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Trigonometry 3

1. Addition formula (compound angle formula)

sin ( ) = sin cos cos sin


cos( ) = cos cos sin sin
tan( ) =

What are compound angles?

The sum and difference of


any 2 angles A and B

Angles like A+B, A-B, 2A+B,

tan tan
1 tan tan

A-2B are compound angles

Example 1
Given that sin =

8
17

and A is obtuse and cos =

find the value of


i) sin( + )

12
13

and B is acute, without calculators,

ii) cos( )

iii) tan( + )

Example 2
Evaluate without calculators,
i) sin(75)

ii) cos(15)

iii)

1tan 15
1+tan 15

2. Multiple angle formula


Double angle formula

sin 2 = 2 sin cos


cos 2 = 1 2sin2
= 2cos 2 1
= cos 2 sin2
tan 2 =

2tanA
1 tan2

*Note that
1 tan2
= (1 + tan )(1 tan )

Half angle formula

1
1
sin = 2 sin cos
2
2

Similarly, this concept


can be applied for other
angles as well

1
cos = 1 2sin2
2
21
= 2cos 1
1

= cos 2 sin2
2

1
2 tan A
2
tan =
1
1 tan2
2
Other multiple angle formula

sin 4 = 2 sin 2 cos 2


cos 4 = 1 2sin2 2
=
=

Try to think of some more


multiple angle formulae!

tan 6 =
Example 3
Given that cos =
i) cos 2

3
5

and 180 < < 360, find the value of the following calculators,
ii) tan 2

iii) cos (Hint: half angle formula)


2

Example 4
Solve the following equations for 0 360
i) 3 cos 2 + 5 cos = 0
ii) 4 sec 2 + 5 = 0

3. The R-formula

When to use?
Convert sum of 2 different
type trigonometric ratios
to one trigonometric ratio

cos + sin = cos( )


cos sin = cos( + )
sin + cos = sin( + )
sin cos = sin( )
where = 2 + 2 and

tan =

Note:
Remember to take note
of the +/- sign when
using the R-formula
Equations of the form
cos + sin =
can be solved by first
converting them using Rformula

Example 5
Express 4 sin + 3 cos in the form sin( + ), where R is positive and is acute.
Hence find the maximum and minimum values of the expression 4 sin + 3 cos .
Find also the values of for which these values occur, where 0 360.
Solve the equation 4 sin + 3 cos = 5.

Example 6
Express 5 cos 2 + 12 sin in the form cos( ), where R is positive and is acute.
Hence, or otherwise, find the maximum value of

1
5 cos 2+12 sin +6

positive value of at which the maximum occurs.

and the smallest

4. The factor formula

sin + sin = 2 sin

cos
2
2
When to use?

sin sin = 2 cos

sin
2
2

cos + cos = 2 cos

cos
2
2

cos cos = 2 sin

sin
2
2

Expressed in product to sum form:


2 sin cos = sin ( + ) + sin( )
2 sin cos = sin ( + ) + sin( )
2 sin cos = sin ( + ) + sin( )
2 sin cos = sin ( + ) + sin( )

Example 7
Solve sin 3 + sin 5 = 0 for 0 360.

Example 8
Solve cos + cos 2 + cos 3 + cos 4 = 0 for 0 360.

Convert sum of 2 same


type trigonometric ratios
to product of 2 different
type trigonometric ratios

Putting it all together


Example 9
Prove the identity sin 3 3 sin 4 sin3 . Hence or otherwise, solve the equation
8 sin3 = 3 + 6 sin .

Example 10
Solve the equation cos cos 2 sin sin 4 = 0 for 0 180.

Example 11
Show that cos cos 3 = 4 sin2 cos .
Hence, or otherwise, solve the equation 2 cos + cos 3 = 0 for 0 .