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FM Global

Property Loss Prevention Data Sheets

12-2
April 2014
Interim Revision April 2015
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VESSELS AND PIPING

Table of Contents
Page
1.0 SCOPE ..................................................................................................................................................... 3
1.1 Changes ............................................................................................................................................ 3
1.2 Superseded Information .................................................................................................................... 3
2.0 LOSS PREVENTION RECOMMENDATIONS ....................................................................................... 3
2.1 Recommendations Applicable to All Vessels and Piping Systems .................................................. 3
2.1.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................................. 3
2.1.2 Construction and Location ..................................................................................................... 3
2.1.3 Occupancy ............................................................................................................................. 3
2.1.4 Protection ............................................................................................................................... 3
2.1.5 Equipment and Processes ..................................................................................................... 3
2.1.6 Operation and Maintenance ................................................................................................... 5
2.1.7 Employee Training ................................................................................................................. 5
2.1.8 Human Factor ......................................................................................................................... 6
2.1.9 Utilities .................................................................................................................................... 6
2.1.10 Contingency Planning .......................................................................................................... 6
2.1.11 Ignition Source Control ......................................................................................................... 6
2.1.12 Electrical ............................................................................................................................... 6
2.2 Concrete Vessel and Piping Systems .............................................................................................. 6
2.2.1 Introduction .............................................................................................................................. 6
2.2.2 Equipment and Processes ..................................................................................................... 6
2.2.3 Operation and Maintenance .................................................................................................... 6
2.3 Metallic Vessels and Piping ............................................................................................................... 7
2.3.1 Open, Vented, and Atmospheric Pressure .............................................................................. 7
2.3.2 Low-Pressure Vessels (15 psig [100 kPa] and Vacuum) .................................................... 7
2.3.3 Pressure Vessels (15 psig [100 kPa] and Vacuum) ........................................................... 7
2.3.4 Pressure Vessels 3000 psig (20.7 MPa) and Vacuum up to 10,000 psig (68.7 MPa) ....... 9
2.3.5 Pressure Vessels 10,000 psig (68.7 MPa) and vacuum ................................................... 10
2.4 Wood Vessels and Piping ................................................................................................................ 10
2.4.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................................ 10
2.4.2 Operation and Maintenance .................................................................................................. 10
3.0 SUPPORT FOR RECOMMENDATIONS .............................................................................................. 11
3.1 Equipment and Processes: System Construction .......................................................................... 11
3.1.1 Metallic Systems .................................................................................................................... 11
3.1.2 Overpressure Protection ....................................................................................................... 12
3.2 System Operation and Maintenance ............................................................................................... 15
3.2.1 Metallic Systems .................................................................................................................... 15
3.2.2 Overpressure Protection Maintenance .................................................................................. 19
4.0 REFERENCES ....................................................................................................................................... 20
4.1 FM Global ....................................................................................................................................... 20
4.2 Recognized Vessel and Piping Codes ............................................................................................ 21
4.2.1 Pressure Vessel and Piping Construction Codes ................................................................. 21
4.2.2 Pressure Vessel and Piping Inspection and Repair Codes .................................................. 23
4.2.3 Tanks and Silos Construction Guides and Codes ............................................................... 24
4.2.4 Tanks and Silos Inspection and Repair Guides and Codes ................................................. 26
APPENDIX A GLOSSARY OF TERMS ..................................................................................................... 26
APPENDIX B DOCUMENT REVISION HISTORY ...................................................................................... 29

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APPENDIX C BIBLIOGRAPHY ................................................................................................................... 30

List of Figures
Fig. 1. Collateral damage following catastrophic failure of a hot isostatic press ....................................... 11
Fig. 2. Imploded tank caused by inadequate design ................................................................................... 12
Fig. 3. Failure to anticipate internal pressure in tank design and no provision of system
overpressure protection resulted in liberation of process tank head .............................................. 13
Fig. 4. A dip tank is an example of an open vessel; the salvage and the separator tanks are
examples of vented vessels ............................................................................................................ 14
Fig. 5. A water supply suction tank is an example of a vented vessel ...................................................... 15
Fig. 6. Plastic ducts of an emission-control facility, copper refinery .......................................................... 16
Fig. 7. Manifolded tanks ............................................................................................................................. 16
Fig. 8. Combination pressure-vacuum relief device using weighted pallet valves ..................................... 17
Fig. 9. Eighteen in. (400 mm) diameter, weighted pallet vacuum relief valve ........................................... 17
Fig. 10. Utility reheat steam lead failure in welded joint ............................................................................ 18
Fig. 11. Erosion-corrosion or FAC likely led to failure of this power boiler feedwater pipe ....................... 20

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1.0 SCOPE
General recommendations and supporting information are provided for vessels and piping used in the storage
or processing of solids (powders, granules, etc.) liquids, and gases.
The term system as used in this data sheet refers to the combination of a vessel or vessels and the
connected piping and piping components.
Note that the hazards of explosion, detonation, deflagration, and fire are beyond the scope of this data sheet.
See Section 4.0, References, for resources regarding these hazards.
1.1 Changes
April 2015. Data Sheets 12-66, High Pressure Forming Presses, and 12-26, Quick-actuating Closures, have
been incorporated into this document.
1.2 Superseded Information
This data sheet supersedes DS 12-66, High-Pressure Forming Presses, and DS 12-26, Quick-Actuating
Closures.
2.0 LOSS PREVENTION RECOMMENDATIONS
2.1 Recommendations Applicable to All Vessels and Piping Systems
2.1.1 Introduction
The scope of this data sheet is very broad. As a result, recommendations are usually also very broad. In
the cases of a few vessel and piping types, more specific advice is provided, but not in great detail. For more
information, see the data sheets applicable to the specific service of the vessel or piping system.
The following recommendations are, in general, for the vessel and associated piping system.
Recommendations applicable to specific vessels are also usually applicable to the associated piping. Note
that in some specific systems, there may be relatively large diameter piping of comparatively thin wall used
for collecting vapor or dust. This piping is commonly known as ducting.
Use FM Approved equipment, materials, and services whenever they are applicable and available. For a
list of products and services that are FM Approved, see the Approval Guide, an online resource of FM
Approvals (www.approvalguide.com)
2.1.2 Construction and Location
For construction and location recommendations, see the data sheets associated with the specific service
of the vessel or piping system.
2.1.3 Occupancy
For occupancy recommendations, see the data sheets associated with the specific service of the vessel or
piping system.
2.1.4 Protection
For general fire protection and natural hazard recommendations, see the data sheets associated with the
specific service of the vessel or piping system.
2.1.4.1 Develop and implement procedures to prevent corrosion or freeze damage during idle or shutdown
periods. Some actions to be addressed are passivation, filling with inert gas, dehumidification, venting
corrosive gases from high points, and draining from low points.
2.1.5 Equipment and Processes
For general equipment and processes recommendations, see the data sheets associated with the specific
service of the vessel or piping system.

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2.1.5.1 Construct systems to a recognized code (see Section 4.2, Recognized Vessel and Piping Codes).
Include provision for natural hazards for the geographic system location (wind, earthquake, precipitation,
flood, surface water and freeze).
2.1.5.2 Specify a corrosion or thinning allowance or use of resistant materials to ensure system thickness
will not be reduced below the minimum required for continued operation of the system components during the
expected operating life (internal and external thinning).
2.1.5.3 Use materials and construction processes that are less susceptible to known failure mechanisms
for the intended service, such as chloride stress corrosion cracking of stainless steels or caustic stress
corrosion cracking of carbon steels (internal and external cracking).
2.1.5.4 Specify system fabrication processes known to minimize in-service failure mechanisms, such as stress
relief of welds in carbon steel vessels, even if such processes are not required by jurisdictional code or
construction code.
2.1.5.5 Retain all design, material specification, inspection, and repair records for critical piping. These records
will be needed to evaluate the condition of the piping, determine if corrective action is needed, determine
appropriate repair methods, and document any repair activity. These records will also be useful in determining
remaining service life.
2.1.5.6 For sytems intended for operation at atmospheric pressure, provide the greater relief vent capacity
required for overpressure relief during filling or required for relief during fire exposure. Also provide sufficient
relief vent capacity to prevent implosion during use (contents extraction, draining or collapse of vapor in the
system) unless the system is designed for full vacuum service.
2.1.5.7 Provide overpressure protection for sytems intended for pressure operation set at or less than the
MAWP of the weakest system component with sufficient capacity to prevent exceeding the MAWP. This
includes vacuum relief for systems not designed for full vacuum that may be subjected to vacuum. Locate
these relief devices such that plugging by system contents is avoided.
2.1.5.8 Provide instrumentation, controls, and safety devices to ensure critical piping does not experience
pressure, temperature, or flow in excess of design.
2.1.5.9 Provide appropriate external corrosion protection for critical piping. If not insulated, select a coating
material that will resist the expected ambient environment. If insulated, select an insulation material that does
not contain elements that could damage the pipe if moisture is present. Provide a weather-tight covering for
the insulation. To avoid corrosion under insulation, it is vital that no moisture enter the insulation system from
pipe system leaks or external sources.
2.1.5.10 Installing and properly maintaining insulation is critical to preventing corrosion under the insulation.
Insulation should be selected and installed to prevent moisture from entering the system. Install insulation
as follows:
A. Face all seams downward so water will be shed rather than providing a path for moisture to enter the
system.
B. Install only dry insulation. If insulation becomes wet while in storage, dry it out thoroughly before
installing.
C. Install insulation only during dry conditions to prevent water from becoming trapped inside during
installation.
D. If installation is halted, seal off all openings to prevent wetting of the partially exposed insulation.
E. If insulation is removed, cover the exposed surfaces to prevent wetting, and keep the insulation dry if
it is to be reused.
F. Reinstall insulation as soon as possible, being sure to dry previously exposed surfaces.
2.1.5.11 Apply a protective coating to exterior surfaces of piping before installing insulation. This is the best
way to prevent corrosion. Effective coatings for prevention of corrosion are those that are suitable for
immersion in water. Technical organizations, such as the National Association of Corrosion Engineers (NACE),
can be of assistance in determining the right type of coating to use for a specific application.
It is not uncommon for a contractor to clean component surfaces in preparation for insulation and follow up
with a primer, assuming that this will provide adequate corrosion protection. Primers are not designed to

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be protective coatings. Only coatings designated for immersion under water provide adequate corrosion
protection. Use of such coatings will also be beneficial during periods when insulation must be removed.
2.1.6 Operation and Maintenance
For general operation and maintenance recommendations, see the data sheets associated with the specific
service of the vessel or piping system.
2.1.6.1 Post the system operating instructions and precautions where operators can refer to them. Instructions
should address any operating actions that could damage the system (e.g., maximum fill level or maximum
withdrawal rate).
2.1.6.2 Calibrate and functionally test system interlocks and protective devices as recommended by the
system supplier, or in accord with accepted industry practice. The maximum time interval should not exceed
12 months. All testing should be documented.
2.1.6.3 Establish and implement a facility-wide vessel and piping integrity assessment program.
A. Visually inspect (VT) all vessels and piping externally at least annually. More frequent inspection may
be recommended in other data sheets or necessary due to service conditions.
B. Visually inspect all vessels and piping internally at intervals appropriate for the system materials and
service. Inspection intervals and nondestructive examination (NDE) techniques may be recommended in
other data sheets or required by jurisdictional authorities.
The scope of the assessment program should follow accepted industry practices for systems in similar service,
be developed by a person familiar with both industry practice and the specific system (see Section 4.2,
Recognized Vessel and Piping Codes), and be executed by a person having demonstrated the ability to
assess vessel and piping condition. Revise the inspection program if system service conditions are modified
in any way. Maintain written records of all inspections. It may be acceptable to substitute some externally
applied NDE techniques in lieu of internal VT. See Data Sheet 9-0, Maintenance and Inspection, for
recommended types of maintenance programs. Also see service-specific data sheets, industry standards,
and jurisdictional requirements.
2.1.6.3.1 Evaluate a vessel or piping that has experienced an excursion beyond design parameters. Base
the scope of the evaluation on the extent of the excursion (pressure, temperature, flow, displacement of the
system component, or combination). For relatively minor excursions, an expert may be able to determine
the condition of the system by analyzing operating records. For other excursions any of a variety of NDE
techniques may be employed and, for some excursions, material may need to be removed from the
component for evaluation. In some cases systems or structures associated with the component may also
require evaluation.
2.1.6.3.2 If hydrostatic or liquid pressure or pneumatic testing is required, use the lowest test pressure
necessary. For liquid pressure testing, confirm the temperature of both the component being tested and the
test fluid is maintained above the component material nil ductility transition temperature (to avoid brittle
fracture during the test).
2.1.6.3.3 Failure of pressure vessels and piping due to corrosion under external coating or insulation can
be avoided or mitigated. Facilities with susceptible vessels or piping should have a planned inspection
program to do the following:
A. Identify compromise of the coating or insulation jacket;
B. Identify leakage under the coating or jacket;
C. Confirm thickness of the pressure-containing material; and
D. Promptly correct any deficiencies.
2.1.7 Employee Training
The scope of the training program is highly dependent on the system service. See specific service data sheets,
industry standards, and jurisdictional requirements for additional guidance.
2.1.7.1 Develop and implement a documented employee training program encompassing normal operation
of the system, recognizing unfavorable conditions, and appropriate responses to emergency conditions.

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FM Global Property Loss Prevention Data Sheets

2.1.8 Human Factor


The scope of emergency planning is highly dependent on the system service. See specific service data
sheets, industry standards, and jurisdictional requirements for additional guidance.
2.1.8.1 Establish an emergency plan for the prompt and proper response to fire or other emergency involving
the system.
2.1.9 Utilities
For general utilities recommendations, see the data sheets associated with the specific service of the vessel
or piping system.
2.1.10 Contingency Planning
For general contingency planning recommendations, see the data sheets associated with the specific service
of the vessel or piping system.
2.1.10.1 Provide backup utilities for critical systems used for process cooling or heating if failure of the fluid
flow may result in shutdown of the process, explosion, solidification of the process material, interruption of
normal production, or similar events.
2.1.10.2 Develop and maintain a contingency plan for components of a critical system that are known to
require replacement or are suspected to be damaged. Either maintain material that will be needed to repair
the components or have a contracted supply source that guarantees delivery of the material within a time
period that will not extend the repair time. Include in the plan a means to complete the repair by qualified
on-site personnel, or guaranteed prompt response from qualified contract personnel.
2.1.11 Ignition Source Control
For ignition source control recommendations, see the data sheets associated with the specific service of
the vessel or piping system.
2.1.12 Electrical
For general electrical recommendations, see the data sheets associated with the specific service of the vessel
or piping system.
2.1.12.1 Establish a program of electrical maintenance in accordance with the manufacturers instructions
and Data Sheet 5-20, Electrical Testing.
2.2 Concrete Vessel and Piping Systems
2.2.1 Introduction
The following recommendations are in addition to the preceding recommendations. For general
recommendations, see the data sheets associated with the specific service of the vessel or piping system.
Concrete is commonly used for construction of silos, bins, hoppers, and tanks primarily for holding solid
materials. While piping associated with these vessels may be concrete, it is more likely to be metallic, with
some being plastic.
2.2.2 Equipment and Processes
2.2.2.1 When constructing a steel-reinforced or pre-stressed concrete vessel, apply the cement to at least
the designers specified thickness. Typically, a minimum of 1 in. (25 mm) is needed to minimize corrosion.
2.2.3 Operation and Maintenance
2.2.3.1 Periodically examine concrete vessels internally and externally for indications of cracking, spalling,
or crushing of the vessel and to evaluate the condition of external or internal steel reinforcement to determine
the condition of the steel-reinforcing elements. If adverse conditions are identified, engage a qualified
concrete repair agency to restore vessel integrity. Until vessel integrity is restored, reduce the vessel fill level
sufficiently to avoid loss of integrity.

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2.3 Metallic Vessels and Piping


2.3.1 Open, Vented, and Atmospheric Pressure
2.3.1.1 Introduction
The following recommendations are in addition to the preceding recommendations. These systems may be
comprised of vessels or piping having square, rectangular, or circular cross sections. System elements may
be formed by from stamping, welding, bolting, or some combination. For general recommendations, see the
data sheets associated with the specific service of the vessel or piping system.
2.3.1.2 Operation and Maintenance
2.3.1.2.1 Annually inspect accessible interior walls, floor, and roof of metal tanks. This is particularly important
when the tank is subject to corrosive or abrasive influence. Take corrective action when any parts or areas
are thinned below the minimum required to maintain tank structural integrity.
2.3.1.2.2 Semiannually examine fasteners securing the joints of bolted steel tanks. Tighten any loose
fasteners. Restore the corrosion barrier on any fasteners that have corroded. Replace fasteners having
cross-sectional area reduced more than 25% by corrosion. Note that draining below the level of fasteners
to be replaced may be necessary.
2.3.1.2.3 Remove any accumulation (dust, debris, snow, etc.) from tank roofs.
2.3.1.2.4 Periodically examine steel supports, particularly for tanks containing corrosive liquids, for corrosion.
Evaluate corrosion damage, repair as needed, and restore corrosion barrier.
2.3.1.2.5 Routinely inspect tank linings. If a lining is compromised, determine the extent of corrosion damage,
repair the tank as needed, and then restore the lining.
2.3.2 Low-Pressure Vessels (15 psig [100 kPa] and Vacuum)
2.3.2.1 Introduction
The following recommendations are in addition to the preceding recommendations. These systems may be
comprised of vessels or piping having square, rectangular, or circular cross sections. System elements may
be formed by stamping, welding, bolting or some combination. For general recommendations, see the data
sheets associated with the specific service of the vessel or piping system.
2.3.2.2 Equipment and Processes
2.3.2.2.1 Construct vessels with a maximum allowable working pressure (MAWP) that is at least 115% of
the maximum expected process operating pressure.
2.3.2.2.2 Construct vessels that may be subject to vacuum for full vacuum to avoid having to provide and
maintain vacuum relief devices.
2.3.3 Pressure Vessels (15 psig [100 kPa] and Vacuum)
2.3.3.1 Introduction
Adhere to the following recommendations in addition to the preceding ones. These systems may be comprised
of vessels or piping having square, rectangular, or circular cross sections. System elements may be formed
by stamping, welding, bolting or some combination. Quick-actuating closures may be provided on these
vessels, particularly if operated in a batch mode. For general recommendations, see the FM Global data
sheets associated with the specific service of the vessel or piping system.
2.3.3.2 Equipment and Processes
2.3.3.2.1 Construct vessels with a maximum allowable working pressure (MAWP) that is at least 115% of
the maximum expected process operating pressure.
2.3.3.2.2 Construct vessels that may be subject to vacuum for full vacuum to avoid having to provide and
maintain vacuum relief devices.

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FM Global Property Loss Prevention Data Sheets

2.3.3.2.3 In addition to Recommendation 2.1.5.7 (system overpressure protection), provide a process


protection scheme to begin shutoff of system inputs at 90% of system MAWP, and to open vents at 95% of
MAWP. The intent of this arrangement is to permit operation at the necessary process pressure and avoid
operation of safety relief valves or rupture disks, which may force interruption of the process.
An acceptable alternative to Recommendations 2.1.5.7 and 2.3.3.2.3 is implementation of overpressure
protection by system design. An example of this type of system is described in ASME BPVC VIII, Division
1, Part UG-140, Overpressure Protection by System Design.
2.3.3.2.4 Adhere to the following recommendations for quick-actuating closures:
A. Design the locking mechanism so the failure of one locking element will not result in the release or
failure of the other elements.
B. Arrange the locking and holding elements so a visual external examination can be made of their
condition and to confirm that the elements are fully engaged in the closed position.
C. Where the locking mechanism or the closure is completely released by limited movement of the closure
or locking mechanism and is hydraulically operated (by other than manual operation), design the unit
(or provide protective interlocking devices) so the vessel cannot be pressurized until the closure
mechanism is confirmed fully engaged (closed position interlock), and the mechanism cannot be released
until the vessel has been depressurized to ambient pressure (internal pressure equal to external pressure
interlock).
D. For manually operated locking mechanisms designed to release the vessel pressure before the
mechanism has been disengaged, provide an audible or visible warning device to alarm when an attempt
is made to pressurize with an incompletely engaged mechanism, or to alarm when an attempt is made
to disengage a mechanism when the vessel is pressurized.
E. Provide at least one safety device to prevent release of the locking mechanism until the vessel pressure
is verified equal to ambient pressure. (Not applicable to multi-bolted closures.)
F. Provide a pressure-indicating device on all quick-actuating closure equipped vessels, and ensure it is
visible from the operating area.
2.3.3.3 Operation and Maintenance
2.3.3.3.1 Develop a system startup procedure to ensure the vessel is not pressurized until the shell
temperature is well above the transition temperature (to avoid brittle fracture).
2.3.3.3.2 Adhere to the following recommendations for quick-actuating closures:
A. Examine all bearing surfaces for evidence of excessive wear. If found, discontinue use of vessel until
corrective action is completed.
B. Examine gaskets for wear, damage, and leakage. Replace gaskets in accordance with manufacturers
specifications, including gasket material, with no deviations.
C. Check closure hinge mechanisms for proper alignment and to ensure adjustment screws and locking
nuts are properly secured.
D. Examine closure-ring and locking-ring lugs for evidence of undue stress and for cracks at the junction
of the lug and closure or locking ring. Check locking ring and closure wedges to verify full engagement
when closed, proper bearing surface contact, wear patterns, and condition. Consult the closure
manufacturer for replacement of missing wedges or securement of loose wedges.
E. For closures using a contracting-ring locking device, check the ring for loss of flexibility, cracks at the
points of attachment of the operating lugs, evidence of undue wear on the ring, and shear on the pins
in the lugs and on the operating mechanism.
F. With clamp-type closures, check the surfaces of the clamps for wear, and examine the clamps for
distortion at the portions overlapping the shell ring and closure ring. Check hinge pins and locking-device
parts for wear and evidence of shear.
G. With bar-type closures, inspect all bearing surfaces for undue wear and check the various parts for
indications of undue stress as well as for distortion. Check arm-pivot pins to be sure they are securely held
in place and are not bent. Check pivot-pin mounting brackets for cracks at the point of attachment to the

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head and evidence of undue stress in line with the pin holes. Check threads of the operating screw for
wear and fit in the nut or hand wheel hub.
H. Check closures of the swing-bolt type for missing bolts. If any are missing, replace at once. Check
bolts for soundness, particularly at the eye, and check the threads for evidence of stripping or excessive
wear. The bolt washers should be flat. Washers that are distorted to a dish shape tend to allow bolt
movement out of the slot when the nuts are improperly torqued. Also inspect the closure when closed
to be sure the nuts are fully engaged. Examine the pins for distortion and for secure fit.
I. At each inspection of the vessel, check the closure safety-locking appliances and tested to be sure that
they are operating properly and are in good repair.
J. Anytime a locking ring binds or catches at some point during its movement, the point becomes a fulcrum
and the entire ring tries to rotate around it. This may result in shifting of the ring position and cause unequal
overlap on the lugs. Therefore, it is important that any safety device that determines the positioning of
the ring, such as micro switches, manually operated pins with two-way valves connected to steam signals,
or any other type of device, be located at four equal quadrants of the ring. One safety device at one point
is not sufficient to properly indicate the position of the ring. Test these four devices.
K. Check the closure and the locking mechanism both in a closed and in an open position. Observe the
position of the locking ring, the amount of overlap, and any shift in the ring position.
L. Check the opening to the vessel for out-of-roundness at the outer edge. This is the difference between
the maximum and minimum inside diameter at any cross section. Under no conditions should it exceed
1% of the nominal diameter of the cross section under consideration. Preferably, it should be zero.
2.3.3.4 Employee Training
2.3.3.4.1 Provide the following training and operating procedures for vessels having quick-actuating closures:
A. Train operators in the proper operation of quick-actuating closures. Instruct operators in the potential
for accidents involving the vessel and of the tremendous forces acting on the closure. Ensure operators are
aware of and understand the importance of the following:
1. Ensuring the vessel is completely vented before attempting to open the closure
2. The function of all operating controls and closure interlocking devices
3. The danger of interfering with or bypassing any safety device
An operator who has not yet acquired sufficient knowledge and experience with quick-actuating closures
should be closely supervised by a trained and experienced person.
B. Develop and implement safe and proper operating procedures. Incorporate the closure manufacturers
operating instructions. Implement a system to ensure procedures are kept current and operators continue
to follow the procedures. These procedures should ensure the following:
1. The closure, the closure gasket, and the gasket bearing surfaces will not be damaged during loading
and unloading operations.
2. Only trained operators engage or disengage the quick-actuating closure;
3. Gasket and gasket bearing surfaces are examined for and cleaned of foreign matter prior to engaging
the closure.
4. Any difficulty encountered in actuating the closure is investigated and corrected immediately: before
the closure cycle is completed.
5. No attempt is made to open the closure until the operator has determined all pressure has been
relieved.
2.3.4 Pressure Vessels 3000 psig (20.7 MPa) and Vacuum up to 10,000 psig (68.7 MPa)
2.3.4.1 Introduction
Adhere to the following recommendations in addition to the preceding ones. These systems are typically
comprised of vessels or piping having a circular cross section. System elements are typically fabricated by

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FM Global Property Loss Prevention Data Sheets

forging or welding. A system may incorporate bolted joints. Vessels in batch process applications typically
incorporate quick-actuating closures. Fore more recommendations, see the FM Global data sheets associated
with the specific service or application.
2.3.4.2 Construction and Location
2.3.4.2.1 Consider pressure vessel rupture damage potential in design of building and location of vessels.
Larger vessels containing fluid above its ambient boiling temperature or above its critical pressure may fail
catastrophically, with extensive collateral damage.
2.3.4.3 Equipment and Processes
2.3.4.3.1 Provide a fatigue analysis for vessels and piping. Follow practices described in a recognized code
such as EN 13445 or ASME BPVC VIII Division 2.
2.3.4.4 Operation and Maintenance
2.3.4.4.1 Do not exceed system design pressure and temperature limits when operating. If these limits are
inadvertently exceeded, suspend operations until the vessel is examined and a new fatigue analysis is
conducted. Results of the new analysis should be used to determine remaining cyclic life and new NDE
frequency.
2.3.4.4.2 Maintain records of operating data, including number of cycles and the maximum pressure and
maximum temperature during each cycle. Record any unusual conditions during each cycle. Retain these
records throughout the life of the system.
2.3.4.4.3 Completely inspect the vessel at installation or when resuming operation after an extended period
of inactivity. Corrosion is likely in idle system, particularly for systems utilizing water as process fluid.
2.3.4.4.4 Conduct at least annual visual and dimensional vessel inspections and examine high-stress areas
with liquid penetrant (PT) to ensure that the surfaces are free of defects.
2.3.4.4.5 Conduct ultrasonic examination (UT) of the vessel after every 25% of the design cycle life or every
five years, whichever comes first.
2.3.4.4.6 If cracks, pitting, corrosion, or other indications are found, perform appropriate corrective measures
and complete an evaluation of the repaired component using fracture mechanics techniques. This is to
determine MAWP, cyclic life, and NDE frequency.
2.3.5 Pressure Vessels 10,000 psig (68.7 MPa) and vacuum
2.3.5.1 Introduction
Adhere to the following recommendations in addition to the preceding ones. These systems are typically
comprised of vessels or piping having a circular cross section. System elements are typically fabricated by
forging or welding. A system may incorporate bolted joints. Vessels in batch process applications typically
incorporate quick-actuating closures. For more recommendations, refer to the FM Global data sheets
associated with the specific service or application.
2.3.5.2 Equipment and Processes
2.3.5.2.1 Provide a fatigue analysis for vessels and piping. Follow practices described in a recognized code
such as EN 13445 or ASME BPVC VIII Division 3.
2.4 Wood Vessels and Piping
2.4.1 Introduction
Wood vessels and piping (penstocks) for liquid service are uncommon. Construction is typically wood stave
with external metal hoops, bands, or cables.
2.4.2 Operation and Maintenance
2.4.2.1 Maintain fluid levels in wood systems to prevent wood shrinkage and potential for leaks.

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2.4.2.2 Examine hoops or bands encircling wood vessels and piping at least annually for evidence of
deterioration. This is particularly important when the vessel or pipe is subject to a corrosive atmosphere or
when any protective coating has outlived its useful life. When appreciable deterioration is discovered, replace
the hoops or bands. If corrosion has already begun, remove the corrosion and coat the metal with
corrosion-resistant paint.
2.4.2.3 Periodically examine staves of older wood vessels and piping for signs of deterioration and replace
them as necessary.
3.0 SUPPORT FOR RECOMMENDATIONS
3.1 Equipment and Processes: System Construction
Constructing vessels and piping to a recognized code better ensures the equipment will function as intended
over the planned equipment life, and will facilitate future repairs. Specific requirements for structural loads
beyond pressure containment are generally not provided in pressure vessel construction codes. These loads
need to be considered to minimize damage from environmental factors.
Construction codes generally address minimum material thickness required for containing pressure, and do
not provide specific guidance on material allowance for corrosion and erosion for specific service applications.
Process fluids may be either highly caustic or highly acidic, leading to rapid corrosion. Process fluid may
contain erosive material (dirt, sand) that may accelerate thinning of vessel walls and piping (erosion-corrosion
and FAC).
3.1.1 Metallic Systems
3.1.1.1 Pressure Vessels and Piping (+15 psig [+100 kPa] Minimum)
Critical systems must be designed, fabricated and installed in accordance with established industryrecognized codes and standards. However, even with these prerequisites, there is the potential for
unanticipated failures. Faulty layout and support design, poor welding practices, erosion or corrosion thinning
due to poor material choice and system design limits not consistent with process operating limits are a few
of the more common root causes of loss. When released, pressurized fluid is likely to cause collateral
damage to nearby systems and equipment.

Fig. 1. Collateral damage following catastrophic failure of a hot isostatic press

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Fig. 2. Imploded tank caused by inadequate design

3.1.2 Overpressure Protection


Overpressure protection is system and service design specific. For example, open-top vessels containing
liquids do not need overpressure protection since neither positive or negative pressure can be developed and
vessels containing pressurized gases do not need vacuum protection since negative pressure cannot be
developed. Following is general overpressure protection guidance for systems that can be expected to
experience either positive or negative pressures.
Process upsets and external exposures can result in vessel pressure exceeding intended pressure. Provision
of fixed overpressure protection ensures the vessels do not experience pressure significantly above the
MAWP, which could reduce the vessel life. Data Sheet 7-49, Emergency Venting of Vessels, provides
guidelines for the evaluation of overpressure protection systems. It indicates the overpressure protection
scheme should be based on the evaluation of the worst credible case. The actual overpressure protection
system design should be left to specialists.
Overpressure protection schemes become more complex as the hazard and risk increase. Common to all
schemes is operator observation for indication of adverse conditions with a planned response. The next level
is system monitoring and operating controls to regulate within set operating parameters. Next level may be
interlocks and safety devices to stabilize the system if predetermined safe limits are exceeded. The final
element in overpressure protection is fixed mechanical devices solely intended to relieve pressure from
normal operation that exceeds the system design or maximum allowable working pressure (MAWP).
Vessel and piping codes typically address overpressure only from normal system inputs. Overpressure may
develop from reactive, non-reactive or other high velocity process reactions. Note that specific service
applications may require additional or emergency venting. See Data Sheet 7-49, Emergency Venting of
Vessels, or specific service application data sheets for emergency venting guidance.
Designing process controls to reduce inputs and to open vessel outlets at a pressure below overpressure
protection device set pressure reduces the probability that the overpressure protection device will operate.
Process vessel contents in suspension will generally flow toward any opening in the vessel, including
overpressure protection devices connected to the vessel vapor space. The vessel contents may plug the
relief piping as the flow dissipates, and can be expected to cause sticking of a pressure relief valve. Such
plugging would require taking the vessel out of service until the overpressure protection system is restored.
Also, safety relief valves or rupture disks are the final overpressure protection safety element. Unnecessary
operation is to be avoided.

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Fig. 3. Failure to anticipate internal pressure in tank design and no provision of system overpressure protection resulted
in liberation of process tank head

3.1.2.1 Overpressure Protection Methods


3.1.2.1.1 Open Vessels
Open vessels, bins for solids, tanks for liquids, are typically not subject to overpressure during normal
operation. Bins or silos containing solids may develop an abnormal condition if the material bridges or
solidifies over the entire surface of the vessel. If this happens, there is potential for a vacuum to develop as
material below the bridge is withdrawn. There is no relief device for this hazard, only the accepted
practices to avoid formation of a bridge by design of the vessel, provision of vibration to prevent formation
and preventing the vessel contents from becoming compacted or agglomerated.
3.1.2.1.2 Vented Vessels
Vented vessels may contain solids or liquids and are typically designed with sufficient vent capacity that no
pressure can be developed under conditions that normally occur, such as filling or emptying of the container.
Liquid-service vessels and vessels having connections to vapor systems (e.g., clean-in-place steam sterilizing
system) also require evaluation of vacuum generated by potential vapor collapse (the sudden transition of
vapor to liquid with concomitant volume reduction).

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Cable to safe location for


manual release of weight

Fusible link
Conveyor

6 in.
(150 mm)

Weir

Splash
guard
Overflow
drain

Drain board

Vent with
flame arrester

OS&Y
valve
locked
open

Dip tank

Trap

Trap
Or to safe
location

Quick opening
dump valve

Note: The distance A


times the specific
gravity of the liquid
must be greater than
the distance B

Ground line

Note: Trap may be omitted


when dump line terminates
in salvage or separator tank

Or to safe
location

Pump out line

A
Dump line

Salvage tank

To fusible link
and manual release

(125% of dip tank capacity)

Weight

Level of bottom
of dip tank
Vent with
flame arrester

Side view of quick opening dump valve


(in closed position)

Key

Note: The distance C times


the specific gravity
of the liquid must be
greater than the
distance D.

Automatic sprinklers

Carbon dioxide or
foam nozzle

Heat detector

Cable release hook

Ground line
Pump out
line

Overflow same
size as dump line

Dump line

Separator tank
(125% of dip tank capacity)

Sewer

Fig. 4. A dip tank is an example of an open vessel; the salvage and the separator tanks are examples of vented vessels

Note that many vented vessels are equipped with dust or vapor collection systems. These collection systems
typically operate under a slight vacuum. For the collection system piping (ductwork) overpressure protection
see Data Sheet 7-78, Industrial Exhaust Systems, or other specific service data sheet.
3.1.2.1.3 Low-Pressure Vessels (15 psig [100 kPa] Maximum)
Low-pressure vessels are typically in liquid service with some solids applications. Note that liquids may include
sub-cooled liquids (liquefied flammable gas). For very low system pressure, typical relief devices are
weighted-pallet or weighted-lever valves for positive or negative pressures. When both positive and negative
pressure protection are provided by a single device, the device may be called a pressure-vacuum relief valve
or conservation vent.
As system pressures increase, direct acting spring-loaded valves become viable choices. Pin devices
(buckling or breaking) also become an option if reclosing is not necessary or desired.
Rupture disks may be used for all positive or negative pressures, but are non-reclosing devices.

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Fig. 5. A water supply suction tank is an example of a vented vessel

3.1.2.1.4 Pressure Vessels (+15 psig [+100 kPa] Minimum)


Positive pressure relief for systems designed for a minimum 15 psig (100 kPa) may be provided by rupture
disks, pin devices or non-reclosing valves if acceptable for the process material. If a reclosing device is
necessary for the specific service, FM Global recommends use of direct-acting spring-loaded valves or pilot
actuated spring-loaded valves. Use of weighted valves for this pressure range is not recommended due
potential for altering the valve set pressure, inadvertently or purposely. Negative (vacuum) pressure relief
may also be needed for systems potentially subject to vacuum but not designed for full vacuum.
3.2 System Operation and Maintenance
3.2.1 Metallic Systems
3.2.1.1 Avoiding Temperature-, Pressure-, and Support-Related Failures
Due to operation at high pressure or temperature, a critical system is subject to pressure and thermal
transients (consequence of operation), fatigue (result of inadequate or improper support), and adverse

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Fig. 6. Plastic ducts of an emission-control facility, copper refinery

Fig. 7. Manifolded tanks

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Fig. 8. Combination pressure-vacuum relief device using weighted pallet valves

Fig. 9. Eighteen in. (400 mm) diameter, weighted pallet vacuum relief valve. Set pressure on order of inches of water
(mm of water) with relief capacity on order of 20,000 scfm (566 m2/min) air.

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metallurgical changes over time (resulting from operation in or near the creep regime). Operating and
environmental factors may accelerate internal corrosion or erosion. The accumulation of creep (intergranular
cracking due to high stresses and elevated temperatures), fatigue, and corrosion damage can lead to
initiation and propagation of cracks. If not detected by appropriate inspection and addressed by appropriate
repair, the result may be catastrophic failure.

Fig. 10. Utility reheat steam lead failure in welded joint; timely inspection could have provided opportunity for corrective
action prior to failure

Periodic inspection of a critical system and its supports assures the design bases are maintained, and
equipment nozzle loads (forces and moments transferred to equipment by the piping system as a result of
operation dynamics) are within limits, as well as forming a basis for remaining-life evaluations. Inspection
techniques are selected to assure an acceptable probability of flaw detection. The success of any necessary
repairs is ensured by employing experienced and qualified personnel who follow appropriate repair
procedures.
Piping support systems must be inspected and maintained to ensure stresses on critical equipment do not
exceed the design limits. Systems normally are designed with low-point drains to permit the elimination of
condensation. Long term operation of high temperature steam piping may lead to pipe creep and sag. When
sag occurs, condensation can accumulate in these new low points. Internal corrosion and steam hammer
during startup are common when sag has occurred.
The high impact stress from steam hammer may cause cracking or rupture of system components. A piping
system typically moves during steam hammer, placing unplanned stress on the piping support system
(hangers and snubbers). The supports, which may include major structural steel members, may be damaged
and the pipe may be cracked at welded attachments for the supports. Common causes of this phenomenon
in piping are rapid stoppage of flow, such as closure of steam turbine emergency stop valves, or the
introduction of a large quantity of water into a hot steam line. In the former case, the energy in the momentum
of the flowing steam must be absorbed by the piping system. In the latter case, the water flashes to steam,

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causing shock waves in the pipe. Pipe systems are provided with snubbers at changes in direction to reduce
the amount of displacement, but resultant forces are transmitted to the structure. Water hammer is similar
to steam hammer except water is incompressible, which can increase shock forces. Proper vent, fill, drain,
and pressurization can mitigate steam or water hammer in piping systems.
Inadvertent entry of water into a hot steam pipe is a common cause of steam hammer in power generating
facilities that incorporate reheat cycles. This typically results from leakage through a block valve. Leak-tight
block valve integrity can be extended by operating practice (i.e., terminating flow using a control valve, which
is designed for throttling service) before closing the block valve. Again, regular inspection and maintenance
of these piping system components can mitigate this hazard.
Effective inspection of in-service systems, with appropriate repair or replacement of damaged components,
can mitigate critical system failures. This is a lesson some electric generating companies learned the hard
way, after suffering catastrophic failures of seam-welded hot reheat piping in 1985 and 1986. Subsequent
investigations revealed that in some plants, seam-welded pipe had been substituted for the specified
seamless pipe, and experience demonstrated seam-welded pipe was likely to develop cracks in the heataffected zone of pipe material at the seam weld. Inspection programs for seam-welded pipe were initiated and
reliable examination techniques have been developed. Many electric generating companies have replaced
extensive seam-welded piping systems to avoid disastrous failures due to creep.
3.2.1.2 Avoiding Corrosion- and Erosion-Related Failures
Corrosion and erosion reduce the thickness, and thus the strength, of critical piping. Corrosion can damage
fasteners holding piping together, and when combined with stress, can result in cracking. Without timely
detection and corrective action, the pipe will fail. Production may be interrupted and nearby equipment or
structures may be damaged.
Corrosion and erosion occurring inside critical components is not readily apparent during normal operations.
External corrosion of insulated components also is not readily apparent. Without an inspection program,
undetected thinning leads to failure and an unplanned outage.
Corrosion is a process of deterioration of metal. A common example is rusting of steel. The process is
electrochemical in nature, involving the transfer of electrons from the metal to something in the surrounding
environment. Corrosion may be generalized, occur over a large area and appear uniform, or be localized,
occur over a small area and appear as pits or cracks.
The electrons released from the metal by corrosion react with hydrogen, forming a thin, gaseous film on
the metal surface that impedes further corrosion. However, breakdown of this film increases the corrosion
rate. For example, dissolved oxygen in boiler feedwater can react with the hydrogen in the film, forming water
and destroying the protective film. High fluid velocities, solid particles, or bubbles in the fluid also may disrupt
the film. High temperature and extremes in pH (acid or caustic) can increase the corrosion rate. Corrosion
that occurs on insulated external surfaces is driven by trapped moisture and may be accelerated by
constituents in the insulation, or water that has leaked into the insulation. This type of corrosion is commonly
known as corrosion under insulation (CUI).
Erosion is a mechanical process. Typically, solid particles impact the metal surface and break the protective
film or scrape away metal, much as sandpaper or a grinding stone would. The simultaneous combination
of both processes is known as erosion-corrosion and is often called flow-accelerated corrosion (FAC).
3.2.2 Overpressure Protection Maintenance
The scope of overpressure protection maintenance is highly dependent on the specific service. At least annual
verification that vent lines are unobstructed and vent caps, when recommended, are in place.
All relief devices should be visually checked by system operators just to verify there is no leakage of process
fluid from the device and no evidence corrosion or evidence of outlet or relief vent obstruction. Process fluids
that are viscous or contain solids may obstruct the relief device inlet, outlet or prevent a valve-type device
from closing. For such processes it is prudent to inspect the devices immediately after operation in addition
to set inspection intervals. See service specific data sheets and Data Sheet 12-43 for further guidance.

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Fig. 11. Erosion-corrosion or FAC likely led to failure of this power boiler feedwater pipe

4.0 REFERENCES
4.1 FM Global
Data
Data
Data
Data
Data
Data
Data
Data
Data
Data
Data
Data
Data
Data
Data
Data
Data
Data
Data
Data
Data
Data
Data
Data
Data

Sheet
Sheet
Sheet
Sheet
Sheet
Sheet
Sheet
Sheet
Sheet
Sheet
Sheet
Sheet
Sheet
Sheet
Sheet
Sheet
Sheet
Sheet
Sheet
Sheet
Sheet
Sheet
Sheet
Sheet
Sheet

1-40, Flood
3-1, Tanks and Reservoirs for Interconnected Fire Service and Public Mains
3-2, Water Tanks for Fire Protection
5-8, Static Electricity
6-9, Industrial Ovens and Dryers
7-0, Causes and Effects of Fires and Explosions
7-6, Heated Plastic and Plastic-Lined Tanks
7-9, Dip Tanks, Flow Coater and Roll Coaters
7-12, Mining and Ore Processing Facilities
7-13, Mechanical Refrigeration
7-14, Fire Protection for Chemical Plants
7-17, Explosion Protection Systems
7-20, Oil Cookers
7-21, Rolling Mills
7-22, Hydrazine and Its Derivatives
7-25, Molten Steel Production
7-26, Glass Plants
7-27, Spray Application of Flammable and Combustible Materials
7-28, Energetic Materials
7-30N, Solvent Extraction Plants
7-32, Ignitable Liquid Operation
7-33, High-Temperature Molten Materials
7-34, Explosion Prevention in Electrolytic Chlorine Processes
7-35, Air Separation Processes
7-36, Pharmaceutical Operations

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Data
Data
Data
Data
Data
Data
Data
Data
Data
Data
Data
Data
Data
Data
Data
Data
Data
Data
Data
Data
Data
Data
Data
Data
Data
Data
Data
Data
Data
Data
Data
Data
Data
Data
Data
Data
Data
Data
Data
Data
Data
Data
Data
Data
Data
Data
Data
Data

Sheet
Sheet
Sheet
Sheet
Sheet
Sheet
Sheet
Sheet
Sheet
Sheet
Sheet
Sheet
Sheet
Sheet
Sheet
Sheet
Sheet
Sheet
Sheet
Sheet
Sheet
Sheet
Sheet
Sheet
Sheet
Sheet
Sheet
Sheet
Sheet
Sheet
Sheet
Sheet
Sheet
Sheet
Sheet
Sheet
Sheet
Sheet
Sheet
Sheet
Sheet
Sheet
Sheet
Sheet
Sheet
Sheet
Sheet
Sheet

7-37, Cutting Oils


7-38, Loss Prevention in Ethanol Fuel Production Facilities
7-41, Oil Quenching and Molten Salt Baths
7-43, Loss Prevention in Chemical Plants
7-44, Spacing of Facilities in Outdoor Chemical Plants
7-45, Instrumentation and Control in Safety Applications
7-46, Chemical Reactors and Reactions
7-47, Physical Operations in Chemical Plants
7-49, Emergency Venting of Vessels
7-50, Compressed Gases in Cylinders
7-51, Acetylene
7-52, Oxygen
7-54, Natural Gas and Gas PipingData Sheet 7-55, Liquefied Petroleum Gas
7-56, MAPP Industrial Gas
7-58, Chlorine Dioxide
7-59, Inerting and Purging of Tanks, Process Vessels and Equipment
7-64, Aluminum Industry
7-72, Reformer and Cracking Furnaces
7-74, Distilleries
7-75, Grain Storage and Milling
7-76, Combustible Dust Explosion
7-78, Industrial Exhaust Systems
7-79, Fire Protection for Combustion Turbine
7-84, Hydrogen Peroxide
7-88, Flammable Liquid Storage Tanks
7-91, Hydrogen
7-92, Ethylene Oxide
7-94, Ammonia Synthesis Units
7-95, Compressors
7-96, Printing Plants
7-98, Hydraulic Fluids
7-99, Heat Transfer by Organic and Synthetic Fluids
7-101, Steam Turbines and Electric Generators
8-10, Coal and Charcoal Storage
9-0, Maintenance and Inspection
9-18, Prevention of Freeze-Ups
10-3, Hot Work Management
10-4, Contractor Management
12-0, Applicable Pressure Equipment Codes and Standards
12-3, Continuous Digesters and Related Process Vessels
12-6, Batch Digesters and Related Process Vessels
12-43, Pressure Relief Devices
12-53, Absorption Refrigeration Systems
12-61, Mechanical Refrigeration
13-2, Hydroelectric Power Plants
13-3, Steam Turbines
13-14, Electric Generating Stations
17-1, Nondestructive Examination

4.2 Recognized Vessel and Piping Codes


4.2.1 Pressure Vessel and Piping Construction Codes
4.2.1.1 National Standards of the Peoples Republic of China
GB 150, Pressure Vessels

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4.2.1.2 ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code


Section VIII, Rules for Construction of Pressure Vessels
Section X, Fiber-Reinforced Plastic Pressure Vessels
Section XII, Rules for Construction and Continued Service of Transport Tanks
4.2.1.3 ASME Code for Pressure Piping, B31
B31.1, Power Piping
B31.3, Process Piping
B31.4, Pipeline Transportation Systems for Liquid Hydrocarbons and Other Liquids
B31.5, Refrigeration Piping
B31.8, Gas Transportation and Distribution Piping Systems
B31.9, Building Services Piping
B31.11, Slurry Transportation Piping Systems
B31.12, Hydrogen Piping and Pipelines
4.2.1.4 ASME
PVHO-1, Safety Standard for Pressure Vessels for Human Occupancy
4.2.1.5 American Water Works Association (AWWA)
C605, Underground Installation of Polyvinyle Chloride (PVC) Pressure Pipe and Fittings for Water
C900, PVC Pressure Pipe and Fabricated Fittings
C950, Fiberglass Pressure Pipe
D100, Welded Carbon Steel Tanks for Water Storage
D103, Factory-CoatedBoltedCarbon Steel Tanks for Water Storage
D115, Tendon-Prestressed Concrete Water Tanks
D120, Thermosetting Fiberglass-Reinforced Plastic Tanks
D121, Bolted Aboveground Thermosetting Fiberglass-Reinforced Plastic Panel-Type Tanks for Water
Storate
M9, Concrete Pressure Pipe
M11, Steel Pipe: A Guide for Design and Installation
M23, PVC Pipe - Design and Installation
M55, PE Pipe - Design and Installation
4.2.1.6 Australian Standards
AS 1210, Pressure Vessels
4.2.1.7 European Standards
EN 13445, Unfired Pressure Vessels
EN 13923, Filament-Wound FRP Pressure Vessels
EN 13121, GRP Tanks and Vessels for Use Above Ground
EN 14931, Pressure vessels for human occupancy (PVHO) - Multi-place pressure chamber systems
for hyperbaric therapy - Performance, safety requirements and testing

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4.2.1.8 Japanese Industrial Standards


JIS B 8242, Horizontal type cylindrical storage tanks used for liquefied petroleum gas - Construction
JIS B 8265, Construction of pressure vessel - General principles
JIS B 8267, Construction of pressure vessel
JIS B 8266, Alternative standard for construction of pressure vessel
JIS B 8241, Seamless steel gas cylinders
JIS B 8248, Cylindrical layered pressure vessels
JIS B 8278, Saddle supported horizontal pressure vessels
JIS Z 2342, Methods for acoustic emission testing of pressure vessels during pressure tests and
classification of results
4.2.2 Pressure Vessel and Piping Inspection and Repair Codes
4.2.2.1 The National Board of Boiler and Pressure Vessel Inspectors
National Board Inspection Code (NBIC)
4.2.2.2 ASME
PCC-1, Guidelines for Pressure Boundary Bolted Flange Joint Assembly
PCC-2, Repair of Pressure Equipment and Piping
4.2.1.3 ASME
PVHO-2, Safety Standard for Pressure Vessels for Human Occupancy: In-Service PVHO Acrylic
Windows Guidelines
4.2.2.4 American Petroleum Institute (API)
Publication 510, Pressure Vessel Inspection Code: In-Service Inspection, Rating, Repair, and
Alteration
Recommended Practice 571, Damage Mechanisms Affecting Fixed Equipment in the Refining
Industry
Recommended Practice 572, Inspection of Pressure Vessels. (2009, November).
Recommended Practice 574, Inspection Practices for Piping System Components
Recommended Practice 576, Inspection of Pressure-relieving Devices
Recommended Practice 577, Welding Inspection and Metallurgy
Recommended Practice 578, Material Verification Program for New and Existing Piping Systems
Standard 579-1/ASME FFS-1, Fitness-for-service
Recommended Practice 580, Risk-based Inspection
Recommended Practice 581, Risk-based Inspection Technology
Standard 598, Valve Inspection and Testing
Recommended Practice 750, Management of Process Hazards
4.2.2.5 ASNT
SNT-TC-1A, Personnel Qualification and Certification in Nondestructive Testing
CP-189, Standard for Qualification and Certification of Nondestructive Testing Personnel

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4.2.2.6 MIT
129 4, A Practical Guide to Field Inspection of FRP Equipment and Piping
Project 129-99 4, Self-help Guide for In-service Inspection of FRP Equipment and Piping
Project 160-04, Guide for Design, Manufacture, Installation & Operation of FRP Flanges and Gaskets
4.2.2.7 NACE
SP0590, Prevention, Detection, and Correction of Deaerator Cracking
RP 0169 5, Control of External Corrosion on Underground or Submerged Metallic Piping Systems
RP 0170, Protection of Austenitic Stainless Steels and Other Austenitic Alloys from Polythionic Acid
Stress
Corrosion Cracking During Shutdown of Refinery Equipment
RP 0274, High-voltage Electrical Inspection of Pipeline Coatings Prior to Installation
RP 0275, Application of Organic Coatings to the External Surface of Steel Pipe for Underground
Service
4.2.2.8 Australian Standards
AS/NZS 3788, Pressure Equipment - In-service Inspection
4.2.2.9 Welding Technology Institute of Australia (WTIA)
Deaerator Cracking, May 1998
4.2.2.10 American Water Works Association (AWWA)
D101, Inspecting and repairing steel water tanks, standpipes, reservoirs, and elevated tanks, for
water storage
4.2.3 Tanks and Silos Construction Guides and Codes
4.2.3.1 European Standards
EN 1990, Basis of structural design
EN 1991, Eurocode 1: Actions on structures
EN 1992, Eurocode 2: Design of concrete structures
EN 1993, Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures
EN 1994, Eurocode 4: Design of composite steel and concrete structures
EN 1995, Eurocode 5: Design of timber structures
EN 1996, Eurocode 6: Design of masonry structures
EN 1997, Eurocode 7: Geotechnical design
EN 1998, Eurocode 8: Design of structures for earthquake resistance
EN 1999, Eurocode 9: Design of aluminium alloy structures
EN 13121, GRP Tanks and vessels for use aboveground
EN 14620, Design and Manufacture of Site Built, Vertical, Cylindrical, Flat-Bottomed Steel Tanks
for the Storage of Refrigerated, Liquefied Gases with Operating Temperatures Between 0C and
-165C

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4.2.3.2 American Concrete Institute (ACI)


ACI 376, Code Requirements for Design and Construction of Concrete Structures for the
Containment of Refrigerated Liquefied Gases
ACI 371R, Guide for the Analysis, Design, and construction of Elevated Concrete and Composite
Steel-Concrete Water Storage Tanks
ACI 372R, Design and Construction of Circular Wire and Strand Wrapped Prestressed concrete
Structure
ACI 313, Standard Practice for Design and Construction of Concrete Silos and Stacking Tubes for
Storing Granular Material
4.2.3.3 Japanese Industrial Standards
JIS B 8501, Welded steel tanks for oil storage
JIS B 8502, Construction of welded aluminium and aluminium alloy for storage tanks
JIS A 4110, Glassfiber reinforced plastic water tanks
JIS K 7012, Glass-fiber reinforced thermosetting resin chemical resistant tanks
4.2.3.4 American Petroleum Institute (API)
Specification 12P, Fiberglass Reinforced Plastic Tanks
Specification 12B, Bolted Tanks for Storage of Production Liquids
Specification 12D, Field Welded Tanks for Storage of Production Liquids
Specification 12F, Shop Welded Tanks for Storage of Production Liquids
Standard 620, Design and Construction of Large, Welded, Low-Pressure Storage Tanks
Standard 650, Welded Steel Tanks for Oil Storage
Recommended Practice 651, Cathodic Protection of Aboveground Petroleum Storage Tanks
Recommended Practice 652, Lining of Aboveground Petroleum Storage Tank Bottoms
Standard 2000, Venting Atmospheric and Low-Pressure Storage Tanks: Nonrefrigerated and
Refrigerated
Recommended Practice 2003, Protection Against Ignitions Arising Out of Static, Lightning, and Stray
Currents
Standard 2610, Design, Construction, Operation, Maintenance & Inspection of Terminal ant Tank
Facilities
4.2.3.5 ASME
RTP-1, Reinforced Thermoset Plastic Corrosion-Resistant Equipment
4.2.3.6 ASTM International
ASTM D3299, Standard Specification for Filament Would Glass Fiber Reinforced Thermoset Resin
Chemical Resistant Tanks
ASTM D4097, Standard Specification for Contact Molded Glass Fiber Reinforced Thermoset Resin
Chemical Resistant Tanks
4.2.3.7 Underwriters Laboratories (UL)
142, Steel Aboveground Tanks for Flammable and Combustible Liquids
4.2.3.8 American Water Works Association (AWWA)
D100, Welded Carbon Steel Tanks for Water Storage

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4.2.4 Tanks and Silos Inspection and Repair Guides and Codes
4.2.4.1 American Concrete Institute (ACI)
ACI 228.2R, Nondestructive Test Methods for Evaluation of Concrete in Structures
ACI 222.2R, Corrosion of Prestressing Steels
4.2.4.2 American Petroleum Institute (API)
Standard 653, Tank Inspection, Repair, Alteration, and Reconstruction
Recommended Practice 575, Guidelines and Methods for Inspection of Existing Atmospheric and
Low-pressure Storage Tanks
4.2.4.3 Steel Tank Institute (STI)
SP001, Standards for Inspection of In-Service Shop Fabricated Aboveground Tanks for Storage of
Combustible and Flammable Liquids
4.2.4.4 American Water Works Association (AWWA)
D101, Inspecting and repairing steel water tanks, standpipes, reservoirs, and elevated tanks, for water
storage
APPENDIX A GLOSSARY OF TERMS
Autoclave: A pressure vessel used in processing materials. Depending on occupancy, it may be known as
a sterilizer, reactor, extraction vessel, or isostatic press. In batch processing applications, it will have a
quick-actuating closure.
Brittle fracture: A fracture that occurs suddenly, with little or no plastic deformation such as stretching or
bulging.
Charpy impact test: A standard test of a materials resistance to fracture under impact loading. The test coupon
has a notch machined in one side and is struck on the opposite side. The energy in foot-pounds required
to break the coupon is recorded.
Caustic: Any of the hydroxide compounds, most commonly sodium hydroxide. Aqueous solutions are
extremely basic, having a high pH, usually between 10 and 14.
Caustic embrittlement: Also known as caustic cracking or caustic stress corrosion cracking (SCC). When
exposed to aqueous caustic solutions, carbon and low allow steels can appear to have been embrittled when
a sudden, brittle fracture occurs that is actually the result of gradual SCC.
Corrosion: The electrochemical reaction between a material, usually a metal, and its environment that
produces a deterioration of the material and its properties.
Corrosion, local: Occurs in a relatively limited area. Pitting and crevice corrosion are common
examples. Erosion-corrosion, FAC, and cavitation are also examples.
Corrosion under insulation (CUI, a.k.a. under insulation corrosion): External corrosion due to moisture
within the insulation system. The moisture remains in contact with the pipe for an extended period
of time, or may condense under the insulation covering and return to the pipe wall. The insulation may
contain chloride ions, making the moisture much more corrosive. Process fluids containing chlorides,
acids, or caustics also may penetrate the insulation system.
Corrosion, uniform or general: Occurs over a relatively large area. May not be readily detected by
visual examination due to uniform appearance.
Environmentally-induced cracking: Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) is the more common form of
this corrosion. SCC requires a material that is susceptible, a corrodent, and some level of stress.
Carbon steel is susceptible to caustic SCC, and stainless steel is susceptible to chloride SCC.
Choosing appropriate materials and taking care to minimize residual stress during construction can
mitigate SCC.

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Ductile fracture: A fracture that has associated with it some stretching, bending, or other deformation
permanently visible in the adjacent material.
Erosion: A mechanical process resulting in thinning of pipe material. The rate of thinning for specific materials
is dependent on flow velocity and the water, steam, solid particles, or combinations of the three impacting
the pipe.
Cavitation erosion (CE): A specific type of erosion caused by formation of bubbles in a liquid stream
that impact the pipe (collapse at the pipe surface). Likely to occur at change in pipe size or direction.
Erosion-corrosion (EC): Thinning from combined mechanical and electro- chemical process. The rate
of thinning is more rapid than for either erosion or corrosion alone.
Flow accelerated (or assisted) corrosion (FAC): A specific type of erosion-corrosion affecting carbon
or low-alloy carbon steels. The normally protective oxide coating is dissolved by the combination
of flow velocity and fluid chemistry. The fluid may be a liquid or liquid- vapor combination. The rate
of thinning for a particular carbon steel is dependent on chromium content, fluid velocity, fluid
temperature, fluid pH, and two-phase flow.
FM Approved: References to FM Approved in this data sheet mean the product or service has satisfied
the criteria for FM Approval. Refer to the Approval Guide, an online resource of FM Approvals, for a complete
listing of products and services that are FM Approved (www.approvalguide.com).
Fracture toughness: A material property that indicates its ability to resist propagation of a crack and fracture
from a flaw, such as a void, inclusion, or preexisting crack.
Isostatic processing: Batch processes completed at a constant pressure. May include heating of the
processed material. Typically performed at high pressure in vessels having quick-actuating closures.
Processing fluid may be liquid or gas. Examples are supercritical carbon dioxide extraction, diamond or quartz
crystal growing, food and drink processing, ceramic processing, and metal processing. Vessels may be called
extractors, autoclaves, reactors, or presses.
Listed: Equipment or materials included in a list published by an organization that maintains periodic
inspection of production of listed equipment or materials and whose listing states that either the equipment
or material meets appropriate designated standards or has been tested and found suitable for a specified
purpose.
Low alloy steels: Those steel alloys with more alloying additions than carbon steels, and less than stainless
steels. When compared with the less expensive carbon steels, some have higher strength, some better
corrosion resistance, and some better high temperature properties.
Nondestructive examination (NDE): The application of analysis methods to determine the condition of
materials without causing damage to the materials. Following are some types of NDE that may be applied
to vessels and piping.
Liquid penetrant test (PT): A penetrating liquid is applied to the material surface to detect corrosionrelated cracking. Can only detect indications open on the surface.
Magnetic particle test (MT): A magnetic powder is applied to the material surface and a magnetic
field is then generated in the material to detect corrosion-related cracking in magnetic materials.
Wet fluorescent magnetic particle (WFMT) is the preferred method in most instances. Can only detect
indication open on or very near the surface.
Pulsed eddy current test (pulsed ET): Pulsed eddy currents are induced in electrically conductive
materials to detect indications in the material. Can be applied without removal of insulation. The
cost is approximately US$3,000 to US$4,000 per day, but this method avoids the cost of removing
insulation (possibly asbestos). This test method, sometimes called Incotest (for insulated
component test), can detect both CUI and FAC.
Radiographic test (RT): A radiation source is placed on one side of the vessel or pipe wall and a
sheet of film is placed on the other side. Variation in wall thickness affects exposure of the film. Best
results require the film to be in contact with the examined surface. RT can be done through insulation,
but the results are blurry and thus not conclusive. RT is more time-consuming and costly than UT.

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Ultrasonic test (UT): A transducer transmits and receives an ultrasonic signal, revealing wall
thickness, delamination, and cracks. A flaw detector-type instrument provides much more information
than does a digital thickness gauge. UT requires access to a bare metal surface over the entire area
to be inspected.
Overpressure: A pressure increase (either positive or negative) beyond a vessel design pressure or MAWP,
or beyond the set pressure of a pressure relief device.
Plastic deformation: Deformation, such as stretching, bending, or bulging, that is permanent; is not recovered
when the stress is removed. As opposed to elastic deformation, which is fully recovered when stress is
removed.
Quick-actuating closure: A vessel closure designed to reduce the time to open and close the vessel,
particularly for batch processing.
Ultimate tensile strength: The stress level at which a material fractures under tensile (axial) loading.
Vent, atmospheric: Pressure relief opening on a system to permit the intake and discharge of air during
emptying and filling operations and to permit expansion and contraction of vapor due to temperature changes.
Sometimes called breather vent.
Vent, emergency relief: Pressure relief opening on a system to prevent over pressurizing the system in the
event of upset in system operation, fire exposure or other adverse condition.
Vent, conservation: Pressure relief device typically of the weighted-valve type, minimizing release of system
contents due to evaporation. Relief is provided for both vacuum and pressure. Vents usually open when
the positive or negative pressure in the system reaches 0.75 to 1.00 in. water column (185 to 250 Pa) and
are normally closed.
Vessel: Generic term used in this data sheet for containers used for storage or processing of solids, liquids
or gases. The general category of vessel is divided into subcategories of pressure vessel, silo and tank.
Vessels may be constructed of a wide variety of materials.
Vessel, aboveground: A vessel installed above grade, at grade or below grade having access to
all external vessel surfaces.
Vessel, underground: A vessel installed above grade, at grade or below grade not having access
to entire external vessel surface due to earth mounding or backfill.
Pressure vessel: Generic term for vessel containing solids, liquid or gas at a pressure significantly
exceeding ambient pressure. Pressure vessels addressed in this data sheet are limited to those
constructed of metals and some plastics. Pressure vessels are typically designed for a minimum
pressure of 15 psi (100 kPa) and up to full vacuum.
Silo: Generic term for vessels containing solids. Silos addressed in this data sheet are expected to
operate at ambient pressure only, not subject to application of either positive or negative (vacuum)
pressure.
Tank: Generic term for vessels containing solids, liquids or gases at essentially ambient pressure.
Tanks addressed in this data sheet are primarily constructed of metals with some being plastic, wood
or concrete construction. Tanks are typically designed for a maximum pressure of 15 psi (100 kPa)
and up to full vacuum.
Aboveground tank: A tank that is installed above grade, at grade, or below grade without backfill.
Atmospheric tank: A storage tank that has been designed to operate at pressures from
atmospheric through a gauge pressure of 1.0 psig (6.9 kPa) measured at the top of the tank.
Double-skinned tank: See secondary containment tank, a term used in European Union (EN)
standards.
Floating roof tank: An atmospheric tank intended for storage of high vapor pressure liquids such
as crude oil and gasoline with vapor pressure exceeding 15 psig (103 kPa or 1 bar gauge) with
a roof floating on the liquid surface. (Floating roof tanks are not covered by this standard.) Design
according to the criteria in API 650, Appendix C or H, or other recognized equivalent standard.

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External floating roof: A roof that sits directly on the liquid surface, usually on pontoons with
a seal attached to the roof perimeter to cover the annular space between the roof and the
shell. Design criteria are in API 650, Appendix C. This type has inherent buoyancy and are
difficult, though not impossible, to sink.
Internal floating roof: A roof similar to the external floater but with a fixed roof above, intended
for weather protection or quality assurance. The internal floater is often a simple pan or plastic
membrane floating directly on the liquid surface with little or no inherent buoyancy and is
subject to sinking. Design criteria are in API 650, Appendix H. Pontoon type roofs similar or
identical to external floaters are possible but not common. Unless the internal floater has the
inherent buoyancy of a pontoon type, treat the tank as a cone roof tank.
Low-pressure tank: A storage tank designed to withstand an internal pressure of more than 1
psig (7 kPa) but not more than 15 psig (100 kPa or 1 bar gauge) measured at the top of the tank.
Portable tank: Any closed vessel having a liquid capacity over 60 gal (230 L) and not intended
for fixed installation. This includes intermediate bulk containers (IBCs) as defined and regulated
by the U.S. Department of Transportation in CFR Title 49, Part 178, subpart N, and the United
Nations Recommendations on the Transport of Dangerous Goods, chapter 6.5.
Protected aboveground tank: An aboveground storage tank that is listed in accordance with UL
2085, Standard for Protected Aboveground Tanks for Flammable and Combustible Liquids, or
an equivalent test procedure that consists of a primary tank provided with protection from physical
damage and fire-resistive protection from exposure to a high-intensity liquid pool fire.
Secondary containment tank: A tank that has an inner and outer wall with an interstitial space
(annulus) between the walls and that has a means for monitoring the interstitial space for a leak.
Storage tank: Any vessel having a liquid capacity that exceeds 60 gal (230 L), is intended for fixed
installation, and is not used for processing.
Weak seam roof (weak shell-to-roof joint construction): The attachment of the roof to the shell forms a frangible
joint that, in the case of excessive internal pressure, will rupture before rupture occurs in the tank shell joints
or the shell-to-bottom joint. Design criteria can be found in UL 142 or API 650.
Yield strength: The stress level at which a material begins to plastically deform (stretching under tensile
loading).
APPENDIX B DOCUMENT REVISION HISTORY
April 2015. Data Sheets 12-66, High Pressure Forming Presses, and 12-26, Quick-actuating Closures, have
been incorporated into this document.
April 2014. This data sheet has been completely rewritten. Major changes include the following:
A. Changed the title from External Corrosion of Pressure Vessels and Piping to Vessels and Piping.
B. Incorporated all relevant information from Data Sheet 1-25, Process Tanks and Silos.
C. Incorporated all relevant information from Data Sheet 12-5, Critical Steam and Water Piping.
D. Added guidance on process and storage tanks, silos, bins, pressure vessels and piping, in addition
to the hazard of external corrosion.
E. Added text to direct the user to seek recommendations in other FM Global data sheets for the specific
service application.
F. For the Equipment and Processes section, made the primary recommendation to use a recognized
vessel or piping construction code for new vessels and piping. A list of codes is provided in Section 4.2,
Recognized Vessel and Piping Codes, which can be expanded as other codes are determined to be
acceptable.
G. For the Operation and Maintenance section, made the primary recommendations to implement a system
integrity program and included text to direct the user to Data Sheet 9-0 for methodologies. A list of
acceptable industry inspection and repair codes is provided in Section 4.2, Recognized Vessel and Piping
Codes.

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H. Updated the Support for Recommendations section.


May 2003. Minor editorial changes were made for this revision.
January 2000. This revision of the document has been reorganized to provide a consistent format.
APPENDIX C BIBLIOGRAPHY
AD Merkbltter: German standard, harmonized with the Pressure Equipment Directive.
AIAA S-080-1998: AIAA Standard for Space Systems - Metallic Pressure Vessels, Pressurized Structures,
and Pressure Components.
AIAA S-081A-2006: AIAA Standard for Space Systems - Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessels (COPVs).
American Insurance Services Group, Inc. Fossil-Fired Utility/Industrial Boiler Life Assessment/Extension.
Boiler and Machinery Engineering Report. New York: American Insurance Services Group, Inc. 1991.
American Petroleum Institute (API)
910, Digest of State Boiler, Pressure Vessel, Piping & Aboveground Storage Tank Rules and
Regulations. 8th ed. (1997, November 1).
941, Steels for Hydrogen Service at Elevated Temperatures and Pressures in Petroleum Refineries
and Petrochemical Plants. 6th ed. (2004, February).
American Society for Nondestructive Testing (ASNT)
Recommended Practice for Nondestructive Testing Personnel Qualification and Certification. ASNT
SNT-TC-1A. Columbus, OH: ASNT, 2001. www.asnt.org
CP-189-2001, ASNT Standard for Qualification and Certification of Nondestructive Testing Personnel.
ASNT CP-189-2001. Columbus, OH: ASNT, 2001.
AS/NZS 1200: Pressure equipment.
Autoclave Engineers. Bulletin No. 320. United States Patent 3,104,583.
B51-09 Canadian Boiler, pressure vessel, and pressure piping code.
BS 4994: Specification for design and construction of vessels and tanks in reinforced plastics.
BS 5500: Former British Standard, replaced in the UK by BS EN 13445 but retained under the name PD
5500 for the design and construction of export equipment.
Cohen, P., ed. The ASME Handbook on Water Technology for Thermal Power Systems. New York: ASME,
1989.
EN 13445: The current European Standard, harmonized with the Pressure Equipment Directive (97/23/EC).
Extensively used in Europe.
EN 286 (Parts 1 to 4): European standard for simple pressure vessels (air tanks), harmonized with Council
Directive 87/404/EEC.
Feedwater Quality Task Group for Industrial Boiler Subcommittee of the ASME Research Committee on Water
in Thermal Power Systems. Consensus of Operating Practices for the Control of Feedwater and Boiler Water
Quality in Modern Industrial Boilers. New York: ASME, 1979.
Ford, Sir H., E. H. Watson, and B. Crossland. Thoughts on a Code of Practice for Forged High-Pressure
Vessels of Monobloc Design. Journal of Pressure Vessel Technology, Vol. 103, p. 2, February, 1981.
French Code for Construction of Unfired Pressure Vessel CODAP).
HSE guidelines for pressure systems: Pressure Equipment Directive (Directive 97/23/EC) (PED); Pressure
Equipment Regulations 1999 (SI 1999/2001) (PER); The Pressure Systems Safety Regulations 2000.
ISO 11439: Compressed natural gas (CNG) cylinders
IS 2825: Indian Standard, Code for Unfired Pressure Vessels, Bureau of Indian Standards.
James, P. J. Isostatic Pressing Technology. Applied Science Publishers Ltd., 1983.

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Mineral Products Association (MPA). Guidance to prevent over-pressurisation of storage silos during the
delivery of (non-expolsive) powder in the cement, concrete and quarrying industries.
Mraz, G. J., and E. G. Nisbett. Design, Manufacture and Safety Aspects of Forged Vessels for High-Pressure
Services. ASME Paper No. 78-PVP-72, Journal of Pressure Vessel Technology, p. 98/Vol. 102, February,
1980.
Muvdi, B. B., and J. W. McNabb. Engineering Mechanics of Materials. Macmillan Publishing Co. Inc., p. 610,
1980.
National Board of Boiler and Pressure Vessel Inspectors. National Board Inspection Code. ANSI/NB-23.
Columbus, Ohio: National Board of Boiler and Pressure Vessel Inspectors, 2004. www.nationalboard.org
Pohto, H. A. Energy Release from Rupturing High-Pressure Vessels: A Possible Code Consideration.
Journal of Pressure Vessel Technology, Vol. 101, p. 165, May, 1979.
Rauschenplat, H. C., and A. F. Fino. Design, Fabrication, Inspection and Testing of Multiwall Pressure
Vessels. ASME Paper No. 71-PYP-57, Quintus Press Dpt., ASEA Vasteras, Sweden.
Singer, Joseph G., ed. Combustion Fossil Power. 4th Edition. Windsor, Conn.: Combustion Engineering,
Inc., 1991.
Stulz, S. C. and J. B. Kitto, ed. Steam: Its Generation and Use. 40th Edition. Barberton, Ohio: The Babcock
and Wilcox Company, 1992.
Witkin, Donald E. United States Patent 3,669,301.
Zander, Kurt. Some Safety Aspects of Wire-Wound Pressure Vessels and Press Frames for Isostatic
Pressing in Particular Application in General. Reprinted from Second International Conference on Pressure
Vessel Technology, published by ASME.

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