................................................................................ 98

TO

PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS ................................................................................................................................ 98


What is the interior of the earth like? ................................................................................................................................ 98

TU

What causes sinkholes? ....................................................................................................................................................... 99


What is at the center of Earth? .......................................................................................................................................... 99
How does the temperature of the earth change as one goes deeper underground? .......................................................... 100

PS
C

What is the tallest mountain? ......................................................................................................................................... 100


Which elements are contained in Earths crust? ............................................................................................................. 100
WATER ........................................................................................................................................................................... 100
Does ocean water circulate? ............................................................................................................................................. 100

How much of Earths surface is land and how much is water? .................................................................................... 101
If Earth were a uniform sphere, how much water would cover the surface? ................................................................. 101
If you melted all the ice in the world, how high would the oceans rise? ........................................................................ 101
What fraction of an iceberg shows above water? ............................................................................................................ 101
What color is an iceberg? ................................................................................................................................................. 101
What is an aquifer? ......................................................................................................................................................... 102
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General Science 2015


What is the chemical composition of the ocean? ............................................................................................................. 102
Why is the sea blue? ......................................................................................................................................................... 102
What causes waves in the ocean? .................................................................................................................................... 103
What is a tidal bore? ....................................................................................................................................................... 103
What are rip tides and why are they so dangerous? ....................................................................................................... 103

15

Where are the worlds highest tides? ................................................................................................................................ 103


Is there one numerical value for sea level? ....................................................................................................................... 103

20

What is the difference between an ocean and a sea? ...................................................................................................... 104


How much salt is in brackish water? .............................................................................................................................. 104

LS

How salty is seawater?..................................................................................................................................................... 104


What is the bearing capacity of ice on a lake? ................................................................................................................ 104

IA

Where is the worlds deepest lake? ................................................................................................................................... 105


Where are the five largest lakes in the world located? .................................................................................................... 105

What is a Yazoo? ............................................................................................................................................................. 105

TO

Which of the Great Lakes is the largest?......................................................................................................................... 105


Which lake is no longer one of the five largest lakes in the world? ................................................................................ 106

TU

What are the longest rivers in the world?........................................................................................................................ 106


What is the worlds highest waterfall? ............................................................................................................................ 106
LAND ............................................................................................................................................................................... 106

PS
C

Are there tides in the solid part of the earth as well as in its waters? ............................................................................ 106
How much of Earths surface is covered with ice? .......................................................................................................... 107
Which is purer: glacier ice or regular ice?........................................................................................................................ 107
How much of Earths surface is permanently frozen? ..................................................................................................... 107

Do loud noises cause avalanches? .................................................................................................................................... 108


Which are the worlds largest deserts? ............................................................................................................................. 108
What is quicksand?.......................................................................................................................................................... 108
How is speleothem defined? ............................................................................................................................................. 108
What is a tufa? ................................................................................................................................................................ 109
Where is the deepest cave in the world? ........................................................................................................................... 109
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General Science 2015


Where is the longest cave system in the world?................................................................................................................ 109
How does a stalactite differ from a stalagmite? ............................................................................................................. 109
VOLCANOES AND EARTHQUAKES....................................................................................................................... 109
How many kinds of volcanoes are there?......................................................................................................................... 109
Where is the Circle of Fire? ............................................................................................................................................. 110

15

How many different kinds of faults have been identified? ............................................................................................. 110
Where is the San Andreas Fault?.................................................................................................................................... 110

20

How does a seismograph work? ....................................................................................................................................... 110


What is the Richter scale? ............................................................................................................................................... 111

LS

What is the modified Mercalli Scale? ............................................................................................................................. 111


The Modified Mercalli Scale ........................................................................................................................................... 111

IA

What is a tsunami?.......................................................................................................................................................... 112


Where do most tsunamis occur? ....................................................................................................................................... 113

OBSERVATION AND MEASUREMENT ................................................................................................................ 113

TO

What is magnetic declination? ........................................................................................................................................ 113


Which direction does a compass needle point at the North Pole?................................................................................... 113

TU

What are the major eras, periods, and epochs in geologic time? ..................................................................................... 113
What is the prime meridian? ........................................................................................................................................... 114
What is Mercators projection for maps?......................................................................................................................... 114

PS
C

What are Landsat maps? ................................................................................................................................................ 115


What do the 7.5 minute quadrangle maps represent? .................................................................................................... 115
What is Global Positioning System (GPS) and how does it work?............................................................................... 115
CLIMATE AND WEATHER....................................................................................................................................... 116

Which is colderthe North Pole or the South Pole? ........................................................................................................ 116


What is a heat wave? ...................................................................................................................................................... 116
What is the heat index? ................................................................................................................................................... 116
Why are the hot, humid days of summer called dog days? .......................................................................................... 117
AIR PHENOMENA ....................................................................................................................................................... 117
What is a bishops ring?................................................................................................................................................... 117
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General Science 2015


When does the green flash phenomenon occur? ............................................................................................................... 117
How often does an aurora appear? ................................................................................................................................. 117
What is cloud seeding? ..................................................................................................................................................... 117
What is lightning? ........................................................................................................................................................... 118
What is the color of lightning? ........................................................................................................................................ 118

15

How long is a lightning stroke? ....................................................................................................................................... 118


Does lightning ever strike twice in the same place? ......................................................................................................... 119

20

Why are lightning rods important? ................................................................................................................................. 119


What is Saint Elmos fire? .............................................................................................................................................. 119

LS

What are fulgurites? ........................................................................................................................................................ 119


How do rainbows occur?.................................................................................................................................................. 119

IA

What conditions must be met in order to see a rainbow? ............................................................................................... 120


Is there such a thing as a completely circular rainbow? ................................................................................................. 120

What is the order of colors in a rainbow? ....................................................................................................................... 120

TO

WIND............................................................................................................................................................................... 120
Where do haboobs occur? ................................................................................................................................................. 120

TU

What is the Coriolis Effect? ............................................................................................................................................. 120


When was jet stream discovered? ..................................................................................................................................... 121
What is a Siberian express? ............................................................................................................................................. 121

PS
C

Why are the horse latitudes called by that name? ........................................................................................................... 121
What are halcyon days? ................................................................................................................................................... 121
What is an Alberta clipper? ............................................................................................................................................. 122
What is a Chinook? ......................................................................................................................................................... 122

What is the Beaufort scale? ............................................................................................................................................. 122


What is meant by the wind chill factor? ......................................................................................................................... 122
How does a cyclone differ from a hurricane or a tornado?............................................................................................. 123
Who are storm chasers? .................................................................................................................................................... 123
How are hurricanes classified? ........................................................................................................................................ 123
PRECIPITATION .......................................................................................................................................................... 124
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General Science 2015


What is a white-out? .................................................................................................................................................... 124
What is the dew point? .................................................................................................................................................... 125
What is the greatest amount of rainfall ever measured?................................................................................................. 125
What is the difference between freezing rain and sleet? .................................................................................................. 125
How does snow form? ...................................................................................................................................................... 125

15

Is it ever too cold to snow? ............................................................................................................................................... 126


Are all snowflakes shaped alike? ..................................................................................................................................... 126

20

When does frost form? ...................................................................................................................................................... 126


WEATHER PREDICTION.......................................................................................................................................... 126

LS

What is the difference between weather and climate? .................................................................................................... 126


Who prepared the first weather map? ............................................................................................................................. 126

IA

What is Doppler radar? ................................................................................................................................................... 127


When did modern weather forecasting begin?................................................................................................................. 127

What is barometric pressure and what does it mean? .................................................................................................... 127

TO

MINERALS, METALS, AND OTHER MATERIALS ............................................................................................ 127


What are the three main groups of rocks? ....................................................................................................................... 127

TU

What is petrology and what does a petrologist do? ......................................................................................................... 128


How does a rock differ from a mineral? ......................................................................................................................... 128
What is the Mohs scale? .................................................................................................................................................. 128

PS
C

What is pitchblende? ........................................................................................................................................................ 129


What is galena? ............................................................................................................................................................... 129
What is stibnite? .............................................................................................................................................................. 129
What are Cape May diamonds?...................................................................................................................................... 129

What are the four Cs of diamonds? ............................................................................................................................. 129


What is cubic zirconium?................................................................................................................................................. 129
How does the emerald get its color? ................................................................................................................................. 130
Which two gems contain the mineral corundum? ........................................................................................................... 130
What is a tigers eye?........................................................................................................................................................ 130
METALS ......................................................................................................................................................................... 130
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General Science 2015


What are the precious metals? ......................................................................................................................................... 130
What is 24 karat gold? ................................................................................................................................................... 130
Is white gold really gold? ................................................................................................................................................. 131
What is fools gold? .......................................................................................................................................................... 131
What is sterling silver? ..................................................................................................................................................... 131

15

What is German silver? ................................................................................................................................................... 131


Which metal is the main component of pewter? ............................................................................................................. 131

20

What is high speed steel?.................................................................................................................................................. 132


What is technetium? ........................................................................................................................................................ 132

LS

NATURAL SUBSTANCES .......................................................................................................................................... 132


What is obsidian? ............................................................................................................................................................ 132

IA

What is red dog? .............................................................................................................................................................. 132


What is diatomite?........................................................................................................................................................... 132

What is fly ash? ............................................................................................................................................................... 133

TO

In coal mining what is meant by damp? ........................................................................................................................ 133


What is fullers earth?...................................................................................................................................................... 133

TU

Why are essential oils called essential? ........................................................................................................................ 133


What is gutta percha? ...................................................................................................................................................... 133
What is ambergris? .......................................................................................................................................................... 134

PS
C

What are natural fibers? ................................................................................................................................................. 134


How is silk made? ............................................................................................................................................................ 134
What is cashmere?............................................................................................................................................................ 135
MAN-MADE PRODUCTS............................................................................................................................................ 135

What are the major distinguishing characteristics of ceramics? ..................................................................................... 135


What are composite materials? ........................................................................................................................................ 135
Why is Styrofoam a good insulator? ............................................................................................................................... 135
How is dry ice made? ....................................................................................................................................................... 135
Why is sulfuric acid important? ...................................................................................................................................... 136
What is aqua regia? ......................................................................................................................................................... 136
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General Science 2015


Who developed the process for making ammonia? .......................................................................................................... 136
What is buckminsterfullerene? ......................................................................................................................................... 136
What is the lightest known solid?.................................................................................................................................... 137
Is glass a solid or a liquid? .............................................................................................................................................. 137
What is crown glass? ....................................................................................................................................................... 138

15

What are the advantages of tempered glass? ................................................................................................................... 138


How is bulletproof glass made? ....................................................................................................................................... 138

20

What is the float glass process? ........................................................................................................................................ 138


What is Belgian block? .................................................................................................................................................... 138

LS

What is solder? ................................................................................................................................................................. 139


What is slag? .................................................................................................................................................................... 139

IA

What is creosote? .............................................................................................................................................................. 139


What is carbon black? ..................................................................................................................................................... 139

What is the chemical used in watches to make them glow in the dark? ........................................................................ 140

TO

How is parchment paper made? ...................................................................................................................................... 140


How is sandpaper made? ................................................................................................................................................. 140

TU

Why is acid-free paper important? ................................................................................................................................... 140


Why is titanium dioxide the most widely used white pigment? ..................................................................................... 140
When and where was gunpowder invented? ................................................................................................................... 141

PS
C

How are colored fireworks made? ................................................................................................................................... 141


What is the chemical formula for TNT? ........................................................................................................................ 141
Why cant metal objects be placed in a microwave? ....................................................................................................... 141
What are man-made fibers? ............................................................................................................................................. 141

What is Kevlar? ............................................................................................................................................................... 142


Who invented Teflon? ...................................................................................................................................................... 142
What type of high-technology material is used in space vehicles for its heat-resistant properties?.................................. 142
ENERGY ......................................................................................................................................................................... 143
Why are coal, oil, and natural gas called fossil fuels? .................................................................................................... 143
How and when was coal formed? ................................................................................................................................... 143
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General Science 2015


What is cannel coal? ........................................................................................................................................................ 143
What is a miners canary? ............................................................................................................................................... 143
What is the process known as hydrocarbon cracking? .................................................................................................... 143
Why was lead added to gasoline and why is lead-free gasoline used in cars? ................................................................ 144
What is a reformulated gasoline? .................................................................................................................................... 144

15

What kinds of additives are in gasoline and why? ......................................................................................................... 144


What do the octane numbers of gasoline mean? ............................................................................................................. 145

20

How is gasohol made? ..................................................................................................................................................... 145


How does ethanol differ from gasohol? ........................................................................................................................... 145

LS

What are the main components found in motor vehicle exhaust? .................................................................................. 145
What is the cleanest fossil fuel? ....................................................................................................................................... 145

IA

What are synthetic fuels? ................................................................................................................................................. 146


What is cogeneration? ...................................................................................................................................................... 146

What is biomass energy? .................................................................................................................................................. 146

TO

Which woods have the best heating quality in a wood-burning stove? ........................................................................... 147
What are the advantages and disadvantages of geothermal power? .............................................................................. 147

TU

NUCLEAR ENERGY ................................................................................................................................................... 147


Which countries produce the most commercial nuclear power? ...................................................................................... 147
What actually happened at Three Mile Island? ............................................................................................................. 148

PS
C

What caused the Chernobyl accident? ............................................................................................................................. 148


Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster................................................................................................................................ 149
What is vitrification? ....................................................................................................................................................... 149
MEASURES AND MEASUREMENT ....................................................................................................................... 149

What is the weight per gallon of common fuels?............................................................................................................. 149


How much does a barrel of oil weigh? ............................................................................................................................ 149
How many gallons are in a barrel of oil? ....................................................................................................................... 149
How many gallons of gasoline are in one barrel of oil?.................................................................................................. 149
How do various energy sources compare? ........................................................................................................................ 150
What are the approximate heating values of fuels? ........................................................................................................ 151
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General Science 2015


What are the fuel equivalents to produce one quad of energy? ....................................................................................... 151
How much heat will 100 cubic feet of natural gas provide? ......................................................................................... 151
How is a heating degree day defined? ............................................................................................................................. 151
What does the term cooling degree day mean? ................................................................................................................ 152
CONSUMPTION AND CONSERVATION................................................................................................................ 152

15

How does the Energy Star program promote energy efficiency? ...................................................................................... 152
What are the advantages of compact fluorescent light bulbs over incandescent light bulbs? ......................................... 152

20

Is it more economical to run an automobile with its windows open rather than using its air conditioner? ................ 152
When is it more economical to restart an automobile rather than let it idle?................................................................ 153

LS

How much gasoline is wasted by underinflated tires? .................................................................................................... 153


What is the ecological footprint? ..................................................................................................................................... 154

IA

What percentage of Earths surface is forest area?.......................................................................................................... 154


What percentage of Earths surface is tropical rain forest? ............................................................................................ 154

What is the largest rain forest? ........................................................................................................................................ 154

TO

What is the importance of the rain forest? ...................................................................................................................... 154


What is limnology? .......................................................................................................................................................... 154

TU

What is an estuary? ......................................................................................................................................................... 155


What is eutrophication? ................................................................................................................................................... 155
What does it mean when a lake is brown or blue? ......................................................................................................... 155

PS
C

What is red tide and what causes it? .............................................................................................................................. 155


What are cyanobacterial blooms? .................................................................................................................................... 155
What is a trophic level? ................................................................................................................................................... 156
How does a food chain function? .................................................................................................................................... 156

What is a food web? ........................................................................................................................................................ 156


Why do ecosystems need decomposers? ............................................................................................................................. 156
What is air pollution?...................................................................................................................................................... 157
What are the health effects of the major air pollutants? ................................................................................................ 157
What is the Pollutant Standard Index? ......................................................................................................................... 158
What are the greenhouse gases? ....................................................................................................................................... 158
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General Science 2015


What is the greenhouse effect?.......................................................................................................................................... 159
How do chlorofluorocarbons affect Earths ozone layer? ................................................................................................ 159
How large is the Antarctic ozone hole? ........................................................................................................................... 160
What are the components of smog? .................................................................................................................................. 160
What is the Kyoto Protocol? ............................................................................................................................................ 160

15

What is acid rain? ........................................................................................................................................................... 160


How acidic is acid rain? .................................................................................................................................................. 161

20

Which pollutants lead to indoor air pollution?............................................................................................................... 161


Why is radon a health hazard? ....................................................................................................................................... 162

LS

How are hazardous waste materials classified?.............................................................................................................. 163


What chemicals were initially banned by the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants?.................... 163

IA

What are PCBs? .............................................................................................................................................................. 164


What are Operation Ranch Hand and Agent Orange? ................................................................................................. 164

Agenda 21 ........................................................................................................................................................................ 165

TO

Durban III ........................................................................................................................................................................ 165


Green Economy ................................................................................................................................................................. 165

TU

Planetary boundaries........................................................................................................................................................ 165


ISO 14000 ....................................................................................................................................................................... 166
ISO 9000 ......................................................................................................................................................................... 166

PS
C

United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (UNCSD) ............................................................................ 167


What are Brown fields?................................................................................................................................................... 167
What are the sources of oil pollution in the oceans? ....................................................................................................... 167
What do the numbers inside the recycling symbol on plastic containers mean? ............................................................. 168

What is e-Cycling? ............................................................................................................................................................ 169


Which parts of the world have the largest protected areas? ............................................................................................ 169
How did the dodo become extinct? .................................................................................................................................. 170
What is the difference between an endangered species and a threatened species? ................................................... 170
How is it determined that a species is endangered?..................................................................................................... 170
What is a dolphin-safe tuna? ........................................................................................................................................... 171
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General Science 2015


CELLS ............................................................................................................................................................................. 172
What is the origin of the term cell? .............................................................................................................................. 172
What are the differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells? .............................................................................. 172
What groups of organisms have prokaryotic cells and which ones have eukaryotic cells? ............................................. 172
What are organelles? ........................................................................................................................................................ 173

15

What are the largest and smallest organelles in a cell? .................................................................................................. 173
What cell structures are unique to plant cells and which ones are unique to animal cells? .......................................... 173

20

What are the major components of the eukaryotic cell? .................................................................................................. 173
How do the cells of bacteria, plants, and animals compare to each other? .................................................................... 174

LS

What is the major function of the nucleus? ..................................................................................................................... 175


When was the nucleus first described? ............................................................................................................................. 175

IA

Do all cells have a nucleus? ............................................................................................................................................. 175


How thick is the plasma membrane? .............................................................................................................................. 175

What are the main components of the plasma membrane? ............................................................................................ 175

TO

What are the main functions of the plasma membrane? ................................................................................................ 175
What are stem cells and what are some potential uses of such cells? ............................................................................. 175

TU

What is mitosis and what are the stages of this process? ................................................................................................ 176
What is cell cloning and how is it used in scientific research? ....................................................................................... 176
VIRUSES, BACTERIA, PROTISTS, AND FUNGI................................................................................................. 176

PS
C

What is the average size of a virus?................................................................................................................................. 176


Do viruses contain both DNA and RNA?....................................................................................................................... 177
What is the difference between a virus and a retrovirus? ............................................................................................... 177
What is a bacteriophage? ................................................................................................................................................. 177

What is the difference between a virus and a viroid? ..................................................................................................... 177


Who first used the term prion? ..................................................................................................................................... 178
How do prions work and what diseases have been linked to prions? ............................................................................. 178
What is the difference between a plasmid and a prion? ................................................................................................. 178
When were bacteria discovered?....................................................................................................................................... 178
How many groups are identified in the domain Bacteria? ............................................................................................ 178
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General Science 2015


What are Archaebacteria? ............................................................................................................................................... 179
What is the most abundant group of organisms?............................................................................................................ 179
How did the discovery of bacteria impact the theory of spontaneous generation? .......................................................... 179
Which criteria were used to form what is referred to as the classical approach of bacterial taxonomy? ...................... 180
What period of time has come to be known as the golden age of microbiology? ............................................................ 180

15

What are the main components of a bacterial cell? ........................................................................................................ 181


How do viruses compare to bacteria? .............................................................................................................................. 182

20

How many genes are in a typical bacterial cell? ............................................................................................................. 182


Do bacteria all have the same shape? .............................................................................................................................. 182

LS

How do bacteria reproduce?............................................................................................................................................. 182


How quickly do bacteria reproduce? ................................................................................................................................ 182

IA

Where are bacteria found? ............................................................................................................................................... 183


Are any bacteria visible to the naked eye? ....................................................................................................................... 183

What are Kochs postulates? ............................................................................................................................................ 183

TO

How dangerous is Clostridium botulinum? .................................................................................................................... 183


How are bacteria cultured?.............................................................................................................................................. 184

TU

Who first proposed the kingdom Protista? ...................................................................................................................... 184


What are the characteristics of the protists? .................................................................................................................... 184
What are the major groups of organisms in the kingdom Protista?............................................................................... 184

PS
C

Which protist is an indicator of polluted water? ............................................................................................................ 185


What slime mold serves as a model organism in developmental biology? ...................................................................... 185
What characteristics do all fungi share? ......................................................................................................................... 185
What organisms are included in the kingdom Fungi? ................................................................................................... 185

Where are fungi found? ................................................................................................................................................... 186


Since fungi lack chlorophyll necessary to produce their own food how do they obtain food?......................................... 186
How many kinds of mushrooms are edible? .................................................................................................................... 186
What is unusual about Amanita mushrooms?................................................................................................................ 186
What antidote is available for mushroom poisoning? .................................................................................................... 186
What are truffles? ............................................................................................................................................................ 186
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General Science 2015


What do truffles look like?............................................................................................................................................... 187
What are lichens? ............................................................................................................................................................. 187
What is the relationship between lichens and pollution?................................................................................................ 187
What is the role of yeast in beer production?................................................................................................................... 188
Is the same strain of yeast used to make lager beers and ales?........................................................................................ 188

15

What cheeses are associated with fungi? ......................................................................................................................... 188


DNA, RNA, AND CHROMOSOMES.......................................................................................................................... 189

20

What is DNA? ................................................................................................................................................................. 189


What are the component molecules of DNA? .................................................................................................................. 189

LS

How is a DNA molecule held together?........................................................................................................................... 189


What are the nitrogenous bases of DNA? ....................................................................................................................... 189

IA

What term was originally used for DNA? ...................................................................................................................... 190


What is the law of complementary base pairing? ........................................................................................................... 190

How is DNA unzipped?................................................................................................................................................... 190

TO

What is needed for DNA replication? ............................................................................................................................. 190


Is DNA always copied exactly?........................................................................................................................................ 190

TU

What is a mutation? ........................................................................................................................................................ 191


How fast is DNA copied? ................................................................................................................................................ 191
What is polymerase chain reaction? ................................................................................................................................ 191

PS
C

How is DNA organized in the nucleus? .......................................................................................................................... 191


Is all DNA found in the nucleus? .................................................................................................................................... 191
How much DNA is in a typical human cell?.................................................................................................................. 192
What is the difference between DNA and RNA? ........................................................................................................... 192

When was RNA discovered? ............................................................................................................................................ 192


Where is RNA formed? .................................................................................................................................................... 192
How many types of RNA are found in eukaryotic cells? ................................................................................................ 192
How are chromosomes assembled? ................................................................................................................................... 193
When were chromosomes first observed? .......................................................................................................................... 193
Which organism has the largest number of chromosomes? ............................................................................................. 193
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General Science 2015


How many chromosomes are in a human body cell? ...................................................................................................... 193
What are the components of a gene?................................................................................................................................ 193
What is the average size of a gene?.................................................................................................................................. 194
What is the difference between a gene and a chromosome? ............................................................................................ 194
How are genes controlled?................................................................................................................................................ 194

15

Do both sides of DNA contain genes?.............................................................................................................................. 194


What is the p53 gene?...................................................................................................................................................... 194

20

How can the entire genome fit into the nucleus of a cell? ............................................................................................... 195
GENETICS AND EVOLUTION ................................................................................................................................. 195

LS

Who is generally known as the founder of genetics? ....................................................................................................... 195


What is a pedigree? .......................................................................................................................................................... 195

IA

What is meant by the modern era of genetics? ................................................................................................................ 195


What was the Human Genome Project (HGP), and what were its goals?................................................................... 195

What is a genome? ........................................................................................................................................................... 196

TO

How are genes physically found in a specific genome? .................................................................................................... 196


What is genetic engineering? ............................................................................................................................................ 196

TU

What was the first commercial use of genetic engineering? ............................................................................................ 197
What are some examples of genetic engineering in animals and microbes? ................................................................... 198
What was the first animal to be successfully cloned? ..................................................................................................... 198

PS
C

What was the first mammal to be successfully cloned?................................................................................................... 198


What is evolution? ........................................................................................................................................................... 198
What is Lamarckian evolution? ...................................................................................................................................... 199
Who was Charles Darwin? ............................................................................................................................................. 199

What were the Beagle voyages? ....................................................................................................................................... 199


What is the significance of Darwins finches? ................................................................................................................ 199
Who was Alfred Russel Wallace? ................................................................................................................................... 200
Who coined the phrase survival of the fittest? ............................................................................................................. 200
Why is evolution a theory? ............................................................................................................................................... 200
What is Mllerian mimicry? ........................................................................................................................................... 200
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General Science 2015


What is Batesian mimicry? ............................................................................................................................................. 200
What is the Oparin-Haldane hypothesis? ........................................................................................................................ 200
Who verified the Oparin-Haldane hypothesis? ................................................................................................................ 201
What is the Red Queen hypothesis? ................................................................................................................................. 201
CLASSIFICATION, LABORATORY TOOLS, AND TECHNIQUES ................................................................... 201

15

Who devised one of the earliest systems for animal and plant classification?................................................................ 201
What is the difference between a domain and a kingdom? ............................................................................................ 202

20

What is cell culture?......................................................................................................................................................... 202


How does an in vivo study differ from an in vitro study? .............................................................................................. 202

LS

What distinguishes the different types of microscopes?.................................................................................................... 202


Who invented the compound microscope? ........................................................................................................................ 202

IA

Who invented the electron microscope? ............................................................................................................................ 203


Which radioisotope is most commonly used for biological specimens? ............................................................................ 203

What is electrophoresis? ................................................................................................................................................... 203

TO

How has centrifugation been used in biological applications? ....................................................................................... 203


What are the uses for chromatography? .......................................................................................................................... 204

TU

How is chromatography used to identify individual compounds? .................................................................................. 204


What is spectroscopy? ....................................................................................................................................................... 204
What is bioinformatics? ................................................................................................................................................... 204

PS
C

What are the major subdivisions of botany? ................................................................................................................... 206


Who is known as the founder of botany? ........................................................................................................................ 206
What contributions did John and William Bartram make to botany? ......................................................................... 207
Which plants have been used to create dyes? ................................................................................................................... 207

What plants are commonly used in the perfume industry? ............................................................................................. 207
What parts of plants are used for spices? ........................................................................................................................ 208
What are some common culinary herbs? ......................................................................................................................... 208
What plants produce essential oils that are commonly used in aromatherapy? ............................................................. 209
When was the first plant patent issued? ......................................................................................................................... 209
PLANT DIVERSITY..................................................................................................................................................... 209
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General Science 2015


What are the four major groups of plants? ..................................................................................................................... 209
What are bryophytes and where are they found? ............................................................................................................ 210
Why are mosses important? ............................................................................................................................................. 210
How can bryophytes be used as bio indicators? ............................................................................................................... 210
What are the uses of peat moss? ...................................................................................................................................... 210

15

What are the four groups of seedless, vascular plants?.................................................................................................... 210


What are gymnosperms and which plants are included in this group? .......................................................................... 211

20

What are some economically important angiosperms?.................................................................................................... 211


Among angiosperms what is the most important family? ............................................................................................... 211

LS

What is a weed? ............................................................................................................................................................... 211


How do hardwoods differ from softwoods? ..................................................................................................................... 212

IA

PLANT STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION ................................................................................................................ 212


What are the major parts of vascular plants? ................................................................................................................. 212

Is there a relationship between the size of the root system and the size of the shoot system? .......................................... 212

TO

What are the specialized cells in plants? ......................................................................................................................... 212


What conditions are necessary for seed germination? ..................................................................................................... 213

TU

What is a seed?................................................................................................................................................................. 213


What are the functions of stems? ..................................................................................................................................... 214
What are the parts of a leaf and the major functions of leaves? .................................................................................... 214

PS
C

Why do tree leaves change color in the fall? .................................................................................................................... 214


How does water move up a tree? ..................................................................................................................................... 214
What are the functions of the root system? ...................................................................................................................... 214
How deep does the root system penetrate the soil? ........................................................................................................... 215

What are effective types of pollination? ........................................................................................................................... 215


What is tropism? .............................................................................................................................................................. 215
What are the major classes of plant hormones? .............................................................................................................. 216
What are the parts of a flower? ....................................................................................................................................... 218
What is meant by an imperfect flower? ....................................................................................................................... 218
What flowers are designated as symbolic of each month of the year? ............................................................................ 218
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General Science 2015


What are the symbolic meanings of flowers, herbs, and other plants? ........................................................................... 218
What are carnivorous plants? .......................................................................................................................................... 219
What plants can be used to determine blood type?.......................................................................................................... 219
What is wormwood? ........................................................................................................................................................ 219
What is locoweed? ............................................................................................................................................................ 220

15

What are the distinguishing characteristics of pine, spruce, and fir trees? ..................................................................... 221
What is the composition of synthetic soil? ....................................................................................................................... 222

20

What are the macronutrients and micronutrients of plants?.......................................................................................... 222


What is the function of various plant nutrients? ............................................................................................................ 222

LS

What do the numbers on a bag of fertilizer indicate? ..................................................................................................... 223


What does pH mean when applied to soil? ................................................................................................................. 223

IA

What is the best soil pH for growing plants? .................................................................................................................. 223


What is hydroponics? ....................................................................................................................................................... 223

What is Ikebana? ............................................................................................................................................................. 224

TO

What is the secret of bonsai, the Japanese art of growing dwarf trees?.......................................................................... 224
What is meant by xeriscaping? ........................................................................................................................................ 224

TU

Who is the father of zoology?........................................................................................................................................ 225


Who is the father of modern zoology? .......................................................................................................................... 225
What is the largest invertebrate? ..................................................................................................................................... 225

PS
C

How are animals classified? ............................................................................................................................................ 225


ANIMAL CHARACTERISTICS AND ACTIVITIES............................................................................................... 225
What is the difference between an invertebrate and a vertebrate? ................................................................................. 225
What invertebrate lives in both marine and freshwaters and is one of the most important of all animals? ................ 226

What are the major characteristics of all chordates? ...................................................................................................... 226


What are the three major groups of chordates? ............................................................................................................... 226
What are the major features shown by all vertebrates? .................................................................................................. 226
What group of animals was the first to make a partial transition from water to land? .............................................. 227
What are the largest and smallest vertebrates? ............................................................................................................... 227
What is the largest group of vertebrates? ......................................................................................................................... 228
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General Science 2015


Besides humans, which animals are the most intelligent? .............................................................................................. 228
Do animals have color vision? ......................................................................................................................................... 228
What is the frequency that separates animal hearing from human?.............................................................................. 228
What is the basic composition of a sponge?..................................................................................................................... 230
What are the most common tapeworm infections in humans? ....................................................................................... 230

15

In what ways are earthworms beneficial? ....................................................................................................................... 230


What are the major groups of mollusks? ......................................................................................................................... 231

20

How are pearls created? ................................................................................................................................................... 231


Which mollusks produce the most cultured pearls? ......................................................................................................... 231

LS

Why are arthropods considered the most biologically successful phylum of animals? .................................................... 232
Do male mosquitoes bite humans? ................................................................................................................................... 232

IA

Which is strongersteel or the silk from a spiders web? ................................................................................................. 232


What is the largest group of insects that has been identified and classified? ................................................................. 232

How does a butterfly differ from a moth? ....................................................................................................................... 232

TO

What are chondrichthyes? ................................................................................................................................................ 233


How many kinds of sharks are there and how many are dangerous? ............................................................................ 233

TU

What is a mermaids purse? ............................................................................................................................................ 233


How far from shore do shark attacks occur? ................................................................................................................... 233
Is the whale shark a mammal or a fish?......................................................................................................................... 233

PS
C

What general characteristics do all fishes have in common? .......................................................................................... 234


How is the age of a fish determined?............................................................................................................................... 234
What does the word amphibian mean? ....................................................................................................................... 234
What are the major groups of amphibians? .................................................................................................................... 234

What is the fastest snake on land? .................................................................................................................................. 234


Do all birds fly? ................................................................................................................................................................ 235
How fast do birds fly? ...................................................................................................................................................... 235
Why do birds migrate annually? ..................................................................................................................................... 235
Which bird migrates the greatest distance? ..................................................................................................................... 235
What is unusual about the way the emperor penguins eggs are incubated? .................................................................. 236
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General Science 2015


Which birds lay the largest and smallest eggs? ............................................................................................................... 236
Why dont birds get electrocuted when they sit on wires? ............................................................................................... 236
What names are used for groups or companies of mammals? ........................................................................................ 237
Do any mammals fly? ...................................................................................................................................................... 237
What are some animals that have pouches? .................................................................................................................... 238

15

Do camels store water in their humps? ............................................................................................................................ 238


What is the difference between an African elephant and an Indian elephant?............................................................. 239

20

Why do cows have four stomachs? ................................................................................................................................... 239


Which scientific disciplines study the human body?........................................................................................................ 240

LS

What were Aristotles contributions to anatomy? ........................................................................................................... 240


Who is considered the founder of physiology? .................................................................................................................. 240

IA

Who coined the term homeostasis? ................................................................................................................................... 240


Which chemicals constitute the human body? ................................................................................................................. 240

What is the average life span of cells in the human body? ............................................................................................. 241

TO

What percent of human body weight is water? ............................................................................................................... 241


TISSUES, ORGANS, AND GLANDS ........................................................................................................................ 242

TU

What are the levels of structural organization in vertebrate animals, including humans? ........................................... 242
What are the four major types of tissue? ......................................................................................................................... 242
What is the matrix in blood? ........................................................................................................................................... 243

PS
C

What is the hardest substance in the body? ..................................................................................................................... 243


What are the three types of muscle tissue? ....................................................................................................................... 243
What type of cell is found in nerve tissue?....................................................................................................................... 243
What is the largest nerve in the body? ............................................................................................................................. 244

How many different types of neurons are found in nerve tissue? .................................................................................... 244
What is the size and location of the heart? ..................................................................................................................... 244
What is the largest organ in the human body? ............................................................................................................... 244
Are both of the lungs identical? ....................................................................................................................................... 244
What are the major divisions of the brain?..................................................................................................................... 244
What regulates body temperature in humans? ................................................................................................................ 245
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General Science 2015


What is an organ system? ................................................................................................................................................ 246
What is a gland?.............................................................................................................................................................. 246
Which gland is the largest? .............................................................................................................................................. 246
How many sweat glands are present in the body? .......................................................................................................... 247
What are the seven endocrine glands? ............................................................................................................................. 247

15

BONES AND MUSCLES ............................................................................................................................................. 247


How many bones are in the human body? ...................................................................................................................... 247

20

What are the major divisions of the human skeleton? .................................................................................................... 248
What is the smallest bone in the body?............................................................................................................................ 248

LS

How does exercise affect bone tissue? ............................................................................................................................... 248


What are the functions of the muscular system? ............................................................................................................. 248

IA

How many muscles are in the human body? ................................................................................................................... 249


Which are the largest and smallest muscles in the human body? ................................................................................... 249

What is the longest muscle in the human body?.............................................................................................................. 249

TO

What are the hamstring muscles? .................................................................................................................................... 249


Which muscle is the most variable among humans? ....................................................................................................... 249

TU

How many muscles does it take to produce a smile and a frown? ................................................................................. 249
Why does excessive exercise cause muscles to become stiff and sore? ............................................................................... 250
SKIN, HAIR, AND NAILS ........................................................................................................................................... 250

PS
C

What organs are included in the integumentary system? ................................................................................................ 250


What is the purpose of goose bumps? ............................................................................................................................... 251
What are the various layers of the skin? ......................................................................................................................... 251
What is dermatoglyphics? ................................................................................................................................................ 251

Who first used fingerprints as a means of identification? .............................................................................................. 251


Do identical twins have the same fingerprints? .............................................................................................................. 251
Why does hair turn gray as part of the aging process?.................................................................................................... 251
BLOOD AND CIRCULATION.................................................................................................................................... 252
What are the functions of the circulatory system? ........................................................................................................... 252
What is the difference between the cardiovascular system and the circulatory system? ................................................. 252
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General Science 2015


Which structures and organs constitute the cardiovascular system? ............................................................................... 252
How hard does the heart work?....................................................................................................................................... 252
Does your heart stop beating when you sneeze? ............................................................................................................... 253
What are the functions of blood? ..................................................................................................................................... 253
What is the normal pH of blood? .................................................................................................................................... 254

15

What is the amount of carbon dioxide found in normal blood? .................................................................................... 254
How much blood does the average-sized adult human have?.......................................................................................... 254

20

Why is blood sticky? ......................................................................................................................................................... 254


What is the largest artery in the human body? ............................................................................................................... 254

LS

What is the largest vein in the human body? .................................................................................................................. 254


Why does blood in the veins look blue?............................................................................................................................ 254

IA

How big are capillaries? .................................................................................................................................................. 255


Who discovered the ABO system of typing blood? ........................................................................................................... 255

What are the preferred and permissible blood types for transfusions? ............................................................................ 255

TO

Which blood type is the universal donor and which is the universal recipient? ............................................................. 255
What is the Rh factor?..................................................................................................................................................... 255

TU

How often can a person donate blood? ............................................................................................................................ 255


What are the blood group combinations that can normally be used to prove that a man is not the father of a particular
child? ................................................................................................................................................................................ 256
What are the primary functions of the lymphatic system? .............................................................................................. 256

PS
C

Which blood type is the rarest? ........................................................................................................................................ 256


What are the functions of the spleen? .............................................................................................................................. 256
How do T cells differ from B lymphocytes?..................................................................................................................... 257

How much lymph is in the body? .................................................................................................................................... 258


How does the immune system work? ............................................................................................................................... 258
What is the composition of lymph?.................................................................................................................................. 258
What is the route the fluid travels in the body? .............................................................................................................. 258
What are the major functions of the respiratory system? ................................................................................................ 258
What are the two types of cells found in the peripheral nervous system? ....................................................................... 260
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General Science 2015


How do neurons transmit information to other neurons?............................................................................................... 260
Where is the spinal cord located?..................................................................................................................................... 260
How many types of sensory receptors have been identified? ............................................................................................ 260
Which organ is most sensitive to touch, temperature, and pain? .................................................................................... 260
Are certain areas of the tongue associated with a particular taste sensation? ............................................................... 260

15

What two functions are performed by the ear? ............................................................................................................... 261


What are the major parts of the ear? .............................................................................................................................. 261

20

What are the three bones in the middle ear? ................................................................................................................... 261
What is sound and what unit measures it? .................................................................................................................... 261

LS

What are some common levels of sound and how do they affect hearing? ..................................................................... 262
Where are the organs of equilibrium located? ................................................................................................................. 263

IA

What are the parts of the eye and their functions? ......................................................................................................... 263
What determines eye color? .............................................................................................................................................. 265

What is the difference in the functions of the rods and cones found in the eyes? ........................................................... 265

TO

What is nearsightedness? ................................................................................................................................................. 265


What is farsightedness? .................................................................................................................................................... 265

TU

What does it mean to have 20/20 vision? ...................................................................................................................... 265


What are the similarities and differences between the nervous system and the endocrine system? ................................ 266
What are the organs of the endocrine system? ................................................................................................................. 266

PS
C

What are hormones? ........................................................................................................................................................ 266


Which endocrine glands produce which hormones? ........................................................................................................ 266
What are endorphins? ...................................................................................................................................................... 267
DIGESTION ................................................................................................................................................................... 267

What are the steps in the digestive process? ..................................................................................................................... 267


What are the major organs of the digestive system? ........................................................................................................ 268
What was the likely purpose of the human appendix? ................................................................................................... 268
What is the purpose of primary teeth? ............................................................................................................................. 269
What is the role of the small intestine in nutrient processing? ....................................................................................... 270
What are the major parts of the urinary system? ............................................................................................................ 270
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General Science 2015


What is urea and where is it produced? .......................................................................................................................... 270
How much fluid do the kidneys remove from the blood? ................................................................................................ 270
HEALTH AND MEDICINE ........................................................................................................................................ 270
What is the composition of cigarette smoke? ................................................................................................................... 270
What is the effect of radiation on humans? .................................................................................................................... 270

15

How much radiation does the average dental X ray emit? ............................................................................................ 271
How does the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) classify carcinogens? ..................................................... 271

20

How is body mass index (BMI) calculated? ................................................................................................................... 272


What is good and bad cholesterol? ........................................................................................................................... 277

LS

DISEASES, DISORDERS, AND OTHER HEALTH PROBLEMS ...................................................................... 277


What is the difference between human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and AIDS? ..................................................... 277

IA

What are the symptoms and signs of AIDS? .................................................................................................................. 277


How is the term zoonosis defined? ................................................................................................................................... 278

What is meant by vectors in medicine?............................................................................................................................ 278

TO

Which species of mosquito causes malaria and yellow fever in humans?....................................................................... 278
What is mad cow disease and how does it affect humans? ........................................................................................ 278

TU

How is Lyme disease carried? .......................................................................................................................................... 278


Why is Legionnaires disease known by that name? ....................................................................................................... 279
Which name is now used as a synonym for leprosy? ....................................................................................................... 279

PS
C

How many types of herpes virus are there? ...................................................................................................................... 279


How are warts caused? .................................................................................................................................................... 280
What is the difference between Type I and Type II diabetes? ........................................................................................ 280
What causes a stomach ulcer?.......................................................................................................................................... 280

How serious is osteoporosis? ............................................................................................................................................. 280


What is carpal tunnel syndrome? .................................................................................................................................... 281
Which is the most common type of arthritis? .................................................................................................................. 281
How does tennis elbow differ from golfers elbow? ......................................................................................................... 281
What are the symptoms of Guillain-Barr syndrome? .................................................................................................... 281
How serious is Bells palsy? ............................................................................................................................................. 282
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General Science 2015


What is Lou Gehrigs disease? ......................................................................................................................................... 282
What are the causes of epilepsy? ...................................................................................................................................... 282
What is a concussion? ...................................................................................................................................................... 282
What are the two forms of stroke? ................................................................................................................................... 283
What are two of the most common forms of dementia?.................................................................................................. 283

15

What are the seven warning signs of Alzheimers disease? ............................................................................................. 284
What is meningitis? ......................................................................................................................................................... 284

20

What is presbycusis? ......................................................................................................................................................... 284


How does jet lag affect ones body?.................................................................................................................................. 285

LS

What is the Christmas factor? ..................................................................................................................................... 285


What is the medical term for a heart attack? ................................................................................................................. 285

IA

How are the forms of cancer classified?........................................................................................................................... 285


What are dust mites? ....................................................................................................................................................... 285

What is dyslexia and what causes it? ............................................................................................................................. 286

TO

What are vitamins and minerals? ................................................................................................................................... 286


Which foods contain trans fats? ...................................................................................................................................... 287

TU

What is lactose intolerance?............................................................................................................................................. 287


What is anorexia? ............................................................................................................................................................ 287
What is progeria? ............................................................................................................................................................. 288

PS
C

What is pelvic inflammatory disease? ............................................................................................................................. 288


HEALTH CARE ............................................................................................................................................................ 288
Which symbol is used to represent medicine?................................................................................................................... 288
Who is generally regarded as the father of medicine? ..................................................................................................... 289

What is the Hippocratic Oath? ....................................................................................................................................... 289


Who was the founder of modern medicine?..................................................................................................................... 289
What is the difference between osteopathic medicine, homeopathy, naturopathy, and chiropractic medicine?............. 290
What are the different domains of complementary and alternative medicine? .............................................................. 290
What are some examples of bio-field therapies? .............................................................................................................. 290
What is reflexology? ......................................................................................................................................................... 291
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General Science 2015


What is aromatherapy?.................................................................................................................................................... 291
What is the difference between an ophthalmologist, optometrist, and optician? ........................................................... 291
DIAGNOSTIC EQUIPMENT, TESTS, AND TECHNIQUES .............................................................................. 292
How is blood pressure measured?..................................................................................................................................... 292
What is the meaning of the numbers in a blood pressure reading? ................................................................................ 292

15

Is there a name for the heart-monitoring machine that people sometimes wear for a day or two while carrying on their
normal activities? ............................................................................................................................................................. 292

20

What are the normal test ranges for total cholesterol, low-density lipoproteins (LDL), and high-density lipoproteins

(HDL)?............................................................................................................................................................................. 292

LS

Who invented the pacemaker? ......................................................................................................................................... 292


What are X rays? ............................................................................................................................................................. 293
What is nuclear magnetic resonance imaging? ............................................................................................................... 293

IA

What is ultrasound?......................................................................................................................................................... 294

What is the instrument a doctor uses to check reflexes? .................................................................................................. 294

TO

How are CAT or CT scans used to study the human body? ........................................................................................... 294
When were hearing aids invented? .................................................................................................................................. 294
DRUGS AND MEDICINES ........................................................................................................................................ 295

TU

What is pharmacognosy? ................................................................................................................................................. 295


Why do physicians use the symbol Rx when they write their prescriptions? ................................................................... 295
What is a controlled substance? ....................................................................................................................................... 295

PS
C

SURGERY AND OTHER TREATMENTS .............................................................................................................. 296


How does minimally invasive surgery differ from traditional, major, open surgery? .................................................... 296
How does a cardiac pacemaker differ from an implantable defibrillator? .................................................................... 296

Who was the first test-tube baby?..................................................................................................................................... 296


What is lithotripsy? .......................................................................................................................................................... 296

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Indian History 2015

Table of Contents
ANCIENT HISTORY ....................................................................................................................................................... 12

15

The sources of Indian History ............................................................................................................................................. 12


Indigenous literary sources................................................................................................................................................... 15

20

Brahamanical Literature .................................................................................................................................................... 15


The Upanishads .................................................................................................................................................................. 16
The Epics ............................................................................................................................................................................. 16

LS

The Puranas ........................................................................................................................................................................ 16


Buddhist Literature............................................................................................................................................................. 16

IA

Jain Literature ..................................................................................................................................................................... 17


Secular Literature................................................................................................................................................................ 17

Biographical works ............................................................................................................................................................. 17

TO

Grammatical works ............................................................................................................................................................ 17


Dramas and Poetical Works............................................................................................................................................... 17

TU

Scientific Works................................................................................................................................................................... 17
Foreign Accounts ................................................................................................................................................................. 18
BRIEF CHRONOLOGY OF ANCIENT INDIA .......................................................................................................... 20

PS
C

EARLY CIVILISATIONS OF THE NORTHWEST ................................................................................................... 21


A Lost Civilization .............................................................................................................................................................. 21
The Investigation of Past .................................................................................................................................................... 22
Indus Valley Civilisation or the Harappan Civilisation ................................................................................................... 22

Chief Characteristics............................................................................................................................................................ 23
Extent................................................................................................................................................................................... 25
The Saraswati River ........................................................................................................................................................... 25
Cultural Development ......................................................................................................................................................... 26
New Research and Writing................................................................................................................................................. 26

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Indian History 2015


Anatomy of various sites ...................................................................................................................................................... 28
Smaller Settlements ............................................................................................................................................................. 29
Hariyupia in the Rig Veda ................................................................................................................................................. 30
Aryan Invasion of India?.................................................................................................................................................... 30
Recent Research ................................................................................................................................................................... 31

15

THE VEDIC AGE............................................................................................................................................................. 38


Continuing Debate about original home of Aryans............................................................................................................ 38

20

The Early Vedic period ....................................................................................................................................................... 39


The Vedas as a mirror of historical experience ................................................................................................................... 39

LS

Four Vedas........................................................................................................................................................................... 41
Vedangas (Limbs of Vedas)................................................................................................................................................. 41

IA

Upvedas ............................................................................................................................................................................... 42
Brahamanas ........................................................................................................................................................................ 42

Upanishads .......................................................................................................................................................................... 42

TO

Six Systems of Philosophy (Darshan) ................................................................................................................................. 43


The expansion of Aryan settlements .................................................................................................................................... 43
Later Vedic Age ................................................................................................................................................................... 43

TU

The role of the king.............................................................................................................................................................. 44


THE RISE OF THE GANGETIC CULTURE AND THE GREAT EMPIRES OF THE EAST ........................ 46
The penetration of the east .................................................................................................................................................. 46

PS
C

Urbanisation in the Ganges valley ..................................................................................................................................... 47


THE RISE OF BUDDHISM .......................................................................................................................................... 49
Brief History of Buddhist Councils .................................................................................................................................... 50

JAINISM ............................................................................................................................................................................. 53
Branches in Jainism ............................................................................................................................................................ 55
THE WEST UNDER PERSIAN DOMINATION ....................................................................................................... 56
THE ORIGINS OF THE EARLY STATE ................................................................................................................... 57
THE IMPACT OF ALEXANDERS INDIAN CAMPAIGN ...................................................................................... 59
THE FOUNDATION OF THE MAURYA EMPIRE ................................................................................................. 60

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Indian History 2015


The political system of the Arthashastra............................................................................................................................. 60
Books of Arthashastra ......................................................................................................................................................... 60
ASHOKA, THE BELOVED OF THE GODS ............................................................................................................... 63
Detailed account of the inscriptions of Ashoka................................................................................................................... 68
Art and architecture during the Mauryan period ............................................................................................................... 69

15

Taxila University ................................................................................................................................................................ 70


Jivaka ................................................................................................................................................................................... 71

20

Panini (Between 4th and 7th Century B.C.) ....................................................................................................................... 71


Patanjali (Second Century B.C.) ........................................................................................................................................ 71

LS

THE END OF THE MAURYA EMPIRE AND THE NORTHERN INVADERS ................................................ 72
Greek rulers of the northwest............................................................................................................................................... 73

IA

The Shakas: new invaders from central Asia ..................................................................................................................... 75


THE KUSHANA EMPIRE: A SHORT-LIVED ASIAN SYNTHESIS..................................................................... 78

THE SPLENDOUR OF THE DARK PERIOD.......................................................................................................... 82

TO

THE SATAVAHANAS OF THE DECCAN: THEIR PROSPERITY AND PIETY ............................................... 83


The Amaravati sculptures ................................................................................................................................................... 84
THE CLASSICAL AGE OF THE GUPTAS ................................................................................................................ 85

TU

The structure of the Gupta empire ...................................................................................................................................... 86


SUBJECTION AND ALLIANCE: SHAKAS AND VAKATAKAS............................................................................. 88
Kalidasa and classical Sanskrit literature ......................................................................................................................... 89

PS
C

An age of religious tolerance and political consolidation ................................................................................................... 90


Internal and external challenges: Pushyamitras and Huns ............................................................................................... 91
The flowering of Gupta Classical culture ......................................................................................................................... 93

Mathematics and technology ............................................................................................................................................... 93


Dissemination of knowledge: the Nalanda monastic college ............................................................................................. 94
The Vakataka achievement at Ajanta ............................................................................................................................... 95
HISTORY OF SOUTH INDIA ....................................................................................................................................... 96
Cholas, Pandyas and Cheras .............................................................................................................................................. 96
Cholas .................................................................................................................................................................................. 96

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Indian History 2015


Pandyas ............................................................................................................................................................................... 97
Cheras .................................................................................................................................................................................. 97
SANGAM LITERATURE ............................................................................................................................................... 98
International trade and the Roman connection ................................................................................................................. 98
THE RISE AND CONFLICTS OF REGIONAL KINGDOMS .............................................................................. 100

15

Harsha .............................................................................................................................................................................. 100


The rise of regional centres ............................................................................................................................................... 102

20

The Pala dynasty of east India ........................................................................................................................................ 105


The Chalukya dynasty of Badami ................................................................................................................................... 106

LS

The Pallava dynasty of Kanchipuram ............................................................................................................................ 107


The resurgence of the Chola dynasty ................................................................................................................................ 108

IA

The great merchants of south India ................................................................................................................................. 110


MEDIEVAL INDIA ....................................................................................................................................................... 111

THE DELHI SULTANATE ........................................................................................................................................ 111

TO

Qutb-ud-din Aibak and Aram Shah ................................................................................................................................ 111


Early Career ..................................................................................................................................................................... 111
His Difficulties ................................................................................................................................................................. 112

TU

His Efforts and Achievements .......................................................................................................................................... 112


Aram Shah ....................................................................................................................................................................... 113
SULTAN ILTUTMISH (1211-1236 A.D.) ................................................................................................................ 114

PS
C

Organisation of the group of forty slaves, viz. Turkan-i-Chihalgani............................................................................... 114


Defeat of Yildiz ................................................................................................................................................................ 114
The Impending Mongol Invasion .................................................................................................................................... 114

The Defeat of Qabacha .................................................................................................................................................... 115


Investiture from the Caliph .............................................................................................................................................. 115
An Estimate ...................................................................................................................................................................... 115
The Struggle for Power between Sultans and the Group of Forty Slaves (Turkan-i-Chihalgani)................................. 116
Rukn-Ud-Din Firoz Shah (1236 A.D.) .......................................................................................................................... 117
SULTANA RAZIYYA (1236-1240 A.D.) ................................................................................................................... 118

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Indian History 2015


Muizzudin Bahram Shah (1240-1242 A.D.) ................................................................................................................ 119
Ala-Ud-Din Masud Shah (1242-1246 A.D.) ................................................................................................................. 119
Nasir-Ud-Din Mahmud Shah (1246-1265 A.D.) .......................................................................................................... 120
GHIYAS-UD-DIN BALBAN ........................................................................................................................................ 121
Kaiqubad and Kayumars (Ghiyas-ud-din Balban (1265-1287 A.D.) .......................................................................... 121

15

Early Career ..................................................................................................................................................................... 121


His Difficulties ................................................................................................................................................................. 121

20

Balban's Achievements ..................................................................................................................................................... 121


Balbans theory of kingship and restoration of the prestige of the Sultan ...................................................................... 122

LS

The destruction of the forty............................................................................................................................................. 122


The suppression of revoIts ................................................................................................................................................. 123

IA

The Mongols ..................................................................................................................................................................... 123


Death of Balban ............................................................................................................................................................... 123

Kaiqubad and Shams-Ud-Din Kayumars (1287-1290 A.D.) ....................................................................................... 123

TO

THE KHALJI DYNASTY ............................................................................................................................................ 125


Jalal-ud-din Firozshah Khalji (1290-1296 A.D.) .......................................................................................................... 125
Murder of Jalal-ud-din ..................................................................................................................................................... 126

TU

ALA-UD-DIN KHALJI (1296-1316 A.D.) .................................................................................................................. 128


Early career ....................................................................................................................................................................... 128
Theory of Kingship ........................................................................................................................................................... 128

PS
C

The invasion of south India and the defence against the Mongols ................................................................................. 128
Fixing up prices of everything .......................................................................................................................................... 129
Administrative Reforms ................................................................................................................................................... 131

The episode of Padmini .................................................................................................................................................... 132


Downfall of the Khalji Empire........................................................................................................................................ 132
THE SO-CALLED TUGHLUQ DYNASTY .............................................................................................................. 134
Ghiyas-ud-din Tughluq Shah (1320-1325 A.D.) ........................................................................................................... 134
Muhammad Bin Tughluq (1325-1351 A.D.) ............................................................................................................... 134
Muhammad Tughluqs ambitious plans ......................................................................................................................... 134

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Indian History 2015


Domestic Policy................................................................................................................................................................. 135
The Introduction of Token Currency (1329-1330 A.D.) ............................................................................................... 136
The Mongol Invasion ....................................................................................................................................................... 136
Extension of The Empire (Foreign Policy) ...................................................................................................................... 136
Death of Muhammad Tughluq ....................................................................................................................................... 137

15

FIRUZ SHAH TUGHLUQ (1351-1388 A.D.).......................................................................................................... 137


THE SAYYID DYNASTY ............................................................................................................................................ 138

20

Khizr Khan (1414-1421 A.D.) ....................................................................................................................................... 138


Mubarak Shah (1421-1434 A.D.) ................................................................................................................................. 138

LS

Ala-Ud-Din Alam Shah (1445-1450 A.D.) ................................................................................................................... 139


THE STATES OF CENTRAL AND SOUTHERN INDIA IN THE PERIOD OF THE SULTANATE OF
DELHI ............................................................................................................................................................................. 140

IA

The Bahmani sultanate of the Deccan ............................................................................................................................ 140

The Gajapatis of Orissa ................................................................................................................................................... 141


THE FOUNDATION OF THE VIJAYANAGAR EMPIRE.................................................................................... 143

TO

Vijayanagars glory and doom ......................................................................................................................................... 144


CULTURAL DEVELOPMENT IN INDIA (FROM THE 13TH TO THE 15TH CENTURY) ...................... 147

TU

Architecture ....................................................................................................................................................................... 147


The Sufi Movement .......................................................................................................................................................... 148
The Chishti and Suharwardi Silsilahs ........................................................................................................................... 149

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The Bhakti Movement ..................................................................................................................................................... 150


The Vaishnavite Movement ............................................................................................................................................. 152
Literature and Fine Arts .................................................................................................................................................. 153

Fine Arts ........................................................................................................................................................................... 155


THE RISE AND FALL OF THE MUGHAL EMPIRE .......................................................................................... 157
The First Battle of Panipat (20 April 1526)................................................................................................................. 159
The Battle of Khanwa ..................................................................................................................................................... 160
Significance of Baburs Advent into India ...................................................................................................................... 161
HUMAYUN .................................................................................................................................................................... 162

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Indian History 2015


SHER KHAN .................................................................................................................................................................. 163
Sher Shah and the Sur Empire (1540-55) ..................................................................................................................... 164
Battle of Sammel.............................................................................................................................................................. 165
Administration ................................................................................................................................................................. 165
AGE OF AKBAR ............................................................................................................................................................ 166

15

Second Battle of Panipat ................................................................................................................................................. 166


Bairam Khan ................................................................................................................................................................... 166

20

Consolidation .................................................................................................................................................................... 167


Revenue System ................................................................................................................................................................. 167

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Mansabdari System .......................................................................................................................................................... 169


FOREIGN RELATIONS OF MUGHALS ................................................................................................................. 170

IA

Relations with the Portuguese.......................................................................................................................................... 170


Relations with the Ottoman Empire ............................................................................................................................... 171

Din-i-Ilahi ......................................................................................................................................................................... 171

TO

Akbar Namah................................................................................................................................................................... 172


Death ................................................................................................................................................................................ 172
THE DECCAN AND SOUTH INDIA (UP TO 1656) ............................................................................................. 173

TU

Cultural Contribution of the Deccan States .................................................................................................................... 174


INDIA IN THE FIRST HALF OF THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY ............................................................. 175
Nur Jahan......................................................................................................................................................................... 175

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Shah Jahans Rebellion .................................................................................................................................................... 176


SHAH JAHAN ................................................................................................................................................................ 177
Administration ................................................................................................................................................................. 177

CULTURAL AND RELIGIOUS DEVELOPMENTS ............................................................................................. 179


Religious Ideas and Beliefs, and Problems of Integration .............................................................................................. 179
CLIMAX AND DISINTEGRATION OF THE MUGHAL EMPIRE ................................................................... 181
Aurangzeb ......................................................................................................................................................................... 181
Aurangzebs Reign His Religious Policy ...................................................................................................................... 182
Architecture ....................................................................................................................................................................... 183

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Indian History 2015


CHRONOLOGY ............................................................................................................................................................. 185
WHO IS WHO IN MEDIEVAL INDIA ..................................................................................................................... 188
MUGHAL TWILIGHT ................................................................................................................................................ 199
The emergence of regional states and the East India Company ..................................................................................... 199
The Fault Lines Of Mughal Control ............................................................................................................................. 199

15

Mughals Post Aurangzeb ................................................................................................................................................. 200


REGIONAL POWERS .................................................................................................................................................. 205

20

Hyderabad ........................................................................................................................................................................ 205


Awadh .............................................................................................................................................................................. 205

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Bengal ............................................................................................................................................................................... 206


Emergence of the Nawab of Murshidabad ...................................................................................................................... 207

IA

Mysore ............................................................................................................................................................................... 207


Anglo Mysore Wars .......................................................................................................................................................... 208

Rajputs.............................................................................................................................................................................. 209

TO

Sikhs.................................................................................................................................................................................. 209
The Punjab under Ranjit Singh ...................................................................................................................................... 209
Anglo Sikh Wars .............................................................................................................................................................. 210

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Marathas .......................................................................................................................................................................... 210


EUROPEANS IN INDIA .............................................................................................................................................. 212
The Portuguese.................................................................................................................................................................. 212

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The Dutch ......................................................................................................................................................................... 213


The British East India Company .................................................................................................................................... 213
The French ........................................................................................................................................................................ 215

Anglo-French Conflicts ..................................................................................................................................................... 216


Robert Clive and the Diwani of Bengal .......................................................................................................................... 219
Warren Hastings: architect of an empire ........................................................................................................................ 220
Absconding peasants and the permanent settlement ........................................................................................................ 225
Permanent Settlement ...................................................................................................................................................... 226
Subsidiary Alliance .......................................................................................................................................................... 229

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Indian History 2015


The uses of education........................................................................................................................................................ 230
Dalhousie and the Policy of Annexation (1848-1856) .................................................................................................. 233
REVOLT OF 1857 ......................................................................................................................................................... 234
THE COLONIAL ECONOMY ..................................................................................................................................... 239
The spread of the railway network .................................................................................................................................. 239

15

FOUNDATION OF THE CONGRESS ...................................................................................................................... 240


Ilbert Bill Controversy ...................................................................................................................................................... 243

20

CONGRESS SESSIONS................................................................................................................................................ 244


CHRONOLOGY (1877-1942) ...................................................................................................................................... 249

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INDIA AFTER CURZON ............................................................................................................................................ 250


Administrative Reforms ................................................................................................................................................... 250

IA

THE PARTITION OF BENGAL, 1905 ..................................................................................................................... 251


THE GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE INDIAN NATIONAL MOVEMENT ................................ 253

FIRST PHASE, 1885-1905 .......................................................................................................................................... 254

TO

Period of Moderate Politics or Tea-Party Politics........................................................................................................... 254


Official attitude towards the Congress ............................................................................................................................ 255
SECOND PHASE, 19051919 .................................................................................................................................... 257

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Rise of Extremism or Radical Politics ............................................................................................................................ 257


Causes for the Rise of Extremism..................................................................................................................................... 257
The Extremist Programme of Action ............................................................................................................................... 259

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INDIAN NATIONALISTS AND WORLD WAR I ................................................................................................... 261


Home Rule Movement ...................................................................................................................................................... 261
The Lucknow Session, 1916............................................................................................................................................ 261

ANNIE BESANT ........................................................................................................................................................... 262


THE REVOLUTIONARY TERRORIST MOVEMENT ......................................................................................... 264
THE THIRD PHASE OR THE GANDHIAN ERA, 1919-1947 ............................................................................ 268
Aim of Swaraj through Non-Violence & Non-Cooperation........................................................................................... 268
The Non-Cooperation Movement, 1920-22 ..................................................................................................................... 268
The Civil Disobedience Movement, 1930-34 .................................................................................................................. 269

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Indian History 2015


The Great War and the Constitutional Deadlock .......................................................................................................... 270
Assessment of Gandhis Role in Indias Struggle for Independence ................................................................................ 271
Gandhi Timeline before 1920s ....................................................................................................................................... 272
Gandhiji in Champaran Ahmedabad and Kheda.......................................................................................................... 273
Rowlatt Act ...................................................................................................................................................................... 275

15

Jallianwala Bagh Massacre ............................................................................................................................................ 275


Home Rule League ........................................................................................................................................................... 275

20

Lucknow Pact................................................................................................................................................................... 275


Indian Liberal Party ........................................................................................................................................................ 276

LS

Tej Bahadur Sapru .......................................................................................................................................................... 277


Nehru Report .................................................................................................................................................................... 278

IA

Lahore Conspiracy Case ................................................................................................................................................... 279


Meerut Conspiracy Case ................................................................................................................................................... 279

Karachi Session ................................................................................................................................................................ 280

TO

Round Table Conferences, 1930-1932............................................................................................................................ 280


Communal Award............................................................................................................................................................ 283
Lucknow Session 1936 .................................................................................................................................................... 284

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The Faizpur Congress Session (December 1936) ............................................................................................................ 285


Demand for Pakistan....................................................................................................................................................... 285
C.R.Formula .................................................................................................................................................................... 285

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Desai-Liaquat pact ........................................................................................................................................................... 286


INDIAN NATIONAL ARMY ....................................................................................................................................... 287
Royal Indian Navy Mutiny ............................................................................................................................................. 288

SUBHASH CHANDRA BOSE .................................................................................................................................... 288


Cellular Jail ...................................................................................................................................................................... 290
THE PATTERN OF CONSTITUTIONAL REFORM ............................................................................................ 291
The MorleyMinto reform and separate electorates ........................................................................................................ 291
The MontaguChelmsford reform and responsible government...................................................................................... 292
Federalism and the Government of India Act of 1935 .................................................................................................. 293

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Indian History 2015

The Second World War, the Cripps mission and Quit India....................................................................................... 294
The Simla Conference and its aftermath ......................................................................................................................... 296
The cabinet mission scheme and the advent of partition................................................................................................. 298
Operation Mountbatten and Plan Balkan ................................................................................................................... 299
INTEGRATION OF STATES...................................................................................................................................... 302

15

FOREIGN POLICY OF NON-ALIGNMENT............................................................................................................ 303


INDO-CHINA RELATIONS ........................................................................................................................................ 304

20

The Chinese Attack, 1962 ............................................................................................................................................... 305

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TU

TO

IA

LS

CHRONOLOGY 1858-1964 ......................................................................................................................................... 308

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India Fact Book

2015

Table of Contents

15

NATIONAL SYMBOLS ..................................................................................................................................................... 9


National Flag .................................................................................................................................................................. 9

20

State Emblem .................................................................................................................................................................. 9


National Anthem............................................................................................................................................................. 9

LS

National Song ............................................................................................................................................................... 10

IA

National Calendar ........................................................................................................................................................ 10


AGRICULTURE SCHEMES ......................................................................................................................................... 11

Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana .................................................................................................................................... 11

TO

Horticulture Sector ........................................................................................................................................................ 12


National Horticulture Mission ..................................................................................................................................... 12

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National Bamboo Mission ............................................................................................................................................ 12


Central Institute for Horticulture (CIH) Nagaland .................................................................................................... 12

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THE NATIONAL COOPERATIVE DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION (NCDC) AMENDMENT ACT, 2002


............................................................................................................................................................................................. 13
Constitution (111TH Amendment Bill) 2009 ............................................................................................................ 13

National Seed Research and Training Centre (NSRTC) ............................................................................................ 13


National Agricultural Insurance Scheme ..................................................................................................................... 14
Rain fed Farming System ............................................................................................................................................. 14
National Watershed Development Project For Rain fed Areas ................................................................................... 14
NATIONAL FOOD SECURITY ACT, 2013 ................................................................................................................ 15

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2015

Scheme of Sustainable Development of Sugarcane Based cropping Systems Areas (SUBACS)................................. 17


Farm Machinery Training and Testing Institutes ....................................................................................................... 17
Animal Husbandry ........................................................................................................................................................ 17

15

Animal Quarantine and Certification Service ............................................................................................................. 17


National Veterinary Biological Products Quality Control Centre............................................................................... 17

20

FISHERIES ....................................................................................................................................................................... 18
Development of Inland Fisheries And Aquaculture ..................................................................................................... 18

LS

Specialised Institutes ..................................................................................................................................................... 19


National Fisheries Development Board ........................................................................................................................ 19

IA

INDIAN COUNCIL OF AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH ......................................................................................... 20

ICAR Institutions.......................................................................................................................................................... 20

TO

COMMUNICATIONS AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY .............................................................................. 28


Department of Telecommunications ............................................................................................................................. 28

TU

National Telecom Policy 1994 ..................................................................................................................................... 29


Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI) .......................................................................................................... 30

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Telecom Dispute Settlement and Appellate Tribunal (TDSAT) ................................................................................. 31


New Telecom Policy 1999 ............................................................................................................................................ 31
Universal Service Obligation Fund .............................................................................................................................. 32

Unified Access Services .................................................................................................................................................. 33


National Telecom Policy 2012 ................................................................................................................................. 33
Twelfth Plan Targets for the Telecommunication Sector ............................................................................................ 35
C-DOT ........................................................................................................................................................................... 36
Department of Electronics and Information Technology ............................................................................................. 36

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India Fact Book

2015

National e-Governance Plan ......................................................................................................................................... 37


Implementation Strategy, Approach and Methodology of NeGP ................................................................................ 37
National Knowledge Network ...................................................................................................................................... 39

15

Department of Posts ...................................................................................................................................................... 39


Project Arrow................................................................................................................................................................. 40

20

Financial Services Post Office Savings Bank .............................................................................................................. 41


ITI LIMITED .............................................................................................................................................................. 43

LS

Cyber Appellate Tribunal (CAT) .................................................................................................................................. 43


National Knowledge Network (NKN) ......................................................................................................................... 43

IA

National Internet Exchange of India (NIXI) .............................................................................................................. 43

DOEACC SOCIETY ................................................................................................................................................... 43

TO

Society for Applied Microwave Electronics Engineering and Research (SAMEER).................................................. 44


National Informatics Centre (NIC) .............................................................................................................................. 44

TU

Centre for Development of advanced Computing (C-DAC) ......................................................................................... 44


EDUCATION .................................................................................................................................................................... 45

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National Policy on Education (NPE) .......................................................................................................................... 45


Elementary Education................................................................................................................................................... 45
Right to Education ........................................................................................................................................................ 45

Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan................................................................................................................................................. 48


Mid-Day Meal Scheme .................................................................................................................................................. 48
Mahila Samakhya Programme .................................................................................................................................... 49
Education Guarantee Scheme and Alternative and Innovative Education ................................................................ 50
The NPEGEL Scheme .................................................................................................................................................. 50

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India Fact Book

2015

Kasturba Gandhi Balika Vidyalaya Scheme............................................................................................................... 50


Secondary Education ..................................................................................................................................................... 50
Inclusive Education of the Disabled at Secondary Stage (IEDSS) ............................................................................. 51

15

Incentives to Girls for Secondary Education ................................................................................................................ 51


Adult Education ............................................................................................................................................................ 52

20

INSTITUTES OF NATIONAL IMPORTANCE ......................................................................................................... 52


National Council of Educational Research And Training (NCERT) ....................................................................... 57

LS

Launch of Saakshar Bharat ......................................................................................................................................... 57


Promotion of Languages ............................................................................................................................................... 57

IA

University Grants Commission ..................................................................................................................................... 58

Autonomous Research Organisations ............................................................................................................................ 58

TO

Indira Gandhi National Open University ................................................................................................................... 59


Book Promotion............................................................................................................................................................. 59

TU

ENERGY ............................................................................................................................................................................ 60
Power ............................................................................................................................................................................. 60

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The Electricity Act, 2003.............................................................................................................................................. 60


Accelerated Power Development and Reforms Programme ......................................................................................... 61
PUBLIC SECTOR UNDERTAKINGS AND OTHER ORGANISATIONS............................................................ 62

NATIONAL HYDROELECTRIC POWER CORPORATION LTD. .................................................................. 62


NATIONAL THERMAL POWER CORPORATION LIMITED ........................................................................ 62
RAJIV GANDHI GRAMEEN VIDYUTIKARAN YOJANA ................................................................................ 62
RURAL ELECTRIFICATION CORPORATION LIMITED............................................................................... 62
POWER GRID CORPORATION OF INDIA LIMITED ..................................................................................... 63

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India Fact Book

2015

National Grid ................................................................................................................................................................ 63


POWER FINANCE CORPORATION LIMITED (PFC) ...................................................................................... 63
SATLUJ JAL VIDYUT NIGAM LTD ..................................................................................................................... 63

15

NAVRATNA COMPANY ........................................................................................................................................... 64


National Power Training Institute .............................................................................................................................. 69

20

Central Power Research Institute ................................................................................................................................. 69


NORTH-EASTERN ELECTRIC POWER CORPORATION LIMITED ........................................................... 69

LS

Bureau of Energy Efficiency ......................................................................................................................................... 69


PETROLEUM AND NATURAL GAS .......................................................................................................................... 70

IA

Crude Oil and Natural Gas Production ...................................................................................................................... 70

Coal Bed Methane......................................................................................................................................................... 70

TO

OIL AND NATURAL GAS CORPORATION LIMITED..................................................................................... 70


ONGC VIDESH LIMITED ....................................................................................................................................... 71

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OIL INDIA LIMITED ............................................................................................................................................... 71


GAIL INDIA LIMITED ............................................................................................................................................ 71

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REFINING......................................................................................................................................................................... 72
Implementation of Bs-III/IV Fuels In The Country.................................................................................................... 73
Jawaharalal Nehru National Solar Mission ............................................................................................................... 73

POPULATION IN INDIA ............................................................................................................................................... 74


Important facts: ............................................................................................................................................................. 74
Why Census is important? ............................................................................................................................................ 74
Registrar General and Census Commissioners, India .................................................................................................. 75
Decadal Growth Rate in Descending Order................................................................................................................. 76

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India Fact Book

2015

Decadal Growth in Ascending Order ........................................................................................................................... 76


Census 2011 (Final Data) ........................................................................................................................................... 77
Population ..................................................................................................................................................................... 78

15

Literacy .......................................................................................................................................................................... 80
Comparative demographics ........................................................................................................................................... 82

20

List of States and Union territories by demographics .................................................................................................. 83


Religious demographics ................................................................................................................................................. 88

LS

Neonatal and infant demographics .............................................................................................................................. 88


Population within the age group of 0-6........................................................................................................................ 89

IA

Indian states and territories ranking by sex ratio......................................................................................................... 91

Density of India ............................................................................................................................................................. 93

TO

Disabled Population ...................................................................................................................................................... 95


Scheduled castes and scheduled tribes ........................................................................................................................... 96

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Urban and Rural Population of India 2011 .............................................................................................................. 97


Literacy rate in India ..................................................................................................................................................101

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Linguistic demographics ..............................................................................................................................................103


Largest cities of India ..................................................................................................................................................104
UN estimate of Vital Statistics ...................................................................................................................................105

Population projections .................................................................................................................................................107


METROPOLITAN AREA .............................................................................................................................................108
National Commission on Population .........................................................................................................................110
Mandate.......................................................................................................................................................................110
Non-resident Indian and person of Indian origin ......................................................................................................110

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India Fact Book

2015

Regions with significant populations..........................................................................................................................110


Legal definitions ..........................................................................................................................................................112
Overseas Indians' Day .................................................................................................................................................113

15

HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDEX ...........................................................................................................................114


What is the Human Development Index (HDI)? ......................................................................................................116

20

How many countries are included in the 2012 HDI? ..............................................................................................116


Why are ties being introduced in this years HDI ranking? ......................................................................................116

LS

What does the HDI tell us? ........................................................................................................................................117


Did the HDI rankings change for many countries in 2012? ....................................................................................117

IA

Where there any significant revisions of the component indicators for 2012? ......................................................... 117

Can HDI indicators be adapted at the country level? ...............................................................................................118

TO

Where does data from the HDI come from?...............................................................................................................118


Why is it important to express per capita GNI in Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) US dollars? ......................... 118

TU

What is an imputed indicator and for what countries were these imputed statistics used? ............................. 119
Can the GNI per capita be used to measure human development instead of the HDI? .......................................... 119
The 2012 Human Development Index is divided into four quartiles, from Very High to Low human

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development achievement, as introduced in the 2010 HDI. Why? .......................................................................... 119


Can the HDI alone measure a countrys level of development? .................................................................................119
The original HDI methodology was revised in 2010 for the 20th anniversary edition of the Human Development

Report. How is it different? ....................................................................................................................................... 120


Why did the Report change the indicators for measuring education and income? .................................................. 120
The calculation of the HDI now is geometric rather than arithmetic and the goalposts have changed what
does that mean? .......................................................................................................................................................... 120
Why is geometric mean better suited for the HDI than the arithmetic mean?......................................................... 121

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India Fact Book

2015

Why was the cap on income in the HDI lifted and what was the effect? .............................................................121
What is the rationale behind changing the minimum value for life expectancy at birth from 25 years to 20? ..... 121
What is the justification for the minimum values for other indicators? ...................................................................122

15

Does using observed maximums mean changing them on a yearly basis?..............................................................122


Does year-to-year variation of maximum values make it harder to monitor progress? ............................................. 122

20

Why has the principle of diminishing returns not been applied to other indicators?............................................ 122
Are the HDI dimensions weighted equally? ...............................................................................................................122

LS

Why does the HDI not include dimensions of participation, gender and equality?................................................. 122
What is the effect of the changes in HDI indicators and geometric aggregation? ................................................... 123

IA

What are the criteria for a country to be included in the HDI? ...............................................................................123

List of Indian states and territories by Human Development Index .........................................................................123

TO

Top 15 cities by GDP .................................................................................................................................................125


List of Indian states and territories by highest point..................................................................................................126

TU

Indian states by transport network .............................................................................................................................128


STATES OF INDIA BY INSTALLED POWER CAPACITY .................................................................................133

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SOLAR POWER IN INDIA ..........................................................................................................................................135


ENERGY SOURCES IN INDIA ..................................................................................................................................138
Private Sector...............................................................................................................................................................138

NUCLEAR POWER IN INDIA ...................................................................................................................................139


Nuclear power plants...................................................................................................................................................139
The projects under construction ...................................................................................................................................140
Planned projects...........................................................................................................................................................140
Nuclear power plant accidents and incidents .............................................................................................................141

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Social Movements in India 2015

Table of Contents
SOCIAL MOVEMENTS.......................................................................................................................................................................... 2
Features and Causes of Social Movements .......................................................................................................................................... 2
SOCIAL MOVEMENTS IN INDIA ...................................................................................................................................................... 4

15

Sufism: Concept and Orders ................................................................................................................................................................. 4


Chisti ...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

20

Suhrawardi ........................................................................................................................................................................................... 5
Sufi Movement: Impact ........................................................................................................................................................................ 6
BHAKTI MOVEMENT .......................................................................................................................................................................... 6

LS

Philosophy .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 7
Bhakti Cult ........................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

IA

Bhakti Saints in North India .............................................................................................................................................................. 8


Kabir (1425-1518 AD) ........................................................................................................................................................................ 8

Ramananda........................................................................................................................................................................................... 8
Shri Madhvacharya (11991278) ..................................................................................................................................................... 8

TO

Srimanta Sankardeva's (14491568) ................................................................................................................................................ 9


Vallabhacharya (14791531) ............................................................................................................................................................ 9
Chaitanya Mahaprabhu (14861534) .............................................................................................................................................. 9

TU

Vaishnava Bhakti ................................................................................................................................................................................. 9


Impact of Reform .................................................................................................................................................................................. 9
CIVIL REBELLIONS AND TRIBAL UPRISINGS ........................................................................................................................ 11

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Peasant movements and uprisings after 1857 ................................................................................................................................... 13


Socio-religious reforms and the national awakening ......................................................................................................................... 15
The fight to secure press freedom ......................................................................................................................................................... 19
Peasant movements and nationalism in the1920s ............................................................................................................................ 25

The indian working class and the national movement ..................................................................................................................... 31


Peasant movements in the 1930s and 40s ....................................................................................................................................... 37

ENVIRONMENTAL MOVEMENTS ................................................................................................................................................. 44


Chipko Movement ............................................................................................................................................................................... 44
Appiko Movement ............................................................................................................................................................................... 46
Narmada Bachao Movement ............................................................................................................................................................. 47
Vana Mahotsav ................................................................................................................................................................................... 47

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Social Movements in India 2015


Role of Non-Governmental Organizations in Environment Protection ............................................................................................ 48
Greenpeace ........................................................................................................................................................................................... 49
Worldwide Fund for Nature (WWF)India .................................................................................................................................... 51

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TU

TO

IA

LS

20

15

Some Other Environmental Organizations in India ......................................................................................................................... 52

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FUNDAMENTALS OF MATHEMATICS

Table of Contents
Math Notes ............................................................................................................................. 1
Substitution ............................................................................................................................ 5

15

Number Theory ................................................................................................................... 15


Squares and Square Roots ................................................................................................. 34

20

Playing with Numbers ....................................................................................................... 55


Quadratic Equations ........................................................................................................... 59

LS

Cubes and Cube Roots ....................................................................................................... 81


Geometry .............................................................................................................................. 89

IA

Elimination Strategies....................................................................................................... 156


Inequalities ......................................................................................................................... 166

Fractions & Decimals ........................................................................................................ 174

TO

Equations ............................................................................................................................ 183


Averages ............................................................................................................................. 194
Ratio & Proportion ............................................................................................................ 202

TU

Exponents & Roots ............................................................................................................ 215


Factoring ............................................................................................................................. 227
Algebraic Expressions ...................................................................................................... 232

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Percents............................................................................................................................... 237
Graphs ................................................................................................................................ 249
Word Problems.................................................................................................................. 278
Sequences & Series ............................................................................................................ 294

Counting ............................................................................................................................. 301


Permutations & Combinations ........................................................................................ 308

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READING COMPREHENSION

Table of Contents
PRETEST............................................................................................................................................... 1
Building a Strong Foundation ......................................................................................................... 15

15

Getting the Essential Information ................................................................................................... 16


Finding the Main Idea ...................................................................................................................... 23

20

Defining Vocabulary in Context ..................................................................................................... 27


The Difference between Fact and Opinion .................................................................................... 32

LS

Putting It All Together ..................................................................................................................... 37


Start from the Beginning: Chronological Order ........................................................................... 43

IA

Similarities and Differences: Compare and Contrast .................................................................. 55


Why Do Things Happen? A Look at Cause and Effect ............................................................... 61

Being structurally sound putting it all together ........................................................................... 67

TO

A Matter of Perspective: Point of View ......................................................................................... 73


Diction: Whats in a Word?.............................................................................................................. 79
Style it's not what they say but how they say it ........................................................................... 84

TU

How they say it part two;tone ......................................................................................................... 90


Word Power: Putting It All Together ............................................................................................. 94
Finding the Implied Main Idea ....................................................................................................... 99

PS
C

Assuming Causes and Predicting Effects .................................................................................... 103


Emotional Versus Logical Appeals .............................................................................................. 107
Finding Meaning in Literature ...................................................................................................... 113

Drawing Conclusions: Putting It All Together ........................................................................... 118

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SPEED MATHEMATICS

Table of Contents
The Speed Mathematics Method .............................................. 2
Multiplying numbers just below 100 ....................................... 5

15

Reference numbers ..................................................................... 8


Why use a reference number? ................................................... 9

Number Above The Reference Number ................................ 15


Multiply Above & Below The Reference Number ............... 22

20

Using 100 as a reference number ............................................ 11

LS

Checking Your Answers .......................................................... 27


Substitute numbers ................................................................... 27

IA

Why does the method work? .................................................. 32


Multiplication Using Any Reference Number ...................... 35

Multiplication Using Two Reference Number .................... 56

TO

Addition ..................................................................................... 73

PS
C

TU

Subtraction ................................................................................. 81

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Math Notes

15

Well discuss many of the concepts in this chapter in depth later. But for now, we need a brief review of
these concepts for many of the problems that follow.
To compare two fractions, cross-multiply. The larger product will be on the same side as the
larger fraction.
5
6
Example: Given
vs. . Cross-multiplying gives 5  7 vs. 6  6, or 35 vs. 36. Now 36 is larger
6
7
6
5
than 35, so is larger than .
7
6

2.

Taking the square root of a fraction between 0 and 1 makes it larger.

LS

20

1.

1 1
1
1
= and is greater than .
4 2
2
4

IA

Example:

Caution: This is not true for fractions greater than 1. For example,
Squaring a fraction between 0 and 1 makes it smaller.

4.

ax 2  ( ax) .
2

TO

 1 2 1
1
1
Example:   = and is less than .
2
4
4
2

3.

9 3
3 9
= . But < .
4 2
2 4

In fact, a 2 x 2 = ( ax) .
2

Example: 3 2 2 = 3 4 = 12. But ( 3 2) = 6 2 = 36 . This mistake is often seen in the following form:

TU

x 2 = (x) . To see more clearly why this is wrong, write


2

(x)

= (x)(x) = x 2 , which is positive.

x 2 = (1) x 2 , which is negative. But

Example: 52 = (1) 52 = (1) 25 = 25 . But (5) = (5)(5) = 5 5 = 25.

PS
C

1
a  1 . In fact, a = 1 and 1 = b .
a
a
b
ab
b
a
b
b
1
1
3 3
1 1 1
Example: 2 =  = . But
= 1 = .
2
3 2 3 6
2 2
3

5.

6.

(a + b)  a + b. In fact, (a + b) = a b.
Example: (2 + 3) = 5. But 2 + 3 = 1.
Example: (2 + x) = 2 x.

7.

Memorize the following factoring formulasthey occur frequently in exams


A.
B.
C.

2
2
x  y = ( x + y )( x  y )
2
x 2 2xy + y 2 = ( x y )
a(b + c) = ab + ac

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Know these rules for radicals:


A.
x y = xy
x
=
y

B.
9.

x
y

Pythagorean Theorem (For right triangles only):


c

c 2 = a2 + b 2

15

8.

What is the area of the triangle to the right?


(A) 6
(B) 7.5
(C) 8
(D) 11
(E) 15

LS

Example:

20

IA

Since the triangle is a right triangle, the Pythagorean Theorem applies: h 2 + 32 = 5 2 , where h is the height
1
of the triangle. Solving for h yields h = 4. Hence, the area of the triangle is ( base )( height ) =
2
1
(3)(4) = 6. The answer is (A).
2
10. When parallel lines are cut by a transversal, three important angle relationships are formed:
Alternate interior
angles are equal.

TO

Corresponding angles
are equal.

TU

Interior angles on the same side of the


transversal are supplementary.

c
b
a + b = 180

PS
C

11. In a triangle, an exterior angle is equal to the sum of its remote interior angles and therefore
greater than either of them.
a
e

e = a + b and e > a and e > b


b

12. A central angle has by definition the same measure as its intercepted arc.

60

60

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Substitution

If n is an even integer, which one of the following is an odd integer?


(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

n2
n +1
2
2n 4
2n2 3

LS

Example 1:

20

15

Substitution is a very useful technique for solving math problems.It often reduces hard problems to
routine ones. In the substitution method, we choose numbers that have the properties given in
the problem and plug them into the answer-choices. A few examples will illustrate.

n2 + 2

TO

IA

We are told that n is an even integer. So, choose an even integer for n, say, 2 and substitute it into each
n +1
answer-choice. Now, n 2 becomes 22 = 4, which is not an odd integer. So eliminate (A). Next,
=
2
2 +1 3
= is not an odd integereliminate (B). Next, 2n  4 = 2  2  4 = 4  4 = 8 is not an odd
2
2
integereliminate (C). Next, 2n2 3 = 2(2)2 3 = 2(4) 3 = 8 3 = 5 is odd and hence the answer is
n 2 + 2 = 2 2 + 2 = 4 + 2 = 6 , which is not oddeliminate (E). The answer is

possibly (D). Finally,


(D).

When using the substitution method, be sure to check every answer-choice because the number you
choose may work for more than one answer-choice. If this does occur, then choose another number
and plug it in, and so on, until you have eliminated all but the answer. This may sound like a lot of
computing, but the calculations can usually be done in a few seconds.
If n is an integer, which of the following CANNOT be an integer?

PS
C

Example 2:

TU

(A)
(B)
(C)

n2
2
n
2
n +1

(D)
(E)

n2 + 3
1
2
n +2

n  2 0  2 2
=
=
= 1, which is an integer. So eliminate (A). Next, n = 0 = 0 .
2
2
2
2
2
2
Eliminate (B). Next,
=
= = 2. Eliminate (C). Next, n 2 + 3 = 0 2 + 3 = 0 + 3 = 3 , which
n +1 0 +1 1
1
1
1
1
is not an integerit may be our answer. However,
=
=
=
, which is not an
2
2
0
+
2
2
n +2
0 +2
Choose n to be 0. Then

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integer as well. So, we choose another number, say, 1. Then n 2 + 3 = 12 + 3 = 1+ 3 = 4 = 2 , which is


1
an integer, eliminating (D). Thus, choice (E),
, is the answer.
2
n +2
If x, y, and z are positive integers such that x < y < z and x + y + z = 6, then what is the value
of z ?
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

1
2
3
4
5

15

Example 3:

20

From the given inequality x < y < z, it is clear that the positive integers x, y, and z are different and are in
the increasing order of size.

LS

Assume x > 1. Then y > 2 and z > 3. Adding the inequalities yields x + y + z > 6. This contradicts the given
equation x + y + z = 6. Hence, the assumption x > 1 is false. Since x is a positive integer, x must be 1.

IA

Next, assume y > 2. Then z > 3 and x + y + z = 1 + y + z > 1 + 2 + 3 = 6, so x + y + z > 6. This contradicts
the given equation x + y + z = 6. Hence, the assumption y > 2 is incorrect. Since we know y is a positive
integer and greater than x (= 1), y must be 2.
Now, the substituting known values in equation x + y + z = 6 yields 1 + 2 + z = 6, or z = 3. The answer is
(C).

TU

TO

Method II (without substitution):


We have the inequality x < y < z and the equation x + y + z = 6. Since x is a positive integer, x  1. From the
inequality x < y < z, we have two inequalities: y > x and z > y. Applying the first inequality (y > x) to the
inequality x  1 yields y  2 (since y is also a positive integer, given); and applying the second inequality
(z > y) to the second inequality y  2 yields z  3 (since z is also a positive integer, given). Summing the
inequalities x  1, y  2, and z  3 yields x + y + z  6. But we have x + y + z = 6, exactly. This happens
only when x = 1, y = 2, and z = 3 (not when x > 1, y > 2, and z > 3). Hence, z = 3, and the answer is (C).
Problem Set A: Solve the following problems by using substitution.
 Easy

By how much is the greatest of five consecutive even integers greater than the smallest among them?

PS
C

1.

(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

1
2
4
8
10

 Medium
2.

Which one of the following could be an integer?

(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

Average of two consecutive integers.


Average of three consecutive integers.
Average of four consecutive integers.
Average of six consecutive integers.
Average of 6 and 9.

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15

Number Theory

The remainder is r when p is divided by k means p = kq + r; the integer q is called the quotient.
For instance, The remainder is 1 when 7 is divided by 3 means 7 = 3  2 + 1. Dividing both sides
of p = kq + r by k gives the following alternative form p/k = q + r/k.

Example 1:

The remainder is 57 when a number is divided by 10,000. What is the remainder when the
same number is divided by 1,000?

LS

20

This broad category is a popular source for questions. At first, students often struggle with these problems
since they have forgotten many of the basic properties of arithmetic. So, before we begin solving these
problems, lets review some of these basic properties.

TU

1,000q + 57 =

TO

IA

(A) 5
(B) 7
(C) 43
(D) 57
(E) 570
Since the remainder is 57 when the number is divided by 10,000, the number can be expressed as
10,000n + 57, where n is an integer. Rewriting 10,000 as 1,000(10) yields
1,000(10)n + 57 =
1,000(10n) + 57 =
Now, since n is an integer, 10n is an integer. Letting 10n = q, we get
Hence, the remainder is still 57 (by the p = kq + r form) when the number is divided by 1,000. The answer
is (D).

PS
C

Method II (Alternative form)


Since the remainder is 57 when the number is divided by 10,000, the number can be expressed as
10,000n + 57. Dividing this number by 1,000 yields

10, 000n + 57
=
1000
10, 000n
57
+
=
1,000
1,000

10n +

57
1, 000

Hence, the remainder is 57 (by the alternative form p/k = q + r/k), and the answer is (D).


A number n is even if the remainder is zero when n is divided by 2: n = 2z + 0, or n = 2z.

A number n is odd if the remainder is one when n is divided by 2: n = 2z + 1.

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The following properties for odd and even numbers are very usefulyou should memorize them:
even  even = even
odd  odd = odd
even  odd = even
even + even = even
odd + odd = even
even + odd = odd
If n is a positive integer and (n + 1)(n + 3) is odd, then ( n + 2)(n + 4) must be a multiple of
which one of the following?
(A) 3
(B) 5
(C) 6
(D) 8
(E) 16

15

Example 2:

LS

20

(n + 1)(n + 3) is odd only when both (n + 1) and (n + 3) are odd. This is possible only when n is even.
Hence, n = 2m, where m is a positive integer. Then,
(n + 2)(n + 4) =
(2m + 2)(2m + 4) =
2(m + 1)2(m + 2) =
4(m + 1)(m + 2) =
4  (product of two consecutive positive integers, one which must be even) =
4  (an even number), and this equals a number that is at least a multiple of 8
Hence, the answer is (D).
Consecutive integers are written as x, x + 1, x + 2, . . .

Consecutive even or odd integers are written as x, x + 2, x + 4, . . .

The integer zero is neither positive nor negative, but it is even: 0 = 2  0.

A prime number is an integer that is divisible only by itself and 1.


The prime numbers are 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19, 23, 29, 31, 37, 41, . . .

A number is divisible by 3 if the sum of its digits is divisible by 3.


For example, 135 is divisible by 3 because the sum of its digits (1 + 3 + 5 = 9) is divisible by 3.

A common multiple is a multiple of two or more integers.


For example, some common multiples of 2 and 5 are 0, 10, 20, 40, and 50.

The least common multiple (LCM) of two integers is the smallest positive integer that is a multiple
of both.
For example, the LCM of 4 and 10 is 20. The standard method of calculating the LCM is to prime
factor the numbers and then form a product by selecting each factor the greatest number of times it
occurs. For 4 and 10, we get

PS
C

TU

TO

IA

4 = 22
10 = 2 5

In this case, select 22 instead of 2 because it has the greater number of factors of 2, and select 5 by
default since there are no other factors of 5. Hence, the LCM is 22 5 = 4 5 = 20.
For another example, lets find the LCM of 8, 36, and 54. Prime factoring yields
8 = 23
36 = 2 2 32
54 = 2 33
In this case, select 2 3 because it has more factors of 2 than 22 or 2 itself, and select 33 because is has
more factors of 3 than 32 does. Hence, the LCM is 23 33 = 8 27 = 216.

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Divisibility by prime numbers


A number is divisible by 2 if its last digit is also (i.e. 0,2,4,6 or 8).
A number is divisible by 3 if the sum of its digits is also. Example: 534: 5+3+4=12 and 1+2=3 so 534 is
divisible by 3.
A number is divisible by 5 if the last digit is 5 or 0.

PS
C

TU

TO

IA

LS

20

15

Test for divisibility by 11. Subtract the last digit from the remaining leading truncated number. If
the result is divisible by 11, then so was the first number. Apply this rule over and over again as
necessary.
Example: 19151--> 1915-1 =1914 -->191-4=187 -->18-7=11, so yes, 19151 is divisible by 11.
Test for divisibility by 13. Add four times the last digit to the remaining leading truncated number.
If the result is divisible by 13, then so was the first number. Apply this rule over and over again as
necessary.
Example: 50661-->5066+4=5070-->507+0=507-->50+28=78 and 78 is 6*13, so 50661 is divisible
by 13.
Test for divisibility by 17. Subtract five times the last digit from the remaining leading truncated
number. If the result is divisible by 17, then so was the first number. Apply this rule over and over
again as necessary.
Example: 3978-->397-5*8=357-->35-5*7=0. So 3978 is divisible by 17.
Test for divisibility by 19. Add two times the last digit to the remaining leading truncated number.
If the result is divisible by 19, then so was the first number. Apply this rule over and over again as
necessary.
EG: 101156-->10115+2*6=10127-->1012+2*7=1026-->102+2*6=114 and 114=6*19, so 101156 is
divisible by 19.
Test for divisibility by 23. 3*23=69, ends in a 9, so ADD. Add 7 times the last digit to the
remaining leading truncated number. If the result is divisible by 23, then so was the first number.
Apply this rule over and over again as necessary.
Example: 17043-->1704+7*3=1725-->172+7*5=207 which is 9*23, so 17043 is also divisible by 23.
Test for divisibility by 29. Add three times the last digit to the remaining leading truncated number.
If the result is divisible by 29, then so was the first number. Apply this rule over and over again as
necessary.
Example: 15689-->1568+3*9=1595-->159+3*5=174-->17+3*4=29, so 15689 is also divisible by 29.

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SQUARES

AND

SQUARE ROOTS

89

20

15

Squares and Square


Roots

LS

Introduction

You know that the area of a square = side side (where side means the length of
a side). Study the following table.
Area of the square (in cm2)

1 1 = 1 = 12

IA

Side of a square (in cm)

2 2 = 4 = 22

3 3 = 9 = 32

TO

5 5 = 25 = 52

8 8 = 64 = 82

TU

8
a

a a = a2

PS
C

What is special about the numbers 4, 9, 25, 64 and other such numbers?
Since, 4 can be expressed as 2 2 = 22, 9 can be expressed as 3 3 = 32, all such
numbers can be expressed as the product of the number with itself.
Such numbers like 1, 4, 9, 16, 25, ... are known as square numbers.
In general, if a natural number m can be expressed as n2, where n is also a natural
number, then m is a square number. Is 32 a square number?
We know that 52 = 25 and 62 = 36. If 32 is a square number, it must be the square of
a natural number between 5 and 6. But there is no natural number between 5 and 6.
Therefore 32 is not a square number.
Consider the following numbers and their squares.
Number

Square

1
2

11=1
22=4

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33=9
4 4 = 16
5 5 = 25
---------------------------------------------------

Can you
complete it?

15

3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

IA

LS

20

From the above table, can we enlist the square numbers between 1 and 100? Are
there any natural square numbers upto 100 left out?
You will find that the rest of the numbers are not square numbers.
The numbers 1, 4, 9, 16 ... are square numbers. These numbers are also called perfect
squares.

Properties of Square Numbers

TO

Following table shows the squares of numbers from 1 to 20.


Square

Number

Square

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

1
4
9
16
25
36
49
64
81
100

11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20

121
144
169
196
225
256
289
324
361
400

PS
C

TU

Number

Study the square numbers in the above table. What are the ending digits (that is, digits in
the ones place) of the square numbers? All these numbers end with 0, 1, 4, 5, 6 or 9 at
units place. None of these end with 2, 3, 7 or 8 at units place.
Can we say that if a number ends in 0, 1, 4, 5, 6 or 9, then it must be a square
number? Think about it.

TRY THESE
1. Can we say whether the following numbers are perfect squares? How do we know?
(i) 1057
(ii) 23453
(iii) 7928
(iv) 222222
(v) 1069
(vi) 2061

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EXERCISE

PS
C

TU

TO

IA

LS

20

15

1. What will be the unit digit of the squares of the following numbers?
(i) 81
(ii) 272
(iii) 799
(iv) 3853
(v) 1234
(vi) 26387
(vii) 52698
(viii) 99880
(ix) 12796
(x) 55555
2. The following numbers are obviously not perfect squares. Give reason.
(i) 1057
(ii) 23453
(iii) 7928
(iv) 222222
(v) 64000
(vi) 89722
(vii) 222000
(viii) 505050
3. The squares of which of the following would be odd numbers?
(i) 431
(ii) 2826
(iii) 7779
(iv) 82004
4. Observe the following pattern and find the missing digits.
112 = 121
1012 = 10201
10012 = 1002001
1000012 = 1 ......... 2 ......... 1
100000012 = ...........................
5. Observe the following pattern and supply the missing numbers.
112 = 1 2 1
1012 = 1 0 2 0 1
101012 = 102030201
10101012 = ...........................
............2 = 10203040504030201
6. Using the given pattern, find the missing numbers.
12 + 22 + 22 = 32
22 + 32 + 62 = 72
To find pattern
32 + 42 + 122 = 132
Third number is related to first and second
2
2
2
2
number. How?
4 + 5 + _ = 21
Fourth number is related to third number.
52 + _2 + 302 = 312
How?
62 + 72 + _2 = __2
7. Without adding, find the sum.
(i) 1 + 3 + 5 + 7 + 9
(ii) 1 + 3 + 5 + 7 + 9 + I1 + 13 + 15 + 17 +19
(iii) 1 + 3 + 5 + 7 + 9 + 11 + 13 + 15 + 17 + 19 + 21 + 23
8. (i) Express 49 as the sum of 7 odd numbers.
(ii) Express 121 as the sum of 11 odd numbers.
9. How many numbers lie between squares of the following numbers?
(i) 12 and 13
(ii) 25 and 26
(iii) 99 and 100

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PLAYING

WITH

NUMBERS

249

15

Playing with Numbers


Numbers in General Form

20

Let us take the number 52 and write it as

37 = 10 3 + 7

LS

52 = 50 + 2 = 10 5 + 2
Similarly, the number 37 can be written as

In general, any two digit number ab made of digits a and b can be written as

IA

ab = 10 a + b = 10a + b
ba = 10 b + a = 10b + a

What about ba?

Here ab does not


mean a b!

Let us now take number 351. This is a three digit number. It can also be written as
351 = 300 + 50 + 1 = 100 3 + 10 5 + 1 1
497 = 100 4 + 10 9 + 1 7

TO

Similarly

In general, a 3-digit number abc made up of digits a, b and c is written as

In the same way,

TU

abc = 100 a + 10 b + 1 c
= 100a + 10b + c

and so on.

PS
C

cab = 100c + 10a + b


bca = 100b + 10c + a

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It so happens that Sundaram chose the number 49. So, he got the reversed number
94; then he added these two numbers and got 49 + 94 = 143. Finally he divided this
number by 11 and got 143 11 = 13, with no remainder. This is just what Minakshi
had predicted.

PS
C

TU

TO

IA

LS

20

15

Now, let us see if we can explain Minakshis trick.


Suppose Sundaram chooses the number ab, which is a short form for the 2-digit
number 10a + b. On reversing the digits, he gets the number ba = 10b + a. When he adds
the two numbers he gets:
(10a + b) + (10b + a) = 11a + 11b
= 11 (a + b).
So, the sum is always a multiple of 11, just as Minakshi had claimed.
Observe here that if we divide the sum by 11, the quotient is a + b, which is exactly the
sum of the digits of chosen number ab.
You may check the same by taking any other two digit number.
The game between Minakshi and Sundaram continues!

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MATHEMATICS

20

15

70

LS

QUADRATIC EQUATIONS
Introduction

IA

Quadratic polynomial is of the form ax2 + bx + c, a 0. When we equate this

So,

PS
C

Therefore,

TU

TO

polynomial
to zero, we get a quadratic equation. Quadratic equations come up when we deal with
many real-life situations. For instance, suppose a
charity trust decides to build a prayer hall having
a carpet area of 300 square metres with its length
one metre more than twice its breadth. What
should be the length and breadth of the hall?
Suppose the breadth of the hall is x metres. Then,
its length should be (2x + 1) metres. We can depict
this information pictorially as shown in Fig.
Now,
area of the hall = (2x + 1). x m2 = (2x2 + x) m2
2x2 + x = 300

(Given)

2x + x 300 = 0

So, the breadth of the hall should satisfy the equation 2x2 + x 300 = 0 which is a
quadratic equation.

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LS

20

15

Altius Interactive Forum

IA

A quadratic equation in the variable x is an equation of the form ax2 + bx + c = 0, where


a, b, c are real numbers, a 0. For example, 2x2 + x 300 = 0 is a quadratic equation.
Similarly, 2x2 3x + 1 = 0, 4x 3x2 + 2 = 0 and 1 x2 + 300 = 0 are also quadratic
equations.

TO

In fact, any equation of the form p(x) = 0, where p(x) is a polynomial of degree
2, is a quadratic equation. But when we write the terms of p(x) in descending order of
their degrees, then we get the standard form of the equation. That is, ax2 + bx + c = 0,
a 0 is called the standard form of a quadratic equation.
Quadratic equations arise in several situations in the world around us and in
different fields of mathematics. Let us consider a few examples.

(i)

TU

Example 1 : Represent the following situations mathematically:


John and Jivanti together have 45 marbles. Both of them lost 5 marbles each, and
the product of the number of marbles they now have is 124. We would like to find
out how many marbles they had to start with.

PS
C

(ii) A cottage industry produces a certain number of toys in a day. The cost of
production of each toy (in rupees) was found to be 55 minus the number of toys
produced in a day. On a particular day, the total cost of production was
Rs 750. We would like to find out the number of toys produced on that day.

Solution :

(i)

Let the number of marbles John had be x.


Then the number of marbles Jivanti had = 45 x (Why?).
The number of marbles left with John, when he lost 5 marbles = x 5
The number of marbles left with Jivanti, when she lost 5 marbles = 45 x 5
= 40 x

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Therefore, their product = (x 5) (40 x)


= x2 + 45x 200
x2 + 45x 200 = 124

i.e.,

x2 + 45x 324 = 0

i.e.,

x2 45x + 324 = 0

(Given that product = 124)

20

So,

15

= 40x x2 200 + 5x

Therefore, the number of marbles John had, satisfies the quadratic equation
x2 45x + 324 = 0

LS

which is the required representation of the problem mathematically.


(ii) Let the number of toys produced on that day be x.

IA

Therefore, the cost of production (in rupees) of each toy that day = 55 x
So, the total cost of production (in rupees) that day = x (55 x)
Therefore,

x (55 x) = 750

55x x2 = 750

i.e.,

x2 + 55x 750 = 0

i.e.,

x2 55x + 750 = 0

TO

i.e.,

Therefore, the number of toys produced that day satisfies the quadratic equation

TU

x2 55x + 750 = 0

which is the required representation of the problem mathematically.


Example 2 : Check whether the following are quadratic equations:

PS
C

(i) (x 2)2 + 1 = 2x 3

(iii) x (2x + 3) = x2 + 1

(ii) x(x + 1) + 8 = (x + 2) (x 2)
(iv) (x + 2)3 = x3 4

Solution :

(i) LHS = (x 2)2 + 1 = x2 4x + 4 + 1 = x2 4x + 5

Therefore, (x 2)2 + 1 = 2x 3 can be rewritten as


x2 4x + 5 = 2x 3
i.e.,

x2 6x + 8 = 0

It is of the form ax2 + bx + c = 0.


Therefore, the given equation is a quadratic equation.

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3. Find the roots of the following equations:


(i) x

= 3, x 0

11

, x 4, 7
x
x + 4 x 7 30
4. The sum of the reciprocals of Rehmans ages, (in years) 3 years ago and 5 years from

15

. Find his present age.

20

now is

(ii)

LS

5. In a class test, the sum of Shefalis marks in Mathematics and English is 30. Had she got
2 marks more in Mathematics and 3 marks less in English, the product of their marks
would have been 210. Find her marks in the two subjects.
6. The diagonal of a rectangular field is 60 metres more than the shorter side. If the longer
side is 30 metres more than the shorter side, find the sides of the field.

IA

7. The difference of squares of two numbers is 180. The square of the smaller number is 8
times the larger number. Find the two numbers.

8. A train travels 360 km at a uniform speed. If the speed had been 5 km/h more, it would
have taken 1 hour less for the same journey. Find the speed of the train.
3
hours. The tap of larger diameter takes 10
8
hours less than the smaller one to fill the tank separately. Find the time in which each tap
can separately fill the tank.

TO

9. Two water taps together can fill a tank in 9

TU

10. An express train takes 1 hour less than a passenger train to travel 132 km between
Mysore and Bangalore (without taking into consideration the time they stop at
intermediate stations). If the average speed of the express train is 11km/h more than that
of the passenger train, find the average speed of the two trains.
11. Sum of the areas of two squares is 468 m2. If the difference of their perimeters is 24 m,
find the sides of the two squares.

PS
C

Nature of Roots

In the previous section, you have seen that the roots of the equation ax2 + bx + c = 0
are given by
b b2 4ac
x=
2a

If b 2 4ac > 0, we get two distinct real roots


b

2a

b
+
2a

b 2 4ac
and
2a

b2 4ac
.
2a

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EXERCISE 1

LS

20

15

1. Which of the following numbers are not perfect cubes?


(i) 216
(ii) 128
(iii) 1000
(iv) 100
(v) 46656
2. Find the smallest number by which each of the following numbers must be multiplied
to obtain a perfect cube.
(i) 243
(ii) 256
(iii) 72
(iv) 675
(v) 100
3. Find the smallest number by which each of the following numbers must be divided to
obtain a perfect cube.
(i) 81
(ii) 128
(iii) 135
(iv) 192
(v) 704
4. Parikshit makes a cuboid of plasticine of sides 5 cm, 2 cm, 5 cm. How many such
cuboids will he need to form a cube?

IA

Cube Roots

TO

If the volume of a cube is 125 cm3, what would be the length of its side? To get the length
of the side of the cube, we need to know a number whose cube is 125.
Finding the square root, as you know, is the inverse operation of squaring. Similarly,
finding the cube root is the inverse operation of finding cube.
We know that 23 = 8; so we say that the cube root of 8 is 2.
We write 3 8 = 2. The symbol

denotes cube-root.

TU

Consider the following:


Statement

PS
C

13 = 1

23 = 8

Inference
3

1 =1

8 =

Statement

63 = 216

216 = 6

23 = 2

73 = 343

343 = 7

33 = 3

83 = 512

512 = 8

729 = 9

33 = 27

27 =

43 = 64

64 = 4

93 = 729

125 = 5

103 = 1000

53 = 125

Inference

1000 = 10

Cube root through prime factorisation method


Consider 3375. We find its cube root by prime factorisation:
3375 = 3 3 3 5 5 5 = 33 53 = (3 5)3
Therefore,

cube root of 3375 =

3375 = 3 5 = 15

Similarly, to find 3 74088 , we have,

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Geometry

20

15

Following is a discussion of the basic properties of geometry. You probably know many of these
properties. Memorize any that you do not know.

Lines & Angles

LS

When two straight lines meet at a point, they form an angle. The point is
called the vertex of the angle, and the lines are called the sides of the angle.
The angle to the right can be identified in three ways:
1. x
2. B
3. ABC or CBA

TO

IA

When two straight lines meet at a point, they form four


angles. The angles opposite each other are called vertical
angles, and they are congruent (equal). In the figure to the
right, a = b, and c = d.

A
x
C

c
a

a = b and c = d

PS
C

TU

Angles are measured in degrees, . By definition, a circle has 360. So an angle can be measured by its
1
fractional part of a circle. For example, an angle that is
of the arc of a circle is 1. And an angle that
360
1
1
is of the arc of a circle is  360 = 90.
4
4

1/360 of an arc
of a circle

90

1/4 of an arc
of a circle

240

2/3 of an arc
of a circle

There are four major types of angle measures:


An acute angle has measure less than 90:

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A right angle has measure 90:


90
An obtuse angle has measure greater than 90:

LS

IA

Example: In the figure, AOB is a straight line. What is


the average of the four numbers a, b, c, d ?
(A) 45
(B) 360/7
(C) 60
(D) 90
(E) 120

x + y = 180

20

15

A straight angle has measure 180:

In the figure, AOB is a straight line, and a straight angle measures 180. Hence, the sum of the angles a, b,
c, and d is 180, and the average of the four is their sum divided by 4: 180/4 = 45. The answer is (A).
l

TU

(A) a < 5/8


(B) a = 5/7
(C) a = 5/6
(D) a = 1
(E) a > 1

TO

Example: In the figure, lines l, m, and n intersect at O.


Which one of the following must be true about
the value of a ?
O
x + 10
ay

x
y

m
n

120

PS
C

Equating vertical angles yields x = ay and y = x + 10. Plugging the second equation into the first yields x =
10a
10a
10a + 10  10a
10
a(x + 10). Solving for x yields x =
. Also, y = x + 10 =
+ 10 =
=
. Now, we
1 a
1 a
1 a
1 a
know that the angle made by any point on a line is 180. Hence, the angle made by point O on line n is
180. Hence, 120 + ay + x + 10 = 180. Simplifying yields ay + x = 50. Substituting the known results x =
 10a 
10a
10
10a 10a
and y =
into this equation yields
+
= 50. Hence, 2
 = 50 . Multiplying both
1  a 
1 a
1 a
1 a 1 a
sides by (1 a) yields 20a = 50(1 a). Distributing the 50 yields 20a = 50 50a. Adding 50a to both sides
yields 70a = 50. Finally, dividing both sides by 70 yields a = 5/7. The answer is (B).

Two angles are supplementary if their angle sum is 180:

45
135
45 + 135 = 180

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60
30
30 + 60 = 90

Two angles are complementary if their angle sum is 90:

l2
l1

l1  l2

15

Perpendicular lines meet at right angles:

20

Two lines in the same plane are parallel if they never intersect. Parallel lines have the same slope.
When parallel lines are cut by a transversal, three important angle relationships exist:

Interior angles on the same side of


the transversal are supplementary.

Corresponding angles
are equal.

LS

Alternate interior angles


are equal.

c
a

IA

Shortest
distance

TO

The shortest distance from a point to a line is along a


new line that passes through the point and is
perpendicular to the original line.

Longer
distance

TU

Triangles

a + b = 180

PS
C

A triangle containing a right angle is called a right


triangle. The right angle is denoted by a small
square:

A triangle with two equal sides is called


isosceles. The angles opposite the equal sides
are called the base angles, and they are
congruent (equal). A triangle with all three
sides equal is called equilateral, and each
angle is 60. A triangle with no equal sides
(and therefore no equal angles) is called
scalene:

Isosceles

Scalene
b

Equilateral
60

x
x

a
x

c
abc

60

60
x

Base angles

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Shaded Regions
To find the area of the shaded region of a figure, subtract the area of the unshaded region from the area of
the entire figure.
In the figure, ABCD is a rectangle. A
What is the area of the shaded region in
the figure?
6
(A) 18
(B) 20
(C) 24
E
(D) 28
(E) 32
1

15

20

Example:

The figure is not drawn to scale.


From the figure, the area of the shaded region equals

LS

(Area of ABD) (Area of AFE)


Now, the area of ABD, by the formula 1/2  base  height, equals

1/2  AB  AD = (1/2)(AF + FB)(AE + ED) = (1/2)(8 + 4)(6 + 1) = (1/2)(12)(7) = 6  7 = 42

IA

and the area of AFE equals

1/2  AF  AE = 1/2  8  6 = 4  6 = 24

Hence, the area of the shaded region equals

TO

(Area of ABD) (Area of AFE) =


42 24 =
18

The answer is (A).

What is the area of shaded region in the figure?


(A)
(B)

60
O

PS
C

(C)
(D)
(E)

10 + 27 3
27
10 +
3
4
30 + 27 3
30 + 9 3
36 + 27 3

TU

Example:

From the figure, we have

The area of the Shaded region = (Area of Circle) (Area of Sector AOB) + (Area of AOB).
By the formula of the area of a circle, the area of the circle in the figure is   radius 2 = (6)2 = 36.
The formula for the area of a sector is
(Angle made by sector/360)  (Area of the circle) =
60/360  36 =
1/6  36 =
6

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Also, since OA and OB are radii, angles opposite them are equal. Hence, AOB is an isosceles triangle with
one angle (OAB =) 60. An isosceles triangle with one angle measuring 60 is always an equilateral
triangle.
Now, the formula for the area of an equilateral triangle is

3
side 2 . Hence, the area of AOB is
4

Hence, the area of the shaded region is 36 6 + 9 3 = 30 + 9 3 . The answer is (D).

20

Birds-Eye View

15

3 2
3
6 =
36 = 9 3
4
4

In the figure to the right, O is both the center of


the circle with radius 2 and a vertex of the square
OPRS. What is the length of diagonal PS ?

(B)

TO

(C)
(D)
(E)

1/2
2
2
4
2
2 5

IA

(A)

Example:

LS

Most geometry problems on the test require straightforward calculations. However, some problems
measure your insight into the basic rules of geometry. For this type of problem, you should step back and
take a birds-eye view of the problem. The following example will illustrate.

PS
C

TU

The diagonals of a square are equal. Hence, line segment OR (not shown) is equal to SP. Now, OR is a
radius of the circle and therefore OR = 2. Hence, SP = 2 as well, and the answer is (D).

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Problem Set E:
 Easy
ABCD is a square and one of its sides AB is also a chord of the circle as shown in the figure. What is
the area of the square?
3
9
12
12 2
18

15

(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

A
D

20

1.

TO

What is the value of y in the figure?


20
30
35
45
50

PS
C

(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

TU

2.

IA

LS

3a

a
y

5a
1

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3.

In the triangle, what is the value of x ?


(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

25
55
60
77
85

In the figure, what is the value of a ?


16
18
36
54
72

LS

(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

2a 3a
4a

IA

4.

60 + x

20

70 y

15

y + x

In the figure, what is the average of the five angles shown inside the circle?
36
45
60
72
90

PS
C

(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

TU

5.

TO

a + b
(2a + b)

(2a b)

(2a 2b)

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In the figure, O is the center of the circle. What is average of the numbers a, b, c, and d ?
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

45
60
90
180
360

15

6.

b
d O c

LS

20

 Medium

1/4
1/2
1
2
4

(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

IA

The perimeter of rectangle ABCD is 5/2 times the length of side AB. What is the value of AB/BC ?

TO

7.

In the figure, AD and BC are lines intersecting at O. What is the value of a ?

PS
C

8.

TU

(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

15
30
45
60
135

5x + 5a

A
y

2x + 30

O
5y/2

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From the figure, which one of the following must be true?


(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

y=z
y<z
y z
y >z
yz

y
3x

20

15

9.

20
30
60
75
90

b a/2

TO

(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

LS

From the figure, which one of the following could be the value of b ?

IA

10.

TU

2a b O a/2 + 2b

PS
C

2a 2b

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On hard problems, if you are asked to find the least (or greatest) number, then
eliminate the least (or greatest) answer-choice.

20

Strategy

15

Elimination Strategies

What is the maximum number of points common to the intersection of a square and a
triangle if no two sides coincide?
4
5
6
8
9

IA

(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

Example:

LS

This rule also applies to easy and medium problems. When people guess on these types of problems, they
most often choose either the least or the greatest number. But if the least or the greatest number were the
answer, most people would answer the problem correctly, and it therefore would not be a hard problem.

On hard problems, eliminate the answer-choice not enough information.

TU

Strategy

TO

By the above rule, we eliminate answer-choice (E).

PS
C

When people cannot solve a problem, they most often choose the answer-choice not enough information.
But if this were the answer, then it would not be a hard problem.

Strategy

Example:

On hard problems, eliminate answer-choices that merely repeat numbers from the
problem.

If the sum of x and 20 is 8 more than the difference of 10 and y, what is the value of x + y ?
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

2
8
9
28
not enough information

By the above rule, we eliminate choice (B) since it merely repeats the number 8 from the problem. By
Strategy 2, we would also eliminate choice (E). Caution: If choice (B) contained more than the number 8,
say, 8 + 2 , then it would not be eliminated by the above rule.

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Problem Set H:
What is the maximum number of 3x3 squares that
can be formed from the squares in the 6x6 checker
board to the right?

(A) $20
4.

(B) $12.5

(C) $12

(D) $9

(E) $7

The distance between cities A and B is 120 miles. A car travels from A to B at 60 miles per hour and
returns from B to A along the same route at 40 miles per hour. What is the average speed for the
round trip?
(A) 48

5.

15

After being marked down 20 percent, a calculator sells for $10. The original selling price was

3.

1
2
3
5
10

IA

(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

LS

Let P stand for the product of the first 5 positive integers. What is the greatest possible value of m if
P
is an integer?
10 m

TO

2.

4
6
12
16
24

20

(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

(B) 50

(C) 52

TU

1.

(D) 56

(E) 58

If w is 10 percent less than x, and y is 30 percent less than z, then wy is what percent less than xz?
(B) 20%

(C) 37%

(D) 40%

(E) 100%

PS
C

(A) 10%

6.

In the game of chess, the Knight can make any of


the moves displayed in the diagram to the right. If
a Knight is the only piece on the board, what is the
greatest number of spaces from which not all 8
moves are possible?
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

8
24
38
48
56

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15

Inequalities
Inequalities are manipulated algebraically the same way as equations with one exception:

Multiplying or dividing both sides of an inequality by a negative number reverses the


inequality. That is, if x > y and c < 0, then cx < cy.

20

Note!

Example: For which values of x is 4x + 3 > 6x 8 ?

LS

As with equations, our goal is to isolate x on one side:


Subtracting 6x from both sides yields

2x + 3 > 8

IA

Subtracting 3 from both sides yields

x < 11/2

Dividing both sides by 2 and reversing the inequality yields

2x > 11

Positive & Negative Numbers

TO

A number greater than 0 is positive. On the number line, positive numbers are to the right of 0. A number
less than 0 is negative. On the number line, negative numbers are to the left of 0. Zero is the only number
that is neither positive nor negative; it divides the two sets of numbers. On the number line, numbers
increase to the right and decrease to the left.

TU

The expression x > y means that x is greater than y. In other words, x is to the right of y on the number
line:

PS
C

smaller

larger

5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5

We usually have no trouble determining which of two numbers is larger when both are positive or one is
positive and the other negative (e.g., 5 > 2 and 3.1 > 2). However, we sometimes hesitate when both
numbers are negative (e.g., 2 > 4.5). When in doubt, think of the number line: if one number is to the
right of the number, then it is larger. As the number line below illustrates, 2 is to the right of 4.5. Hence,
2 is larger than 4.5.
smaller
4.5

larger
2

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Miscellaneous Properties of Positive and Negative Numbers


The product (quotient) of positive numbers is positive.
The product (quotient) of a positive number and a negative number is negative.
The product (quotient) of an even number of negative numbers is positive.
The product (quotient) of an odd number of negative numbers is negative.
The sum of negative numbers is negative.
A number raised to an even exponent is greater than or equal to zero.

I. xz < 0
II. z < 0
III. xyz < 0
(A) None

(B) I only

(C) III only

(D) I and II

20

Example: If xy 2 z < 0 , then which one of the following statements must also be true?

15

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

(E) II and III

xz < 0

Simplifying yields

IA

xy2 z
0
2 < 2
y
y

LS

Since a number raised to an even exponent is greater than or equal to zero, we know that y2 is positive (it
cannot be zero because the product xy 2 z would then be zero). Hence, we can divide both sides of the
inequality xy 2 z < 0 by y2 :

Therefore, I is true, which eliminates (A), (C), and (E). Now, the following illustrates that z < 0 is not
necessarily true:

TO

1 22 3 = 12 < 0

This eliminates (D). Hence, the answer is (B).

TU

Absolute Value

PS
C

The absolute value of a number is its distance on the number line from 0. Since distance is a positive
number, absolute value of a number is positive. Two vertical bars denote the absolute value of a number:
x . For example, 3 = 3 and 3 = 3. This can be illustrated on the number line:

}}
3 = 3

3 =3

5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5

Students rarely struggle with the absolute value of numbers: if the number is negative, simply make it positive; and if it is already positive, leave it as is. For example, since 2.4 is negative, 24 = 2.4 and since
5.01 is positive 5.01 = 5.01 .
Further, students rarely struggle with the absolute value of positive variables: if the variable is positive, simply drop the absolute value symbol. For example, if x > 0, then x = x .
However, negative variables can cause students much consternation. If x is negative, then x = x .
This often confuses students because the absolute value is positive but the x appears to be negative. It is
actually positiveit is the negative of a negative number, which is positive. To see this more clearly let
x = k, where k is a positive number. Then x is a negative number. So x = x = (k) = k . Since k is
positive so is x. Another way to view this is x = x = (1) x = (1)(a negative number) = a positive
number.

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Example: If x = x , then which one of the following statements could be true?


I. x = 0
II. x < 0
III. x > 0
(A) None

(B) I only

(C) III only

(D) I and II

(E) II and III

20

15

Statement I could be true because 0 = (+0) = ( 0) = 0 . Statement II could be true because the right side
of the equation is always negative [ x = (a positive number) = a negative number]. Now, if one side of
an equation is always negative, then the other side must always be negative, otherwise the opposite sides of
the equation would not be equal. Since Statement III is the opposite of Statement II, it must be false. But
lets show this explicitly: Suppose x were positive. Then x = x , and the equation x = x becomes x =
x. Dividing both sides of this equation by x yields 1 = 1. This is contradiction. Hence, x cannot be
positive. The answer is (D).
Higher Order Inequalities

For which values of x is x 2 > 6x 5?

IA

Example:

LS

These inequalities have variables whose exponents are greater than 1. For example, x 2 + 4 < 2 and
x 3 9 > 0 . The number line is often helpful in solving these types of inequalities.

x 2 = 6x 5

Adding 6x and 5 to both sides yields

x 2 + 6x + 5 = 0

First, replace the inequality symbol with an equal symbol:

(x + 5)(x + 1) = 0

Setting each factor to 0 yields

x + 5 = 0 and x + 1 = 0

Or

TO

Factoring yields (see General Trinomials in the chapter Factoring)

x = 5 and x = 1

TU

Now, the only numbers at which the expression can change sign are 5 and 1. So 5 and 1 divide the
number line into three intervals. Lets set up a number line and choose test points in each interval:
Interval I

Interval II

6 5

Interval III

1 0

PS
C

When x = 6, x 2 > 6x 5 becomes 36 > 31. This is true. Hence, all numbers in Interval I satisfy the
inequality. That is, x < 5. When x = 3, x 2 > 6x 5 becomes 9 > 13. This is false. Hence, no numbers
in Interval II satisfy the inequality. When x = 0, x 2 > 6x 5 becomes 0 > 5. This is true. Hence, all
numbers in Interval III satisfy the inequality. That is, x > 1. The graph of the solution follows:

Note, if the original inequality had included the greater-than-or-equal symbol, , the solution set would
have included both 5 and 1. On the graph, this would have been indicated by filling in the circles above
5 and 1. The open circles indicate that 5 and 1 are not part of the solution.

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Problem Set I:
 Medium

(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

I only
II only
III only
I and II only
II and III only

If x + x = 4 , then which one of the following is odd?

LS

If 5 < x < 10 and y = x + 5, what is the greatest possible integer value of x + y ?


18
20
23
24
25

(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

If x > 2 and x < 3, then which of the following is positive?


(I)
(II)
(III)

(x 2)(x 3)
(2 x)(x 3)
(2 x)(3 x)

(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

I only
II only
III only
I and II only
I and III only

PS
C

4.

x2 + 3x
x2 + 3x + 2
x2 + 4x
x2 + 4x + 2
x2 + 4x + 3

IA

(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)
3.

15

a>b
a=b
a<b

20

(I)
(II)
(III)

TO

2.

If a = x + 2y, and b = y + 2x, and 3x + 7y > 7x + 3y, then which one of the following is true?

TU

1.

5.

If a2 + 7a < 0, then which one of the following could be the value of a?

(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

3
0
1
2
3

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 Hard
6.

Three workers A, B, and C are hired for 4 days. The daily wages of the three workers are as follows:
A's first day wage is $4.
Each day, his wage increases by 2 dollars.
B's first day wage is $3.
Each day, his wage increases by 2 dollars.

15

C's first day wage is $1.


Each day, his wage increases by the prime numbers 2, 3, and 5 in that order.
Which one of the following is true about the wages earned by A, B, and C in the first 4 days?
A>B>C
C>B>A
A>C>B
B>A>C
C>A>B

20

(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

If 0 < x 1, then which one of the following is the maximum value of (x 1)2 + x ?

IA

2
1
0
1
2

PS
C

TU

TO

(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

7.

LS

 Very Hard

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15

Fractions & Decimals


Fractions

20

A fraction consists of two parts: a numerator and a denominator.


numerator
denominator

PS
C

TU

TO

IA

LS

If the numerator is smaller than the denominator, the fraction is called proper and is less than one. For
1 4
3
example: , , and
are all proper fractions and therefore less than 1.
2 5

If the numerator is larger than the denominator, the fraction is called improper and is greater than 1.
3 5

For example: , , and


are all improper fractions and therefore greater than 1.
2 4
3
An improper fraction can be converted into a mixed fraction by dividing its denominator into its
numerator. For example, since 2 divides into 7 three times with a remainder of 1, we get
7
1
=3
2
2
To convert a mixed fraction into an improper fraction, multiply the denominator and the integer and
2 3 5 + 2 17
.
then add the numerator. Then, write the result over the denominator. For example, 5 =
=
3
3
3
In a negative fraction, the negative symbol can be written on the top, in the middle, or on the bottom;
however, when a negative symbol appears on the bottom, it is usually moved to the top or the middle:
5
5
5
=
= . If both terms in the denominator of a fraction are negative, the negative symbol is often
3
3
3
1
1
1
1
factored out and moved to the top or middle of the fraction:
.
=
=
or
x 2 ( x + 2 )
x+2
x +2

Strategy

To compare two fractions, cross-multiply. The larger number will be on the same side
as the larger fraction.

Example: Which of the following fractions is larger?


9
10

10
11

Cross-multiplying gives 9 11 versus 10 10 , which reduces to 99 versus 100. Now, 100 is greater than 99.
10
9
Hence,
is greater than
.
11
10

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Strategy

Always reduce a fraction to its lowest terms.

2x 2 + 4x + 2

If x 1, then

Example:

(A) 0

( x + 1) 2

(B) 1

(C) 2

Factor out the 2 in the expression:

(D) 4

(E) 6

( x + 1)

15

2 x 2 + 2x + 1
Factor the quadratic expressions:

20

2( x +1)( x +1)
( x + 1) ( x + 1)

LS

Finally, canceling the (x + 1)s gives 2. The answer is (C).

If

x +3
= y , what is the value of x in terms of y?
x 3
(B) 3
y

(C)

y + 12

(D) 3y 3
1 y

TO

(A) 3 y

Example:

IA

To solve a fractional equation, multiply both sides by the LCD (lowest common
denominator) to clear fractions.

Strategy

First, multiply both sides of the equation by x 3:

TU

Cancel the (x 3)'s on the left side of the equation:


Distribute the y:
Subtract xy and 3 from both sides:
Factor out the x on the left side of the equation:
Finally, divide both sides of the equation by 1 y:
Hence, the answer is (D).

(E) 3y 2

x +3
= ( x 3) y
x 3
x + 3 = (x 3)y
x + 3 = xy 3y
x xy = 3y 3
x(1 y)= 3y 3
3y 3
x=
1y

( x 3)

PS
C

Complex Fractions: When dividing a fraction by a whole number (or vice versa), you must
keep track of the main division bar:

Note!

Example:

a
c ac
a 1 a
a
= a =
. But b = =
.
b
b b
c
b c bc
c

1
2 =

3
(A) 6

(B) 3

(C) 1/3

(D) 1/6

(E) 1/8

1 2 1 2 1
1

2 = 2 2 = 2 = 2 = 1 1 = 1 . The answer is (D).


2 3 6
3
3
3
3

Solution:

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(A)

yz
zy 1

(C)

yz z
z 1

(D)

z
zy 1

(E)

yz
zy 1

1
1
z
z
1 = z
1 = zy 1 = 1 zy 1 = zy 1 . The answer is (D).
y
y
z
z
z
z

15

Solution:

1 =
z
y z
(B)
z

If z 0 and yz 1, then

Example:

Multiplying fractions is routine: merely multiply the numerators and multiply the
denominators:

Example:

Two fractions can be added quickly by cross-multiplying:

a c ad bc
=
bd
b d

LS

Note!

1 3 13 3
a c ac
=
. For example, =
= .
2 4 2 4 8
b d bd

20

Note!

1 3
=
2 4
(A) 5/4

Which of the following equals the average of x and


(A)

x +2
x
1
is
x

(C)

x +1
x2

(D)

2x 2 + 1
x

(E)

x +1
x

1
x2 + 1
2
2
x = x = x + 1 1 = x + 1 . Thus, the answer is (B).
2
2
x
2
2x

x+

To add three or more fractions with different denominators, you need to form a common
denominator of all the fractions.

PS
C

Note!

(B)

1
?
x

TU

The average of x and

x2 + 1
2x

TO

Example:

IA

(B) 2/3
(C) 1/4
(D) 1/2
(E) 2/3
1 4 2 3 4 6 2
1 3
1
Cross multiplying the expression yields
=
=
= . Hence, the answer is (C).
2 4
2 4
8
8
4

1 1 1
+ + , we have to change the denominator of each
3 4 18
fraction into the common denominator 36 (note, 36 is a common denominator because 3, 4, and 18 all
divide into it evenly). This is done by multiply the top and bottom of each fraction by an appropriate
number (this does not change the value of the expression because any number divided by itself equals 1):

For example, to add the fractions in the expression

1 12 1 9 1 2 12 9
2
12 + 9 + 2 23
+ + =
+
+
=
=
3 12 4 9 18 2 36 36 36
36
36

You may remember from algebra that to find a common denominator of a set of fractions, you prime factor
the denominators and then select each factor the greatest number of times it occurs in any of the
factorizations. That is too cumbersome, however. A better way is to simply add the largest denominator to
itself until all the other denominators divide into it evenly. In the above example, we just add 18 to itself to
get the common denominator 36.

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15

Equations

PEMDAS
Please Excuse My Dear Aunt Sally

20

When simplifying algebraic expressions, we perform operations within parentheses first and then exponents
and then multiplication and then division and then addition and lastly subtraction. This can be remembered
by the mnemonic:

Solve the following equation for x: 2x + y = 5

IA

Example:

LS

When solving equations, however, we apply the mnemonic in reverse order: SADMEP. This is often
expressed as follows: inverse operations in inverse order. The goal in solving an equation is to isolate the
variable on one side of the equal sign (usually the left side). This is done by identifying the main
operationaddition, multiplication, etc.and then performing the opposite operation.
Solution: The main operation is addition (remember addition now comes before multiplication, SADMEP),
so subtracting y from both sides yields

2x + y y = 5 y
2x = 5 y

Simplifying yields

Example:

TU

Canceling the 2 on the left side yields

TO

The only operation remaining on the left side is multiplication. Undoing the multiplication by dividing
both sides by 2 yields
2x 5 y
=
2
2
5 y
x=
2

Solve the following equation for x: 3x 4 = 2(x 5)

PS
C

Solution: Here x appears on both sides of the equal sign, so lets move the x on the right side to the left side.
But the x is trapped inside the parentheses. To release it, distribute the 2:
3x 4 = 2x 10
Now, subtracting 2x from both sides yields*
x 4 = 10
Finally, adding 4 to both sides yields
x = 6
We often manipulate equations without thinking about what the equations actually say. Examiners likes
to test this oversight. Equations are packed with information. Take for example the simple equation 3x +
2 = 5. Since 5 is positive, the expression 3x + 2 must be positive as well. An equation means that the
terms on either side of the equal sign are equal in every way. Hence, any property one side of an equation
has the
*

Note, students often mistakenly add 2x to both sides of this equation because of the minus symbol
between 2x and 10. But 2x is positive, so we subtract it. This can be seen more clearly by rewriting the
right side of the equation as 10 + 2x.

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Problem Set K:
 Easy
If 2x + 1 = 3x + 2, then 5x + 2 =

If 7x + 3y = 12 and 3x + 7y = 8, then x y =

3.

1
3
7
8
12

20

(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

Which one of the following must equal p + q, if x y = p and 2x + 3y = q ?


(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

LS

2.

5
3
1
0
3

x+y
3x 2y
2x 3y
2x + 3y
3x + 2y

 Medium

(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)
5.

TO

If p is the sum of q and r, then which one of the following must equal q r ?
pr
p+r
p 2r
p + 2r
2q p

TU

4.

The sum of two numbers is 13, and their product is 30. What is the sum of the squares of the two
numbers?
229
109
139
109
229

PS
C

(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

6.

15

(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

IA

1.

If p + q = 7 and pq = 12, then what is the value of

(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

1
1
+ 2 ?
2
p
q

1/6
25/144
49/144
7/12
73/144

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If 2x + 3y = 11 and 3x + 2y = 9, then x + y =
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

1 1
If ( x + 5)  +  = 5 , then x =
 x 5

If 42.42 = k(14 + 7/50), then what is the value of k?


(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

11.

1
2
3
6
9

LS

(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)
10.

15

a2  9 a  3
=
, a + 3  0, and a  0, then a =
12a
a+3

1
2
3
4
5

IA

If

9.

5
1/2
1
5
10

20

(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

TO

8.

4
7
8
9
11

If (a + 2)(a 3)(a + 4) = 0 and a > 0, then a =


(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

1
2
3
4
5

TU

7.

A system of equations is as shown below

12.

PS
C

 Hard

x+l=6
x m= 5
x+p=4
xq=3

What is the value of l + m + p + q ?

(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

2
3
4
5
6

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15

Averages
Problems involving averages are very common on the test. They can be classified into four major
categories as follows.

Note!

x + 2x + 6 3x + 6 3( x + 2)
=
=
= x + 2 . Hence, the answer is (D).
3
3
3

TO

By the definition of an average, we get

LS

What is the average of x, 2x, and 6?


(A) x/2
(B) 2x
x+2
(C)
6
(D) x + 2
x+2
(E)
3

IA

Example 1:

sum
.
N

20

The average of N numbers is their sum divided by N, that is, average =

Note!

Weighted average: The average between two sets of numbers is closer to the set with more
numbers.
If on a test three people answered 90% of the questions correctly and two people answered
80% correctly, then the average for the group is not 85% but rather
3 90 + 2 80 430
=
= 86. Here, 90 has a weight of 3it occurs 3 times. Whereas 80 has a
5
5
weight of 2it occurs 2 times. So the average is closer to 90 than to 80 as we have just
calculated.

PS
C

TU

Example 2:

Note!

Using an average to find a number.

Sometimes you will be asked to find a number by using a given average. An example will illustrate.

Example 3:

If the average of five numbers is -10, and the sum of three of the numbers is 16, then what
is the average of the other two numbers?
(A) 33

(B) 1

(C) 5

(D) 20

(E) 25

a +b+c + d +e
= 10. Now three of the
5
numbers have a sum of 16, say, a + b + c = 16. So substitute 16 for a + b + c in the average above:
16 + d + e
= 10 . Solving this equation for d + e gives d + e = 66. Finally, dividing by 2 (to form the
5
d +e
average) gives
= 33. Hence, the answer is (A).
2
Let the five numbers be a, b, c, d, e. Then their average is

213
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 Medium
A group of 30 employees of Cadre A has a mean age of 27. A different group of 70 employees of
Cadre B has a mean age of 23. What is the mean age of the employees of the two groups together?
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

7.

In quadrilateral ABCD, A measures 20 degrees more than the average of the other three angles of
the quadrilateral. Then A =
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

8.

6 6
8 6
24
32
48

(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

LS

The average length of all the sides of a rectangle equals twice the width of the rectangle. If the area of
the rectangle is 18, what is its perimeter?

IA

6.

45
60
66
72
78

20

(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

15

The difference between two angles of a triangle is 24. The average of the same two angles is 54.
Which one of the following is the value of the greatest angle of the triangle?

70
85
95
105
110

TO

5.

23
24.2
25
26.8
27

TU

4.

The five numbers 1056, 1095, 1098, 1100, and 1126 are represented on a number line by the points A,
B, C, D, and E, respectively, as shown in the figure. Which one of the following points represents the
average of the five numbers?
Point A
Point B
Point C
Point D
Point E

PS
C

(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

A(1056)

9.

B(1095)

C(1098)

D(1100)

E(1126)

Which one of the following numbers can be removed from the set S = {0, 2, 4, 5, 9} without changing
the average of set S?
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

0
2
4
5
9

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15

Ratio & Proportion


RATIO

x
.
y
Writing two numbers as a ratio provides a convenient way to compare their sizes. For example, since
3
< 1, we know that 3 is less than . A ratio compares two numbers. Just as you cannot compare apples

and oranges, so to must the numbers you are comparing have the same units. For example, you
cannot form the ratio of 2 feet to 4 yards because the two numbers are expressed in different unitsfeet
vs. yards. It is quite common to ask for the ratio of two numbers with different units. Before you form any
ratio, make sure the two numbers are expressed in the same units.
What is the ratio of 2 feet to 4 yards?
(B) 1 : 8

(C) 1 : 7

(D) 1 : 6

(E) 1 : 5

(A) 1 : 9

IA

Example 1:

LS

20

A ratio is simply a fraction. The following notations all express the ratio of x to y: x: y , x y , or

TO

The ratio cannot be formed until the numbers are expressed in the same units. Lets turn the yards into feet.
Since there are 3 feet in a yard, 4 yards = 4  3 feet = 12 feet . Forming the ratio yields

The answer is (D).

TU

2 feet 1
= or 1 : 6
12 feet 6

Note, taking the reciprocal of a fraction usually changes its size. For example,

3 4
 . So order is impor4 3

PS
C

tant in a ratio: 3:4  4: 3.


PROPORTION

A proportion is simply an equality between two ratios (fractions). For example, the ratio of x to y is equal
to the ratio of 3 to 2 is translated as
x 3
=
y 2

or in ratio notation,

x : y ::3:2

Two variables are directly proportional if one is a constant multiple of the other:
y = kx
where k is a constant.
The above equation shows that as x increases (or decreases) so does y. This simple concept has numerous
applications in mathematics. For example, in constant velocity problems, distance is directly proportional
to time: d = vt, where v is a constant. Note, sometimes the word directly is suppressed.

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If the ratio of y to x is equal to 3 and the sum of y and x is 80, what is the value of y?

20

(A) 10
(B) 2
(C) 5
(D) 20
(E) 60
Translating the ratio of y to x is equal to 3 into an equation yields
y
=3
x
Translating the sum of y and x is 80 into an equation yields
y + x = 80
Solving the first equation for y gives y = 3x. Substituting this into the second equation yields
3x + x = 80
4x = 80
x = 20
Hence, y = 3x = 3 20 = 60 . The answer is (E).

15

Example 2:

In many word problems, as one quantity increases (decreases), another quantity also increases (decreases).
This type of problem can be solved by setting up a direct proportion.
If Biff can shape 3 surfboards in 50 minutes, how many surfboards can he shape in 5 hours?

LS

Example 3:

TO

IA

(A) 16
(B) 17
(C) 18
(D) 19
(E) 20
As time increases so does the number of shaped surfboards. Hence, we set up a direct proportion. First,
convert 5 hours into minutes: 5 hours = 5  60 minutes = 300 minutes . Next, let x be the number of
surfboards shaped in 5 hours. Finally, forming the proportion yields
3
x
=
50 300
3 300
=x
50
18 =x
The answer is (C).

On a map, 1 inch represents 150 miles. What is the actual distance between two cities if
1
they are 3 inches apart on the map?
2

TU

Example 4:

PS
C

(A) 225
(B) 300
(C) 450
(D) 525
(E) 600
As the distance on the map increases so does the actual distance. Hence, we set up a direct proportion. Let
x be the actual distance between the cities. Forming the proportion yields
3 1 2 in
1in
=
150 mi
x mi
x = 3 1 2  150
x = 525

The answer is (D).

Note, you need not worry about how you form the direct proportion so long as the order is the same on both
1in
150 mi
=
sides of the equal sign. The proportion in Example 4 could have been written as
. In this
1
x mi
3 2 in
case, the order is inches to inches and miles to miles. However, the following is not a direct proportion
1in
x mi
=
because the order is not the same on both sides of the equal sign:
. In this case, the order
150 mi 3 1 in
2
is inches to miles on the left side of the equal sign but miles to inches on the right side.

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15

If one quantity increases (or decreases) while another quantity decreases (or increases), the quantities are
said to be inversely proportional. The statement y is inversely proportional to x is written as
k
y=
x
where k is a constant.
k
Multiplying both sides of y = by x yields
x
yx = k
Hence, in an inverse proportion, the product of the two quantities is constant. Therefore, instead of setting
ratios equal, we set products equal.

Example 5:

20

In many word problems, as one quantity increases (decreases), another quantity decreases (increases). This
type of problem can be solved by setting up a product of terms.
If 7 workers can assemble a car in 8 hours, how long would it take 12 workers to assemble
the same car?

(B) 3 1 2 hrs (C) 4 2 3 hrs (D) 5hrs


(E) 6 1 3 hrs
As the number of workers increases, the amount time required to assemble the car decreases. Hence, we
set the products of the terms equal. Let x be the time it takes the 12 workers to assemble the car. Forming
the equation yields
7 8 = 12 x
56
=x
12
4 23 = x

IA

LS

(A) 3hrs

TO

The answer is (C).

To summarize: if one quantity increases (decreases) as another quantity also increases (decreases), set
ratios equal. If one quantity increases (decreases) as another quantity decreases (increases), set products
equal.

PS
C

TU

The concept of proportion can be generalized to three or more ratios. A, B, and C are in the ratio 3:4:5
A 3 A 3
B 4
means = ,
= , and
= .
B 4 C 5
C 5
Example 6: In the figure to the right, the angles A, B, C of
B
the triangle are in the ratio 5:12:13. What is
the measure of angle A?
(A) 15
(B) 27
A
C
(C) 30
(D) 34
(E) 40

Since the angle sum of a triangle is 180, A + B + C = 180. Forming two of the ratios yields
A 5
A 5
=
=
B 12
C 13
12
Solving the first equation for B yields
B=
A
5
13
Solving the second equation for C yields
C=
A
5
12
13
Hence, 180 = A + B + C = A +
A + A = 6A . Therefore, 180 = 6A, or A = 30. The answer is choice (C).
5
5

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Problem Set M
 Easy
At Stephen Stores, 3 pounds of cashews costs $8. What is cost in cents of a bag weighing 9 ounces?
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

30
60
90
120
150

15

1.

 Medium
In the figure, what is the value of y if x : y = 2 : 3 ?
16
32
48
54
72

20

(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

LS

2.

IA

y
x

TO

In the figure, ABCD is a rectangle and points E, F, G and H are midpoints of its sides. What is the
ratio of the area of the shaded region to the area of the un-shaded region in the rectangle?
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

1:1
1:2
2:1
1:3
3:1

PS
C

TU

3.

4.

A certain recipe requires 3/2 cups of sugar and makes 2-dozen cookies. How many cups of sugar
would be required for the same recipe to make 30 cookies?

(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

8/15
5/6
6/5
10/7
15/8

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Answers and Solutions to Problem Set M


 Easy
1. This problem can be solved by setting up a proportion. Note that 1 pound has 16 ounces, so 3 pounds
has 48 (= 3  16) ounces. Now, the proportion, in cents to ounces, is
800 cents
=
48
9

cents = 9 

15

or
800
= 150
48

20

The answer is (E).


 Medium

LS

2. We know that the angle made by a line is 180. Applying this to line m yields x + y + 90 = 180.
Subtracting 90 from both sides of this equation yields x + y = 90. We are also given that x : y = 2 : 3.
Hence, x/y = 2/3. Multiplying this equation by y yields x = 2y/3. Plugging this into the equation x + y = 90
yields

The answer is (D).

IA

2y/3 + y = 90
5y/3 = 90
5y = 270
y = 54

TO

3. Joining the midpoints of the opposite sides of the rectangle ABCD yields the following figure:
A

PS
C

G
D

TU

In the given figure, the bigger rectangle ABCD contains four small rectangles, each one divided by a
diagonal. Since diagonals cut a rectangle into two triangles of equal area, in each of the small rectangles,
the regions to either side (shaded and un-shaded) have equal area. Hence, even in the bigger rectangle, the
area of the shaded and un-shaded regions are equal, so the required ratio is 1 : 1. The answer is (A).

4. This problem can be solved by setting up a proportion between the number of cookies and the number of
cups of sugar required to make the corresponding number of cookies. Since there are 12 items in a dozen,
2-dozen cookies is 2  12 = 24 cookies. Since 3/2 cups are required to make the 24 cookies, we have the
proportion
24 cookies 30 cookies
=
3/2 cookies
x cups
24x = 30  3/2 = 45
x = 45/24 = 15/8

by cross-multiplying

The answer is (E).

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Exponents & Roots

15

EXPONENTS

20

Exponents afford a convenient way of expressing long products of the same number. The expression b n is
called a power and it stands for b  b  bLb , where there are n factors of b. b is called the base, and n
is called the exponent. By definition, b 0 = 1.
There are six rules that govern the behavior of exponents:
Rule 1: x a  x b = x a +b

Example, 2 3 2 2 = 2 3+2 = 25 = 32 . Caution, x a + x b  x a+ b

Rule 2:

(x )

= x ab

Example, 23

Rule 3:

( xy )a

= x a  ya

Example, ( 2y ) = 2 3  y 3 = 8y 3

1
xa

IA

2
x2 x2
 x
Example,   = 2 =
 3
3
9

26
= 2 63 = 2 3 = 8
23
23
1
1
1
Example, 6 = 63 = 3 =
2
2
2
8

xa
= x a b , if a > b.
xb
xa
1
=
, if b > a.
x b x b a

Example,

1
Caution, a negative exponent does not make
z3
the number negative; it merely indicates that the base should be
1
1
reciprocated. For example, 32   2 or  .
3
9
Example, z3 =

TU

Rule 6: x  a =

= 23 2 = 2 6 = 64

 x
xa
Rule 4:   = a
y
 y
Rule 5:

LS

( )

TO

a b

PS
C

Problems involving these six rules are common on the test, and they are often listed as hard problems.
However, the process of solving these problems is quite mechanical: simply apply the six rules until they
can no longer be applied.
Example 1:

If x  0,

( )

x x5
x4

(A) x 5

( )

First, apply the rule x

a b

(B) x 6

=x

ab

(C) x 7

to the expression

Next, apply the rule x a  x b = x a +b :

(D) x 8

( )

x x5
x4

(E) x 9

x  x 52 x  x 10
=
x4
x4
x  x10
x11
=
x4
x4

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RATIONALIZING
A fraction is not considered simplified until all the radicals have been removed from the denominator. If a
denominator contains a single term with a square root, it can be rationalized by multiplying both the
numerator and denominator by that square root. If the denominator contains square roots separated by a
plus or minus sign, then multiply both the numerator and denominator by the conjugate, which is formed by
merely changing the sign between the roots.
2
3 5

Multiply top and bottom of the fraction by

Example:

Rationalize the fraction

.
2

5:

3 5

5
5

2 5
3 25

2
.
3 5

Multiply top and bottom of the fraction by the conjugate 3+ 5 :

( 5)

2 3+ 5
9 5

 Easy

If n equals 105 + (2  103) + 106, then the number of zeros in the number n is
2
3
4
5
6

( )
(x )

x x2
If x is not equal to 0,
8/9
1
9/8
2
x

3 3

PS
C

(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

TO

(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

2.

TU

1.

) = 2(3+ 5) = 3+

IA

Problem Set N:

2 5 2 5
=
3 5
15

LS

2 3+ 5
2
3+ 5

=
3 5 3+ 5 32 + 3 5  3 5 

15

Rationalize the fraction

20

Example:

 Medium

U
3.

 1 x  y
If xy = 1 and x is not equal to y, then  7 xy 
=




(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

1
72
1/7
1
7
72

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If x = 10 1.4 , y = 100.7 , and xz = y3, then what is the value of z ?


(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

A perfect square is a positive integer which when square rooted results in an integer. If N = 3 4  5 3  7,
then what is the biggest perfect square that is a factor of N ?

32
, then which one of the following equals p 4?
2 +1

If p =
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

3 2
3 +2
2
2 2 +
2 2 +

6
6

20

6.

15

32
52
92
(9  5)2
(3  5  7) 2

(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

LS

5.

0.5
0.66
1.5
2
3

3 2
3 +2

IA

4.

 Hard

If p = 2161/3 + 243 2/5 + 256 1/4 , then which one of the following is an integer?
(A) p/19
(B) p/36
(C) p
(D) 19/p
(E) 36/p

8.

If x/a = 4, a/y = 6, a2 = 9, and ab2 = 8, then x + 2y =


(A) 2
(B) 5
(C) 10
(D) 13
(E) 15

9.

PS
C

TU

TO

7.

(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

6+ 2

6 2

)  2+

3
=
2 3

6 2
6+ 2

8
12

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15

Factoring

20

To factor an algebraic expression is to rewrite it as a product of two or more expressions, called factors.
In general, any expression that can be factored should be factored, and any expression that can be
unfactored (multiplied out) should be unfactored.
DISTRIBUTIVE RULE

ax + ay = a(x + y)

LS

The most basic type of factoring involves the distributive rule:

IA

When this rule is applied from left to right, it is called factoring. When the rule is applied from right to left,
it is called distributing.

Example 1:

TO

For example, 3h + 3k = 3(h + k), and 5xy + 45x = 5xy + 9 5x = 5x ( y + 9) . The distributive rule can be
generalized to any number of terms. For three terms, it looks like ax + ay + az = a(x + y + z). For example,
2x + 4y + 8 = 2x + 2 2y + 2  4 = 2( x + 2y + 4 ) . For another example, x 2 y 2 + xy3 + y 5 = y 2 x 2 + xy + y 3 .

y 
x

If x y = 9, then  x     y   =

3 
3
(B) 3

(C) 0

(D) 12

(E) 27

TU

(A) 4

y 

x    y 

3 

y
x
y+ =
3
3

by distributing the negative sign

4
4
x y=
3
3

by combining the fractions

4
(x  y) =
3

by factoring out the common factor

PS
C

x

x
=
3

4
(9 ) =
3

4
3

since x y = 9

12
The answer is (D).

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Example 2:

2 2 0  21 9
=
211
(A) 2 9  21 9

(B)

1
211

(C) 2 8

(D) 2 1 0

(E) 2 2 8

2 20  219 219 +1  219


=
=
211
211
219  21  219
=
211
219 ( 2  1)
=
211

15

by the rule x a  x b = x a +b

20

by the distributive property ax + ay = a(x + y)

219
=
211
by the rule

IA

The answer is (C).

xa
= x a b
xb

LS

28

DIFFERENCE OF SQUARES

One of the most important formulas is the difference of squares:

TO

x2  y2 = ( x + y)( x  y)

Caution: a sum of squares, x 2 + y 2 , does not factor.


8x 2  32
=
4x + 8

TU

Example 3:

If x  2, then
(A) 2(x 2)

(B) 2(x 4)

(C) 8(x + 2)

(D) x 2

(E) x + 4

PS
C

In most algebraic expressions involving multiplication or division, you wont actually multiply or divide,
rather you will factor and cancel, as in this problem.
8x 2  32
=
4x + 8

)=

8 x2  4

4( x + 2)

8( x + 2)( x  2 )
=
4( x + 2)
2(x 2)

by the distributive property ax + ay = a(x + y)


by the difference of squares x 2  y 2 = ( x + y )( x  y )
by canceling common factors

The answer is (A).

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PERFECT SQUARE TRINOMIALS


Like the difference of squares formula, perfect square trinomial formulas are very important.

x2 + 2xy + y2 = ( x + y)

x2  2xy + y2 = ( x  y)

For example, x 2 + 6x + 9 = x 2 + 2(3x ) + 32 = ( x + 3)2 . Note, in a perfect square trinomial, the middle term
is twice the product of the square roots of the outer terms.
If r 2  2rs + s 2 = 4 , then ( r  s) =
(A) 4

(B) 4

(C) 8

(D) 16

(E) 64

r  2rs + s = 4
2

by the formula x 2  2xy + y 2 = ( x  y )

( r  s) 2 = 4

[( r  s) ]

2 3

= 43

by cubing both sides of the equation

( )

( r  s) 6 = 64

by the rule x a

= x ab

IA

The answer is (E).

LS

15

20

Example 4:

GENERAL TRINOMIALS

TO

x2 + ( a + b)x + ab = ( x + a)( x + b)

Example 5:

TU

The expression x 2 + ( a + b) x + ab tells us that we need two numbers whose product is the last term and
whose sum is the coefficient of the middle term. Consider the trinomial x 2 + 5x + 6 . Now, two factors of
6 are 1 and 6, but 1 + 6  5. However, 2 and 3 are also factors of 6, and 2 + 3 = 5. Hence, x 2 + 5x + 6 =
( x + 2) ( x + 3) .
Which of the following could be a solution of the equation x 2  7x  18 = 0 ?
(A) 1

(B) 0

(C) 2

(D) 7

(E) 9

PS
C

Now, both 2 and 9 are factors of 18, and 2 + (9) = 7. Hence, x 2  7x  18 = ( x + 2) ( x  9 ) = 0 . Setting
each factor equal to zero yields x + 2 = 0 and x 9 = 0. Solving these equations yields x = 2 and 9. The
answer is (E).
COMPLETE FACTORING

When factoring an expression, first check for a common factor, then check for a difference of squares, then
for a perfect square trinomial, and then for a general trinomial.
Example 6:

Factor the expression 2x 3  2x 2 12x completely.

Solution: First check for a common factor: 2x is common to each term. Factoring 2x out of each term
yields 2x x 2  x  6 . Next, there is no difference of squares, and x 2  x  6 is not a perfect square trino-

mial since x does not equal twice the product of the square roots of x 2 and 6. Now, 3 and 2 are factors of
6 whose sum is 1. Hence, 2x x 2  x  6 factors into 2x(x 3)(x + 2).

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15

Algebraic Expressions

20

A mathematical expression that contains a variable is called an algebraic expression. Some examples of
1
algebraic expressions are x 2 , 3x 2y, 2z( y 3  2 ). Two algebraic expressions are called like terms if both
z
the variable parts and the exponents are identical. That is, the only parts of the expressions that can differ
3
are the coefficients. For example, 5y 3 and y 3 are like terms, as are x + y 2 and 7 x + y 2 . However,
2
x 3 and y 3 are not like terms, nor are x y and 2 y.

LS

ADDING & SUBTRACTING ALGEBRAIC EXPRESSIONS

IA

Only like terms may be added or subtracted. To add or subtract like terms, merely add or subtract their
coefficients:

2 x  5 x = (2  5) x = 3 x
2

1

 = (.5 +. 2)  x +
y


1

1
 =. 7 x + 
y
y


TO


1

.5  x +  +.2  x +
y




x 2 + 3x 2 = (1 + 3)x 2 = 4x 2

TU

( 3x 3 + 7x 2 + 2x + 4) + (2x 2  2x  6 ) = 3x 3 + ( 7+ 2 ) x 2 + ( 2  2 ) x + ( 4  6) = 3x 3 + 9x 2  2
You may add or multiply algebraic expressions in any order. This is called the commutative property:
x+y=y+x

PS
C

xy = yx

For example, 2x + 5x = 5x + (2x) = (5 2)x = 3x and (x y)(3) = (3)(x y) = (3)x (3)y = 3x + 3y.
Caution: the commutative property does not apply to division or subtraction: 2 = 6 3  3 6 =
1 = 2  3  3 2 = 1 .

1
and
2

When adding or multiplying algebraic expressions, you may regroup the terms. This is called the
associative property:
x + (y + z) = (x + y) + z
x(yz) = (xy)z
Notice in these formulas that the variables have not been moved, only the way they are grouped has
changed: on the left side of the formulas the last two variables are grouped together, and on the right side of
the formulas the first two variables are grouped together.

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15

Percents

20

Problems involving percent are common on the test. The word percent means divided by one hundred.
1
When you see the word percent, or the symbol %, remember it means
. For example,
100
25 percent

1
1
=
100 4
To convert a decimal into a percent, move the decimal point two places to the right. For example,

IA

0.25 = 25%
0.023 = 2.3%
1.3 = 130%

LS

25 

Conversely, to convert a percent into a decimal, move the decimal point two places to the left. For
example,

TO

47% = .47
3.4% = .034
175% = 1.75

To convert a fraction into a percent, first change it into a decimal (by dividing the denominator [bottom]
into the numerator [top]) and then move the decimal point two places to the right. For example,

TU

7
= 0.875 = 87. 5%
8

PS
C

Conversely, to convert a percent into a fraction, first change it into a decimal and then change the decimal
into a fraction. For example,
80% =. 80 =

80
4
=
100 5

Following are the most common fractional equivalents of percents:


1
1
33 % =
3
3
1
2
66 % =
3
3
1
25% =
4
1
50% =
2

1
5
2
40% =
5
3
60% =
5
4
80% =
5
20% =

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Percent problems often require you to translate a sentence into a mathematical equation.

Example 1:

What percent of 25 is 5?
(A) 10%
(B) 20%

(C) 30%

(D) 35%

Translate the sentence into a mathematical equation as follows:


What
percent of 25 is

(C) 20

(D) 24

(E) 32

IA

2 is 10% of what number


(A) 10
(B) 12

LS

The answer is (B).


Example 2:

  

1
. 25
100
25
x =5
100
1
x =5
4
x = 20

20

(E) 40%

15

Note!

1
100

TO

Translate the sentence into a mathematical equation as follows:


2
is 10
%
of
what number

10

10
x
100
1
2=
x
10
20 = x

PS
C

The answer is (C).

TU

2=

Example 3:

What percent of a is 3a ?
(A) 100%
(B) 150%

(C) 200%

(D) 300%

(E) 350%

Translate the sentence into a mathematical equation as follows:


What
percent of a is 3a


x

  

1
.
a = 3a
100
x
 a = 3a
100
x
= 3 (by canceling the as)
100
x = 300

The answer is (D).

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Example 4:

If there are 15 boys and 25 girls in a class, what percent of the class is boys?
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

10%
15%
18%
25%
37.5%

percent

of

the class

is

boys

1
100

40

15

Often you will need to find the percent of increase (or decrease). To find it, calculate the
increase (or decrease) and divide it by the original amount:
Percent of change:

The population of a town was 12,000 in 1980 and 16,000 in 1990. What was the percent
increase in the population of the town during this period?
(A)

1
33 %
3
50%
75%
80%
120%

PS
C

(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

TU

Example 5:

Amount of change
100%
Original amount

TO

Note!

IA

The answer is (E).

LS

40
x = 15
100
2
x = 15
5
2x = 75
x = 37.5

20

what

15

The total number of students in the class is 15 + 25 = 40. Now, translate the main part of the sentence into
a mathematical equation:

The population increased from 12,000 to 16,000. Hence, the change in population was 4,000. Now, translate the main part of the sentence into a mathematical equation:

Percent of change:

Amount of change
100% =
Original amount
4000
 100% =
12000
1
 100% =
(by canceling 4000)
3
1
33 %
3

The answer is (A).

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The value of a share of stock was $30 on Sunday. The profile of the value in the following week was
as follows: The value appreciated by $1.2 on Monday. It appreciated by $3.1 on Tuesday. It
depreciated by $4 on Wednesday. It appreciated by $2 on Thursday and it depreciated by $0.2 on
Friday. On Friday, the stock market closed for the weekend. By what percentage did the value of the
share increase in the five days?

The cost of painting a wall increases by a fixed percentage each year. In 1970, the cost was $2,000;
and in 1979, it was $3,600. What was the cost of painting in 1988?

16.

$1,111
$2,111
$3,600
$6240
$6480

IA

(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

15.

x=y
x = 2y
x = 4y
y = 2x
y = 4x

LS

(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

20

The percentage of integers from 1 through 100 whose squares end with the digit 1 is x%, and the
percentage of integers from 1 through 200 whose squares end with the digit 1 is y%. Which one of the
following is true?

The list price of a commodity is the price after a 20% discount on the retail price. The festival
discount price on the commodity is the price after a 30% discount on the list price. Customers
purchase commodities from stores at a festival discount price. What is the effective discount offered
by the stores on the commodity on its retail price?
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

20%
30%
44%
50%
56%

TO

14.

3.2%
4%
5.6%
7%
10%

15

(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

TU

13.

PS
C

 Very Hard
17.

Each year, funds A and B grow by a particular percentage based on the following policy of the
investment company:

1)
2)
3)

The allowed percentages of growths on the two funds are 20% and 30%.
The growth percentages of the two funds are not the same in any year.
No fund will have the same percentage growth in any two consecutive years.

Bob invested equal amounts into funds A and B. In the first year, fund B grew by 30%. After 3 years,
how many times greater is the value of fund B than the value of the fund A?
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

12/13
1
13/12
1.2
1.3

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16. Let r be the retail price. The list price is the price after a 20% discount on the retail price. Hence, it
equals r(1 20/100) = r(1 0.2) = 0.8r.
The festival discount price is the price after a 30% discount on the list price. Hence, the festival discount
price equals (list price)(1 30/100) = (0.8r)(1 30/100) = (0.8r)(1 0.3) = (0.8r)(0.7) = 0.56r.
Hence, the total discount offered is (Original Price Price after discount)/Original Price  100 =
(r 0.56r)/ r  100 = 0.44  100 = 44%.
The answer is (C).

15

 Very Hard

20

17. Let the investment in each fund be x.

In the first year, fund B was given a growth of 30%. Hence, the increased value of the fund equals
(1 + 30/100)x = 1.3x.

LS

According to clauses (1) and (2), fund A must have grown by 20% (the other allowed growth percentage
clause (1)). Hence, the increased value of the fund equals (1 + 20/100)x = 1.2x.

IA

In the second year, according to clauses (1) and (3), the growth percentages of the two funds will swap
between the only allowed values 30% and 20% (clause (1)). Hence, fund A grows by 30% and fund B
grows by 20%. Hence, the increased value of fund A equals (1 + 30/100)(1.2x) = (1.3)(1.2)x, and the
increased value of the fund B equals (1 + 20/100)(1.3x) = (1.2)(1.3)x.

TO

Again in the third year, according to clauses (1) and (3), the growth percents will again swap between the
only two allowed values 20% and 30% (clause (1)). Hence, fund A grows by 20% and fund B grows by
30%. So, the increased values of the fund A should equal (1 + 20/100)(1.3x)(1.2x) = (1.2)(1.3)(1.2)x and
the increased value of the fund B should equal (1 + 30/100)(1.2x)(1.3x) = (1.3)(1.2)(1.3)x. Hence, the value
(1.3)(1.2)(1.3) x = 1.3 = 13 . The answer is (C).
of the fund B is
(1.2)(1.3)(1.2) x 1.2 12

TU

18. Let c be the cost of each candy. Then the cost of 12 candies is 12c. We are given that selling 12 candies
cost - selling price
at $10 yields a loss of a%. The formula for the loss percentage is
100. Hence,
cost
12c  10
a=
100. Let this be equation (1).
12c

PS
C

We are also given that selling 12 candies at $12 yields a profit of a%. The formula for profit percent is
selling price - cost
12  12c
100. Hence, we have
100 = a%. Let this be equation (2).
cost
12c
Equating equations (1) and (2), we have

12  12c
12c  10
100 =
100
12c
12c
12 12c = 12c 10
24c = 22
c = 22/24

by canceling 12c and 100 from both sides

From equation (1), we have

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Graphs

15

Questions involving graphs are common on the test. Rarely do these questions involve any significant
calculating. Usually, the solution is merely a matter of interpreting the graph.

20

Questions 1-4 refer to the following graphs.

12
10

IA

100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0

LS

SALES AND EARNINGS OF CONSOLIDATED CONGLOMERATE


Sales
Earnings
(in millions of dollars)
(in millions of dollars)

86

87

88

89

2
0
85

90

TU

85

TO

86

87

88

89

90

Note: Figure drawn to scale.

1.

During which year was the companys earnings 10 percent of its sales?
(B) 86

PS
C

(A) 85

(C) 87

(D) 88

(E) 90

Reading from the graph, we see that in 1985 the companys earnings were $8 million and its sales were $80
million. This gives
8
1
10
=
=
= 10%
10 10 100

The answer is (A).


2.

During the years 1986 through 1988, what were the average earnings per year?

(A) 6 million
(B) 7.5 million
The graph yields the following information:
Year
1986
1987
1988

(C) 9 million

(D) 10 million

(E) 27 million

Earnings
$5 million
$10 million
$12 million

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Forming the average yields


3.

5+ 10 + 12 27
=
= 9. The answer is (C).
3
3

In which year did sales increase by the greatest percentage over the previous year?
(A) 86

(B) 87

(C) 88

(D) 89

(E) 90

Year

Percentage increase
70  80 10 1
=
=
= 12.5%
80
80
8
50  70 20 2
=
=
 29%
70
70
7
80  50 30 3
=
= = 60%
50
50 5
90  80 10 1
=
= = 12.5%
80
80 8
100  90 10 1
=
=  11%
90
90 9

86

20

87

15

To find the percentage increase (or decrease), divide the numerical change by the original amount. This
yields

88

LS

89
90

(A) None

(B) One

(C) Two

If Consolidated Conglomerates earnings are less than or equal to 10 percent of sales during a year,
then the stockholders must take a dividend cut at the end of the year. In how many years did the
stockholders of Consolidated Conglomerate suffer a dividend cut?
(D) Three

TO

4.

IA

The largest number in the right-hand column, 60%, corresponds to the year 1988. The answer is (C).

(E) Four

Calculating 10 percent of the sales for each year yields

PS
C

TU

Year
85
86
87
88
89
90

10% of Sales (millions)


.10  80 = 8
.10  70 = 7
.10  50 = 5
.10  80 = 8
.10  90 = 9
.10  100 = 10

Earnings (millions)
8
5
10
12
11
8

Comparing the right columns shows that earnings were 10 percent or less of sales in 1985, 1986, and 1990.
The answer is (D).

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Problem Set R:

Monthly
earnings in
dollars

1000
700

|
Feb

|
Mar

|
|
Apr May

|
Jun

|
|
|
Jul Aug Sep

|
|
|
Oct Nov Dec

|
Jan

20

|
Jan

15

400

As income profile during the year 2007

LS

1000

IA

Monthly
earnings in
dollars

|
Feb

|
Mar

|
|
Apr May

TO

|
Jan

400

|
Jun

|
|
|
Jul Aug Sep

|
|
|
Oct Nov Dec

|
Jan

Bs income profile during the year 2007

TU

 Medium
1.
A launched 3 products in the year 2007 and earns income from the sales of the products only. The top
graph shows his monthly earnings for the year. B's earnings consist of continuously growing salary,
growing by same amount each month as shown in the figure. Which one of the following equals the
total earnings of A and B in the year 2007?
7500, 8100
7850, 8300
8150, 8400
8400, 8100
8400, 8700

PS
C

(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

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Questions 24 refer to the following graph.

IA

LS

20

15

The graph below shows historical exchange rates between the Indian Rupee (INR) and the US Dollar
(USD) between January 9 and February 8 of a particular year.

Jan. 10
Jan. 14
Jan. 21
Jan. 23
Feb. 4

TO

(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

 Easy
2.
On which day shown on the graph did the value of the US dollar increase against the Rupee by the
greatest amount?

5
10
15
25
50

PS
C

(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

TU

 Medium
3.
John had 100 dollars. The exchange rate converts the amount in US dollars to a number in Indian
Rupees by directly multiplying by the value of the exchange rate. By what amount did Johns $100
increase in terms of Indian Rupees from Jan. 9 to Feb. 8?

 Hard
4.
On February 8, the dollar value was approximately what percent of the dollar value on January 9?
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

1.28
12. 8
101.28
112. 8
128

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Questions 1115 refer to the following discussion.


The graphs below provide data on a common entrance examination conducted in different years.
Number of Questions

50
40

15

30
20
10
0
CEE
2000

CEE
2001

CEE
2002

CEE
2003

CEE
2004

20

Number of Questions

60

CEE
2005

CEE
2006

LS

Exam

IA

Time Per Question (in seconds)

50

40
30

TO

The Average time Per


Question (in seconds)

60

20
10
0

Exam

PS
C

TU

CEE
2000

CEE
2001

CEE
2002

CEE
2003

CEE
2004

CEE
2005

CEE
2006

10

12

Exam

CEE Exam Difficulty Level


CEE 2006
CEE 2005
CEE 2004
CEE 2003
CEE 2002
CEE 2001
CEE 2000
0

'D' level (Difficulty level)-out of 10. CEE 2000 is taken as baseThe most difficult of All Exams.

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 Easy
11. Which year had the second most difficult exam?
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

2000
2001
2002
2004
2006

15

Refer to the graph CEE Exam Difficulty Level. The graph starts at 0 for each exam and ends at 10 for the
most difficult exam, CEE 2000. So, the difficulty actually increases with D-level value. The second
highest value corresponds to the Exam CEE 2001. The answer is (B).

11
22
27
33
37

LS

(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

20

 Medium
12. By approximately what percent did the number of questions decrease from CEE 2000 to CEE 2006?

IA

From the graph, the number of questions in CEE 2000 is 55. The number in CEE 2006 is 40. Hence, the
55 40
15
3
percent drop is
 100 =
 100 =  100 = 27.27 . Since the nearest choice is (C), the answer is
55
55
11
(C).

2000
2001
2002
2004
2006

TO

(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

 Medium
13. In which year were the test takers given the least time to answer all the questions?

TU

The time given can be evaluated as (Number of Questions)  (Time Per Question).
Both the number of questions and the time given per question are the least in 2006. Hence, their product
should be minimum in that year.

PS
C

Hence, the total time given is the least in 2006. The answer is (E).
 Medium
14. If the Pressure Factor for the examinees in an exam is defined as Difficulty level divided by Average
Time (in minutes) given per question, then the Pressure Factor equals which one of the following in
CEE 2006?

(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

7.5
10
12.5
15
17.5

The Pressure Factor in 2006 equals Difficulty level divided by Average Time given per question = 5/40
seconds or 5/(2/3 minutes) = 15/2 per minute. The answer is (A).

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MOTION PROBLEMS
Virtually, all motion problems involve the formula Distance = Rate  Time, or
D=RT
Overtake: In this type of problem, one person catches up with or overtakes another person. The key to
these problems is that at the moment one person overtakes the other they have traveled the same distance.

(A) 2

1
5

(B) 3

1
3

(C) 4

(E) 6

(D) 6

2
3

15

Scott starts jogging from point X to point Y. A half-hour later his friend Garrett who jogs 1
mile per hour slower than twice Scotts rate starts from the same point and follows the same
path. If Garrett overtakes Scott in 2 hours, how many miles will Garrett have covered?

20

Example:

D = (2r 1)2 = 4r 2

Solving this equation for r gives

r=

4
3

4r  2 = r  2

1
2

IA

Setting these expressions equal to each other gives

and Garretts distance is

LS

Following Guideline 1, we let r = Scott's rate. Then 2r 1 = Garrett's rate. Turning to Guideline 2, we
look for two quantities that are equal to each other. When Garrett overtakes Scott, they will have traveled
1
the same distance. Now, from the formula D = R  T , Scotts distance is D = r  2
2

TO

1
4
Hence, Garrett will have traveled D = 4r  2 = 4   2 = 3 miles. The answer is (B).
 3
3

Two people start jogging at the same point and time but in opposite directions. If the rate of
one jogger is 2 mph faster than the other and after 3 hours they are 30 miles apart, what is
the rate of the faster jogger?
(A) 3
(B) 4
(C) 5
(D) 6
(E) 7

PS
C

Example:

TU

Opposite Directions: In this type of problem, two people start at the same point and travel in opposite
directions. The key to these problems is that the total distance traveled is the sum of the individual
distances traveled.

Let r be the rate of the slower jogger. Then the rate of the faster jogger is r + 2. Since they are jogging for
3 hours, the distance traveled by the slower jogger is D = rt = 3r, and the distance traveled by the faster
jogger is 3(r + 2). Since they are 30 miles apart, adding the distances traveled gives
3r + 3(r + 2) = 30
3r + 3r + 6 = 30
6r + 6 = 30
6r = 24
r=4
Hence, the rate of the faster jogger is r + 2 = 4 + 2 = 6. The answer is (D).

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Round Trip: The key to these problems is that the distance going is the same as the distance returning.
Example:

A cyclist travels 20 miles at a speed of 15 miles per hour. If he returns along the same path
and the entire trip takes 2 hours, at what speed did he return?
(B) 20 mph

(C) 22 mph

(D) 30 mph

(E) 34 mph
D
20 4
Solving the formula D = R  T for T yields T = . For the first half of the trip, this yields T =
=
R
15 3
2
4
hours. Since the entire trip takes 2 hours, the return trip takes 2  hours, or
hours. Now, the return
3
3
D 20
3
= 20  = 30 . The answer
trip is also 20 miles, so solving the formula D = R  T for R yields R = =
T 2
2
3
is (D).

20

15

(A) 15 mph

Compass Headings: In this type of problem, typically two people are traveling in perpendicular
directions. The key to these problems is often the Pythagorean Theorem.

+ (100 + 2y )

IA

( 4 x)

(A)
(B)
(C)

LS

At 1 PM, Ship A leaves port heading due west at x miles per hour. Two hours later, Ship B
is 100 miles due south of the same port and heading due north at y miles per hour. At
5PM, how far apart are the ships?

x+y

(D)

( 4 x)

+ ( 2y )

(E)

( 4 x)

+ (100  2y )

2
2

x2 + y2

TO

Example:

Since Ship A is traveling at x miles per hour, its distance traveled at 5 PM is D = rt = 4x. The distance
traveled by Ship B is D = rt = 2y. This can be represented by the following diagram:

TU

4x

PS
C

Port
100 2y

2y

Distance traveled by Ship B


between 3 PM and 5 PM.

Applying the Pythagorean Theorem yields s 2 = ( 4x ) 2 + (100  2y ) . Taking the square root of this

( 4 x)

+ (100  2y ) . The answer is (E).


2

equation gives s =

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John has $42. He purchased fifty mangoes and thirty oranges with the whole amount. He then chose
to return six mangoes for nine oranges as both quantities are equally priced. What is the price of each
Mango?
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

16.

2x/5 + 3y/5
x/2 + y/2
5(x + y)
5x/2 + 5y/2
3x/5 + 2y/5

Hose A can fill a tank in 5 minutes, and Hose B can fill the same tank in 6 minutes. How many tanks
would Hose B fill in the time Hose A fills 6 tanks?
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

3
4
5
5.5
6

 Very Hard

How many coins of 0.5 dollars each and 0.7 dollars each together make exactly 4.6 dollars?

PS
C

17.

IA

(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

LS

Mr. Smith's average annual income in each of the years 1966 and 1967 is x dollars. His average
annual income in each of the years 1968, 1969, and 1970 is y dollars. What is his average annual
income in the five continuous years 1966 through 1970?

15.

0.33
0.44
0.55
44
55

20

(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

15

In a market, a dozen eggs cost as much as a pound of rice, and a half-liter of kerosene costs as much
as 8 eggs. If the cost of each pound of rice is $0.33, then how many cents does a liter of kerosene
cost? [One dollar has 100 cents.]

TO

14.

0.4
0.45
0.5
0.55
0.6

TU

13.

(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

18.

1, 6
2, 7
3, 5
4, 3
5, 3

A piece of string 35 inches long is cut into three smaller pieces along the length of the string. The
length of the longest piece is three times the length of the shortest piece. Which one of the following
could equal the length of the medium-size piece?

(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

5
7
10
16
20

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15

Sequences & Series


SEQUENCES

20

A sequence is an ordered list of numbers. The following is a sequence of odd numbers:


1, 3, 5, 7, . . .

LS

A term of a sequence is identified by its position in the sequence. In the above sequence, 1 is the first term,
3 is the second term, etc. The ellipsis symbol (. . .) indicates that the sequence continues forever.
Example 1: In sequence S, the 3rd term is 4, the 2nd term is three times the 1st, and the 3rd term is four
times the 2nd. What is the 1st term in sequence S?
(B) 1/3

(C) 1

(D) 3/2

IA

(A) 0

(E) 4

The answer is (B).

1
, 1, 4
3

TU

TO

We know the 3rd term of S is 4, and that the 3rd term is four times the 2nd. This is equivalent to
1
saying the 2nd term is 1/4 the 3rd term:  4 = 1. Further, we know the 2nd term is three times the 1st.
4
1
1
1
This is equivalent to saying the 1st term is the 2nd term: 1 = . Hence, the first term of the sequence
3
3
3
is fully determined:

PS
C

Example 2: Except for the first two numbers, every number in the sequence 1, 3, 3, . . . is the product
of the two immediately preceding numbers. How many numbers of this sequence are odd?
(A) one

(B) two

(C) three

(D) four

(E) more than four

Since every number in the sequence 1, 3, 3, . . . is the product of the two immediately preceding
numbers, the forth term of the sequence is 9 = 3(3). The first 6 terms of this sequence are
1, 3, 3, 9, 27, 243, . . .

At least six numbers in this sequence are odd: 1, 3, 3, 9, 27, 243. The answer is (E).
Arithmetic Progressions

An arithmetic progression is a sequence in which the difference between any two consecutive terms is the
same. This is the same as saying: each term exceeds the previous term by a fixed amount. For example,
0, 6, 12, 18, . . . is an arithmetic progression in which the common difference is 6. The sequence
8, 4, 0, 4, . . . is arithmetic with a common difference of 4.

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Example 3: The seventh number in a sequence of numbers is 31 and each number after the first number
in the sequence is 4 less than the number immediately preceding it. What is the fourth number in the sequence?
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

15
19
35
43
51

15

Since each number in the sequence is 4 less than the number immediately preceding it, the sixth term is
31 + 4 = 35; the fifth number in the sequence is 35 + 4 = 39; and the fourth number in the sequence is
39+4 = 43. The answer is (D). Following is the sequence written out:

20

55, 51, 47, 43, 39, 35, 31, 27, 23, 19, 15, 11, . . .
Advanced concepts: (Sequence Formulas)

LS

Students with strong backgrounds in mathematics may prefer to solve sequence problems
by using formulas.
Since each term of an arithmetic progression exceeds the previous term by a fixed amount, we get
the following:
a + 0d
a + 1d
a + 2d
a + 3d
...

where a is the first term and d is the common difference

nth term

a + (n 1)d

This formula generates the nth term

TO

IA

first term
second term
third term
fourth term

TU

The sum of the first n terms of an arithmetic sequence is


n
[2a + (n  1)d ]
2

PS
C

Geometric Progressions
A geometric progression is a sequence in which the ratio of any two consecutive terms is the same. Thus,
each term is generated by multiplying the preceding term by a fixed number. For example, 3, 6, 12, 24, .
. . is a geometric progression in which the common ratio is 2. The sequence 32, 16, 8, 4, . . . is geometric
with common ratio 1/2.

Example 4: What is the sixth term of the sequence 90, 30, 10, 10/3, . . . ?
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

1/3
0
10/27
3
100/3

Since the common ratio between any two consecutive terms is 


Hence, the sixth number in the sequence is 

1
10  1   10 
, the fifth term is
=     .
3
9  3  3 

10  1   10 
=       . The answer is (C).
27  3   9 

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15

Counting

20

Counting may have been one of humankinds first thought processes; nevertheless, counting can be
deceptively hard. In part, because we often forget some of the principles of counting, but also because
counting can be inherently difficult.

History

Solution:

20

TO

10

Math

IA

If in a certain school 20 students are taking math and 10 are taking history and 7 are taking
both, how many students are taking either math or history?
(A) 20
(B) 22
(C) 23
(D) 25
(E) 29

Example 1:

LS

When counting elements that are in overlapping sets, the total number will equal the
number in one group plus the number in the other group minus the number common to
both groups. Venn diagrams are very helpful with these problems.

Note!

Both History and Math

The number of integers between two integers inclusive is one more than their difference.

PS
C

Note!

TU

By the principle stated above, we add 10 and 20 and then subtract 7 from the result. Thus, there are
(10 + 20) 7 = 23 students. The answer is (C).

Example 2:

How many integers are there between 49 and 101, inclusive?


(A) 50
(B) 51
(C) 52
(D) 53
(E) 54

By the principle stated above, the number of integers between 49 and 101 inclusive is (101 49) + 1 = 53.
The answer is (D). To see this more clearly, choose smaller numbers, say, 9 and 11. The difference
between 9 and 11 is 2. But there are three numbers between them inclusive9, 10, and 11one more than
their difference.

Note!

Fundamental Principle of Counting : If an event occurs m times, and each of the m events is
followed by a second event which occurs k times, then the first event follows the second
event m  k times.

The following diagram illustrates the fundamental principle of counting for an event that occurs 3 times
with each occurrence being followed by a second event that occurs 2 times for a total of 3 2 = 6 events:

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Event One: 3 times

15

Total number of events:


m. k = 3 . 2 = 6

20

Event Two: 2 times for each


occurrence of Event One

A drum contains 3 to 5 jars each of which contains 30 to 40 marbles. If 10 percent of the


marbles are flawed, what is the greatest possible number of flawed marbles in the drum?
(A) 51
(B) 40
(C) 30
(D) 20
(E) 12
There is at most 5 jars each of which contains at most 40 marbles; so by the fundamental counting principle, there is at most 5  40 = 200 marbles in the drum. Since 10 percent of the marbles are flawed, there is
at most 20 = 10%  200 flawed marbles. The answer is (D).

LS

Example 3:

IA

MISCELLANEOUS COUNTING PROBLEMS

In a legislative body of 200 people, the number of Democrats is 50 less than 4 times the
number of Republicans. If one fifth of the legislators are neither Republican nor Democrat,
how many of the legislators are Republicans?
(A) 42
(B) 50
(C) 71
(D) 95
(E) 124
Let D be the number of Democrats and let R be the number of Republicans. "One fifth of the legislators are
1
neither Republican nor Democrat," so there are  200 = 40 legislators who are neither Republican nor
5
Democrat. Hence, there are 200 40 = 160 Democrats and Republicans, or D + R = 160. Translating the
clause "the number of Democrats is 50 less than 4 times the number of Republicans" into an equation yields
D = 4R 50. Plugging this into the equation D + R = 160 yields
4R 50 + R = 160
5R 50 = 160
5R = 210
R = 42
The answer is (A).

PS
C

TU

TO

Example 4:

Speed bumps are being placed at 20 foot intervals along a road 1015 feet long. If the first
speed bump is placed at one end of the road, how many speed bumps are needed?
(A) 49
(B) 50
(C) 51
(D) 52
(E) 53
1015
Since the road is 1015 feet long and the speed bumps are 20 feet apart, there are
= 50.75, or 50 full
20
sections in the road. If we ignore the first speed bump and associate the speed bump at the end of each
section with that section, then there are 50 speed bumps (one for each of the fifty full sections). Counting
the first speed bump gives a total of 51 speed bumps. The answer is (C).

Example 5:

SETS
A set is a collection of objects, and the objects are called elements of the set. You may be asked to form the
union of two sets, which contains all the objects from either set. You may also be asked to form the
intersection of two sets, which contains only the objects that are in both sets. For example, if
Set A = {1, 2, 5} and Set B = {5, 10, 21}, then the union of sets A and B would be {1, 2, 5, 10, 21} and the
intersection would be {5}.

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15

Permutations & Combinations

20

Suppose you must seat 3 of 5 delegates in 3 chairs. And suppose you are interested in the order in which
they sit. You will first select 3 of the 5 delegates, and then choose the order in which they sit. The first act
is a combination, the second is a permutation. Effectively, the permutation comes after the combination.
The delegates in each combination can be ordered in different ways, which can be called permutations of
the combination.

LS

Now, if you can select 3 of the 5 delegates in m ways and each selection can be ordered in n ways, then the
total number of possible arrangements (permutations) is m  n.
Now, lets count the number of permutations of 3 objects taken from a set of 4 objects {A, B, C, D}. Lets
call the set {A, B, C, D} a base set.

IA

We must first choose 3 objects from the base set, which yields the following selections:

{A, B, C}, {B, C, D}, {A, C, D}, {A, B, D}


These are combinations. We have 4 selections (combinations) here.

TO

If {E1, E2, E3} represents one of the four combinations above, then the following are its possible
permutations:

TU

E1
E1
E2
E2
E3
E3

E2
E3
E1
E3
E1
E2

E3
E2
E3
E1
E2
E1

PS
C

You can use this scheme to find the permutations of each of the 4 selections (combinations) we formed
above. For example, for the selection {A, B, C}, the following are the six permutations:
ABC
ACB
BAC
BCA
CAB
CBA

Thus, we have 6 permutations for each selection. For practice, you may wish to list the permutations for the
remaining 3 selections: {B, C, D}, {A, C, D}, and {A, B, D}.
Summary:
Here, {A, B, C, D} is the base set. We formed 4 combinations that use 3 elements each. Then we formed 6
permutations for each of the 4 combinations. Hence, the problem has in total 6 + 6 + 6 + 6 = 4  6 = 24
permutations.

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Note 1: A combination might have multiple permutations. The reverse is never true.
Note 2: A permutation is an ordered combination.
Note 3: With combinations, AB = BA. With permutations, AB  BA.
Combinations and their Permutations

Combinations are the selections (subsets) of a base set.

A, B or B, A
(Both are the same combination)

20

For example, the possible combinations of two elements each of the set {A, B} are

15

Here is another discussion of the distinction between permutations and combinations. The concept is
repeated here because it forms the basis for the rest of the chapter.

LS

The permutations (the combination ordered in different ways) of the combination are

IA

A B and B A
(The permutations are different)
How to distinguish between a Combination and a Permutation

At the risk of redundancy, here is yet another discussion of the distinction between permutations and
combinations.

TO

As combinations, {A, B, C} and {B, A, C} are the same because each has the same number of each type of
object: A, B, and C as in the base set.

TU

But, as permutations, A B C and B A C are not the same because the ordering is different, though
each has the same number of each type of object: A, B, and C as in the base set In fact, no two
arrangements that are not identical are ever the same permutation.
Hence, with combinations, look for selections, while with permutations, look for arrangements.

PS
C

The following definitions will help you distinguish between Combinations and Permutations
Permutations are arrangements (order is important) of objects formed from an original set (base set) such
that each new arrangement has an order different from the original set. So, the positions of objects is
important.

Combinations are sets of objects formed by selecting (order not important) objects from an original set
(base set).
To help you remember, think Permutation Position.

Combinations with Repetitions: Permutations with Repetitions


Here, repetition of objects is allowed in selections or the arrangements.
Suppose you have the base set {A, B, C}. Allowing repetitions, the objects can repeat in the combinations
(selections).

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In how many ways can 3 red marbles, 2 blue marbles, and 5 yellow marbles be placed in a row?
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

(D)
(E)

20

10 C 4

LS

6 C 3 4 C1
10 C 4
C
6 3 4 C1
10 P4
P
6 3 4 P1
10 C 4
6 P3 4 P1
10 P4

IA

(C)

6C3

(B)

The retirement plan for a company allows employees to invest in 10 different mutual funds. Six of the
10 funds grew by at least 10% over the last year. If Sam randomly selected 4 of the 10 funds, what is
the probability that at least 3 of Sams 4 funds grew by at least 10% over the last year?
(A)
(B)

6C3
10 C 4
6 C 3 4 C1

10 C 4
C
6 3 4 C1 + 6 C 4
10 P4
P

6 3 4 P1
10 C 4
C
6 3  4 C1 + 6C 4
10 C 4

PS
C

(C)
(D)
(E)

In how many ways can the letters of the word ACUMEN be rearranged such that the vowels always
appear together?

22.

The retirement plan for a company allows employees to invest in 10 different mutual funds. Six of the
10 funds grew by at least 10% over the last year. If Sam randomly selected 4 of the 10 funds, what is
the probability that 3 of Sams 4 funds grew by at least 10% over last year?
(A)

21.

( 3!2!5!)

TO

20.

3!2!5!
12!
10!
10! 10! 10!


3! 2! 5!
10!
3!2!5!
10!

15

(A)

TU

19.

(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

3!3!
6!
2!
4!3!
2!
4!3!
3!3!
2!

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Answers and Solutions to Problem Set W


1.

There are 3 doors to a lecture room. In how many ways can a lecturer enter and leave the room?
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

1
3
6
9
12

15

Recognizing the Problem:

20

1) Is it a permutation or a combination problem?


Here, order is important. Suppose A, B, and C are the three doors. Entering by door A and leaving by door
B is not the same way as entering by door B and leaving by door A. Hence, AB  BA implies the problem
is a permutation (order is important).
2) Are repetitions allowed?
Since the lecturer can enter and exit through the same door, repetition is allowed.

LS

3) Are there any indistinguishable objects in the base set?


Doors are different. They are not indistinguishable, so no indistinguishable objects.

IA

Hence, we have a permutation problem, with repetition allowed and no indistinguishable objects.

TO

Hence, n r = 3 2 = 9, and the answer is (D).

Method I (Using known formula for the scenario):


Apply Formula 1, nr, from the Formula section. Here, n = 3, (three doors to choose from), r = 2, 2 slots
(one for entry door, one for exit door).

TU

Method II (Model 2):


The lecturer can enter the room in 3 ways and exit in 3 ways. So, in total, the lecturer can enter and leave
the room in 9 (= 3  3) ways. The answer is (D). This problem allows repetition: the lecturer can enter by a
door and exit by the same door.

AA
A B and B A
{B, B}
B C and C B
CC
C A and A C

PS
C

Method III (Model 3):


Let the 3 doors be A, B, and C. We must choose 2 doors: one to enter and one to exit. This can be done in 6
ways: {A, A}, {A, B}, {B, B}, {B, C}, {C, C}, and {C, A}. Now, the order of the elements is important
because entering by A and leaving by B is not same as entering by B and leaving by A. Lets permute the
combinations, which yields

The total is 9, and the answer is (D).

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Speed Mathematics

WHAT IS MULTIPLICATION?
6+6+6+6+6+6+6+6=?

LS

How would you add the following numbers?

20

15

SPEED MATHEMATICS

IA

You could keep adding sixes until you get the answer. This takes
time and, because there are so many numbers to add, it is easy to
make a mistake.

TO

The easy method is to count how many sixes there are to add together,
and then use multiplication to get the answer.
How many sixes are there? Count them.
There are eight.

TU

You have to nd out what eight sixes added together would make.
People often memorize the answers or use a chart, but you are going
to learn a very easy method to calculate the answer.

PS
C

As multiplication, the problem is written like this:


86=

This means there are eight sixes to be added. This is easier to write
than 6 + 6 + 6 + 6 + 6 + 6 + 6 + 6 = .

The solution to this problem is:


8 6 = 48

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Speed Mathematics

THE SPEED MATHEMATICS METHOD

20

15

I am now going to show you the speed mathematics way of working


this out. The rst step is to draw circles under each of the numbers.
The problem now looks like this:

LS

We now look at each number and ask, how many more do we need
to make 10?

IA

We start with the 8. If we have 8, how many more do we need to


make 10?

TO

The answer is 2. Eight plus 2 equals 10. We write 2 in the circle


below the 8. Our equation now looks like this:

TU

We now go to the 6. How many more to make 10? The answer is 4.


We write 4 in the circle below the 6.
This is how the problem looks now:
8

PS
C

We now take away, or subtract, crossways or diagonally. We either


take 2 from 6 or 4 from 8. It doesnt matter which way we subtract
the answer will be the same, so choose the calculation that looks
easier. Two from 6 is 4, or 4 from 8 is 4. Either way the answer is 4.
You only take away one time. Write 4 after the equals sign.
8
2

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Speed Mathematics

48

20

15

For the last part of the answer, you times, or multiply, the numbers
in the circles. What is 2 times 4? Two times 4 means two fours added
together. Two fours are 8. Write the 8 as the last part of the answer.
The answer is 48.

LS

Easy, wasnt it? This is much easier than repeating your multiplication
tables every day until you remember them. And this way, it doesnt
matter if you forget the answer, because you can simply work it out
again.

TO

IA

Do you want to try another one? Lets try 7 times 8. We write the
problem and draw circles below the numbers as before:

TU

How many more do we need to make 10? With the rst number, 7,
we need 3, so we write 3 in the circle below the 7. Now go to the 8.
How many more to make 10? The answer is 2, so we write 2 in the
circle below the 8.

PS
C

Our problem now looks like this:


7
3

Now take away crossways. Either take 3 from 8 or 2 from 7.


Whichever way we do it, we get the same answer. Seven minus 2
is 5 or 8 minus 3 is 5. Five is our answer either way. Five is the rst
digit of the answer. You only do this calculation once, so choose the
way that looks easier.

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Speed Mathematics

The calculation now looks like this:


7

15

20

For the nal digit of the answer we multiply the numbers in the
circles: 3 times 2 (or 2 times 3) is 6. Write the 6 as the second digit
of the answer.

56

IA

Seven eights are 56.

LS

Here is the nished calculation:

TO

How would you solve this problem in your head? Take both numbers
from 10 to get 3 and 2 in the circles. Take away crossways. Seven
minus 2 is 5. We dont say ve, we say, Fifty . . . Then multiply
the numbers in the circles. Three times 2 is 6. We would say,
Fifty . . . six.

TU

With a little practice you will be able to give an instant answer. And,
after calculating 7 times 8 a dozen or so times, you will nd you
remember the answer, so you are learning your tables as you go.

PS
C

Test yourself

Here are some problems to try by yourself. Do all of


the problems, even if you know your tables well. This
is the basic strategy we will use for almost all of our
multiplication.
a) 9 9 =

e) 8 9 =

b) 8 8 =

f) 9 6 =

c) 7 7 =

g) 5 9 =

d) 7 9 =

h) 8 7 =

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Speed Mathematics

How did you do? The answers are:


b) 64
f ) 54

c) 49
g) 45

d) 63
h) 56

15

a) 81
e) 72

20

Isnt this the easiest way to learn your tables?

LS

Now, cover your answers and do them again in your head. Lets
look at 9 9 as an example. To calculate 9 9, you have 1 below
10 each time. Nine minus 1 is 8. You would say, Eighty . . . Then
you multiply 1 times 1 to get the second half of the answer, 1. You
would say, Eighty . . . one.

IA

If you dont know your tables well, it doesnt matter. You can calculate
the answers until you do know them, and no one will ever know.

Multiplying numbers just below 100

TO

Does this method work for multiplying larger numbers? It certainly


does. Lets try it for 96 97.
96

97

TU

What do we take these numbers up to? How many more to make what?
How many to make 100, so we write 4 below 96 and 3 below 97.

PS
C

96

97

What do we do now? We take away crossways: 96 minus 3 or 97


minus 4 equals 93. Write that down as the rst part of the answer.
What do we do next? Multiply the numbers in the circles: 4 times
3 equals 12. Write this down for the last part of the answer. The full
answer is 9,312.
96
4

97

9,312

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Speed Mathematics

Lets try another. Lets do 98 95.


98

95

95

First we draw the circles.

15

98

98

95

LS

20

How many more do we need to make 100? With 98 we need 2 more


and with 95 we need 5. Write 2 and 5 in the circles.

Now take away crossways. You can do either 98 minus 5 or 95


minus 2.

IA

98 5 = 93
or

95 2 = 93

98

95

93

TU

TO

The rst part of the answer is 93. We write 93 after the equals sign.

Now multiply the numbers in the circles.


2 5 = 10

PS
C

Write 10 after the 93 to get an answer of 9,310.


98

95

9,310

Easy. With a couple of minutes practice you should be able to do


these in your head. Lets try one now.
96

96

In your head, draw circles below the numbers.


What goes in these imaginary circles? How many to make 100? Four
and 4. Picture the equation inside your head. Mentally write 4 and
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Speed Mathematics

Now take away crossways. Either way you are taking 4 from 96. The
result is 92. You would say, Nine thousand, two hundred . . . This
is the rst part of the answer.

15

Now multiply the numbers in the circles: 4 times 4 equals 16.


Now you can complete the answer: 9,216. You would say, Nine
thousand, two hundred . . . and sixteen.

20

This will become very easy with practice.

Test yourself

b) 97 95 =

f) 97 94 =

c) 95 95 =

g) 98 92 =

d) 98 95 =

h) 97 93 =

The answers are:

c) 9,025
g) 9,016

TO

b) 9,215
f) 9,118

d) 9,310
h) 9,021

PS
C

TU

a) 9,216
e) 9,212

IA

e) 98 94 =

a) 96 96 =

LS

Here are some more problems for you to do by yourself.

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Speed Mathematics

+-=x0123456789()%<>+-=x0123456789()
%<>+-=x0123456789()%<>+-=x0123456789
()%<>+-=x0123456789()%<>+-=x012345678
9()%<>+-=x0123456789()%<>+-=x01234567
89()%<>+-=x0123456789()%<>+-=x0123456
789()%<>+-=x0123456789()%<>+-=x012345
6789()%<>+-=x0123456789()%<>+-=x0123

20

15

USING A REFERENCE
NUMBER

LS

In this chapter we are going to look at a small change to the method


that will make it easy to multiply any numbers.

REFERENCE NUMBERS
7

10

IA

Lets go back to 7 times 8:

TO

The 10 at the left of the problem is our reference number. It is the


number we subtract the numbers we are multiplying from.

PS
C

TU

The reference number is written to the left of the problem. We then


ask ourselves, is the number we are multiplying above or below the
reference number? In this case, both numbers are below, so we put
the circles below the numbers. How many below 10 are they? Three
and 2. We write 3 and 2 in the circles. Seven is 10 minus 3, so we
put a minus sign in front of the 3. Eight is 10 minus 2, so we put a
minus sign in front of the 2.

10

We now take away crossways: 7 minus 2 or 8 minus 3 is 5. We write


5 after the equals sign.
10

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Speed Mathematics

50

20

10

15

Now, here is the part that is dierent. We multiply the 5 by the


reference number, 10. Five times 10 is 50, so write a 0 after the 5.
(How do we multiply by 10? Simply put a 0 at the end of the
number.) Fifty is our subtotal. Here is how our calculation looks
now:

The full calculation looks like this:

8
2

50

+ 6
56

Answer

TO

IA

10

LS

Now multiply the numbers in the circles. Three times 2 is 6. Add


this to the subtotal of 50 for the nal answer of 56.

Why use a reference number?

TU

Why not use the method we used in Chapter 1? Wasnt that easier?
That method used 10 and 100 as reference numbers as wellwe
just didnt write them down.

PS
C

Using a reference number allows us to calculate problems such as


6 7, 6 6, 4 7 and 4 8.

Lets see what happens when we try 6 7 using the method from
Chapter 1.
We draw the circles below the numbers and subtract the numbers
we are multiplying from 10. We write 4 and 3 in the circles. Our
problem looks like this:
6
4

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Speed Mathematics

Now we subtract crossways: 3 from 6 or 4 from 7 is 3. We write 3


after the equals sign.
6

312

Is this the correct answer? No, obviously it isnt.

20

15

Four times 3 is 12, so we write 12 after the 3 for an answer of 312.

7
3

30

IA

10

LS

Lets do the calculation again, this time using the reference


number.

+ 12

TO

Thats more like it.

Answer

42

TU

You should set out the calculations as shown above until the method
is familiar to you. Then you can simply use the reference number in
your head.

Test yourself

PS
C

Try these problems using a reference number of 10:


a) 6 7 =
b) 7 5 =

c) 8 5 =
d) 8 4 =
e) 3 8 =
f) 6 5 =
The answers are:
a) 42
d) 32

b) 35
e) 24

c) 40
f) 30

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Speed Mathematics

Using 100 as a reference number


What was our reference number for 96 97 in Chapter 1? One
hundred, because we asked how many more do we need to make
100.

97

9,300
+

12
9,312

Answer

20

96

100

15

The problem worked out in full would look like this:

LS

The technique I explained for doing the calculations in your head


actually makes you use this method. Lets multiply 98 by 98 and
you will see what I mean.

TO

IA

If you take 98 and 98 from 100 you get answers of 2 and 2. Then
take 2 from 98, which gives an answer of 96. If you were saying
the answer aloud, you would not say, Ninety-six, you would say,
Nine thousand, six hundred and . . . Nine thousand, six hundred
is the answer you get when you multiply 96 by the reference number,
100.

TU

Now multiply the numbers in the circles: 2 times 2 is 4. You can


now say the full answer: Nine thousand, six hundred and four.
Without using the reference number we might have just written the
4 after 96.

PS
C

Here is how the calculation looks written in full:


98
2

98
2

9,600
+

4
9,604

Answer

100

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Advanced Maths Problem Set

MATH PRACTICE
TEST 1

15

A figure accompanying a
problem-solving question is intended
to provide information useful in
solving the problem. Figures are
drawn as accurately as possible
EXCEPT when it is stated in a specific
problem that its figure is not drawn to
scale. Straight lines may sometimes
appear jagged. All figures lie in a
plane unless otherwise indicated.

Example 1

TU

DIRECTIONS: Data sufficiency problems consist of


a question and two statements, labeled (1) and
(2), in which certain data are given. You have to
decide whether the data given in the statements is
sufficient for answering the question. Using the
data given in the statements plus your knowledge
of mathematics and everyday facts (such as the
number of days in July or the meaning of
counterclockwise), you must indicate whether

PS

A. Statement (1) ALONE is sufficient, but


statement (2) alone is not sufficient.
B. Statement (2) ALONE is sufficient, but
statement (1) alone is not sufficient.
C. BOTH statements TOGETHER are sufficient,
but NEITHER statement ALONE is sufficient.
D. EACH statement ALONE is sufficient.
E. Statements (1) and (2) TOGETHER are NOT
sufficient.
A figure accompanying a data sufficiency
problem will conform to the information given
in the question, but will not necessarily
conform to the additional information given in
statements (1) and (2).

20

What is the value of x + y?

LS

You may assume that positions of


points, lines, and angles are in the
order shown.

(1) 0.5 (x + y) = 1
1
1
(2) x + y = 2
5
5

A


B


C


E


IA

In data sufficiency problems that ask for the


value of a quantity, the data given in the
statements is sufficient only when it is possible
to determine exactly one numerical value for
the quantity.

From (1): x + y = 2, so (1) is sufficient.


From (2): x + y = 10, so (2) is sufficient.

The numbers on this test are real


numbers.

TO

Example 2

N is a number in the set {35, 38, 41, 44, 47,


50}. What is N?
A B C D E

(1) N is a multiple of 5.
(2) N is even.

From (1): N = 35 or 50, so (1) is not


sufficient.
From (2): N = 38, 44, or 50, so (2) is not
sufficient.
Taking (1) and (2) together, N = 50, so
taken together (1) and (2) are sufficient.
1. A club wants to mix 20 pounds of candy
worth $8.00 per pound with candy worth
$5.00 per pound to reduce the cost of the
mixture to $6.00 per pound. How many
pounds of the $5.00 per pound candy should
be used?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

20
30
40
50
60

2. What is the solution of n + 2 > 8?


(1) n is a positive integer less than 10.
(2) n is a one-digit prime number.

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8. In the equation x2 + bx + 10 = 0, x is a
variable and b is a constant. What is the
value of b?

3. If p, q, and r are nonzero numbers and


p = q r , which of the following is equal to
1?

C.
D.
E.

(1) x 2 is a factor of x2 + bx + 10 = 0.
(2) 5 is a root of x2 + bx + 10 = 0.
9. What is the product of the greatest prime
factor of 160 and the greatest prime factor
of 168?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

4. If x to y equals 5 to 3, what is the value of


x + y?

10. Is x3 greater than x?

(1) 3x + y = 24
(2) y > 4

D.
E.

IA

(1) N is divisible by 9.
(2) N is divisible by 8.

12. Is the whole number N divisible by 3 or


more positive integers?

6. If N is a positive integer, is N divisible by 12?

(1) N is divisible by 6.
(2) N is divisible by 2.

PS

7. Based on the figure, what is the measure of


PRS?
50
60
70
120
180

13. A soccer team had no ties in the 25 games


they played. If they won 60% of their games,
how many more games did they win than
they lost?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

5
10
15
25
40

14. Is x between 0 and 1?

15. Is xy < 10?


(1) x < 5 and y < 2
(2) x < 3 and y < 1

(1) N is a prime number.


(2) 0 < N < 4

(1) x > x2
(2) x > x3

A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

11. Is the integer N divisible by 36?

TO

C.

(1/3) + (1/4)
?
1/2

TU

B.

2
7
4
7
6
7
7
2
7
6

LS

(1) 0 x 1
(2) x > 1

5. Which is the value of


A.

4
15
35
80
336

15

B.

rp
q
r+p
q
r +q
p
r q
p
p+q
r

20

A.

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Advanced Maths Problem Set

16. Carlos worked 40 hours last week, including


4 hours on Sunday. He earns $10.50 an hour
1
regularly and 1 times that on Sunday. How
2
much did he earn last week?
$357
$399
$420
$441
$483

17. If 5w = x + y, then what is the average (arithmetic mean) of w, x, and y in terms of w?

E.

1
w
2

E.

8
11

TO

20
17

D.

PS

40
11

TU

A. 11

C.

D.

16
(22 )(52 )

E.

140
(24 )(53 )

22. A woman is 4 times as old as her daughter.


In 3 years she will be 3 times as old as
her daughter. How old is the woman now?

y
2+y
2
= 5 and = 6, what is the value of
?
x
3
x+3
100
17

28
(23 )(53 )

(1) y x = 7
(2) x and y are integers.

(1) P is 4 less twice Q.


(2) 4P equals 7Q.

B.

C.

21. What is N when N is an integer and


x < N < y?

18. What is the ratio of P to Q?

19. If

10
(22 )(53 )

LS

1
w
3

B.

IA

D.

8
(23 )(52 )

20

A. 2w
B. 3w
C. w + 2

A.

15

A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

20. Which has the least value?

A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

3 years
6 years
12 years
24 years
36 years

23. If a triangle has one side of 3 cm and another


side of 4 cm, how long is the third side?
(1) The triangle is a right triangle.
(2) The third side is the longest side.
24. In PQR, PQ is an integer and PQ > 6. What
is PQ?
(1) PR + QR = 8
(2) PQR is equiangular and PR = 10.
25. What is the measure of the supplement
of an angle with a measure of 42 ?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

318
228
138
48
21

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Advanced Maths Problem Set

LS

20

15

Questions 26 and 27 are based on the following graph.

26. Based on the graph, the Nile is longer than


the sum of what two rivers?

IA
R

Congo and Euphrates


Euphrates and Amazon
Congo and Yangtze
Volga and Congo
Volga and Euphrates

TO

A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

100 miles
200 miles
600 miles
800 miles
1,200 miles

TU

27. Based on the graph, the Nile is how much


longer than the Congo?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

PS

28. A hat contains 12 cards marked with a star


and 18 unmarked cards. What is the
probability that one card selected at random
will be marked with a star?
2
5
3
5
2
3
3
2
5
2

A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

29. What is the average (arithmetic mean) of


the values 39, 40, 39, 45, 42, 35, 47?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

39
41
42
45
47

30. A rectangular room that is 8 meters by 5


meters is to be carpeted using carpet costing
$12.50 per square meter. How much will the
carpet cost?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

$40
$100
$162.50
$480
$500

31. A rectangular box that is 7 inches long by


4 inches wide by 3 inches deep is carefully
packed to hold the maximum number of
blocks that are 1 inch by 1 inch by 2 inches.
How many blocks can be packed into
the box?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

84 blocks
42 blocks
28 blocks
14 blocks
2 blocks

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32. Is n < 0?

34. Based on the graph, what is the ratio of the


proposed spending on national security
compared to health?

1
<0
n
(2) n2 > 0
(1)

A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

33. The original funding to build a housing


development was $1.75 billion. The funding
was increased to $2.5 billion. By what
percentage was the original funding
increased?

Questions 34 and 35 are based on the following


graph.

A.

1
20

B.

1
10

C.

1
5
1
4

IA

D.

20

38%
43%
52%
65%
71%

15

35. Based on the graph, approximately what


part of the proposed budget is for health,
education, and interest combined?

LS

A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

11 to 3
3 to 1
33 to 5
1 to 3
3 to 11

E.

1
3

(1) x y = x + 3
(2) x y = 4 y

37. If the sale price of a television is $216 after a


10% reduction was made, what was the
regular price of the television?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

$21.60
$24.00
$194.40
$237.60
$240.00

PS

TU

TO

36. What is the value of x3 y3 ?

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Advanced Maths Problem Set

SOLUTIONS
6. E Together the statements are not sufficient.

1. C 40
x = pounds of $5.00 candy used
$8.00(20) + $5.00(x) = $6.00(20 + x)
$160 + $5x = $120 + $6x
$40 = $1x
40 = x

15

(1) 18 is divisible by 6 but not by 12. Not


sufficient.
(2) 4 is divisible by 2 but not by 12. Not
sufficient.

2. B Only statement (2) is sufficient.

7. D 120

n + 2 > 8 yields n > 6.

PRS is an exterior angle of PQR, so it is


equal to the sum of P and Q.
P + Q = 70 + 50 = 120 = PRS

TU

4. A Only statement (1) is sufficient.

PS

(1) 3x + y = 24 means y = 3x + 24; x to


y = 5 to 3 means 3x = 5y, so 3x = 5y.
y = 5y + 24, so 6y = 24 and y = 4.
2
3x = 5(4) = 20 and x = 6
3
2
2
x + y = 4 + 6 = 10
3
3
Sufficient.
(2) y > 4 yields many values for y, and x + y
would also have many values. Not
sufficient.

5. E

IA

8. D Each statement is sufficient alone.

TO

r+p
q
r +qr
q
r+p
=
= =1
q
q
q

3. B

LS

(1) This statement says that n is a positive


integer less than 10. So n = 7, 8, or 9.
Not sufficient.
(2) This statement says that n is a one-digit
prime number. The one-digit prime
numbers are 2, 3, 5, and 7, and only
n = 7 is greater than 6. Sufficient.
So only statement (2) is sufficient.

7
6

12(1/3 + 1/4)
4+3
7
1/3 + 1/4
=
=
=
1/2
12(1/2)
6
6

20

Together the statements show only that N is


divisible by 6, so not sufficient.

(1) If x 2 is a factor of x2 + bx + 10 = 0,
then x 5 is the other factor and
b = 7. Sufficient.
(2) If 5 is a root, then x 5 is a factor of
x2 + bx + 10 = 0 and the other factor is
x 2 and b = 7. Sufficient.
So each statement is sufficient alone.

9. C 35
Prime factors of 160 = 25 5.
Prime factors of 168 = 23 3 7.
5 7 = 35
10. D Each statement is sufficient alone.
(1) If x = 0, then x3 = 0. If x =

1
, then
2

1
. Thus, x3 x. Sufficient.
8
(2) If x = 2, then x3 = 8. Sufficient.
x3 =

11. C Together the statements are sufficient,


but neither statement is sufficient alone.
(1) 18 is divisible by 9, but 18 is not
divisible by 36. Not sufficient.
(2) 16 is divisible by 8, but 16 is not
divisible by 36. Not sufficient.
If a number is divisible by 9 and by 8, it will
be divisible by 36. Together sufficient.

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MATH PRACTICE
TEST 2

A figure accompanying a
problem-solving question is intended
to provide information useful in
solving the problem. Figures are
drawn as accurately as possible
EXCEPT when it is stated in a specific
problem that its figure is not drawn to
scale. Straight lines may sometimes
appear jagged. All figures lie in a
plane unless otherwise indicated.

Example 1

What is the value of x + y?


(1) 0.5(x + y) = 1
1
1
(2) x + y = 2
5
5

TU

PS

A. Statement (1) ALONE is sufficient, but


statement (2) alone is not sufficient.
B. Statement (2) ALONE is sufficient, but
statement (1) alone is not sufficient.
C. BOTH statements TOGETHER are sufficient,
but NEITHER statement ALONE is sufficient.
D. EACH statement ALONE is sufficient.
E. Statements (1) and (2) TOGETHER are NOT
sufficient.
A figure accompanying a data sufficiency
problem will conform to the information given
in the question, but will not necessarily
conform to the additional information given in
statements (1) and (2).

A


B


C


E


From (1): x + y = 2, so (1) is sufficient.


From (2): x + y = 10, so (2) is sufficient.

TO

DIRECTIONS: Data sufficiency problems consist of


a question and two statements, labeled (1) and
(2), in which certain data are given. You have to
decide whether the data given in the statements is
sufficient for answering the question. Using the
data given in the statements plus your knowledge
of mathematics and everyday facts (such as the
number of days in July or the meaning of
counterclockwise), you must indicate whether

15

20

You may assume that positions of


points, lines, and angles are in the
order shown.

LS

In data sufficiency problems that ask for the


value of a quantity, the data given in the
statements is sufficient only when it is possible
to determine exactly one numerical value for
the quantity.

IA

The numbers on this test are real


numbers.

Example 2

N is a number in the set {35, 38, 41, 44, 47,


50}. What is N?
A B C D E

(1) N is a multiple of 5.
(2) N is even.

From (1): N = 35 or 50, so (1) is not


sufficient.
From (2): N = 38, 44, or 50, so (2) is not
sufficient.
Taking (1) and (2) together, N = 50, so
taken together (1) and (2) are sufficient.
1. In a graduating class of 240 students, 80%
apply to college. Of the students who apply
to college, 75% actually attend college. How
many students from the graduating class
attend college?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

48
144
180
192
372

2. If x + 3y 3 = 2y 3x, what is the value of


x?
(1) y2 = 25
(2) y = 5

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Advanced Maths Problem Set

for the trip had been greater by 5 miles


per hour. What was the average speed S,
in miles per hour, for the trip?

9. A certain business printer can print 40


characters per second, which is 4 times
as fast as an average printer. If an
average printer can print 5 times as fast
as an electric typewriter, how many
characters per minute can an electric
typewriter print?

13. 103 is how many times (0.01)3?

TO

TU

PS
C

11. If 6 gallons of gasoline are added to a


3
of its
tank that is already filled to
4
9
capacity, the tank is then filled to
10
of its capacity. How many gallons does
the tank hold?
(A) 20
(B) 24
(C) 36
(D) 40
(E) 60

12. A bus trip of 450 miles would have


taken 1 hour less if the average speed S

20

LS

14. Which of the following groups of


numbers could be the lengths of the
sides of a right triangle?

IA

(A) (n - 1) x
(B) n + x 1
n 1
(C)
x
x
(D)
n 1
n
(E)
x 1

(A) 106
(B) 108
(C) 109
(D) 1012
(E) 1018

. 1, 4,

17

. 4, 7, 11
. 4, 9, 6
(A) only
(B) and
(C) and
(D) and
(E) ,, and

10. When ticket sales began, Pat was the


nth customer in line for a ticket, and
customers purchased their tickets at the
rate of x customers per minute. Of the
following, which best approximates the
time, in minutes, that Pat had to wait in
line from the moment ticket sales
began?

15

(A) 2
(B) 32
(C) 50
(D) 120
(E) 600

(A) 10
(B) 40
(C) 45
(D) 50
(E) 55

only
only
only

15. When the stock market opened


yesterday, the price of a share of stock X
1
was 10 . When the market closed, the
2
1
price was 11 . Of the following,
4
which is closest to the percent increase
in the price of stock X?
(A) 0.5%
(B) 1.0%
(C) 6.7%
(D) 7.1%
(E) 7.5%
16. If x and y are integers and xy2 is a
positive odd integer, which of the
following must be true?

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Advanced Maths Problem Set

. xy is positive.
. xy is odd.
. x + y is even.
only
only
only
and
and

y
Rx
xy
(C)
Rx
xy
(D)
R ( R x)
y
(E)
R ( R x)

TO

(A) 17 in by 25 in
(B) 21 in by 24 in
(C) 24 in by 12 in
(D) 24 in by 14 in
(E) 26 in by 14 in

y
R

(B)

17. The figure above shows the dimensions


of a rectangular box that is to be
completely wrapped with paper. If a
single sheet of paper is to be used
without patching, then the dimensions
of the paper could be

(A)

20

15

20. The R students in a class agree to


contribute equally to buy their teacher a
birthday present that costs y dollars. If x
of the students later fail to contribute
their share, which of the following
represents the additional number of
dollars that each of the remaining
students must contribute in order to pay
for the present?

LS

IA

(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)

(C) 34
(D) 28
(E) 10

x y = 3
2x = 2y + 6

TU

18.

PS
C

The system of equations above has how


many
solutions?
(A) None
(B) Exactly one
(C) Exactly two
(D) Exactly three
(E) Infinitely many

19. If M and N are positive integers that


have remainders of 1 and 3, respectively,
when divided by 6, which of the
following could NOT be a possible
value of M+N?
(A) 86
(B) 52

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Advanced Maths Problem Set

(E) $116,000

SECTION 3
30 Minutes (20 Questions)

5. If x is a number such that x2 3x + 2 =0


and x2 x 2= 0, what is the value of x

1. 6.09 4.693 =
(A) 1.397
(B) 1.403
(C) 1.407
(D) 1.497
(E) 2.603

15

(A) 2
(B) 1
(C) 0
(D) 1
(E) 2

2. What is the area of the region enclosed


by the figure above?
(A) 116
(B) 144
(C) 176
(D) 179
(E) 284

TU

(A) 0.002

TO

p(1 p)
=
n

IA

(A) 30
(B) 45
(C) 60
(D) 90
(E) 120

3. If p = 0.2 and n = 100, then

PS
C

(B) 0.02 0.02


(C) 0
(D) 0.04
(E) 0.4

LS

20

6. In traveling from a dormitory to a certain


1
of the way by
city, a student went
5
2
foot,
of the way by bus, and the
3
remaining 8 kilometers by car. What is
the distance, in kilometers, from the
dormitory to the city?

4. If each of 4 subsidiaries of Corporation R


has been granted a line of credit of
$700,000 and each of the other 3
subsidiaries of Corporation R has been
granted a line of credit of $112,000, what
is the average (arithmetic mean) line of
credit granted to a subsidiary of
Corporation R?
(A) $1,568,000
(B) $448,000
(C) $406,000
(D) $313,600

7. A certain elevator has a safe weight limit


of 2,000 pounds. What is the greatest
possible number of people who can
safely ride on the elevator at one time
with the average (arithmetic mean)
weight of half the riders being 180
pounds and the average weight of the
others being 215 pounds?
(A) 7
(B) 8
(C) 9
(D) 10
(E) 11
8. After paying a 10 percent tax on all
income over $3,000, a person had a net
income of $12,000. What was the income
before taxes?
(A) $13,300
(B) $13,000
(C) $12,900
(D) $10,000
(E) $9,000

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Advanced Maths Problem Set

1 [2 (3 [4 5] + 6) + 7] =

15. Working alone, R can complete a certain


kind of job in 9 hours. R and S, working
together at their respective rates, can
complete one of these jobs in 6 hours. In
how many hours can S, working alone,
complete one of these jobs?

LS

10. The price of a model M camera is $209


and the price of a special lens is $69.
When the camera and lens are
purchased together, the price is $239.
The amount saved by purchasing the
camera and lens together is
approximately what percent of the total
price of the camera and lens when
purchased separately?

(A) mn p (m + n)
(B) mn 2p(m +n)
(C) mn p2
(D) (m - p)(n - p)
(E) (m 2p)(n 2p)

20

(A) 2
(B) 0
(C) 1
(D) 2
(E) 16

(A) 14%
(B) 16%
(C) 29%
(D) 33%
(E) 86%

(A) 18
(D) 6

(B) 12
(E) 3

(C) 9

16. A family made a down payment of $75


and borrowed the balance on a set of
encyclopedias that cost $400. The
balance with interest was paid in 23
monthly payments of $16 each and a
final payment of $9. The amount of
interest paid was what percent of the
amount borrowed?

TO

11. If 0.497 mark has the value of one dollar,


what is the value to the nearest dollar of
350 marks?

15

14. A rectangular floor is covered by a rug


except for a strip p meters wide along
each of the four edges. If the floor is m
meters by n meters, what is the area of
the rug, in square meters?

IA

9.

(A) $174
(D) $696

(B) $176
(E) $704

(C) $524

PS
C

TU

12. A right cylindrical container with radius


2 meters and height 1 meter is filled to
capacity with oil. How many empty
right cylindrical cans, each with radius
1
meter and height 4 meters, can be
2
filled to capacity with the oil in this
container?
(A) 1

(B) 2

(D) 8

(E) 16

(C) 4

13. If a sequence of 8 consecutive odd


integers with increasing values has 9 as
its 7th term, what is the sum of the
terms of the sequence?
(A) 22
(D) 40

(B) 32
(E) 44

(A) 6%
(B) 12%
(C) 14%
(D) 16%
(E) 20%
17. If x0 and x =
terms of y, x =

4 xy 4 y 2 , then, in

(A) 2y
(B) y
y
(C)
2
4y2
(D)
1 2y
(E) 2y

(C) 36

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Advanced Maths Problem Set

(A) 30%
1
(B) 33 %
3
1
(C) 37 %
2
(D) 40%
(E) 50%

1
1
1
+
0.03 0.37

1. Which of the following is equal to 85


percent of 160?
(A) 1.88
(B) 13.6
(C) 136
(D) 188
(E) 13,600

20

2. The regular hourly wage for an employee


of a certain factory is $5.60. If the
employee worked 8 hours overtime and
1
earned 1 times this regular hourly
2
wage for overtime, how much overtime
money was earned?

LS

19.

SECTION 4
30 Minutes (20 Questions)

15

18. Solution Y is 30 percent liquid X and 70


percent water. If 2 kilograms of water
evaporate from 8 kilograms of solution
Y and 2 kilograms of solution Y are
added to the remaining 6 kilograms of
liquid, what percent of this new solution
is liquid X?

(A) $67.20
(B) $55.40
(C) $50.00
(D) $44.80
(E) $12.00

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(A) 0.004
(B) 0.02775
(C) 2.775
(D) 3.6036
(E) 36.036

PS
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20. If each side of ACD above has length


3 and if AB has length 1, what is the
area of region BCDE?
(A)

(B)

(C)
(D)
(E)

9
4
7
3
4
9
3
4
7
3
2
6+ 3

3. Square RSTU shown above is rotated in a


plane about its center in a clockwise
direction the minimum number of
degrees necessary for T to be in the
position where S is now shown. The
number of degrees through which RSTU
is rotated is
(A) 135o
(B) 180o
(C) 225o
(D) 270o
(E) 315o

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27

Advanced Maths Problem Set

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20

15

Questions 4-5 refer to the following graphs.

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28

Advanced Maths Problem Set

(A)

3
11

(B)

1
3

5
9

(E)

3
5

(C)

(A) 3 and 4
(B) 4 and 5
(C) 5 and 6
(D) 6 and 7
(E) 7 and 8

496 is between

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6.

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4
9
(D)

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7. If x0, 2x =5y, and 3z =7x, what is the


ratio of z to y?

(A) 2 to 21
(B) 3 to 5
(C) 14 to 15
(D) 6 to 5
(E) 35 to 6

8. A grocer purchased a quantity of


bananas at 3 pounds for $0.50 and sold
the entire quantity at 4 pounds for
$1.00. How many pounds did the
grocer purchase if the profit from
selling the bananas was $10.00?
(A) 40
(B) 60

(A) 101
(B) 103
(C) 106
(D) 107
(E) 109

LS

5. In 1980, approximately what fraction of


the cost to the consumer for the
production of 6 ounces of frozen
orange juice went to the farmer?

9. There are between 100 and 110 cards in


a collection of cards. If they are
counted out 3 at a time, there are 2 left
over, but if they are counted out 4 at a
time, there is 1 left over. How many
cards are in the collection?

15

(A) $0.03
(B) $0.05
(C) $0.06
(D) $0.08
(E) $0.13

(C) 90
(D) 120
(E) 240

20

4. Of the following, which is closest to the


increase from 1975 to 1980 in the
amount received by the processor in
producing 6 ounces of frozen orange
juice?

10. If A is the center of the circle shown


above and AB=BC=CD, what is the
value of x?
(A) 15
(B) 30
(C) 45
(D) 60
(E) 75
11. Out of a total of 1,000 employees at a
certain corporation, 52 percent are
female and 40 percent of these
females work in research. If 60
percent of the total number of
employees work in research, how
many male employees do NOT work
in research?
(A) 520
(B) 480
(C) 392
(D) 208
(E) 88

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29

BECCD
CAEEB
BDCEB
DDEBD

DBDAE
DADBB
CADCE
BACEA

EAEBB
CCDCD
ADBEC
CBDCA

Section 9: CD BA
Section 10: ACCDB

BDEAE
CBBDE

CDAEB
ECAEA

DCEAE
DADEC

Section 11: A ACD


Section 12: CEBDA
Section 13: CEBCD

BEBCD
CEAAE
BBADB

ACCDC
DEDBE
DABEB

BEECA
BCDBD
DACAE

Section 14:
Section 15:
Section 16:
Section 17:
Section 18:
Section 19:
Section 20:
Section 21:
Section 22:
Section 23
Section 24:
Section 25:
Section 26:
Section 27:
Section 28:
Section 29:
Section 30:
Section 31:
Section 32:
Section 33:
Section 34:
Section 35:
Section 36:
Section 37:
Section 38:
Section 39:
Section 40:
Section 41:
Section 42:

AEBCB
DBDAE
CDBBE
BDAED
CDAAB
DAEBB
EBBAE
EEDAC
ABCAC
DAEC
ABDBE
AECED
CAEDD
CACEB
CDDDD
ECECA
CEBCC
ACEAB
BECCE
CEEBA
CDEDA
EEADB
BADDC
EACCA
DEBCA
AABBD
ECBBE
ADEB
DBCAB

BEBDD
CDEEB
BEBEA
ADCDA
AEDDC
BEACD
DAACE
AAEDA
DCE E
BABDE
DCAEC
EEBCB
DEABD
DBEBC
BEEBA
ABBAD
DBBAE
CADDB
ACDBB
EBDAC
DADEA
CCCEE
BDCAD
ABDED
AEEBD
EDECB
CAEBA
ABCEE
CBDCD

A ECD
AEBBB
ABDCA
DEEDC
CBCDE
CCAED
BADCD
ECBEC
AECEB
BCDAC
EBDAE
CACDA
ECCE
E
E
D
B
B
D
B
C
C
C
E
B
E
E
B
E

PS
C
U

LS

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TO

DBBCD
EABCE
ADCCD
ABCEB
EBDEE
CBEAC
ADEDC
CDBDC
DDCDB
CEDAB
DDEBC
CDCDB
BCCAE
ACECB
BEBED
CCDAE
CDCCB
DBECD
AEECB
CDDCE
AEBBD
EBCB
BEBDE
DEEDB
BAEEC
ABCAC
BDCDC
CBCDC
BEADA

20

CEACD
CAEDB
EACDB
ACBEA

TU

Section 5:
Section 6:
Section 7:
Section 8:

15

Advanced Maths Problem Set

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142

Reading Comprehension 2014

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PRETEST

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efore you start your study of reading skills, you may want to get an idea of how much you already
know and how much you need to learn. If thats the case, take the pretest that follows. The pretest
consists of 50 multiple-choice questions covering all the lessons in this book. Naturally, 50 questions cant cover every single concept or strategy you will learn by working through this book. So even if you get
all the questions on the pretest right, its almost guaranteed that you will find a few ideas or reading tactics in this
book that you didnt already know. On the other hand, if you get many questions wrong on this pretest, dont
despair. This book will show you how to read more effectively, step by step.
You should use this pretest to get a general idea of how much you already know. If you get a high score, you
may be able to spend less time with this book than you originally planned. If you get a low score, you may find
that you will need more than 20 minutes a day to get through each chapter and improve your reading skills.
Theres an answer sheet you can use for filling in the correct answers on page 3. Or, if you prefer, simply circle the answer numbers in this book. If the book doesnt belong to you, write the numbers 150 on a piece of paper
and record your answers there. Take as much time as you need to do this short test. When you finish, check your
answers against the answer key at the end of this lesson. Each answer offers the lesson(s) in this book that teaches
you about the reading strategy in that question.

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Reading Comprehension 2014

d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d

18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.

a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a

b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b

c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c

d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d

35.
36.
37.
38.
39.
40.
41.
42.
43.
44.
45.
46.
47.
48.
49.
50.

a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a

b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b

c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c

15

c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c

20

b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b
b

LS

a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a

d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
d

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1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.

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The pretest consists of a series of reading passages with questions that follow to test your comprehension.
Cultural Center Adds Classes for Young Adults

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15

The Allendale Cultural Center has expanded its arts program to include classes for young adults. Director Leah
Martin announced Monday that beginning in September, three new classes will be offered to the Allendale community. The course titles will be Yoga for Teenagers; Hip Hop Dance: Learning the Latest Moves; and Creative
Journaling for Teens: Discovering the Writer Within. The latter course will not be held at the Allendale Cultural Center but instead will meet at the Allendale Public Library.
Staff member Tricia Cousins will teach the yoga and hip hop classes. Ms. Cousins is an accomplished choreographer as well as an experienced dance educator. She has an MA in dance education from Teachers College, Columbia University, where she wrote a thesis on the pedagogical effectiveness of dance education. The
journaling class will be taught by Betsy Milford. Ms. Milford is the head librarian at the Allendale Public Library
as well as a columnist for the professional journal Library Focus.
The courses are part of the Allendale Cultural Centers Project Teen, which was initiated by Leah Martin,
Director of the Cultural Center. According to Martin, this project is a direct result of her efforts to make the
center a more integral part of the Allendale community. Over the last several years, the number of people who
have visited the cultural center for classes or events has steadily declined. Project Teen is primarily funded by
a munificent grant from The McGee Arts Foundation, an organization devoted to bringing arts programs to
young adults. Martin oversees the Project Teen board, which consists of five board members. Two board members are students at Allendales Brookdale High School; the other three are adults with backgrounds in education and the arts.
The creative journaling class will be cosponsored by Brookdale High School, and students who complete
the class will be given the opportunity to publish one of their journal entries in Pulse, Brookdales student literary magazine. Students who complete the hip hop class will be eligible to participate in the Allendale Review,
an annual concert sponsored by the cultural center that features local actors, musicians, and dancers.
All classes are scheduled to begin immediately following school dismissal, and transportation will be
available from Brookdale High School to the Allendale Cultural Center and the Allendale Public Library. For more
information about Project Teen, contact the cultural centers programming office at 988-0099 or drop by the office
after June 1 to pick up a fall course catalog. The office is located on the third floor of the Allendale Town Hall.

1. The Creative Journaling for Teens class will be


cosponsored by
a. The Allendale Public Library.
b. The McGee Arts Foundation.
c. Brookdale High School.
d. Betsy Milford.

2. Which of the following statements is correct?


a. Tricia Cousins will teach two of the new
classes.
b. The new classes will begin on June 1.
c. People who want a complete fall catalogue
should stop by the Allendale Public Library.
d. The cultural centers annual concert is called
Pulse.

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Reading Comprehension 2014

6. The title of the course Creative Journaling for


Teens: Discovering the Writer Within implies that
a. all young people should write in a journal
daily.
b. teenagers do not have enough hobbies.
c. writing in a journal can help teenagers
become better and more creative writers.
d. teenagers are in need of guidance and
direction.

20

IA

LS

7. Which of the following correctly states the


primary subject of this article?
a. Leah Martins personal ideas about young
adults
b. The McGee Foundations grant to the
Allendale Cultural Center
c. three new classes for young adults added to
the cultural centers arts program
d. the needs of young adults in Allendale

TU

TO

4. Which of the following factors is implied as


another reason for Project Teen?
a. The number of people who have visited the
cultural center has declined over the last
several years.
b. The cultural center wanted a grant from The
McGee Arts Foundation.
c. The young people of Allendale have complained about the cultural centers offerings.
d. Leah Martin thinks classes for teenagers are
more important than classes for adults.

15

3. According to Leah Martin, what was the direct


cause of Project Teen?
a. Tricia Cousins, the talented choreographer
and dance educator, was available to teach
courses in the fall.
b. Community organizations were ignoring local
teenagers.
c. The McGee Arts Foundation wanted to be
more involved in Allendales arts
programming.
d. She wanted to make the cultural center a more
important part of the Allendale community.

PS
C

5. From the context of the passage, it can be


determined that the word munificent most
nearly means
a. complicated.
b. generous.
c. curious.
d. unusual.

8. This article is organized in which of the


following ways?
a. in chronological order, from the past to the
future
b. most important information first, followed by
background and details.
c. background first, followed by the most important information and details.
d. as sensational news, with the most controversial topic first

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(excerpt from the opening of an untitled essay)

PS
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TU

IA

10. Suppose that the author is considering following


this sentence with supportive detail: Both
undergo great hardship to make the trek. Which
of the following sentences would be in keeping
with the comparison and contrast structure of
the paragraph?
a. The migrants in The Way West cross the
Missouri, then the Kaw, and make their way
overland to the Platte.
b. The Oklahomans jalopies break down
repeatedly, while the pioneers wagons need
frequent repairs.
c. Todays travelers would consider it a hardship
to spend several days, let alone several
months, getting anywhere.
d. The Joad family, in The Grapes of Wrath, loses
both grandmother and grandfather before the
journey is complete.

11. Which of the following excerpts from the essay is


an opinion, rather than a fact?
a. Both Steinbecks and Guthries characters are
primarily farmers.
b. Steinbecks Oklahomans are forced off
their land by the banks who own their
mortgages
c. John Steinbecks Grapes of Wrath, published
in 1939, was followed ten years later by A.B.
Guthries The Way West.
d. The pioneers decision to leave their farms
in Missouri and the East is frivolous and
ill-founded in comparison with the
Oklahomans

TO

9. From the context of the passage, it can be


determined that the word frivolous most
nearly means
a. silly.
b. high-minded.
c. difficult.
d. calculated.

LS

20

15

John Steinbecks Grapes of Wrath, published in 1939, was followed ten years later by A.B. Guthries The Way West.
Both books chronicle a migration, though that of Guthries pioneers is considerably less bleak in origin. What
strikes one at first glance, however, are the commonalities. Both Steinbecks and Guthries characters are primarily farmers. They look to their destinations with nearly religious enthusiasm, imagining their promised
land the way the Biblical Israelites envisioned Canaan. Both undergo great hardship to make the trek. But the
two sagas differ distinctly in origin. Steinbecks Oklahomans are forced off their land by the banks who own
their mortgages, and they follow a false promisethat jobs await them as seasonal laborers in California.
Guthries farmers willingly remove themselves, selling their land and trading their old dreams for their new hope
in Oregon. The pioneers decision to leave their farms in Missouri and the East is frivolous and ill-founded in
comparison with the Oklahomans unwilling response to displacement. Yet, it is they, the pioneers, whom our
history books declare the heroes.

12. The language in the paragraph implies that


which of the following will happen to the
Oklahomans when they arrive in California?
a. They will find a means to practice their
religion freely.
b. They will be declared national heroes.
c. They will not find the jobs they were
promised.
d. They will make their livings as mechanics
rather than as farm laborers.

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Reading Comprehension 2014

Bill Clintons Inaugural Address


(excerpt from the opening)

IA

15. When President Clinton says that most people


are working harder for less, he is
a. reaching a reasonable conclusion based on
evidence he has provided.
b. reaching an unreasonable conclusion based on
evidence he has provided.
c. making a generalization that would require
evidence before it could be confirmed.
d. making a generalization that is so obvious that
evidence is not needed.

TU

TO

13. What is the central topic of the speech so far?


a. how Americans can keep up with global
competition
b. ways in which technology has undermined
our economy
c. ways in which technology has improved
our lives
d. how change has affected America and our
need to adapt

LS

20

15

When George Washington first took the oath I have just sworn to uphold, news traveled slowly across the land
by horseback and across the ocean by boat. Now the sights and sounds of this ceremony are broadcast instantaneously to billions around the world. Communications and commerce are global. Investment is mobile. Technology is almost magical, and ambition for a better life is now universal.
We earn our livelihood in America today in peaceful competition with people all across the Earth. Profound
and powerful forces are shaking and remaking our world, and the urgent question of our time is whether we can
make change our friend and not our enemy. This new world has already enriched the lives of millions of
Americans who are able to compete and win in it. But when most people are working harder for less; when others cannot work at all; when the cost of healthcare devastates families and threatens to bankrupt our enterprises,
great and small; when the fear of crime robs law-abiding citizens of their freedom; and when millions of poor
children cannot even imagine the lives we are calling them to lead, we have not made change our friend.

PS
C

14. By comparing our times with those of George


Washington, Bill Clinton demonstrates
a. how apparently different, but actually similar,
the two eras are.
b. how technology has drastically speeded up
communications.
c. that presidential inaugurations receive huge
media attention.
d. that television is a much more convincing
communications tool than print.

16. Assuming that Clinton wants to add something


about crime being a more serious threat in our
time than in George Washingtons, which of the
following sentences would be most consistent
with the tone of the presidential speech?
a. If Id been alive in Georges day, I would have
enjoyed knowing that my wife and child could
walk city streets without being mugged.
b. In George Washingtons time, Americans may
not have enjoyed as many luxuries, but they
could rest in the awareness that their neighborhoods were safe.
c. George could at least count on one thing. He
knew that his family was safe from crime.
d. A statistical analysis of the overall growth in
crime rates since 1789 would reveal that a significant increase has occurred.

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Getting the
Essential
Information

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15

1
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magine, for a moment, that you are a detective. You have just been called to the scene of a crime; a house
has been robbed. Whats the first thing you should do when you arrive?
a. See whats on the TV.
b. Check whats in the fridge.
c. Get the basic facts of the case.

The answer, of course, is c, get the basic facts of the case: the who, what, when, where, how, and why. What
happened? To whom? When? Where? How did it happen? And why?
As a reader faced with a text, you go through a similar process. The first thing you should do is establish the
facts. What does this piece of writing tell you? What happens? To whom? When, where, how, and why? If you can
answer these basic questions, youre on your way to really comprehending what you read. (Youll work on
answering the more difficult questionWhy did it happen?in Lesson 2.)

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16

Reading Comprehension 2014

Something that we know for certain to have


happened
Something that we know for certain to be true
Something that we know for certain to exist

Jump right into the task of finding facts. The following


brief passage is similar to something you might see in
a newspaper. Read the passage carefully, and then
answer the questions that follow. Remember, careful
reading is active reading (see the Introduction), so
mark up the text as you go. Underline key words and
ideas; circle and define any unfamiliar words or phrases;
and record your reactions and questions in the margins.

IA

Much of what you read, especially today in this


Information Age, is designed to provide you with
facts. You may read, for example, about a new office
procedure that you must follow; about how the new
computer system works; about what happened at the
staff meeting. If youre taking a standardized test, youll
probably have to answer reading comprehension ques-

Practice Passage 1

15

Lets start with a definition. A fact is:

tions that ask about the facts in a reading passage.


These facts are not always easy to determine, especially
if the writing is dense or complicated. To make it simpler, ask yourself these questions as you read: What
facts am I expected to know? What am I to learn or be
aware of? What happened? What is true? What exists?

20

What Are the Facts?

LS

PS
C

TU

TO

On Friday, October 21, at approximately 8:30 a.m., Judith Reynolds, owner of


The Cupcake Factory, arrived at her establishment to find that it had been
robbed and vandalized overnight. The front window of the shop at 128 Broad
Street was broken, and chairs and tables were overturned throughout the caf
area. Additionally, the cash register had been pried open and emptied of money.
The thieves attempted to open the safe as well, but were unsuccessful. Ms.
Reynolds used her cell phone to report the crime to the police. She also phoned
the proprietor of Primo Pizza, located at 130 Broad Street, as she noticed that the
door of that restaurant showed signs of forced entry. The police department is
asking anyone with information to call 555-2323.
4. What was stolen?

2. When was the crime discovered?

5. Who called the police?

3. Where did it happen?

6. What other businesses were affected?

1. What happened to The Cupcake Factory?

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Reading Comprehension 2014

Remember, good reading is active reading. Did you mark up the passage? If so, it may have looked something
like this:
when
who

IA

5. Who called the police? Judith Reynolds, owner of


The Cupcake Factory.
6. What other businesses were affected? Possibly
Primo Pizza.

Youll notice that the answers to the questions


have all been underlined, because these are the key
words and ideas in this passage. But here are the
answers in a more conventional form.

LS

20

15

On Friday, October 21, at approximately 8:30 a.m., Judith Reynolds, owner of


what happened The Cupcake Factory, arrived at her establishment to find that it had been
robbery and
where
robbed and vandalized overnight. The front window of the shop at 128 Broad
vandalization
Street was broken, and chairs and tables were overturned throughout the caf
what a
area. Additionally, the cash register had been pried open and emptied of money.
interesting
mess!
thieves
attempted
to
open
The
the
safe
as
well,
but
were
unsuccessful.
Ms.
detail
money was
Reynolds used her cell phone to report the crime to the police. She also phoned
stolen
another
the proprietor of Primo Pizza, located at 130 Broad Street, as she noticed that the
business
door of that restaurant showed signs of forced entry. The police department is
was affected
asking anyone with information to call 555-2323.
unclear if anything was
taken from Primo Pizza
from this report

TO

1. What happened to The Cupcake Factory? It was


robbed and vandalized.

TU

2. When was the crime discovered? At 8:30 A.M. on


Friday, October 21.
3. Where did it happen? 128 Broad Street.

Notice that these questions went beyond the basic


who, what, when, and where to include some of the
details, like why the proprietor of the restaurant next
door was called. This is because details in reading comprehension, as well as in detective work, can be very
important clues that may help answer the remaining
questions: Who did it, how, and why?

PS
C

4. What was stolen? Money from the cash register.

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18

Reading Comprehension 2014

Practice Passage 2

This passage includes instructions for renewing a drivers license. Read it carefully and answer the questions
that follow.

15

Instructions for License Renewal

10. How does one obtain the renewal form?


11. True or False: You can renew your drivers license
by mail.

TO

7. What documents does one need to renew a


drivers license?

IA

LS

20

A drivers license must be renewed every four years. A renewal application is sent
approximately five to seven weeks before the expiration date listed on the license.
Individuals who fail to renew within three years of the license expiration date are
not eligible for a renewal and must repeat the initial licensing process. To renew
a license, you must visit a Motor Vehicles Agency. You must present a completed
renewal application; your current drivers license; acceptable proof of age, identification, and address; and proof of social security in the form of a social security card, a state or federal income tax return, a current pay stub, or a W-2 form.
You must also pay the required fee. If all the documents and payment are in order,
your photo will be taken and a new license will be issued.

8. What documents represent proof of social


security?

Before you look at the answers, look at the next


page to see how you might have marked up the passage
to highlight the important information.

PS
C

TU

9. How often must one renew a drivers license?

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Reading Comprehension 2014

L E S S O N

2
W

TU

TO

IA

LS

20

15

Finding the
Main Idea

PS
C

hen Lesson 1 talked about establishing the factsthe who, what, when, where, and howit
omitted one very important question: Why? Now youre ready to tackle that all-important question.
Just as theres a motive behind every crime, theres also a motive behind every piece of writing.
All writing is communication: A writer writes to convey his or her thoughts to an audience, the reader: you.
Just as you have something to say (a motive) when you pick up the phone to call someone, writers have something to say (a motive) when they pick up a pen or pencil to write. Where a detective might ask, Why did the butler do it? the reader might ask, Why did the author write this? What idea is he or she trying to convey? What
youre really asking is, What is the writers main idea?
Finding the main idea is much like finding the motive of the crime. Its the motive of the crime (the why)
that usually determines the other factors (the who, what, when, where, and how). Similarly, in writing, the main
idea also determines the who, what, when, and where the writer will write about, as well as how he or she will write.

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Reading Comprehension 2014

15

Look at the postal service paragraph once more.


You know what the subject is: the post office. Now, see
if you can determine the main idea. Read the passage
again and look for the idea that makes an assertion
about the postal service and holds together or controls
the whole paragraph. Then answer the following
question:

PS
C

TU

TO

You might be asked on a standardized test, What


is the main idea of this reading?
For this passage, you might be tempted to answer:
the post office.
But youd be wrong.
This passage is about the post office, yesbut
the post office is not the main idea of the passage.
The post office is merely the subject of the passage
(who or what the passage is about). The main idea
must say something about this subject. The main idea
of a text is usually an assertion about the subject. An
assertion is a statement that requires evidence (proof)
to be accepted as true.
The main idea of a passage is an assertion about
its subject, but it is something more: It is the idea that
also holds together or controls the passage. The other
sentences and ideas in the passage will all relate to that
main idea and serve as evidence that the assertion is
true. You might think of the main idea as a net that is

An assertion about the subject


The general idea that controls or holds together
the paragraph or passage

20

Todays postal service is more efficient and reliable


than ever before. Mail that used to take months to
move by horse and foot now moves around the
country in days or hours by truck, train, and plane.
First-class mail usually moves from New York City
to Los Angeles in three days or less. If your letter or
package is urgent, the U.S. Postal Service offers Priority Mail and Express Mail services. Priority Mail is
guaranteed to go anywhere in the United States in
two days or less. Express Mail will get your package
there overnight.

LS

Theres a difference between the subject of a piece of


writing and its main idea. To see the difference, look
again at the passage about the postal system. Dont
skip over it! You read it in Lesson 1, but please read it
again, and read it carefully.

cast over the other sentences. The main idea must be


general enough to hold all of these ideas together.
Thus, the main idea of a passage is:

IA

Subject vs. Main Idea

1. Which of the following sentences best summarizes the main idea of the passage?
a. Express Mail is a good way to send urgent
mail.
b. Mail service today is more effective and
dependable.
c. First-class mail usually takes three days or less.

Because a is specificit tells us only about Express


Mailit cannot be the main idea. It does not encompass
the rest of the sentences in the paragraphit doesnt
cover Priority Mail or first-class mail. Answer c is also
very specific. It tells us only about first class mail, so it,
too, cannot be the main idea.
But bMail service today is more effective and
dependableis general enough to encompass the
whole passage. And the rest of the sentences support
the idea that this sentence asserts: Each sentence offers
proof that the postal service today is indeed more
efficient and reliable. Thus, the writer aims to tell us
about the efficiency and reliability of todays postal
service.

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Reading Comprehension 2014

TO

Practice in Identifying Topic


Sentences

PS
C

TU

Remember that a topic sentence is a clear statement of


the main idea of a passage; it must be general enough
to encompass all the ideas in that passage, and it usually makes an assertion about the subject of that passage. Knowing all that, you can answer the following
question even without reading a passage.

15

20

The answer is b, Many different classes are


offered by the health club. Answers a, c, and d are all
specific examples of what is said in b, so they are not
general enough to be topic sentences.
Practice 2
Now look at the following paragraph. Underline the
sentence that expresses the main idea, and notice how
the other sentences work to support that main idea.

Youll notice that in the paragraph about the postal


service, the main idea is expressed clearly in the first
sentence: Todays postal service is more efficient
and reliable than ever before. A sentence, such as this
one, that clearly expresses the main idea of a paragraph or passage is often called a topic sentence.
In many cases, as in the postal service paragraph,
the topic sentence is at the beginning of the paragraph.
You will also frequently find it at the end. Less often, but
on occasion, the topic sentence may be in the middle of
the passage. Whatever the case, the topic sentencelike
Todays postal service is more efficient and reliable
than ever beforeis an assertion, and it needs proof.
The proof is found in the facts and ideas that make up
the rest of the passage. (Not all passages provide such
a clear topic sentence that states the main idea. Less
obvious passages will come up in later lessons.)

Practice 1
2. Which of the following sentences is general
enough to be a topic sentence?
a. The new health club has a great kickboxing
class.
b. Many different classes are offered by the
health club.
c. Pilates is a popular class at the health club.
d. The yoga class is offered on Saturday
mornings.

LS

Topic Sentences

IA

Erik always played cops and robbers when he was a


boy; now, hes a police officer. Suzanne always played
school as a little girl; today, she is a high-school
math teacher. Kara always played store; today, she
owns a chain of retail clothing shops. Long before
they are faced with the question, What do you want
to be when you grow up? some lucky people know
exactly what they want to do with their lives.
Which sentence did you underline? You should
have underlined the last sentence: Long before they are
faced with that question What do you want to be when
you grow up? some lucky people know exactly what
they want to do with their lives. This sentence is a
good topic sentence; it expresses the idea that holds
together the whole paragraph. The first three
sentencesabout Erik, Suzanne, and Karaare specific
examples of these lucky people. Notice that the topic
sentence is found at the end of the paragraph.

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Reading Comprehension 2014

L E S S O N

Defining
Vocabulary
in Context

TU

TO

IA

LS

20

15

3
U

PS
C

ometimes in your reading, you come across words or phrases that are unfamiliar to you. You might
be lucky and have a dictionary handy to look up that word or phrase, but what if you dont? How
can you understand what youre reading if you dont know what all of the words mean? The
answer is that you can use the rest of the passage, the context, to help you understand the new words.

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Reading Comprehension 2014

Finding Meaning from Context

The following paragraph is about one of our nations favorite pastimes, reality TV. Read it carefully, marking it
up as you gobut do NOT look up any unfamiliar words or phrases in a dictionary.

called determining word meaning through context.


Like detectives looking for clues at a crime scene, we
must look at the passage for clues that will help us
define this word.
So, given the sentence we have here, what can we
tell about obscure? Well, since the shows transform
waitresses, hairdressers, investment bankers, counselors, and teachers from one positionobscure figures,
to another positionhousehold names, that immediately tells us that an obscure figure and a household
name are two different things.
Furthermore, we know from the sentence that
the people in question are involved in typical, everyday
jobs (waitresses, hairdressers, bankers, etc.) and that
from this position, they are transformed into household names, which means they achieve some level of
fame and notoriety. Now you can take a pretty good
guess at the meaning of obscure.

TU

TO

As you read, you may have circled some words


that are unfamiliar. Did you circle obscure and proliferate? If so, dont look them up in a dictionary yet. If
you do a little detective work, you can determine their
definitions by looking carefully at how they are used
in the paragraph.

IA

LS

20

15

Most reality TV shows center on two common motivators: fame and money. The
shows transform waitresses, hairdressers, investment bankers, counselors, and
teachers, to name a few, from obscure figures to household names. A lucky few
successfully parlay their 15 minutes of fame into celebrity. Even if you are not
interested in fame, you can probably understand the desire for lots of money.
Watching people eat large insects, reveal their innermost thoughts to millions of
people, and allow themselves to be filmed 24 hours a day for a huge financial
reward makes for interesting viewing. Whatever their attraction, these shows are
among the most popular on television, and every season, they proliferate like
weeds in an untended garden. The networks are quickly replacing more traditional dramas and comedies with reality TV programs, which earn millions in
advertising revenue. Whether you love it or hate it, one thing is for surereality
TV is here to stay!

What Does Obscure Mean?

PS
C

Start with obscure. How is this word used?

The shows transform waitresses, hairdressers,


investment bankers, counselors, and teachers, to
name a few, from obscure figures to household
names.
Even if you have no idea what obscure means,
you can still learn about the word by how it is used, by
examining the words and ideas surrounding it. This is

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Reading Comprehension 2014

1. Before they become household names, the


waitresses, hairdressers, investment bankers,
counselors, and teachers are
a. famous and notorious.
b. unknown and undistinguished.
c. unique and distinctive.

What Does Proliferate Mean?

Look again at the sentence in the passage in which


proliferate is used:

LS

20

Again, even if you have no idea what proliferate


means, you can still tell what kind of word it is by the
way it is used. You know, for example, that these shows
proliferate like weeds in an untended garden. Therefore,
you can answer this question:

IA

3. Proliferate is a word associated with


a. growth.
b. reduction.
c. disappearance.

TO

The correct answer, of course, is b. It certainly


cant be a, because we know that these people are not
yet famous. The reality shows will make them famous,
but until that happens, they remain obscure. Answer c
doesnt really make sense because we know from the
passage that these people are waitresses, hairdressers,
investment bankers, counselors, and teachers. Now,
these are all very respectable jobs, but they are fairly
common, so they wouldnt be described as unique or
distinctive. Furthermore, we can tell that b is the correct answer because we can substitute the word obscure
with the word unknown or undistinguished in the sentence and both would make sense.

15

Whatever their attraction, these shows are among


the most popular on television, and every season,
they proliferate like weeds in an untended garden.

TU

Review: Finding Facts


Heres a quick review of what you learned in Lesson 1.
Reality TV has the ability to take ordinary people and
make them famous. However, another reason people
participate in reality TV shows is

PS
C

2. a. for money.
b. because they feel lucky.
c. because they are bored.

A quick check of the facts in the paragraph will


tell you the answer is a, for money.

The answer, of course, is growth. How can you


tell? Well, we all know that weeds have a tendency to
grow wherever they can.
Now that youve established that proliferate relates
to growth, you can determine a more specific meaning
by looking for more clues in the sentence. The sentence
doesnt only tell us that these shows proliferate like
weeds. It also tells us that they proliferate like weeds in
an untended garden. Just imagine a neglected garden,
one that has been left to its own devices. Weeds will
begin to grow in every nook and cranny of that garden.
In fact, theyll quickly take over, to the detriment of the
plants. The phrase weeds in an untended garden is
quite descriptive, and as such, it serves as a wonderful
clue. Based on the words and phrases surrounding it,
an active reader should have no problem determining
the meaning of the word proliferate.
4. Proliferate in this passage means
a. decrease, shrink.
b. underestimate, play down.
c. increase, spread at a rapid rate.
d. fail, fall short.

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Reading Comprehension 2014

Answers

Read the following passages and determine the meaning of the words from their context. The answers appear
immediately after the questions.

TO

7. Overt means.
a. embarrassing, awkward.
b. subtle, suggestive.
c. obvious, not hidden.

When you are in an interview, try not to show any


overt signs that you are nervous. Dont shift in your
chair, shake, or stutter.

IA

6. Lucrative means.
a. highly profitable.
b. highly rewarding.
c. highly exciting.

LS

20

Although social work is not a particularly lucrative


career, I wouldnt do anything else. Knowing Im
helping others is far more important to me than
money.

6. a. The writer says money is not important to


him. If money is not an issue, it is okay that
social work is not highly profitable, that it
doesnt earn a lot of money.
7. c. Shifting, shaking, and stuttering are all
obvious, not hidden signs of nervousness.
They are not b, subtle or suggestive; and
though they may make the interviewee feel a,
embarrassed or awkward, the signs themselves are not embarrassing or awkward.
8. b. Because the writer hadnt eaten since breakfast, she is extremely hungry, greedy for food.
She may also be c, exhausted, but the context
tells us that this word has something to do
with eating.

15

Practice

TU

By the time our staff meeting ended at 8:00, I was


ravenous. I had skipped lunch and hadnt eaten since
breakfast.

The ability to determine the meaning of unfamiliar


words from their context is an essential skill for reading comprehension. Sometimes, there will be unfamiliar words whose meaning you cant determine
without a dictionary. But more often than not, a careful look at the context will give you enough clues to
meaning.

PS
C

8. Ravenous means
a. like a raven, bird-like.
b. extremely hungry, greedy for food.
c. exhausted, ready for bed.

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Reading Comprehension 2014

L E S S O N

The Difference
between Fact
and Opinion

TU

TO

IA

LS

20

15

4
U

PS
C

hats the difference between fact and opinion, and what does it matter, anyway? It matters a great
deal, especially when it comes to reading comprehension.
During your life, youll be exposed to a wide variety of literature, ranging from analytical articles based on cold hard facts to fictional novels that arise wholly from the authors imagination. However,
much of what you read will be a mixture of facts and the authors opinions. Part of becoming a critical reader means
realizing that opinions are not evidence; for opinions to be valid, they must be supported by cold, hard facts.
Facts are:

Things known for certain to have happened


Things known for certain to be true
Things known for certain to exist
Opinions, on the other hand, are:

Things believed to have happened


Things believed to be true
Things believed to exist

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Reading Comprehension 2014

As you can see, the key difference between fact


and opinion lies in the difference between believing
and knowing. Opinions may be based on facts, but they
are still what we think, not what we know. Opinions are
debatable; facts are not.

James is a terrible boss. I really dont like him. He just


cant get along with people. And he has stupid ideas
about politics.

James is a terrific boss.

TU

20

LS

TO

This sentence is a good topic sentence; its an


assertion about the subject, James. And it is also an
opinion. It is, after all, debatable; someone could just
as easily take the opposite position and say:
James is a terrible boss.

Why is the first paragraph so much better?


Because its not just opinion. Its opinion supported by
evidence. The second paragraph is all opinion. Every
sentence is debatable; every sentence tells us what the
author believes is true, but not what is known to be
true. The author of the second paragraph doesnt provide any evidence to support why he or she thinks that
James is such a lousy boss. As a result, were not likely
to take his or her opinion very seriously.
In the first paragraph, on the other hand, the
writer offers concrete evidence for why he or she
believes James is a great boss. After the initial opinion,
the writer provides factsspecific things James does
(which can be verified by other observers) that make
him a good boss. You may still not agree that James is
a great boss, but at least you can see exactly why this
writer thinks so.

IA

Reasonable opinions are those based on fact; and indeed,


that is what much of writing is: the writers opinion (an
assertion about his or her subject) supported by facts
or other evidence.
Think about the topic sentences you formed after
you finished Lesson 2. Perhaps you made an assertion
like this:

15

Using Facts to Support Opinions

with facts about how James treats his employees. Now


that paragraph is much more effective than something
like this:

PS
C

This is another good topic sentence, and its


another opinion. Now, a good writer will show his or
her readers that this opinion is valid by supporting it
with facts. For example:

James is a terrific boss. He always asks us how were


doing. He lets us leave early or come in late when we
have to take care of our children. He always gives
holiday bonuses. And he offers tuition reimbursement for any course, even if it has nothing to do with
our position.

Notice how the topic sentence states an opinion,


whereas the rest of the sentences support that opinion

Distinguishing Fact from


Opinion

When you read academic materials, very often you will


have to distinguish between fact and opinion
between what the writer thinks and how the writer
supports what he or she thinks, between what is proven
to be true and what needs to be proved.
A good test for whether something is a fact or
opinion might be to ask yourself, Can this statement
be debated? Is this known for certain to be true? If you
answer yes to the first question, you have an opinion; if
you answer yes to the second, you have a fact.

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Reading Comprehension 2014

L E S S O N

TU

TO

IA

LS

20

15

Putting It All
Together

PS
C

n order to solve a crime, a detective cannot just get the facts of the case, just discover the motive, just decipher difficult clues, or just distinguish between fact and opinion. To be successful, a detective must do all
these things at the same time. Similarly, reading really cant be broken down into these separate tasks. Reading comprehension comes from employing all these strategies simultaneously. This lesson gives you the opportunity to combine these strategies and take your reading comprehension skills to the next level.

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Reading Comprehension 2014

Review: What Youve


Learned so Far

be true. You practiced distinguishing between the


two and saw how good paragraphs use facts to
support opinions.

These are the strategies you studied in the past four


lessons:

15

20

IA

LS

In this lesson, you will sharpen your reading comprehension skills by using all of these strategies at once.
This will become more natural to you as your reading
skills develop.

Practice Passage 1

Begin by looking at the following paragraph. Remember to read actively; mark up the text as you go. Then
answer the questions on the next page. An example of
how to mark up the passage, as well as the answers to
the questions, follow.

TO

Practice

TU

It is clear that the United States is a nation that needs to eat healthier and slim
down. One of the most important steps in the right direction would be for school
cafeterias to provide healthy, low-fat options for students. In every town and city,
an abundance of fast-food restaurants lure teenage customers with fast, inexpensive, and tasty food, but these foods are typically unhealthy. Unfortunately,
school cafeteriasin an effort to provide food that is appetizing to young
peoplemimic fast food menus, often serving items such as burgers and fries,
pizza, hot dogs, and fried chicken. While these foods do provide some nutritional
value, they are relatively high in fat. Many of the lunch selections school cafeterias currently offer could be made healthier with a few simple and inexpensive
substitutions. Veggie burgers, for example, offered alongside beef burgers, would
be a positive addition. A salad bar would also serve the purpose of providing a
healthy and satisfying meal. And tasty grilled chicken sandwiches would be a far
better option than fried chicken. Additionally, the beverage case should be
stocked with containers of low-fat milk.

PS
C

Lesson 1: Find the facts in what you read. You


practiced looking for the basic information that
was being conveyed in the paragraphs: the who,
what, when, where, and how.
Lesson 2: Find the main idea. You learned about
topic sentences and how they express an assertion
about the subject of the paragraph. You saw how
the main idea must be general enough to encompass all other sentences in the paragraph; it is the
thought that controls the paragraph, and the other
sentences work to support that main idea.
Lesson 3: Determine the meaning of words from
context. You practiced looking for clues to
determine meaning in the words and sentences
surrounding the unfamiliar word or phrase.
Lesson 4: Distinguish between fact and opinion.
You learned that a fact is something known to be
true, whereas an opinion is something believed to

If any of these terms or strategies sound


unfamiliar to you, STOP. Take a few minutes
to review whatever lesson is unclear.

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Reading Comprehension 2014

15

2. According to the passage, which of the following


options would make healthy, low-fat additions to
a school cafeterias offerings? (Circle all correct
answers.)
a. tofu
b. veggie burgers
c. low-fat milk
d. fries
e. salad bar
f. grilled chicken sandwiches
g. stir-fried vegetables

4. Which of the following best summarizes the


main idea of the passage?
a. Teenagers love to eat fast food more than anything else.
b. School cafeterias should serve veggie burgers.
c. School cafeterias should be providing healthy,
low-fat options for students.
5. True or False: One of the most important steps
in the right direction would be for school cafeterias to provide healthy, low-fat options for students is a topic sentence.

20

1. What is the subject of this passage?

LS

6. True or False: One of the most important steps


in the right direction would be for school
cafeterias to provide healthy, low-fat options for
students is an opinion.

IA

3. The meaning of mimic is


a. reject.
b. copy.
c. ignore.
d. disregard.

TO

Marking Practice Passage 1


Before you check the answers, look again at the paragraph. Did you mark it up? If so, it may look something like this:

main idea

high-fat
lunch
offerings

PS
C

TU

It is clear that the United States is a nation that needs to eat healthier and slim
down. One of the most important steps in the right direction would be for school
cafeterias to provide healthy, low-fat options for students. In every town and city,
an abundance of fast-food restaurants lure teenage customers with fast, inexpensive, and tasty food, but these foods are typically unhealthy. Unfortunately,
school cafeteriasin an effort to provide food that is appetizing to young
peoplemimic fast food menus, often serving items such as burgers and fries,
to copy
pizza, hot dogs, and fried chicken. While these foods do provide some nutritional
value, they are relatively high in fat. Many of the lunch selections school cafeterias currently offer could be made healthier with a few simple and inexpensive
substitutions. Veggie burgers, for example, offered alongside beef burgers, would
possible healthy be a positive addition. A salad bar would also serve the purpose of providing a
low-fat lunch
healthy and satisfying meal. And tasty grilled chicken sandwiches would be a far
options
better option than fried chicken. Additionally, the beverage case should be
stocked with containers of low-fat milk.

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Reading Comprehension 2014

4. c. Answer a is an assumption not based on anything written in the passage. Answer b is too
specificit is only one example of a healthy, lowfat lunch option that a school cafeteria can serve.
Only c is general and factual enough to encompass
the whole paragraph.
5. True. This sentence expresses the main idea.
6. True. This sentence is an opinion. It is debatable.
Someone else might think that altering the menu
in school cafeterias isnt one of the most important
steps to be taken in order to make the United
States a healthier, slimmer nation. They might
think that launching a public service ad campaign
about the dangers of fast food or implementing
more rigorous classroom education about eating
healthy is more important than changing the
menus of school cafeterias.

20

LS

IA

How did you do? If you got all six answers correct,
congratulations! If you missed one or more questions,
check the following table to see which lessons to review.
IF YOU MISSED:

THEN STUDY:

Question 1

Lesson 2

Question 2

Lesson 1

Question 3

Lesson 3

Question 4

Lesson 2

Question 5

Lesson 2

Question 6

Lesson 4

PS
C

TU

TO

1. The subject of the passage is healthier, low-fat


lunch options in school cafeterias. Remember, the
subject of a passage is who or what the passage is
about.
2. b, c, e, f. These results are all mentioned in the
passage. Tofu (a) and stir-fried vegetables (g) are
both healthy, low-fat lunch options, but they are
not mentioned in the passage. Fries (d) are mentioned, but they are not low-fat and are mentioned as one of the unhealthy items that should
be replaced.
Remember, youre looking for the facts that the
author has provided. It is extremely important,
especially in test situations, not to put in an answer
that isnt in the text. Logic may tell you that tofu
and stir-fried vegetables are healthy, low-fat lunch
options, but the paragraph doesnt tell you this.
You need to stick to the facts. Any assumption
that you make about a passage must be grounded
in evidence found in that passage itself.
3. b. Mimic means to copy. The most obvious clue is
the way the word is used in the sentence. Unfortunately, school cafeteriasin an effort to provide
food that is appetizing to young peoplemimic fast
food menus, often serving items such as burgers and
fries, pizza, hot dogs, and fried chicken. Burgers and
fries, pizza, hot dogs, and fried chicken are all
foods served by fast-food restaurants, and if school
cafeterias are also serving those foods, they are
clearly copying fast-food menus, not rejecting,
ignoring, or disregarding them.

15

Answers

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Practice Passage 2

Try one more paragraph to conclude this first section. Once again, mark up the paragraph carefully and then answer
the questions that follow.

PS
C

8. Johnson died in
a. 1927.
b. 1938.
c. 1929.

TU

TO

7. According to the passage, from what musical


tradition did Robert Johnson emerge?
a. rock and roll
b. jazz
c. blues

IA

LS

20

15

Robert Johnson is the best blues guitarist of all time. There is little information
available about this legendary blues guitarist, and the information is as much
rumor as fact. What is indisputable, however, is Johnsons tremendous impact
on the world of rock and roll. Some consider Johnson the father of modern rock:
His influence extends to artists from Muddy Waters to Led Zeppelin, from the
Rolling Stones to the Allman Brothers Band. Eric Clapton has called Johnson the
most important blues musician who ever lived. Considering his reputation, it is
hard to believe that Johnson recorded only 29 songs before his death in 1938, purportedly at the hands of a jealous husband. He was only 27 years old, yet he left
an indelible mark on the music world. Again and again, contemporary rock
artists return to Johnson, whose songs capture the very essence of the blues,
transforming our pain and suffering with the healing magic of his guitar. Rock
music wouldnt be what it is today without Robert Johnson.

9. True or False: Johnson influenced many rock


artists, including Led Zeppelin and the Rolling
Stones.
10. Johnsons cause of death was
a. heart attack.
b. old age.
c. murder.

11. Indelible means


a. permanent, impossible to remove.
b. fleeting, brief.
c. troubling, disturbing.
12. The main idea of this paragraph is best expressed
in which sentence in the paragraph?
13. Indicate whether the following sentences are fact
or opinion:
a. Robert Johnson is the best blues guitarist of
all time.
b. Eric Clapton has called Johnson the most
important blues musician who ever lived.
c. Rock music wouldnt be what it is today
without Robert Johnson.

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Start from the


Beginning:
Chronological
Order

L E S S O N

TU

TO

IA

LS

20

15

6
U

PS
C

here are many ways to tell a story. Some stories start in the middle and flash backward to the beginning; a few start at the end and tell the story in reverse. But most of the time, stories start at the
beginning. Writers often begin with what happened first and then tell what happened next, and next,
and so on, until the end. When writers tell a story in this order, from beginning to end in the order in which things
happened, they are telling it in chronological order. Chronology is the arrangement of events in the order in which
they occurred.

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Reading Comprehension 2014

Chronology and Transitions

Employee. Finally, President Lucas ended the ceremony by giving everyone a bonus check for $100.
The underlined wordsfirst, second, then, when,
afterward, third, and finallyare transitional words
that keep these events linked together in chronological
order. Look at how the paragraph sounds without these
words:

This years employee award ceremony was a tremendous success. The first award was given to Carlos Fe
for Perfect Attendance. The second award, for Most
Dedicated Employee, went to Jennifer Steele. Then,
our president, Martin Lucas, interrupted the awards
ceremony to announce that he and his wife were
having a baby. When he finished, everyone stood up
for a congratulatory toast. Afterward, the third
award was given to Karen Hunt for Most Inspiring
Employee. Finally, President Lucas ended the ceremony by giving everyone a bonus check for $100.

This years employee award ceremony was a tremendous success. The award was given to Carlos Fe for
Perfect Attendance. The award for Most Dedicated
Employee went to Jennifer Steele. Our president,
Martin Lucas, interrupted the awards ceremony to
announce that he and his wife were having a baby.
He finished; everyone stood up for a congratulatory toast. The award was given to Karen Hunt for
Most Inspiring Employee. President Lucas ended
the ceremony by giving everyone a bonus check
for $100.

TO

IA

LS

20

15

Much of what you read is arranged in chronological


order. Newspaper and magazine articles, minutes of
meetings, explanations of procedures, and so on are
usually arranged this way. For example, look at the following paragraph that might be found in a company
newsletter:

PS
C

TU

Youll notice that this paragraph tells what happened at the ceremony from start to finish. Youll also
notice that you can tell the order in which things happened in two ways. First, you can tell by the order of the
sentences themselvesfirst things first, last things last.
Second, you can tell by the use of transitional words and
phrases, which signal a shift from one idea to the next.
Here is the same paragraph with the transitional words
underlined:

This years employee award ceremony was a tremendous success. The first award was given to Carlos Fe
for Perfect Attendance. The second award, for Most
Dedicated Employee, went to Jennifer Steele. Then,
our president, Martin Lucas, interrupted the awards
ceremony to announce that he and his wife were
having a baby. When he finished, everyone stood up
for a congratulatory toast. Afterward, the third
award was given to Karen Hunt for Most Inspiring

It doesnt sound quite as good, does it?

Practice with Transitional


Words and Phrases

Practice Passage 1

Heres a more extreme example of a paragraph with the


transitional words and phrases omitted:
I went to work early to get some extra filing done. I
got there; the phone started ringing. My boss walked
in. He asked me to type a letter for him. He asked me
to make arrangements for a client to stay in town
overnight. I looked at my watch; it was already 11:00.
Now, take the paragraph and add the following
transitional words and phrases:

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Reading Comprehension 2014

After youve found the best terms, be


sure to find out what the minimum
account balance is and ask what the
penalties are if your account drops
below the limit.

yesterday
a moment later
then

immediately
as soon as
when

_____________ I went to work early to get some


extra filing done. _____________ I got there, the
phone started ringing. ____________ my boss
walked in. ____________ he asked me to type a
letter for him. ____________ he asked me to make
arrangements for a client to stay in town overnight. __________ I looked at my watch, it was
already 11:00.

20

15

In order to open a money market


account, you should follow several
steps.
Then you should shop around for the
best terms and yields available.

You might have come up with a slightly different version, but heres one good way to fill in the blanks:

TU

TO

Yesterday, I went to work early to get some extra filing done. As soon as I got there, the phone started
ringing. A moment later, my boss walked in. Immediately, he asked me to type up a letter for him.
Then he asked me to make arrangements for a client
to stay in town overnight. When I looked at my
watch, it was already 11:00.

PS
C

Practice Passage 2

Here is a series of events listed in random order. Use the


transitional words and phrases in each sentence to help
you put them in proper chronological order. Number
the sentences from 16 in the blank provided.

If the penalty structure is to your liking, make sure that the money market
account is FDIC insured.

Finally, once the account is opened and


you are earning interest, you should
consider using that interest to pay off
outstanding credit card debt.

LS

Answers

IA

See how much better the paragraph sounds with


transitional words and phrases to guide you?

First, you should decide what features


are important to you.

Answers

You should have numbered the blanks in this order: 5,


4, 1, 3, 6, 2. Heres how the sentences look together in
a paragraph.
In order to open a money market account, you
should follow several steps. First, you should decide
what features are important to you. Then you should
shop around for the best terms and yields available.
After youve found the best terms, be sure to find out
what the minimum account balance is and ask what
the penalties are if your account drops below the
limit. If the penalty structure is to your liking, make
sure that the money market account is FDIC
insured. Finally, once the account is opened and
you are earning interest, you should consider using
that interest to pay off outstanding credit card debt.

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L E S S O N

TU

TO

IA

LS

20

15

Order of
Importance

PS
C

ts a scientifically proven fact: People remember most what they learn first and last in a given session. Writers have instinctively known this for a long time. Thats why many pieces of writing are organized not in
chronological order but by order of importance.
Imagine again that the writer is like an architect. How would this type of writer arrange the rooms? By hierarchy. A hierarchy is a group of things arranged by rank or order of importance. In this type of organizational pattern, hierarchy, not chronology, determines order. Thus, this architect would lay the rooms out like so: When you
walk in the front door, the first room you encounter would be the presidents office, then the vice presidents, then
the assistant vice presidents, and so on down to the lowest ranking worker. Or, vice versa, the architect may choose
for you to meet the least important employee first, the one with the least power in the company. Then the next,
and the next, until at last, you reach the president.
Likewise, in writing, ideas may be arranged in order of importance. In this pattern, which idea comes first?
Not the one that happened first, but the one that is most, or least, important.

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15

20

Since the writer is going from most to least


important, then according the passage, the third most
important thing is to look at the environment of the
doctors office.
4. Finally, what is the least important tip the writer
offers?
Of course, the answer is the last piece of advice
the writer offers: Spend some time talking with the
receptionist.

PS
C

TU

TO

Choosing a doctor is an important decision. Here


are some things you can do to make the best choice.
The single most important thing is to interview the
doctors you are considering. Ask questions about the
practice, office hours, and how quickly he or she
responds to phone calls. Pay attention to the doctors
communication skills and how comfortable you are
with him or her. The second thing you should do is
check the doctors credentials. One way to do this is
to ask your healthcare insurance company how they
checked the doctors credentials before accepting
him or her into their network. Another thing you
can do is to look at the environment of the doctors
office. Be sure patients arent waiting too long and
that the office is clean and professional. Finally,
spend some time talking with the receptionist. Keep
in mind that this is the person youll come into contact with every time you call or come into the office.
If he or she is pleasant and efficient, it will certainly
make your overall experience better.

3. Whats the third most important thing?

LS

In the following paragraph, the writer starts with what


is most important, hoping that by putting this item
first, the reader will be sure to remember it. After you
read the passage, answer the questions that follow. Each
question is followed by its answer to guide you through
your reading of the passage.

When a writer starts out by saying the most


important thing, you know that the writer will be
starting with the most important idea and ending with
the least important. The second best thing, therefore,
is the second piece of advice offered in the paragraph:
Check the doctors credentials.

IA

Most Important to Least


Important

1. According to the passage, whats the most important thing you can do to be sure you choose the
right doctor?
The answer, of course, should be clear: The writer
tells you clearly that the single most important thing
is to interview the doctors you are considering.
2. What is the second most important thing you
can to choose the right doctor?

Least Important to Most


Important

Some writers prefer the opposite approach, depending


on the subject and the effect they want their writing to
have. Rather than starting with the most important
idea, they prefer to end with what is most important.
Not only do they leave you with a strong concluding
impression, but they also take advantage of the snowball effect. The snowball effect is the buildup or force
that a writer gets from starting with whats least important and moving toward whats most important. Like
a snowball, the writers idea builds and builds, gets
bigger and bigger, more and more important. By starting with the least important point, writers can also
create suspensethe reader is waiting for that final
idea. And each idea or item builds upon the ones that
come before it (as in a snowball).

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Reading Comprehension 2014

Heres an example of a passage that builds from least important to most important. Read the passage, marking it up as you go along. Answer the questions that follow.

TU

TO

IA

LS

20

15

There are a number of reasons why the current voting age of 18 should be lowered to 16. First, a lower voting age in the United States would encourage other
countries to follow this example. Many countries are discussing and debating the
pros and cons of lowering the voting age, and if the United States gives 16-yearolds the right to vote, it will serve as an important example for the rest of the
world.
More importantly, if 16-year-olds are old enough to engage in other adult
activities, then they are old enough to vote. In many states, 16-year-olds can work,
get a drivers license, and engage in many other adult activities that make them
mature enough to vote. If, at 16, a young person is old enough to manage the
responsibilities of work and school, then it is clear that they are responsible
enough to make informed decisions about politics and politicians.
But the most important reason why the voting age should be lowered to 16
is that it will decrease apathy and cynicism while stimulating a lifelong interest
in political participation. Many young people feel as though their opinion
doesnt matter. By the time they reach voting age, they are often disenchanted
with politics and cynical about the entire political process. If the voting age was
lowered to 16, young people would know that their opinion does count. They
would be inspired to exercise their right to vote not just as young adults but
throughout their lives. The long-term resultsa much higher percentage of
interested voters and better voter turnoutwill benefit our entire nation.

PS
C

In the following spaces, list the reasons the author


provides for why the voting age should be lowered in
the order in which they are listed in the passage. In the
next set of blanks, list those same reasons in their order
of importance.

Order of Presentation
1.
2.

Order of Importance
1.
2.
3.
You see, of course, that the orders are reversed:
The author starts with what is least important and
ends with what is most important. Why? Why not the
other way around?

3.

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20

LS

TU

TO

IA

12

Diction:
Whats in a
Word?

15

L E S S O N

PS
C

hat made Sherlock Holmes such a good detective? Was he just much smarter than everyone else?
Did he have some sort of magical powers? Could he somehow see into the future or into the
past? No, Sherlock Holmes was no medium or magician. So what was his secret?
His powers of observation.
You may recall that the introduction to this book talked about active reading. As an active reader, you should
have been marking up the passages youve read in this book: identifying unfamiliar vocabulary, underlining key
words and ideas, and recording your reactions and questions in the margin. But theres another part of active reading we havent talked about: making observations.

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Particular words and phrases the writer uses


The way those words and phrases are arranged in
sentences and paragraphs
Repeated word or sentence patterns
Important details about people, places, and things

When you make observations, you can then make


valid inferences. As a matter of fact, you did this in Lesson 11 when you made assumptions about how the
writer wanted to be perceived based on the point of
view he or she used.
Observations and Inferences

You dont need Sherlock Holmess magnifying


glass to see the difference between sentence A and sentence B: B uses the words draconian and new to describe
the parking policy, while A uses only new. (Go back to
Lesson 3 if youve forgotten what draconian means.)
Now that you have noticed this, why is it important?
1. What does sentence B tell you that sentence A
doesnt?
a. what type of policy is being discussed
b. how the writer feels about the policy
c. when the policy begins

The answer is b. Both sentences tell you that the


policy is a new parking policy, and both say that the
policy goes into effect on Monday. But sentence B,
because it adds the word draconian, tells you how the
writer feels about the new policy: He doesnt like it. His
opinion is implied through his choice of the word draconian. Rather than directly saying, I think the policy
is very severe, the writer suggests or implies that this is
the way he feels.

PS
C

TU

TO

Inferences, as you may recall, are conclusions based


on reason, fact, or evidence. Good inferences come
from good observations. The observations are the evidence for the inferences. Good inferencesones based
on careful observationcan help you determine
meaning, as they helped Sherlock Holmes solve crimes.
To be better readers, then, we need to be more like
Sherlock Holmes: We need to be better observers. In the
story The Adventure of the Blanched Soldier, Sherlock Holmes tells a client: I see no more than you, but
I have trained myself to notice what I see. You dont have
to be Einstein to be a good reader; you just have to train
yourself to notice what you see.

15

A. The towns new parking policy, which goes into


effect on Monday, should significantly reduce
traffic congestion on Main Street.
B. The towns draconian new parking policy, which
goes into effect on Monday, should significantly
reduce traffic congestion on Main Street.

20

Test your observation skills on these two sentences:

LS

Making observations means looking carefully at the


text and noticing specific things about how it is written.
You might notice, for example, the point of view the
author has chosen. You could also notice:

Obser ving Diction

IA

Making Obser vations

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15

A. The political parties are meeting with the hopes


of clearing up their differences.
B. The political parties have entered into negotiations in an attempt to resolve their conflict.
Both sentences convey the same information:
Two parties are meeting because they have a disagreement of some sort to address. But the differences in the
diction of each sentence tell us that these two situations
arent exactly the sameor at least that the two writers have different perceptions about the situations.
What differences did you notice between these two
sentences? List them below (an example has been provided to get you started):
Your Observations:
Example: I noticed that sentence A says the political
parties are meeting, whereas sentence B says they
have entered into negotiations.

PS
C

TU

TO

Do the two sentences now mean the same thing?


Yes and no. Both firm and draconian suggest that the
policy is strict, but each word has a specific implication
or suggested meaning about how strict that policy is. A
firm policy is not as strict as a draconian policy. Furthermore, draconian suggests that the policy is not only
strict but unfairly or unreasonably so.
So, the words writers choose, even though they
may mean the same thing when you look them up in
the dictionary, actually have another level of meaning.
This is called their connotation. Connotation is the
implied meaning, the meaning that evolves when the
dictionary definition (denotation) develops an emotional or social register or a suggestion of degree. The
specific words writers choosetheir diction or word
choicecan therefore reveal a great deal about how
authors feel about their subjects.

Put your powers of observation to work on the following sentences. Read them carefully and then write down
what you notice about each writers specific choice of
words. See if you can use the writers diction to determine what they are inferring about the seriousness of
the situation they are describing:

20

A. The towns firm new parking policy, which goes


into effect on Monday, should significantly
reduce traffic congestion on Main Street.
B. The towns draconian new parking policy, which
goes into effect on Monday, should significantly
reduce traffic congestion on Main Street.

How Diction Influences


Meaning

LS

Now, suppose sentence A also had another adjective to


describe the new policy:

IA

Denotation and Connotation

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Reading Comprehension 2014

of confusion between the two. However, resolve


suggests that there is a matter that must be solved
or settled. And, of course, conflict indicates a
more serious problem than differences.

Now that youve listed your observations, answer


this question: In which sentence do you think the situation is more serious, and why do you think so? (The
why is especially important.)

Reading between the Lines

LS

IA

The political parties in sentence B are not just


meeting, theyve entered into negotiations.
This phrase is often used to describe disagreements between warring parties. And negotiations are much more formal than meetings,
suggesting that there is a serious difference to be
resolved in sentence B.
Whereas in sentence A they are ironing things out,
the parties in sentence B only attempt to resolve
the problems. This important difference suggests
that the problem between the parties in sentence A
is not that seriousthe problem is likely to be
resolved. In sentence B, on the other hand, in an
attempt suggests that the problem is quite serious
and that it will be difficult to resolve; the outlook
is doubtful rather than hopeful.
In sentence A, the parties are seeking to clear up
their differences, whereas in sentence B, the parties want to resolve their conflict. The phrase
clear up suggests that there is merely some sort

PS
C

TU

TO

Paragraph A
Nicole Bryan usually completes her work on
time and checks it carefully. She is a competent lab
technician and is familiar with several ways to evaluate test results. She has some knowledge of the latest medical research, which has been helpful.

The difference in word choice should tell you that


sentence B describes the more serious situation. Here
are some of the observations you might have made
about the writers diction that would have told you so:

20

15

Looking at diction can be especially helpful when the


writers main idea isnt quite clear. For example, in the
following paragraphan excerpt from a letter of recommendationthe author doesnt provide a topic
sentence that expresses the main idea. Instead, you
must use your powers of observation to answer the
question about how the author feels about the
described employee.

2. What message does the writer of paragraph A


convey about Nicole Bryan?
a. Nicole Bryan is an exceptional employee. Hire
her immediately!
b. Nicole Bryan is an average employee. She
doesnt do outstanding work, but she wont
give you any trouble.
c. Nicole Bryan is a lousy worker. Dont even
think about hiring her.

To answer this question, you made an inference.


Now, support your inference with specific observations about the language in this paragraph. Why do you
think your answer is correct? (An example has been
provided to get you started.)

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15

20

TU

TO

IA

20

Drawing
Conclusions:
Putting It All
Together

LS

L E S S O N

Lesson 16: Finding an implied main idea. You practiced looking for clues in structure, language, and style,
as well as the facts of the passage, to determine the main idea.
Lesson 17: Understanding implied causes and effects. You learned to read between the lines to determine
causes and make predictions about effects.
Lesson 18: Emotional and logical appeals. You learned that arguments that appeal to readers emotions
must be supported by logic, as well in order, to be convincing.
Lesson 19: Finding the theme in literature. You used your detective skills to find the main idea implied by
the structure, language, style, and action in a work of literature.

PS
C

oure almost at the end of this book. If youve been doing a lesson every weekday, youve spent almost
a month building your reading skills. Congratulations! This lesson uses a longer passage than the ones
youve read so far to give you a chance to practice all the skills youve learned. Heres a quick review
of what youve learned since the last review lesson:

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Reading Comprehension 2014

If any of these terms or strategies sound


unfamiliar to you, STOP. Please take a few
minutes to review whatever lesson is unclear.

Practice

15

LS

IA

Finding the facts


Determining the main idea
Determining the meaning of unfamiliar words
Distinguishing between fact and opinion
Chronological order
Order of importance
Cause and effect
Comparison and contrast
Point of view
Diction
Language and style
Tone

TO

20

Today, youll practice these skills in combination with


skills covered earlier in this book:

PS
C

TU

If this seems like a monumental task, dont worry:


It isnt. Youve already mastered some of these skills and
should be very comfortable with the others. In fact, you
will probably be surprised at how easy you find this
exercise to be.
Practice Passage

Are you ready? Read the following essay. Remember,


read actively and make observations in the space provided on the next page. Then answer the questions
that follow. This will give you a chance to see how well
your reading skills are coming along.
Although many companies offer tuition reimbursement, most companies only reimburse employees
for classes that are relevant to their position. This is
a very limiting policy. A company that reimburses

employees for all college credit courseswhether


job related or notoffers a service not only to the
employees, but to the entire company.
One good reason for giving employees unconditional tuition reimbursement is that it shows the
companys dedication to its employees. In todays
economy, where job security is a thing of the past
and employees feel more and more expendable, it is
important for a company to demonstrate to its
employees that it cares. The best way to do this is
with concrete investments in them.
In turn, this dedication to the betterment of
company employees will create greater employee
loyalty. A company that puts out funds to pay for the
education of its employees will get its money back by
having employees stay with the company longer. It
will reduce employee turnover, because even
employees who dont take advantage of the tuition
reimbursement program will be more loyal to their
company just knowing that their company cares
enough to pay for their education.
Most importantly, the company that has an
unrestricted tuition reimbursement program will
have higher quality employees. Although these
companies do indeed run the risk of losing money
on employees who go on to another job in a different company as soon as they get their degree, more
often than not, the employee will stay with the company. And even if employees do leave after graduation, it generally takes several years to complete any
degree program. Thus, even if the employee leaves
upon graduating, throughout those years, the
employer will have a more sophisticated, more
intelligent, and therefore more valuable and productive employee. And, if the employee stays, that
education will doubly benefit the company: Not
only is the employee more educated, but now that
employee can be promoted so the company doesnt
have to fill a high-level vacancy from the outside.
Open positions can be filled by people who already
know the company well.

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Reading Comprehension Problem Set

PRACTICE TEST 1
Question 1-7

20

15

Hotels were among the earliest facilities that bound the United States together. They
were both creatures and creators of communities, as well as symptoms of the frenetic
quest for community. Even in the first part of the nineteenth century, Americans were
Line already forming the habit of gathering from all corners of the nation for both public and
(5)
private, business and pleasure purposes. Conventions were the new occasions, and
hotels were distinctively American facilities making conventions possible. The first
national convention of a major party to choose a candidate for President (that of the
National Republican party, which met on December 12, 1831, and nominated Henry
Clay for President) was held in Baltimore, at a hotel that was then reputed to be the
(10) best in the country. The presence in Baltimore of Barnum's City Hotel, a six-story
building with two hundred apartments, helps explain why many other early national
political conventions were held there.

LS

TO

(25)

Nineteenth-century American hotelkeepers, who were no longer the genial,


deferential "hosts" of the eighteenth-century European inn, became leading citizens.
Holding a large stake in the community, they exercised power to make it prosper. As
owners or managers of the local "palace of the public", they were makers and shapers
of a principal community attraction. Travelers from abroad were mildly shocked by
this high social position.

TU

(20)

IA

(15)

In the longer run, too. American hotels made other national conventions not only
possible but pleasant and convivial. The growing custom of regularly assembling from
afar the representatives of all kinds of groups - not only for political conventions, but
also for commercial, professional, learned, and avocational ones - in turn supported
the multiplying hotels. By mid-twentieth century, conventions accounted for over a
third of the yearly room occupancy of all hotels in the nation, about eighteen thousand
different conventions were held annually with a total attendance of about ten million
persons.

PS
C

1. The word "bound" in line 1 is closest in meaning to


(A) led
(B) protected

(C) tied

(D) strengthened

2. The National Republican party is mentioned in line 8 as an example of a group


(A) from Baltimore
(B) of learned people
(C) owning a hotel
(D) holding a convention
(D) contracting

4. The word "ones" in line 16 refers to


(A) hotels
(B) conventions

(C) kinds

(D) representatives

5. The word "it" in line 23 refers to


(A) European inn
(B) host

(C) community

(D) public

3. The word "assembling" in line 14 is closest in meaning to


(A) announcing
(B) motivating
(C) gathering

6. It can be inferred from the passage that early hotelkeepers in the United States were
(A) active politicians
(B) European immigrants
(C) Professional builders
(D) Influential citizens

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Reading Comprehension Problem Set

7. Which of the following statements about early American hotels is NOT mentioned in the passage?
(A) Travelers from abroad did not enjoy staying in them.
(B) Conventions were held in them
(C) People used them for both business and pleasure.
(D) They were important to the community.

Question 8-17

Besides their wearability, either as jewelry or incorporated into articles of attire,


beads possess the desirable characteristics of every collectible, they are durable,
portable, available in infinite variety, and often valuable in their original cultural
context as well as in today's market. Pleasing to look at and touch, beads come in
shapes, colors, and materials that almost compel one to handle them and to sort them.
Beads are miniature bundles of secrets waiting to be revealed: their history,
manufacture, cultural context, economic role, and ornamental use are all points of
information one hopes to unravel. Even the most mundane beads may have traveled
great distances and been exposed to many human experiences. The bead researcher
must gather information from many diverse fields. In addition to having to be a
generalist while specializing in what may seem to be a narrow field, the researcher is
faced with the problem of primary materials that have little or no documentation. Many
ancient beads that are of ethnographic interest have often been separated from their
original cultural context.
The special attractions of beads contribute to the uniqueness of bead research. While
often regarded as the "small change of civilizations", beads are a part of every culture,
and they can often be used to date archaeological sites and to designate the degree of
mercantile, technological, and cultural sophistication.

PS
C

(25)

TU

(20)

TO

(15)

IA

LS

(10)

20

15

Beads were probably the first durable ornaments humans possessed, and the
intimate relationship they had with their owners is reflected in the fact that beads are
among the most common items found in ancient archaeological sites. In the past, as
Line today, men, women, and children adorned themselves with beads. In some cultures
(5)
still, certain beads are often worn from birth until death, and then are buried with their
owners for the afterlife. Abrasion due to daily wear alters the surface features of beads,
and if they are buried for long, the effects of corrosion can further change their
appearance. Thus, interest is imparted to the bead both by use and the effects of time.

(B) How beads are made


(D) Different types of beads

9. The word "adorned" in line 4 is closest in meaning to


(A) protected
(B) decorated

(C) purchased

(D) enjoyed

10. The word "attire" in line 9 is closest in meaning to


(A) ritual
(B) importance

(C) clothing

(D) history

8. What is the main subject of the passage?


(A) Materials used in making beads
(C) The reasons for studying beads

11. All of the following are given as characteristics of collectible objects EXCEPT
(A) durability
(B) portability
(C) value

(D) scarcity.

12. According to the passage, all of the following are factors that make people want to touch beads
EXCEPT the
(A) shape
(B) color
(C) material
(D) odor

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Reading Comprehension Problem Set

13. The word "unravel" in line 16 is closest in meaning to


(A) communicate
(B) transport
(C) improve

(D) discover

14. The word "mundane" in line 16 is closest in meaning to


(A) carved
(B) beautiful
(C) ordinary

(D) heavy

15. It is difficult to trace the history of certain ancient beads because they
(A) are small in size
(B) have been buried underground
(C) have been moved from their original locations
(D) are frequently lost

15

16. Knowledge of the history of some beads may be useful in the studies done by which of the following?
(A) Anthropologists
(B) Agricultural experts
(C) Medical researchers
(D) Economists

20

17. Where in the passage does the author describe why the appearance of beads may change?
(A) Lines 3-4
(B) Lines 6-8
(C) Lines 12-13
(D) Lines 20-22

LS

Question 18-31

PS
C

(15)

The efficiency of the bill is evident when a crossbill locates a cone. Using a lateral
motion of its lower mandible, the bird separates two overlapping scales on the cone and
exposes the seed. The crossed mandibles enable the bird to exert a powerful biting
force at the bill tips, which is critical for maneuvering them between the scales and
spreading the scales apart. Next, the crossbill snakes its long tongue into the gap and
draws out the seed. Using the combined action of the bill and tongue, the bird cracks
open and discards the woody seed covering action and swallows the nutritious inner kernel.
This whole process takes but a few seconds and is repeated hundreds of times a day.

TU

(10)

TO

IA

In the world of birds, bill design is a prime example of evolutionary fine-tuning.


Shorebirds such as oystercatchers use their bills to pry open the tightly sealed shells of
their prey; hummingbirds have stiletto-like bills to probe the deepest nectar-bearing
Line flowers; and kiwis smell out earthworms thanks to nostrils located at the tip of their
(5)
beaks. But few birds are more intimately tied to their source of sustenance than are
crossbills. Two species of these finches, named for the way the upper and lower parts
of their bills cross, rather than meet in the middle, reside in the evergreen forests of
North America and feed on the seeds held within the cones of coniferous trees.

(20)

The bills of different crossbill species and subspecies vary - some are stout and
deep, others more slender and shallow. As a rule, large-billed crossbills are better at
seeming seeds from large cones, while small-billed crossbills are more deft at
removing the seeds from small, thin-scaled cones. Moreover, the degree to which cones
are naturally slightly open or tightly closed helps determine which bill design is the best.
One anomaly is the subspecies of red crossbill known as the Newfoundland
crossbill. This bird has a large, robust bill, yet most of Newfoundland's conifers
have small cones, the same kind of cones that the slender-billed white-wings rely on.

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Reading Comprehension Problem Set

18. What does the passage mainly discuss?


(A) The importance of conifers in evergreen forests
(B) The efficiency of the bill of the crossbill
(C) The variety of food available in a forest
(D) The different techniques birds use to obtain food

15

19. Which of the following statements best represents the type of "evolutionary fine-turning" mentioned in line
1?
(A) Different shapes of bills have evolved depending on the available food supply
(B) White - wing crossbills have evolved from red crossbills
(C) Newfoundland's conifers have evolved small cones
(D) Several subspecies of crossbills have evolved from two species

(B) hummingbird

(C) kiwi

LS

21. Crossbills are a type of


(A) shorebird

20

20. Why does the author mention oystercatchers, hummingbirds, and kiwis in lines 2-4?
(A) They are examples of birds that live in the forest
(B) Their beaks are similar to the beak of the crossbill
(C) They illustrate the relationship between bill design and food supply
(D) They are closely related to the crossbill

(D) finch

IA

22. Which of the following most closely resembles the bird described in lines 6-8?
Unable to find options for this question
23. The word "which" in line 12 refers to
(A) seed
(B) bird

(C) force

TO

24. The word "gap" in line 13 is closest in meaning to


(A) opening
(B) flower

(C) mouth

(D) bill
(D) tree
(D) gets rid of

26. The word "others" in line 18 refers to


(A) bills
(B) species

(C) seeds

(D) cones

27. The word "deft" in line 19 is closest in meaning to


(A) hungry
(B) skilled

(C) tired

(D) pleasant

(C) unusual

(D) sharp

PS
C

TU

25. The word "discards" in line 15 is closest in meaning to


(A) eats
(B) breaks
(C) finds out

28. The word "robust" in line 24 is closest in meaning to


(A) strong
(B) colorful

29. In what way is the Newfoundland crossbill an anomaly?


(A) It is larger than the other crossbill species
(B) It uses a different technique to obtain food
(C) The size of its bill does not fit the size of its food source
(D) It does not live in evergreen forests.
30. The final paragraph of the passage will probably continue with a discussion of
(A) other species of forest birds
(B) the fragile ecosystem of Newfoundland
(C) what mammals live in the forests of North America
(D) how the Newfoundland crossbill survives with a large bill
31. Where in the passage does the author describe how a crossbill removes a seed from its cone?
(A) The first paragraph
(B) The second paragraph
(C) The third paragraph
(D) The forth paragraph
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Reading Comprehension Problem Set

Question 32-38
If you look closely at some of the early copies of the Declaration of Independence,
beyond the flourished signature of John Hancock and the other 55 men who signed it,
you will also find the name of one woman, Mary Katherine Goddard. It was she, a
Line Baltimore printer, who published the first official copies of the Declaration, the first
(5)
copies that included the names of its signers and therefore heralded the support of all
thirteen colonies.

(20)

15

20

When the Continental Congress fled there from Philadelphia in 1776, it


commissioned Ms. Goddard to print the first official version of the Declaration of
Independence in January 1777. After printing the documents, she herself paid the post
riders to deliver the Declaration throughout the colonies.

LS

(15)

IA

(10)

Mary Goddard first got into printing at the age of twenty-four when her brother
opened a printing shop in Providence, Rhode Island, in 1762. When he proceeded to
get into trouble with his partners and creditors, it was Mary Goddard and her mother
who were left to run the shop. In 1765 they began publishing the Providence Gazette, a
weekly newspaper. Similar problems seemed to follow her brother as he opened
businesses in Philadelphia and again in Baltimore. Each time Ms. Goddard was
brought in to run the newspapers. After starting Baltimore's first newspaper, The
Maryland Journal, in 1773, her brother went broke trying to organize a colonial postal
service. While he was in debtor's prison. Mary Katherine Goddard's name appeared on
the newspaper's masthead for the first time.

TO

During the American Revolution, Mary Goddard continued to publish Baltimore's


only newspaper, which one historian claimed was "second to none among the
colonies". She was also the city's postmaster from 1775 to 1789 - appointed by
Benjamin Franklin - and is considered to be the first woman to hold a federal position.

TU

32. With which of the following subjects is the passage mainly concerned?
(A) The accomplishments of a female publisher
(B) The weakness of the newspaper industry
(C) The rights of a female publisher
(D) The publishing system in colonial America

PS
C

33. Mary Goddard's name appears on the Declaration of Independence because


(A) she helped write the original document
(B) she published the document
(C) she paid to have the document printed
(D) her brother was in prison
34. The word "heralded" in line 5 is closest in meaning to
(A) influenced
(B) announced
(C) rejected

(D) ignored

35. According to the passage, Mary Goddard first became involved in publishing when she
(A) was appointed by Benjamin Franklin
(B) signed the Declaration of Independence.
(C) took over her brother's printing shop
(D) moved to Baltimore
36. The word "there" in line 17 refers to
(A) the colonies
(B) the print shop

(C) Baltimore

(D) Providence

37. It can be inferred from the passage that Mary Goddard was
(A) an accomplished businesswoman
(B) extremely wealthy
(C) a member of the Continental Congress
(D) a famous writer
38. The word "position" in line 24 is closest in meaning to
(A) job
(B) election
(C) document

(D) location

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Reading Comprehension Problem Set

Question 39-50
Galaxies are the major building blocks of the universe. A galaxy is giant family of
many millions of stars, and it is held together by its own gravitational field. Most of the
material universe is organized into galaxies of stars together with gas and dust.

(30)

15

20

LS

(25)

Measurement in space is quite different from measurement on Earth. Some


terrestrial distances can be expressed as intervals of time, the time to fly from one
continent to another or the time it takes to drive to work, for example. By comparison
with these familiar yardsticks, the distances to the galaxies are incomprehensibly large,
but they too are made more manageable by using a time calibration, in this case the
distance that light travels in one year. On such a scale the nearest giant spiral galaxy,
the Andromeda galaxy, is two million light years away. The most distant luminous
objects seen by telescopes are probably ten thousand million light years away. Their
light was already halfway here before the Earth even formed. The light from the nearby
Virgo galaxy set out when reptiles still dominated the animal world.

IA

(15)

(10)

There are three main types of galaxy: spiral, elliptical, and irregular. The Milky
Way is a spiral galaxy, a flattish disc of stars with two spiral arms emerging from its
central nucleus. About one-quarter of all galaxies have this shape. Spiral galaxies are
well supplied with the interstellar gas in which new stars form: as the rotating spiral
pattern sweeps around the galaxy it compresses gas and dust, triggering the formation
of bright young stars and in its arms. The elliptical galaxies have a symmetrical elliptical or
spheroidal shape with no obvious structure. Most of their member stars are very old
and since ellipticals are devoid of interstellar gas, no new stars are forming in them.
The biggest and brightest galaxies in the universe are ellipticals with masses of about
1013 times that of the Sun, these giants may frequently be sources of strong radio
emission, in which case they are called radio galaxies. About two-thirds of all galaxies
are elliptical. Irregular galaxies comprise about one-tenth of all galaxies and they come
in many subclasses.

TO

Line
(5)

TU

39. The word "major" in line 1 is closest in meaning to


(A) intense
(B) principal

(C) huge

(D) unique

PS
C

40. What does the second paragraph mainly discuss?


(A) The Milky Way
(B) Major categories of galaxies
(C) How elliptical galaxies are formed
(D) Differences between irregular and spiral galaxies
41. The word "which" in line 7 refers to
(A) dust
(B) gas

(C) pattern

(D) galaxy

42. According to the passage, new stars are formed in spiral galaxies due to
(A) an explosion of gas
(B) the compression of gas and dust
(C) the combining of old stars
(D) strong radio emissions
43. The word "symmetrical" in line 9 is closest in meaning to
(A) proportionally balanced
(B) commonly seen
(C) typically large
(D) steadily growing
44. The word "obvious" in line 10 is closest in meaning to
(A) discovered
(B) apparent
(C) understood

(D) simplistic

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Reading Comprehension Problem Set

45. According to the passage, which of the following is NOT true of elliptical galaxies?
(A) They are the largest galaxies.
(B) They mostly contain old stars.
(C) They contain a high amount of interstellar gas.
(D) They have a spherical shape.
46. Which of the following characteristics of radio galaxies is mentioned in the passage?
(A) They are a type of elliptical galaxy.
(B) They are usually too small to be seen with a telescope.
(C) They are closely related to irregular galaxies.
(D) They are not as bright as spiral galaxies.
(C) 50%

(D) 75%

48. The word "they" in line 21 refers to


(A) intervals
(B) yardsticks

(C) distances

(D) galaxies

20

15

47. What percentage of galaxies are irregular?


(A) 10%
(B) 25%

LS

49. Why does the author mention the Virgo galaxy and the Andromeda galaxy in the third paragraph?
(A) To describe the effect that distance has no visibility.
(B) To compare the ages of two relatively young galaxies.
(C) To emphasize the vast distances of the galaxies from Earth.
(D) To explain why certain galaxies cannot be seen by a telescope.

PS
C

TU

TO

IA

50. The word "dominated" in line 26 is closest in meaning to


(A) threatened
(B) replaced
(C) were developing in
(D) were prevalent in

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Reading Comprehension Problem Set

PRACTICE TEST 2
Questions 1-10

20

15

Before the mid-1860's, the impact of the railroads in the United States was limited,
in the sense that the tracks ended at the Missouri River, approximately the centers of the
country. At that point the trains turned their freight, mail, and passengers over to
Line steamboats, wagons, and stagecoaches. This meant that wagon freighting, stagecoaching
(5)
and steamboating did not come to an end when the first train appeared; rather they
became supplements or feeders. Each new "end-of-track" became a center for animaldrawn
or waterborne transportation. The major effect of the railroad was to shorten the
distance that had to be covered by the older, slower, and more costly means. Wagon
freighters continued operating throughout the 1870's and 1880's and into the 1890's,
(10) although over constantly shrinking routes, and coaches and wagons continued to
crisscross the West wherever the rails had not yet been laid.

LS

TO

(25)

TU

(20)

IA

(15)

The beginning of a major change was foreshadowed in the later 1860's, when the
Union Pacific Railroad at last began to build westward from the Central Plaints city of
Omaha to meet the Central Pacific Railroad advancing eastward form California through
the formidable barriers of the Sierra Nevada. Although President Abraham Lincoln
signed the original Pacific Railroad bill in 1862 and a revised, financially much more
generous version in 1864, little construction was completed until 1865 on the Central
Pacific and 1866 on the Union Pacific. The primary reason was skepticism that a
railroad built through so challenging and thinly settled a stretch of desert, mountain,
and semiarid plain could pay a profit. In the words of an economist, this was a case of
"premature enterprise", where not only the cost of construction but also the very high
risk deterred private investment. In discussing the Pacific Railroad bill, the chair of the
congressional committee bluntly stated that without government subsidy no one would
undertake so unpromising a venture; yet it was a national necessity to link East and
West together.

PS
C

1. The author refers to the impact of railroads before the late 1860's as "limited" because
(A) the tracks did not take the direct route from one city to the next
(B) passenger and freight had to transfer to other modes of transportation to reach western
destinations
(C) passengers preferred stagecoaches
(D) railroad travel was quite expensive

2. The word "they" in line 5 refers to


(A) tracks
(C) freight, mail, and passengers

(B) trains
(D) steamboats, wagons, and stagecoaches

3. The word "supplements" in line 6 is closest in meaning to


(A) extensions
(B) reformers
(C) dependents

(D) influences

4. What can be inferred about coaches and wagon freighters as the railroads expanded?
(A) They developed competing routes.
(B) Their drivers refused to work for the railroads.
(C) They began to specialize in transporting goods.
(D) They were not used as much as before.

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Reading Comprehension Problem Set

5. The word "crisscross" in line 11 is closest in meaning to


(A) lead the way
(B) separate
(C) move back and forth
(D) uncover
6. Why does the author mention the Sierra Nevada in line 15?
(A) To argue that a more direct route to the West could have been taken
(B) To identify a historically significant mountain range in the West
(C) To point out the location of a serious train accident
(D) To give an example of an obstacle face by the Central Pacific
7. The word "skepticism" in line 18 is closest in meaning to
(A) doubt
(B) amazement
(C) urgency

(D) penalty

LS

9. The word "subsidy" in line 23 is closest in meaning to


(A) persuasion
(B) financing
(C) explanation

20

8. The Pacific railroads were considered a "premature enterprise" (line 21) because
(A) the technology of railroad cars was not fully developed
(B) there was not enough wood and steel for the tracks
(C) the cost and risks discouraged private investment
(D) there were insufficient numbers of trained people to operate them

15

(D) determination

IA

10. Where in the passage does the author give example of geographical challenges to railroad construction?
(A) Lines 4-6
(B) Lines 8-11
(C) Lines 18-20
(D) Lines 22-25

Questions 11-22

TU

TO

Humanity's primal efforts to systematize the concepts of size, shapes, and number
are usually regarded as the earliest mathematics. However, the concept of number and
the counting process developed so long before the time of recorded history (there is
Line archaeological evidence that counting was employed by humans as far back as 50,000
(5)
years ago) that the manner of this development is largely conjectural. Imaging how it
probably came about is not difficult. The argument that humans, even in prehistoric
times, had some number sense, at least to the extent of recognizing the concepts of
more and less when some objects were added to or taken away from a small group,
seems fair, for studies have shown that some animal possess such a sense.
With the gradual evolution of society, simple counting became imperative. A tribe
had to know how many members it had and how many enemies, and shepherd needed
to know if the flock of sheep was decreasing in size. Probably the earliest way of keeping
a count was by some simple tally method, employing the principle of one-to-one
correspondence. In keeping a count of sheep, for example, one finger per sheep could
be turned under. Counts could also be maintained by making scratches in the dirt or on
a stone, by cutting notches in a piece of wood, or by tying knots in a string.

PS
C

(10)

(15)

(20)

Then, perhaps later, an assortment of vocal sounds was developed as a word tally
against the number of objects in a small group. And still later, with the refinement of
writing, a set of signs was devised to stand for these numbers. Such an imagined
development is supported by reports of anthropologists in their studies of present-day
societies that are thought to be similar to those of early humans.

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Reading Comprehension Problem Set

11. What does the passage mainly discuss?


(A) The efforts of early humans to care for herds of animals
(B) The development of writing
(C) The beginnings of mathematics
(D) Similarities in number sense between humans and animals
12. The word "conjectural" in line 5 is closest in meaning to
(A) complex
(B) based on guessing
(C) unbelievable
(D) supported by careful research

(C) tribe

20

14. The word "it" in line 11 refers to


(A) evolution
(B) counting

15

13. Why does the author mention animals in line 9?


(A) To support a theory about the behavior of early humans
(B) To identify activities that are distinctly human
(C) To illustrate the limits of a historical record of human development
(D) To establish that early human kept domesticated animals

(D) shepherd

IA

LS

15. What is the basic principle of the tally method described in the second paragraph?
(A) The count is recorded permanently.
(B) Calculations provide the total count.
(C) Large quantities are represented by symbols.
(D) Each marker represents a singly object.

(D) hiring

16. The word "employing" in line 13 is closest in meaning to


(A) using
(B) paying
(C) focusing

TO

17. Which of the following is NOT mentioned as an early methods of counting?


(A) Cutting notches
(B) Bending fingers
(C) Piling stones
(D) Tying knots

TU

18. The word "maintained" in line 15 is closest in meaning to


(A) justified
(B) asserted
(C) located
19. The word "assortment" in line 17 is closest in meaning to
(A) instrument
(B) variety
(C) surplus

(D) kept
(D) symbol

PS
C

20. It can be inferred that research in other academic fields relates to research in the author's field in which
of the following ways?
(A) It contributes relevant information
(B) It is carried out on a simpler level.
(C) It is less reliable than research in the author's field.
(D) It causes misunderstandings if applied to the author's field.

21. Which of the following conclusions is supported by the passage?


(A) Counting processes did not develop until after writing became widespread.
(B) Early counting methods required herds of animals.
(C) Mathematics has remained unchanged since ancient times.
(D) Early humans first counted because of necessity.
22. Where in the passage does the author mention the ability of animals to recognized small and large
groups?
(A) Lines 1-2
(B) Lines 6-9
(C) Lines 10-12
(D) Lines 17-18

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Reading Comprehension Problem Set

Questions 23-31
As the merchant class expanded in the eighteenth-century North American colonies,
the silversmith and the coppersmith businesses rose to serve it. Only a few silversmiths
were available in New York or Boston in the late seventeenth century, but in the
Line eighteenth century they could be found in all major colonial cities. No other colonial
(5)
artisans rivaled the silversmiths' prestige. They handled the most expensive materials
and possessed direct connections to prosperous colonies merchants. Their products,
primarily silver plates and bowls, reflected their exalted status and testified to their
customers' prominence.

15

IA

(20)

20

(15)

LS

(10)

Silver stood as one of the surest ways to store wealth at a time before neighborhood
banks existed. Unlike the silver coins from which they were made, silver articles were
readily identifiable. Often formed to individual specifications, they always carried the
silversmith's distinctive markings and consequently could be traced and retrieved.
Customers generally secured the silver for the silver objects they ordered. They
saved coins, took them to smiths, and discussed the type of pieces they desired.
Silversmiths complied with these requests by melting the money in a small furnace,
adding a bit of copper to form a stronger alloy, and casting the alloy in rectangular
blocks. They hammered these ingots to the appropriate thickness by hand, shaped
them, and pressed designs into them for adornment. Engraving was also done by hand.
In addition to plates and bowls, some customers sought more intricate products, such as
silver teapots. These were made by shaping or casting parts separately and then
soldering them together.

(30)

TO

TU

(25)

Colonial coppersmithing also came of age in the early eighteenth century and
prospered in northern cities. Copper's ability to conduct heat efficiently and to resist
corrosion contributed to its attractiveness. But because it was expensive in colonial
America, coppersmiths were never very numerous. Virtually all copper worked by
smiths was imported as sheets or obtained by recycling old copper goods. Copper was
used for practical items, but it was not admired for its beauty. Coppersmiths employed
it to fashion pots and kettles for the home. They shaped it in much the same manner as
silver or melted it in a foundry with lead or tin. They also mixed it with zinc to make
brass for maritime and scientific instruments.

PS
C

23. According to the passage, which of the following eighteenth-century developments had a strong impact
on silversmiths?
(A) a decrease in the cost of silver
(B) the invention of heat-efficient furnaces
(C) the growing economic prosperity of colonial merchants
(D) the development of new tools used to shape silver
(B) major colonial cities
(D) materials

25. The word "exalted" in line 7 is closest in meaning to


(A) unusual
(B) uncertain

(C) surprising

24. The word "They" in line 5 refers to


(A) silversmiths
(C) other colonial artisans

(D) superior

26. In colonial America, where did silversmiths usually obtain the material to make silver articles?
(A) From their own mines
(B) From importers
(C) From other silversmiths
(D) From customers
27. The word "ingots" in line 17 refers to
(A) coins that people saved

(B) blocks of silver mixed with copper

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So, (E) is the answer.

6. (This is a specific fact question, in which the key phrase is geologic formation in the Southwestern
United States.) The phrase arid Southwest occurs in the last sentence of para 3, and we should locate the
answer to this question in this region. The previous sentence says that differential erosion is common where
soluble carbonate rocks are adjacent to nonsoluble rocks. The next sentence says that both Appalachian ranges
in Eastern United States and arid Southwest have carbonate rocks. So, we can infer that both areas exhibit
differential erosion. So, (D) is the answer.
7. (This is an inference question in which the key phrase is carbonate rock regions.) Carbonate rock
regions are mentioned in para 2 and 3, but the information in them does not support any of the answer choices.
The third sentence of the last para says, People have added to the already skewed situation by deforesting hilly
karst. This implies that the karst region is capable of supporting the growth of trees. So, (B) is the answer.

TO

IA

LS

20

15

8. (This is an exception question, whose key phrase is poor capability of carbonate rock terrains to dispose
of waste.) The phrase unreliability for the disposal of waste occurs in the second sentence of para 4, and we
should look for the answer to this question in this para.
The third sentence of this para says that, if permeability is low, the rocks do not accept waste at sufficient
rates and, if the permeability is high, they permit the waste to move downward quickly and to be transported
rapidly to some point of discharge without time for the waste to be degraded. So, both low and high permeability
militate against disposal of waste. So, (B) and (C) are not the answers.
The fourth sentence of para 4 says that the poor capabilities of karst regions for waste disposal are worsened
by the thinness of the soil, and the next sentence talks of even this soil getting regenerated much more slowly
than those of nonsoluble rocks. So, slow formation of overlying soil is a factor mentioned here, and (D) is not the
answer.
Insufficiency of the time for the waste to be degraded is mentioned in line 8 of para 4. So, (E) is not the
answer.
In the last sentence of para 4, the author says, Thick but moderately permeable soils tend to adsorb
(meaning retain on the surface) many pollutants and to slow the movement of polluted water so that oxidation or
some decay mechanism can allow the pollutant to be weakened. This implies that thick soil in fact helps the
disposal of waste (by weakening the pollutants) and does not hinder it. So, (A) is the answer.
Passage 4

TU

Answers: 1. E 2. A 3. C 4. D 5. E 6. A 7. D
{The difficult words in this passage are orientation (recognition); determinant (something that decides);
predisposed (mentally inclined); intermittent (discontinuous); contour (outline); loci (plural of locus, meaning
location); ganglion (nerve centre); retina (the sensitive layer of the eye); vertebrates (creatures with backbones);
onset (beginning); offset (ending); elicits (draws forth); optimal (ideal); nonlinear (not proportionate); ambiguous
(undefined) and bias (partiality)}

PS
C

1. (This is a specific fact question, in which the key phrase is checkerboards as visual stimuli.) The word
checkerboards occurs in line 31, and we must look for the answer to this question here. The last sentence of this
para says that studies conducted with young infants suggest that the longest fixations are devoted to figures
with a moderate amount of edge. It is (E) which says this, and is the answer.

2. (This is a specific fact question, in which the key phrase is ganglion cells.) The phrase ganglion cells
occurs in line 17, and we should look for the answer in this region. Lines 15-16 say, The attraction to loci of
maximum contrast and movement is in accord with available knowledge about ganglion potentials in the retinae
of vertebrates. So, the author refers to ganglions primarily in order to explain why infants are more attentive to
stimuli with the greatest movement and contrast. So, (A) is the answer.
3. (This is an inference question, in which the key phrase is auditory stimuli meaning responses pertaining
to hearing.) While the first three paragraphs of the passage relate to a childs reaction to visual stimuli, it is only
in the first sentence in the last paragraph that auditory stimuli are first mentioned. The answer to this question
should therefore be found from this paragraph. This paragraph says that, though a childs attention to noise
stimuli is a little more complicated that its reaction to visual stimuli, there is one similarity: the child is more
attentive to noise when there are variations in tones than when the tone is continuous, just as it is visually more

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attentive (as described in the previous paragraphs) when there are more of black and white contrasts than when
the object is of homogeneous colour. So, (C) is the answer.
4. (This is a specific fact question, in which both the key phrase firing of ganglion cells and the location
(lines 23-24) are given.) It is the second paragraph that deals with ganglion cells. But nowhere in this paragraph
is there mention of frequency in relation to the stimuli felt by these cells. Therefore, (A), (B) and (C) which talk
of frequency variation of ganglion cells may be ruled out.
The third sentence in this paragraph says that an object moving across a visual field stimulates a set of
ganglion cells for a short period. It is this sentence that has been summarised in the single word firing in the
next sentence. So, (D) is the answer.
(E) is wrong since the firing (or the stimulation of the ganglion cells) is caused by the visual stimuli, and
does not cause them.

20

15

5. (This is an inference question, in which the key phase preferential orientation to change and its place of
occurrence (line 41) are given in the question itself.) The only experiences of an infant described in the passage
relate to visual and auditory stimuli. If the stimuli are steady, than the infant feels that it is secure; if they are
intermittent (such as movement of figures or intermittent tones), the child feels a danger, and reacts accordingly
(generally with crying). This is the meaning of the second and third sentences of the last paragraph. The phrase
preferential orientation to change, which follows in the last sentence, means the childs different reactions to
different types of stimuli, both visual and auditory. So, (E) is the answer. (This is a rather difficult question.)

IA

LS

6. (This is a Roman Numerals question in which the key phrase is infants response to visual events.) Lines
18-20 say that a moving object stimulates onset and offset patterns in the eye of an infant. So, I is true.
It is seen from the very first sentence in the passage that fixation time (or the infants length of orientation
to an object) is an index (or measure) of the infants attentiveness. It cannot be one of the causes of the infants
attentiveness. So, II is not true.
Lines 39-40 state that a new-born infant has been blessed by nature to respond to stimuli, either visual or
auditory. The infant does not have to be taught by its parents how to respond to a stimulus. So, III is also not
true.
Thus, (A) is the answer.

PS
C

TU

TO

7. (This is an inference question, in which the key phrase is most attention paid by infant.) (A) and (C)
involve movement of light.
(B) involves alternating light and shade.
(E) involves intermittent noise.
The passage says that the infants attentiveness is attracted most by such stimuli.
Now, a white bed sheet is a cloth with homogeneous colour, and lines 9-10 state that an infant will be least
attracted by such a surface. Thus, if it is a white bed sheet that attracts infants most, it will seriously undermine
what is argued in the passage.
So, (D) is the answer.
Passage 5

Answers: 1. E 2. D 3. C 4. D
{There are no particularly difficult words in this passage. The universe is presently known to be expanding.
The scientists have been researching to find out whether the expansion will continue indefinitely (in which case
the universe will be said to be open) or the expansion will be arrested at some point of time (in which case the
universe will be said to be closed)}
1. (This is a main purpose question, for answering which we should get a hint from the very first sentence.)
The first sentence says, The question of whether or not the universe will continue to expand forever may never
be resolved ... and the rest of the passage gives reasons for this assertion. So, the main purpose of the passage
may be stated as to provide evidence to document the uncertainty of the ultimate fate of the universe. So, (E) is
the answer.
(A) is wrong ,since the passage does not at all talk about the life expectancy (the period it will continue to
exist) of the universe.
The passage, of course, defines omega and explains its theoretical significance, but goes on to show that it
is practically of no use since different scientists have arrived at different values for omega. (B) is therefore not the

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main purpose of the passage.


An open and a closed universe are defined in the passage in terms of the different values of omega, but no
explanation of their differences is attempted. So, (C) is wrong.
Since the passage only mentions the controversy over the values of omega among scientists and does not
attempt to resolve it, (D) is also wrong.
2. (This is an inference question, in which the key phrase is hypotheses concerning the fate of the universe.)
The second paragraph shows that two scientists had arrived at widely varying values for omega using the same
data, and this is the reason why no definite conclusions can be arrived at about the fate of the universe. So, (D)
is the answer. (If both of them had arrived at the value of omega as much greater than 1, then it can be concluded
that the universe is closed; or if both had arrived at the value of omega as much less than 1, then it can be
concluded that the universe is open.)
You can easily see that the other choices are not borne out by the passage.

20

15

3. {This is an inference question which has to be answered by examining each of the choices.) The first
sentence of para 2 says, Both scientists used the motions of galaxies to deduce gravitational effects and therefore
actual density. So (C) is answered here.
You can easily see that none of the other questions is answered in the passage.

Passage 6

LS

4. (This is an inference question, in which the key phrase is calculations of the value of omega by the two
scientists.) The first sentence of para 2 says that both sets of scientists used the motions of galaxies to first
deduce gravitational effects and then their actual density, but arrived at widely differing values for omega. It is
(D) which paraphrases this situation, and is the answer.

IA

Answers: 1. A 2. B 3. D 4. C
{The difficult words in this passage are posit (theorize) and hamster (a species of rat). The other difficult
words exogenous and endogenous have been defined in the passage itself as meaning intrinsic and extraneous.}

TO

1. (This is an exception question, which must be answered after examining each of the choices. The key
phrase is examples of exogenous influences.) It is easy to see that (B), (C), (D) and (E) all refer to external (or
exogenous) influences, and (A) is the only instance of internal influence on the behaviour of the animal concerned,
and is the answer.

PS
C

TU

2. (This is a specific fact question, which itself gives the line number near which the answer must be found.)
Lines 9-12 state, Brown concluded that a change in tide schedule is one of several possible exogenous influences
on the oysters rhythms. It is (B) which summarizes this, and is the answer.
(A) is the only other possible choice, but is wrong because lines 8-9 say that Brown could not posit an
unequivocal (meaning certain) causal relationship between tide schedule and the oysters rhythms. So her
conclusion is not that tide schedule is the primary influence on an oysters rhythm.

3. (This is a Roman Numerals question, in which the key phrase is similarity between the studies of Brown
and Hamner.) I is not true since it goes against Hamners findings regarding the behavior of hamsters.
II is true because it is explicitly stated in the passage.
III is also true, because the conclusions of both researchers were based on their observations of the behaviour
of the hamsters in their original environment and comparing it with their subsequent behaviour in the new
environment.
So, (D) is the answer.
4. (This is an inference question, and should be answered by evaluating each of the answer choices.) Browns
conclusion was based on the fact that, after 14 days in Illinois, the oysters had adapted their rhythm to the tide
conditions in their new place Illinois, and opened widest during high tide there. If, after sixteen days of being in
Illinois, they reverted to their earlier habit of opening widest at the time of the high tide in Connecticut, her
conclusion that external influences played an important part in the behaviour of organisms will be weakened
most. So, (C) is the answer.
The other choices would strengthen her conclusion, and not weaken it.

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Passage 7

Answers: 1. E 2. A 3. B 4. D 5. A 6. B 7. E 8. B
(The difficult words in this passage are synthesize (produce by combining); parasitic (living on others);
livestock (farm animals); vertebrate (having backbone); emesis (vomiting); lethal (capable of killing); predators
(species which kill and eat other species); assimilated (digested); mimic (copy) and naive (unsuspecting)}

15

1. (This is a specific fact question, in which the key phase is plants containing cardiac glycosides.) The
property of cardiac glycosides is mentioned in para 3, and we should look for the answer here. The last two
sentences of this para say, Pharmacologists working with cats and pigeons have found that the dosage necessary
to cause emesis (vomiting) is just about half the amount required to cause death. Hence an animal that eats a food
containing cardiac glycosides will, provided that it is capable of vomiting, rid itself of the poisons before a lethal
amount can be absorbed. So, the reason why cardiac glycosides rarely cause death among animals is that half
the lethal dose causes the animal to vomit. So, (E) is the answer.

20

2. (This is an inference question which should be answered through a process of elimination of the wrong
choices.) It is quite obvious that the author is not a specialist in psychology, agriculture, bacteriology or public
health. Since the passage contains a number of references to plants, insects and animals, the author must be a
biologist. So, (A) is the answer.

IA

LS

3. (This is an inference question in which the key phrases are Danaidae butterflies and bird predators.)
Danaidae butterfly is described in para 4, and we must look for the answer to this question here. The third
sentence in this para says that bird predators avoid Danaidae butterflies because the latter have assimilated
cardiac glycosides (which are poisonous substances) from the milkweeds. If, however, it is proved that these
birds are not at all affected by cardiac glycosides, then the reason for their avoiding these butterflies must be
something different. So, (B) is what will seriously undermine the authors hypothesis, and is the answer.

TO

4. (This is a specific fact question in which the key phrase is Danaidae butterfly.) The last sentence of the
passage says, After a bird has been made ill from eating an insect, it associates the flavor of that kind of insect
with the illness, and thereafter can reject an insect of the same species by tasting it. The third and fourth sentences
of para 3 says, It has been observed that birds avoid eating Danaidae butterflies. A widely accepted hypothesis
has been that the predators avoid the butterflies because the larvae have assimilated the poisonous substances
from the milkweeds. So, a bird which had recently eaten a Danaidae butterfly and had fallen ill would avoid
another Danaidae butterfly later. So, (D) is the answer.

PS
C

TU

5. (This is a main purpose question, and must be answered by spotting the common theme that runs
through the entire passage.) After pointing out in the first sentence that many plants produce chemical compounds
which are apparently not needed for their metabolism, the author goes on to point out that these compounds
promote its survival by repressing the growth of competing plants and parasitic microorganisms, or by repelling
insects or other animals that would otherwise feed on them. He then gives instances of compounds which repel
animals from eating the plant, and also instances of compounds which enable an insect to protect itself from
being eaten by predators. So, among the choices, we can say that the main purpose of the passage is to point out
that some substances produced by a plant are part of a complex chain of events that affect various forms of life
such as larvae, certain butterflies, cattle and birds. So, (A) is the answer.
(B) is wrong because the instances given by the author are harmful to birds but beneficial to some insects.
Since DDT is not mentioned at all in the passage, (C) is wrong.
(D) contradicts the very first sentence in the passage, and cannot be the authors purpose.
(E) is wrong since the author, in fact, proves that these substances do govern certain ecological relationships.
(A) is the correct answer, since the production of these substances by the plants affect the food habits of
larvae, certain butterflies, cattle and birds.
6. (This is an inference question in which the key phrase is insects that seem immune to the effects of
poisonous milkweeds.) The first sentence of para 5 says that some insects, which do not feed on poisonous
milkweeds, mimic the appearance or flavor of an insect that does, and are thus avoided by predators. So, it is (B)
which can be inferred from this statement, and is the answer.
(A) is wrong since the eating of poisonous weeds is for a defensive purpose (last sentence of para 4).
(C) is wrong since Danaidae butterflies eat only milkweed (second sentence of para 4).
(D) is wrong since Danaidae are mentioned only as one instance of insects feeding on poisonous weeds, and

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not as the only instance.


(E) is not mentioned in the passage, and would in any case be wrong since cattle are herbivorous and do not
eat insects at all.
7. (This is a specific fact question, in which the key phrase is asclepiad milkweeds.) This phrase occurs in
the first sentence of para 3, and we should look for the answer in its neighbourhood. The third sentence says that
cardiac glycosides, the poisons found in the asclepiad milkweeds, cause a weak and rapidly fluttering vertebrate
heart beat more strongly and more slowly. So, their interest to pharmacologists is based on their having a stabilizing
effect on vertebrate hearts. So, (E) is the answer.

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15

8. (This is a Roman Numerals question, in which the key word is milkweed.) The properties of the milkweed
are enumerated in paras 2, 3 and 4, and we should look for the answer here. Para 2 talks of herds of cattle and
not insects being repelled by milkweeds. So, I is not stated in the passage.
Para 3 states that the larvae of an entire group of tropical butterflies (which can be classified as insects)
eat only milkweed. So, II is stated in the passage.
The passage does not state anywhere that the substances produced by milkweed suppress other plant life.
So, III is not stated in the passage.
So, (B) is the answer.
Passage 8

LS

Answers: 1. D 2. E 3. E 4. B 5. C 6. E 4. D 5. D 6. E 7. D 8. D
{The difficult words in this passage are crust (surface); lava (molten rock poured out during volcanic activity);
chronological (arranged according to time); fissure (a deep narrow opening) and mutability (instability)}

TU

TO

IA

1. (This is a Main Idea question, and you should answer it by identifying theme that flows throughout the
entire passage.) In the first paragraph, hot spots are defined, and then are distinguished from volcanoes. The
second paragraph describes an instance of what happens when a continental plate moves past a hot spot. The
third paragraph describes how hot spots can be used to determine whether two continental plates are both
moving away from each other, or only one of them is moving while the other remains stationary. The last paragraph
explains the manner in which new oceans are formed when a continental plate comes to rest over a hot spot. It is
easy to see that, of the five given choices, it is (D) that best describes the primary purpose of the author in writing
the passage.
(A) is wrong since extinction of volcanoes is mentioned just once in the first sentence of the second para.
(B) is wrong since the formation of continents is not touched upon at all, and even the theory regarding the
formation of oceans is just suggested in the last two sentences.
(C) is not touched upon in the passage at all.
(E) is just mentioned in the second para of the passage, and cannot be considered to be the main purpose of
the passage.

PS
C

2. (This is a specific fact question, in which the key phrase is difference between hot spots and volcanoes.)
The last sentence of para 1 says, Hot spots are also distinguished from other volcanoes by their lavas, which
contain greater amounts of alkali metals than do those from volcanoes at plate margins. (E) says just this, and
is the answer.
The other choices are factually wrong statements.

3. (This is an inference question, in which the key phrase is apparent course of the Pacific plate.) In the
second paragraph, the author indicates that the fact that Hawaiian Islands, the Austral Ridge and Tuamotu
ridge are all parallely aligned from the east toward the northwest shows that the Pacific plate had moved over a
hot spot from east to northwest. So, (E) is the answer.
4. (This is an inference question in which the key phrase is spreading out of lavas of different ages at hot
spots.) In the middle of the third paragraph, the author says, the most compelling evidence that a continental
plate is stationary is that, at some hot spots, lavas of several ages are superimposed instead of being spread out
in chronological sequence. The converse of this statement is that, if these lavas are found spread out, we could
deduce that the continental plate has been moving and has not remained stationary. So, (B) is the answer.
5. (This is also an inference question, in which the key phrase is Hawaiian Islands, Austral Ridge, and

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Tuamotu Ridge.) These names occur in para 2, and we should look for the answer to this question here. The
second sentence of this para says, It appears that the Hawaiian Islands were created by a single source of lava
welling up from a hot spot over which the Pacific Ocean plate passed ..... Two other Pacific Island chains - the
Austral Ridge and the Tuamotu Ridge - parallel the configuration of the Hawaiian chain. We can infer therefrom
that all the three chain are the result of the movement of the Pacific plate over different hot spots. So, (C) is the
answer.
None of the other choices is substantiated by the information in this paragraph.

15

6. (This is an inference question, in which the key phrase is mutability of continental plates.) The word
mutability occurs in the very last sentence, and we should look for the answer to this question in the last
paragraph. The author suggests here that, when a continental plate comes to rest over a hot spot, deep fissures
develop and the plate breaks along the fissures. Oceanic water from the surrounding area then fills the gap
between the two parts of the plate and a new ocean is created. The two parts of the plate then start drifting away
from each other, and the ocean becomes larger and larger. So, (E) is the answer to this question. (If you see the
map of the world, you can notice that the east coast of South America can be neatly aligned along the west coast of
Africa, leading to the inference that Africa and South America had formed a single continent once upon a time.)

LS

20

7. (This is an inference question, in which the key phrase is hot spots being used to reconstruct the movement
of continental plates.) In the penultimate sentence of the third para, the author says that the reconstruction of
plate motion from the tracks of hot-spot volcanoes assumes that hot spots are immobile, or nearly so. He goes on
to add that several studies support such an assumption. Because it continues to be only an assumption, and not
a proved fact, there is still some doubt about the validity of the theory of immobility of hot spots, and that is the
weakness of this argument. If future and more accurate studies prove that hot spots are also mobile like continental
plates, hot spots cannot be used as reference points for studying the rate of mobility of continental plates. So, (D)
is the answer.

IA

8. (This is a tone question which should be answered by examining each of the answer choices.) The author
explains a possible theory but, simultaneously, points out its weakness also. Thus, he exhibits an open mind, and
his style can therefore be described as being objective or unbiased. So, (D) is the answer.

TO

Passage 9

TU

Answers: 1. E 2. C 3. B
{The difficult words in this passage are: biosphere (the region inside, on and above the earth where organisms
survive); homeostatic (in which there is internal equilibrium); synthesized (combined together); respiration
(breathing); aerobic (needing oxygen to survive); anaerobic (not needing oxygen to survive);fungi (plural of fungus,
a minute plant)

PS
C

1. (This is a Roman Numerals question, which should be answered by evaluating the validity of each of the
numbered questions.) In lines 9-15, cellulose, alkaloids, terpenes and flavonoids are mentioned as some of the
compounds which are broken down by bacteria during the carbon cycle. I is thus answered in the passage.
In the fourth line from the bottom, inert (or least reactive) substances are mentioned, but no reason is
given as to why these substances are inert. II is thus not answered in the passage.
III is answered elaborately in the last sentence of the passage.
So, (E) is the answer.

2. (This is an inference question, in which the key phrase is degradation is as important as synthesis.) This
phrase occurs in the third sentence, and we should look for the answer to this question in its neighbourhood. The
author says in the previous sentence that, through the synthesis of carbon and other elements, green plants
produce certain substances though they cannot use them. This means that the carbon in these substances will be
fixed and will not be available for recycling. It is through the decomposing action of bacteria and fungi on these
synthesized substances that carbon is recycled again in order to maintain the chemical equilibrium of the biosphere.
So, (C) is the answer.
3. (This is an inference question in which the key phrase is importance of bacteria and fungi in the production
of energy for life processes.) In the penultimate sentence of the passage, the author says that the release of
carbon in these compounds for recycling (by using them as sources of energy) depends almost entirely on bacteria
and fungi. This contention will be strengthened if it is shown through further experiments that such recycling

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depends entirely on bacteria and fungi. (B) states just this, and is the answer.
Passage 10
Answers: 1. C 2. C 3. A
{The difficult words in this passage are precipitation (rain); transpiration (giving off of water by plants
through leaves, and by animals through perspiration) and isolated (separated)}
1. (This is a primary purpose question, and we should answer it by spotting the theme that runs through
the entire passage.) The first para of the passage defines hydrogeology and describes the hydrogeological cycle.
The second para defines and explains geohydrology, and points out why it is erroneous to use hydrogeology and
geohydrology as synonyms. We can therefore say that the main purpose of the passage may be stated, among the
choices, as to correct a misconception. So, (C) is the answer.

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2. (This is an inference question in which the key phrase is study by a geohydrologist.) Lines 11-14 say
that geohydrology is concerned with water that has been isolated underground because of geologic changes.
Among the choices, it is only (C) that describes such a phenomenon, and is the answer.
All the other choices relate to water on the surface of the earth, which would be studied by hydrogeologists,
and not by geohydrologists.

PS
C

TU

TO

IA

LS

3. (This is a specific fact question, in which the key phrase and its place of occurrence are mentioned in the
question itself.) The purpose of the second para is to point out the distinction between hydrogeology and
geohydrology. It is in order to clarify this distinction that the author refers to many formations of water which,
through geological changes, have been isolated underground, losing all connections with water which forms the
hydrogeological cycle. So, (A) is the answer.
You can easily eliminate all the other choices as unsuitable.

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IA
R
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