A. R French
Introductory
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The M.I.T.
Introductory
Physics
Series
Special RelatiVity
A.P.FRENCH
Vibrations and
Waves
A.P.FRENCH
Newtonian Mechanics
A.P.FRENCH
TheM.I.T.
Introductory
Physics
Series
Newtonian
Mechanics
A. E French
Nelson
Copyright
1971, 1965 by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology
First published in Great Britain 1971
PROTON
per
ic'
47809
551 we
Made and
printed by
William Clowes & Sons Ltd, Beccles, Colchester and
London
Contents
Preface
xi
Prologue
PART I
1
21
21
24
32
lerrestrial objecls
Planels
and satellifes
Stars
Galaxies
33
35
36
PROBLEMS
28
31
38
43
The
53
56
resolution ofvectors
59
Time
61
63
67
Velocily
68
lnslantaneous velocily
Relatlve velocily
72
PROBLEMS
74
78
85
Accelerated motions
85
87
The analysis of straightline motion
93
A comment on exlraneous roots
95
Trujectory problems in two dimensions
98
Free fail of individual aloms
102
Other features of motion in free fail
Acceleralion
105
and acceleralion
108
PROBLEMS
Velocily
in
polar coordinales
106
115
119
123
128
130
and slrings
problems
132
Pulleys
The various
139
forces of nature
139
Gravitatkmal forces
Electric
Nuclear forces
145
147
1 50
problems
VI
152
154
Concluding remarks
154
148
161
161
of inertia
mass: Newlon's law
164
Some comments on Newlon's law
167
principle
Force and
Scales
inertial
170
173
problems
PART
7
II
173
relatioily
176
178
181
CLASSICAL MECHANICS AT
WORK
188
inlroduclory examples
Motion
Mo
187
in
ion in
two dimensions
194
198
circle
200
Charged particle
in
a magnelic fielcl
202
205
Mass
spectrographs
206
The fracture ofrapidly rotating objects
Motion against resistive forces
210
208
213
221
225
231
Universal gravitation
245
The gracitational
Other
satellites
moon
attraciion
of the
eartli
259
of a large sphere
265
Vll
245
261
268
275
Mass and
weight
Weightlessness
279
285
286
291
295
299
of gravilation
PROBLEMS
301
307
309
327
Rocket propulsion
Collisions and frames ofreference
331
333
335
339
342
What
a collisionl
is
346
351
10
Energy conservation
vibrational motions
in
318
352
354
dynamics;
367
367
368
of motion
Work, energy, and power
Introduction
lntegrals
373
More about
376
onedimensional situations
379
Vlll
405
381
393
397
400
An experimenl by Galileo
Mass on a puraboiic track
423
423
429
431
434
The simple pendulum
437
The pendulum cis a harmonic oscillator
440
The pendulum with larger amplitudo
Universal gravitation: a conservative central force
446
A gravitating spherical shell
450
A gravitating sphere
453
Escape velocities
More
Fields
PROBLEMS
12
III
457
461
Equipotential surfaces
PART
442
463
466
470
476
478
Inertial forces
493
501
Centrifugal force
494
495
504
507
511
514
518
Dynamics on a merrygoround
519
General ecjuation of motion in a rotating frame
524
The earth as a rotating reference frame
The tides
531
535
Tidal heights; effect of the sun
538
The search for a fundamental inertial frame
542
Speculations on the origin of inertia
Centrifuges
Coriolis forces
PROBLEMS
13
Motion under
546
555
central forces
555
IX
560
Energy conseruation
Vse of the
563
molions
in ceniral force
565
568
Bounded orbtts
Unbcnmded orbits
569
572
574
Small perturbation of a circular orbit
577
The elliptic orbits ofthe planels
583
Deducing the inuersescpiare law from the eltipse
585
Elliptic orbits: analylical treatment
589
Energy in an elliptic orbit
591
Molion near the earth's surface
592
Interplcmetciry transfer orbits
595
Calculaling an orbit from inilial condilions
596
A family of relai ed orbits
598
Central force motion as a twobody problem
Deducing the orbit from the force law
604
Rutherford scattering
609
Cross sections for scattering
Alphaparticle scattering (Geiger
Magazine excerpts)
615
An historical note
problems
617
14
600
612
627
Gyroscope
More
in
steady precession
Gyroscopes
as gyroscopes
Gyroscopic motion
in teriris
Appendix
709
Bibliography
lndex
686
of F =
ia
691
Niitation
Answers
677
680
683
in nauigation
to
713
problems
733
659
664
723
694
688
654
628
Preface
the
work
the Science
Teaching Center)
is
and aids
established
by M.I.T.
Friedman as
its
undergraduate
in 1960,
Director.
and
itself,
thereto,
level.
the Shell
W.
is
The books
in
embody
chiefly
emphasize
a considerable
classical
amount of atomic
book
is
designed
ponent
in
many
XI
considerable proficicncy.
the
book
Approach
suggested by
is
its
Newtonian Dynamics,
to
poses. First,
it
is
Part
The
I,
dynamics, more or
less
from
phenomena and of
is
at the beginning, be
by beginning
scratch. Second,
in the
it
This
ment from
reality
brought up
in the British
this
educational system).
The
student
who
some
already has
for
its
expertise in using
broader implications.
Part
Classical
II,
emphasis
is
Mechanics at Work,
Some
is
undoubtedly the
to the status of
background reading.
The
and
initial
objccts.
lengthy chapter
is
and
its
still
be appreciated as a
III,
Some
itself
and
XII
III
and
II
some
prior preparation.
II
One of
make
its
in this
lies in
princi
book
to
explicit reference to
in this series, to
citations
history, classical
is
not, in this
fields
of
physical thory.
This book,
criticisms,
for publication.
A. P.
Cambridge, Massachusetts
July 1970
XIII
FRENCH
Newtonian
mechanics
/ offer this
work as
the
from
the
nature,
phenomena ofmotions
and thenfrom
to consist in this
to investigate
theforces of
phenomena.
newton, Preface
Prologue
now reading
is
made
we must
we
if
Isaac
is
phenomenon
are to understand
.
Newton developed
a precise and
powerful theory
j
called classical or
book
on itfln so doing he
coBeerned and which
is
Newtonian mechanics.
it
It
was a landmark
in
effect.
Newtonian mechanics had an impressive influence in the development of Western thought and civilization generally, provoking
fundamental questions about the interrelationships of science,
philosophy, and religion, with repercussions in social ideas and
other areas of
human endeavor.
Classical mechanics
character.
For
it
starts
is
it
some
though
it
Sometimes mechanics
is
presented as
self
it is
and hypothesis.
The
is
impressive,
hand we
solve,
by
without realizing
it,
every
human
being
an
is
not he has ever seen these laws written down. The skilled sportsman or athlete has an almost incredible degree of judgment and
control of the
amount and
It
World
the
Series baseball
'
them
in
ticularly to
consequences, although
it
own muscular
actions
and
Our
their
own
P.
Kirkpatrick,
Prologue
Am.
J.
God
Men
said "Let
Newton
and
be,"
night
in
was
all
light.
immemorial.
the
all
this
enormous body of
in
summarized as follows:
1
2.
The
The
planets
move
in ellipses
line
mean
The square of
distance
the
is
same
its
Why? was
it
was
still
his
a description
still
looked for
law of force
how
he demonstrated
Using these
of a scheme of things that also included the falling apple and other
terrestrial
tails
of
I
motions.
this
(Later in this
from which
tions of a theory
phenomena, or
familiar
shall
it
would
still
is, it
it
it
was deduced.
fit
unsuspected
an already
into the
is
is
It
subjected to
"Ho,
had
phenomenon must
relate
the ones
book we
Prologue
John Squire)
stand or
fail.
almost entirely
tests resided
but what a
list!
in the analysis
of
known effects
for
which
The bulging of
rotation.
2.
The
The generation of
combined action of
axis
and
of rotation produced by
moon.
years,
festation of
it.)
in
".
Newton had,
in
in this
develop
gravitation,
its
other implications.
final
of astronomy.
amply confirmed
of
its
in his
own
greatest triumphs.
some
mem
Prologuc
What more
the theory
striking
Probably everyone
who
And
was not
there be that
works?
this
some
may make
prior
expression in
its
its
it
hard
development
Moon,
Moon
pretty nearly."
An
intellectual
as great as Newton's
or model.
It is
is
Some
facts
it
may even be
temporarily
at
all.
And
is
main
no theory
theory
is
an everpresent
possibility.
Laws of Motion
INDUCTION
1
Laws
of
Force
Observations
and Experiments
DEDUCTION
J
Mathematical
Models
Predictions
The enormous
made
it
seem,
Prologue
its
The
fundamental limitations.
scale, the
still
more
drastic
required.
And
But
this
variety of situations,
Newtonian
its limits,
figure below.
we
how
the horizons of
its
Mechanics, as we
gradually broadened.
not at
all
application to the
own
view, can be
its
Cosmological
Physics
10'
10 !0 m
Galaxy
Atom
Size
Proloeuc
it,
is
description
game
We
which
ferent approach, in
Newton
beginning of
Book
III
with apply
wish to offer a
dif
at every stage
working with
is
are
justifled.
this is
as
the
At
the
may
be imagined,
till
made more
either be
exceptions."
accurate, or liable to
is
an experiment or
finish
He
others)
is
clear.
and
the Physicist,
"Look
at this
that the
what he
"A
by
less
physicist
divisible
99 numbers are
first
the Engineer
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
and
6.
"He
observes
infers, hence,
by
than a hundred."
mathematician, "that 60
is
cases,
such as
10, 20,
sufficient."
and
30,
"An
book
entitled Induction
and Analogy
in
Prologuc
Yet
ber.
said,
'I
and
1 1
'Corning back to
error.'
9,'
he
" But
It is
it is
fails,
or with
stones
is
it
the precious stones than the pebbles that led the mineralogists
to the wonderful science of crystallography.
perfect
this Prologue,
l,
is
begin our
one of the
We
EXERCISESHORS D'OEUVRES
meaning of the phrase "hors d'oeuvre" is "outside
The exercises below correspond exactly to that
the work."
definition, although it is hoped that they will also whet the
The
literal
They
power of 10)
an important
role in a physicist's approach to problems but seldom get emphasized or systematically presented in textbooks. For example,
ofmagnitude estimates
(i.e.,
^ + b^'^a{\+^
where we assume b
<
b =
a, the result is
of 1.414
.)
a?
(Even
in the
Moreover,
develop the habit of assessing, quite crudely, the magnitudes of quantities and the relative importance of various possible effects in a physical system. For example, in dealing with
effort to
objects
10
moving through
Prologue
liquids,
and
wellknown essay by
Size," which
J.
linear
An
dimensions?
awareness
B. S. Haldane,
is
Newman,
New
II
R.
By
It
ed.),
surprising
is
York, 1956.]
of primary information
which
might
in
Physical Magnitudes
and
liquids
10 m/sec'
kg/m 3
3
4
10 10
kg/m
Length of day
10
Length of year
3.16
Earth's radius
6400
km
(approx.)
sec (approx.)
10
sec
I0
75
at arm's length
mm (approx.)
Thickness of paper
0.1
Mass of
0.5 g (approx.)
a paperclip
10
km
Earthmoon separation
3.8
Earthsun separation
1.5
X
X
Atmospheric pressure
Equivalent to weight of
1
(approx.)
10
10
km
km
kg/cm 2
or a 10m
column of water
Avogadro's number
6.0
Atomic masses
1.6
10
Molecules/cm
Atoms/cm
3
i
n gas at
in solids
Elementary charge
(e)
4 X
_,0
2.7
23
10
1.6
Electron mass
Speed of
light
light
X
X
10
23
10 27 kgto
_25
kg
10
m (approx.)
10
13
(approx.)
10~ 30
Wavelength of
11
STP
X
X
lO
1
kg (approx.)
8
10 m/sec
7
10
(approx.)
sec
Malhematical Magnitudes
w2
e
log, o 3
(radians)
rad
0.16
arc
sr
0.08
log,,, 4
log, o e
full
log,
logc 10
0.48
length/radius.
full circle
m 0.60
~ 0.43
T0.50
10
2.7
20.30
log 10
Angle
2.3
circle
Full
2jrrad.
57.
area/(radius)
2
.
Full sphere
4* sr.
sphere.
Approximations
Binomial theorem:
Forx
(1
1,
e.g.,
(1
(1
For b
(a
a,
2
x)" a
+
+
b)"
x)
x)
3*
fl*(l
 **
~
+ jjjY
(1
an
+x) 1/2
(l+n?\
Othcr expansions:
For
sin
rad,
fl
3
>
6
cos d
For
a:
log (1
1,
log,
No
(l
~ x
+Jc) 0.43x
x)
For
book
some
return to
/
What
them
is
all,
the
them
later.
to check
How many
Make reasoned
breaths ?
number of
ancestors ytou
The
(a)
12
How many
Prologue
(human)
is
about 3
10.
How many
(b) If
feet
long
is
50 years throughout the existence of the human race, when did Adam
start it all ? If the doubling every 50 years were to continue,
and Eve
it
all the
(b)
water corresponding to
(e) the
(0 a small
hill,
500
ft
in.
mouse;
Mount
an elephant;
(d)
of rainfall over
square mile;
Everest.
human
and
(d) the
whole earth.
now
the
form of
Estimate (a) the total volume of ocean water on the earth, and
mass of sah
in all the
universe.
in
oceans.
It is
is
living things.
If all these
(known)
the
in
just touching,
spaces
left
when
10 The sun is losing mass (in the form of radiant energy) at the rate of
about 4 million tons per second. What fraction of its mass has it lost
during the lifetime of the solar system
11 Estimate the time in minutcs that
10%
it
would take
for a theatre
if
audience
the build
sixth
of the
12 Solar energy
city.
How would
total
1
(1 cal
this
4.2 J;
is
worn
off during
14
13
An
ine.vpensive wristwatch
(a)
What
Exercises
is its
is
found to
fractional dcviation
hors d'oei v
re s
lose
2 min/day.
(b)
differ
from exactly 12
watch
radius of about 2
to
minute of arc
What diameter
(^g).
this
accuracy ?
16 Jupiter has a mass about 300 times that of the earth, but
density
(a)
is
What
fifth
its
mean
radius
would
radius
would a planet of
a planet of Jupiter's
mass and
earth's
density have?
(b)
What
earth's
mass and
Jupiter's
density have ?
tightly
packed
in
a given volume
of space.
(a)
know
spheres, but only the density of the material, in order to calculate the
total
mass contained
in the
of the volume are large compared to the radius of the individual spheres.
(b) Consider the possibility of packing
more material
if
two
sizes
of spheres
(c)
r,
(b)
a cube of edge
a,
and
(c)
(a) a
sphere of
area?
19
How many
at the sun?
20
From
the time the lower limb of the sun touches the horizon
it
diameter
(c)
What
14
Prologue
for the
(e.g.,
earth?
min
21
How many
(e.g.,
22
is
ball,
and
the earth.
23
What
is
would
strike
a manmade structure?
A human ?
24
Two
students
One of them,
procedure.
when he
of sound in air
possibility
is
If they
sides of length 5
5%, what is
25
angle.
approximate
What
is
in this
result.
is
ruler to
the
abscissa.
mark
On
this piece
and a normal
(For example,
intensities
proporin sensa
intensities
the equation
dB = lOlogio
(a)
what
An
is
intensity /o?
15
Exercises
hors d'oeuvres
By
(b)
brightness of
is
in
terms of magnitudes.
Stars differing by
Thus
200in.
The
is
2.5
times brighter
tances.
is
r,
a corresponds
V at any
time
is
instant.
to
Show
given by
dV
dt
3a
lists
the
mean
Planet
r/rg
Mercury
Venus
0.72
1.00
(a)
Make
abscissa.
is
Earth
Mars
1.52
Jupiter
5.20
Saturn
Uranus
9.54
19.2
is
logarithmic paper.)
On
this
samc graph,
r /re against
7,
8).
16
(i.e.,
at n
6,
line.
(b) If
belt
number
n on semi
and
order ():
0.39
in
Prologue
this ?
Compare with
the actual
mean
radius of
imply ?
(d)
Compare with
light
of (b) and
(c),
8.)
PHILOSOPHLE
NATURALIS
PRINCIPI A
MATHEMATICA
Autore
J S. NEWTON,
S.
S,
Reg.
5.
Juiii
Soaetatis Rcgi* ac
title
was
officially
S.
I,
Strealcr.
Proftat
Amo MDCLXXXVII.
in July, 1686,
JE S
1686.
Typis Jofepbi
plures Bibliopolas.
Facsimile oflhe
Soc.
ND
L
Juflii
Sodalt.
IMPRIMATUR
R
P
Mathefeos
Profeflbre Lucafiano,
apud
PartI
The approach
Newtonian
dynamics
to
//
seems probable
Matter
in solid,
to
in the
Beginningfortrid
Particles ....
universe of particles
THE PARTICULATE
VI
EW
the essence of
the
which
it
outset
we
is
by
subjected
its
is
is
that
environment.
can be treated as
Nevertheless,
nothing
you have
in
nature that
fits
if
In the
this definition.
world of particles
and
is.
If you have read
George Orwell's famous political satire Animal Farm, you may
remember the cynical proclamation "Ali animals are equal,
feel
that
more
some
particles (electrons or
made
in
terms of
In somewhat
is
specific
specific questions
But
particle
in
can
kinds of
And
a particle?"
is
'Actually,
might
(i.e.,
behave)
like
Newton himself
now
call
but the
building blocks
21
Fig.
11
Photograph
of a portion of the
night sky. (Photograph
from
the
Hale
Obsercatories.)
particles if
you don't
hit
and an
if
you
get far
internal structure,
and there
Very often
this will
be done by picturing a
(If the
possible to
make
less firmly
connected to one
it
may be
22
universe of particles
and behave,
What
sort of information
description of a particle?
we
write
Mass
2.
Size
3.
Shape
list is
exhaustive
sharply categorized):
4. Internal structure
Electric charge
5.
6.
Magnetic properties
7.
8.
Interaction with
though that
Partial
same kind
may
be,
it is
we
If
many
an important
may be
sufficient to
Most other
composed of large numbers of atoms, are normally
electrically neutral, and in any event the mass alone is for many
identify such a particle in
circumstances.
objects,
dynamic behavior
provided
we take
'
Not only
this
is
may
to be filled in later,
if
we want
laws of interaction
The
many
one of our
object, but
its
interactions of the
23
we
'Of course,
as
is
it
the particle
which
on
It is,
On
minimal description
mass and
size.
the contrary,
particulate view
(e.g.,
is
we have sought
from characteristic
by gravitatton), then the
the subject of Chapter 5.
in
Our survey
to reduce
minimum,
to a
it
eral
linear dimensions of
some
typical particles.
We
up the
scale until
You
to be a fundamental limit.
it is,
will
results
note on units
In this
book we
second
(MKS)
with
it,
If not,
shall
metric system.
it
You
at this time.
We shall,
however,
make
it is
is
in
just
A tabulation
of
MKS and
other units
is
given in the
Appendix.
of physics and
and neutrons.
mentary
The
amount of research on
and on the structure of
particles,
title
vast
filled
is
and protons.
Theelectron,withamassofaboutl(r
to be
24
more
precise), is
by far the
universc of particles
30 kg(9.1
lightest (by
l(T
more than
31
kg
three
(The elusive
powers of
no
mass at
This puts
all.
of the electron
it
15 m.
size
is
If,
10
The
is
any object.
in
is
a mass of 1.67
proton
is
it
(like the
In
it
kg,
is
the other
the
charged form
cannot survive
its electrically
13
neutral
is,
it
form
isolation
in
about
electron,
electrically
its
the neutron
but that
is
10
just a speculation.
15
m by
Nucleons
which we mean
to have a quite
structure, in
complex internal
ATOMIC NUCLEI
The combination of protons and neutrons
to
vides the basis for the various forms of stable, ordinary matter
as
we know
it.
The
individual proton.
(that of
10
25
238
kg.
smallest
The
U) contains
and
lightest nucleus is
of course the
25
Alomic
nuclei
is
It is
very convenient
named
after the
1
Enrico Fermi
Italian physicist
lfermi(F)
H)" 18
m=
10 13
cm
The
is
from about
10
17
kg/m 3
This
is
so vast
(it is larger,
although we
now have
we
enormous.
is
evidence that
25
its
3 to 20 F.
kg and a radius
density is about
14
by a factor of 10 ,
cannot apprehend
some astronomical
it,
objects
ATOMS
A
great deal
From
it
was
that
individual
The
existence of characteristic
transfers in electrolysis
way
to absolute
atomic charge
to establish
measurements
listed in
in
1909.
Some
representative atomic
Table 11.
and
'E. Fermi (19011954) was the greatest Italian physicist since Galileo
one of the most distinguished scientists of the twentieth century, gifted in
both theoretical and experimental work. He achieved popular fame as the
man who produced the first selfsustained nuciear chain reaction, at the University of Chicago in 1942.
26
universe of particles
TABLE
ATOMIC MASSES
11:
Atomic
Electrotytic
mass
kg/C
Element
H
C
1.04
lO" 8
10 8
10 8
10~ 7
8.29
Na
Al
K
Zn
Ag
mass.
kg
1.67
2e
12
2.00
2e
16
2.66
23
3.81
3e
27
4.48
39
6.49
65
107
1.09
X
X
2.38 X
9.32 X lO" 8
4.05 X 10" 7
3.39 X 10 7
6
1.118 X 106.22
Approximate
relative mass
Charge
per ion
transfer,
2e
e
1.79
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
lO" 27
10" 26
lO" 26
K) 26
26
10
26
lO
10 2S
10~ 2S
lamu =
1.66043
Since almost
all
10" 27 kg
atom
is
concentrated in
its
we can say
that to a
mass of
just the
as
we have
nucleus.
its
represents a leap of
eters,
first
many
But, in terms of
orders of magnitude.
the
size,
is
atom
Nuclear diam
14
m. Atomic
4
diameters are typically about 10 times larger than this i.e., of
1
the order of 10
m. One way of getting a feeling for what this
factor
this
means
page
is
is
you
letter i
on
on a printed
is
about 10
ft
means
in three dimensions.
10
as a unit of distance
and
The
A.
unit
named
Swedish
physicist,
Angstrom:
J.
It is
is
angstrom (A)
10 10
m=
10~ 8 cm
10 5
27
Atoms
'
Fig.
12
'
preciation of the
the tiniest
anda mass
to
10~
fi
kg.
tory
10
1
'
billion
atoms.
their diameter.
This
justifies
(although only
move
first
introduction to molecules
is likely
to be in an elementary
its
attention to
C0 2) Na 2 S0 4 C 6 H 6
,
28
2 0,
universe of particles
Edge of Bacterium
coli
Footand
mouth
virus
Bushy stunt
virus
10,000,000
Yellow
fever virus'
Sizes
,000
halfle
of
microscopic objects,
from
,
J.
bacteria
down
to
.
r, i t a
A. V. Butler, Inside
units (130 0)
'
George Allen
,, %
&
0.1
u.=
10,000
We
plexity.
can feel
justified in
The
de
amu
m.
Such objects
are,
processes,
particles.
The
in bio
particle
is
a pretty
slim subject
its
is
29
Molecules; living
cells
A convenient unit
of length
The
micron (m)
= lO" 9 m =
largest object
across and
would be
limit of resolution
of
shown
is
10 4
in Fig.
visible in a
about
is
0.2/n
the micron:
A
13 (a bacterium)
good microscope
rather
less
is
(for
about 1m
which the
light).
definite size
and mass,
possessed
of a
rather
Figure
is
Fig.
14
particles
Sphericat
of
polio virus.
[C. E. Schwerdt et
al.,
Biol.
(1954).
Photograph
courtesy of Robley
C. Williams.]
30
A. universe
of particles
'
1
does reveal their spatial relationships.)
Certainly
it is
most of them
outside physics.
is
lies
except,
and
per
atomic interactions.
Although some
single cells
may be
than
less
1/*
(certain
l4
atoms.
and are
word
These
particles,
The
and inanimate.
earth's surface,
and
small
the
of
ground.
The
combined
The
fail.
effect
visible,
atmosphere above
biggest ones
which the
but
in
fate
of wind
may be
seen as
no
and
gravity.
Ac
maximum of about
mm. Below that size
from a
of about 0.01
airborne,
and
mm diameter to a minimum
31
Fig. 15
Size distribulion
(After R. A. Bagnold,
The
Physics of
10
4
mm
(=0.1/*) diameter.
classification
particles.
we cannot
human
and a
factor of 1000
achieve a rather
terms, 100
is al
up or down in
linear
In ordinary
scale
limits of
anything that can properly be regarded as a fuli, firsthand contact with the physical world.
chiefly
upon
we depend
and analogy.
we
find
them
mg
2
to 10'
kg
(i.e.,
10
tons).
it
Actually, if
mass
itself
about 10
mg
some
or as heavy as 1000
it
would be
fair to
human
kg i.e., up
to a factor of 10
32
universc of particles
tions of
its
of physical
if
And all
this scale,
of them
their orbits
In Kepler's mathe
and subsequently
modifica
surface.
legitimately
no way
relevant.
The
reason, of course,
was the simple one that on the scale of the solar system the
little
diameter
only 10
that a
is
good
2
No
wonder, then,
first
we
cannot.
When Newton
such an approximation;
became a key
feature, because
it
was only
this that
made
possible
In
any
case, once
we
free ourselves of
phenomena, the
particles that
Mercury and
is
considerable
Jupiter.
Since the
is
mean
densities
do not
differ
of water), the masses cover a very great range indeed. Again the
extremes are Mercury and Jupiter, and there
33
is
a factor of about
Fig. 16
Relative sizes of
llre
planets
and the
The
sun.
which has
about the same density as Jupiter but 10 times the diameter and
about 1000 times the mass, is indicated for comparison. The
12:
in
Table 12.
Mean
radius,
km
M/ME
R/Re
10 3
Mean
density,
6.37
1.00
1.000
5400
5100
5520
(Moon)
Mars
(1.74)
(0.27)
(0.012)
(3360)
3.37
0.53
0.108
3970
Jupiter
69.9
10.98
317.8
Saturn
58.5
9.20
95.2
680
Uranus
Neptune
23.3
3.66
14.5
1600
17.2
2250
Mercury
Venus
Earth
2.42
6.10
0.38
0.054
0.96
0.815
22.1
3.48
Pluto
3.0
0.47
(Sun)
(6.96
10 6 )
1330
0.8?
(3.33
(1093)
kg/m 3
10 5)
(1400)
all
the mass of
matter around the sun (and Jupiter alone accounts for almost
two thirds of
it),
we
is
ignore
enormous.
satellites.
These
it
has only a
satellites
little
universe of particles
1%
is
relatively
of the mass of
34
over
If
in
The planetary
by the minor
satellites are,
Tens
'
the orbits of
in
larger body.
"the
If
is
at
by professional
skywatchers.
STARS
gigantic
we
interior
and
see nothing
unless
this,
which
sources
of an
points,
most powerful
the
scopes.
farther
elec
tele
much
system.
vacuum
lightyear
The
9.46
is
year:
10 15
about 25,000,000,000,000
in
is
miles!
number of other
stars that
order of 10 lightyears or 10
17
is
A cluster or
galaxy
less
still
than
emptier
kind of system.
The word "asteroid" derives from the
objects as seen through a telescope.
35
Stars
starlike
Most of
2
the range of 10* solar masses.
star.
is
much
very
really
of stars; and
this is certainly
it.
We
stars,
54
to 10
58 atoms) can
still
immense
GALAXIES
In 1900 the words "galaxy" and "universe" were regarded as
being synonymous. Our universe appeared to consist primarily
of a huge number of stars many billions of them scattered
through space (see Fig. 11). Here and there, however, could be
seen cloudy objects
nebulae near
known and
catalogued.
G) was only one of innumerable systems of the same general kind. The first suggestion
for such a picture of the universe was in fact put forward by the
own Galaxy
philosopher Immanuel
at that time
it
1958.
36
universe of particles
Fig.
17
Cluster of
Borealis.
Corona
Dislance
graphfrom
(Photothe
Hale
Observatories.)
To
tell
at present, they
A
10
'
'
single galaxy
stars.
may
21
(10
lightyears).
As we have
already seen, the stars within an individual galaxy are very widely
although there
is
particles,
by
On
separations perhaps
galaxies
is
scale,
Thus even
the
be regarded as
treating
them as points
uniform concentration of
tinues to be true
galaxies.
If
up to the theoretical
we assume
limits of observation,
we
For
it
37
Galaxies
10
lightyears (10
26
m).
The
l0
light
called
source
in
for radiation
shift
effect),
from a moving
the transmission
fail
we
to be about 10
a(i
kg/m 3
(10
6
assume the
26 3
i.e.,
10"
total
10
78
stars.
m3
which
is
what
we described at the outset as "the particulate view" flnds some justiflcation over the entire range
of our experience, from the nucleus to the cosmos. And the fact
that this approach to the description of nature makes sense, while
physical world
40
in distance
it
and 10 80
in
mass,
is
we
give. to the
behavior of
view
is
a strong candidate.
PROBLEMS
11
Make
volume, mass, and density for a wide selection of objects that you
regard as being of physical importance e.g., nucleus, cell, and star.
For the diameters and masses, rcprcsent the data by labclcd points on
(b)
38
The
The
universe of partieles
you can
naked
eye.
13
nuclear matter
14
closely
Sir
own
mm of
6
evacuates a bottle to a pressure of 10~
A vacuum pump
15
9 of atmospheric pressure).
mercury (about 10
(a)
(b)
16
[Phil.
Mag.,
started with a source of the radioactive gas radon (itself a decay product
later.
When
particle emission
10 9 per second.
Six
later,
in this
experiment?
function of time
is
is
Noe*'.
\dN/dt\
the value of
17
law
volume
in the universe
unit
17
part in 10
per second (see Hors d'oeuvres no. 29, p. 16). According to one theory
is
being
if
of new matter,
it
J.
On
to the
39
Problcms
(J.
new mass
created
G. King concluded
on
sure of
18
feasible.)
Torr
(1
mm
of mercury).
Theodore Rosebury,
in his
book Life on
all
is
bottom of a thimble.
taken to be 5
y.
(1
If the
10
6
mean
on the
accommodated
Convert your
result to
m), what
is
Compare
all
globe.
19
It
sun,
been
its
mean
density in
kg/m 3 ? (Do
in the
its
radius,
in the calculation.)
(b)
mean
(In terms of the radius of the earth's orbit, the orbit of Pluto has a
is
at
about
3 units,
and
the
ratio
typically contain
of a gas?
40
mean
may
5 lightyears.
universe of particles
/ do not define time, space, place and motion, since they are
well
known
to all.
newton,
Principia (1686)
Space, time,
and motion
WHAT
IS
MOTION?
you are undoubtedly
familiar with
motion
in all kinds of
mani
For
it
depends
in
ability to give
Ali of us grow
our
intuitive ideas
up
to be
are a
The
with those of
and
himself.
may appear
description
many
Newton
natural
and
plausible,
but
it
embodies
difficult
or impossible to defend.
its
its
(set
provisional status)
own words
in the Principia:
"Absolute space, in
its
own
nature,
43
Fig.
21
Slrobo
scopic photograph
of
a motion. {Front
PSSC Physics, D.
C.
Healh, Lexington,
Massachusetis, 1965.)
and immovable."
[Space
is
into which one can place objects or through which objects can
Each
and
change of
its
and
time.
An
And
although
it
would not be
it.
Moreover, our
is
44
is
also absolute
and mathematical
and from
its
own
name
language
is
said in the
time, of
itself,
The
As Newton
called duration."
remark quoted
[One can neither speed up time nor slow down its rate, and
throughout the universe. If we
and
it
and an hour
we assume
mark
later
the end
has been identical for every object in the universe, as could (in
time intervals,
it
would be
common, simultaneous
would
instant.
thereafter correctly
mark
and
we
find
it
impossible
"nowhere"
all,
in space.
or
Both
to have no
knowingly or unconsciously,
the universe.
many
we mentioned
in the
This
first
became apparent
in
his
development of special
how
own
relativity
theory,
it
light,
was Einstein,
who exposed
concept of time.
45
our picture of
in developing
It is
What
is
motion
'?
is
that
it is
as spatial
of them
And
and motions, we
For
it
may be that
there
is
no body
ferred."
space,
ments.
it
If there is
really at
may be
re
can only be by inference from these relative measureThus our attention turns to the only basis we have for
describing motion
observation
in
FRAMES OF REFERENCE
If
would be quite
what
is
is
moving," you
being described
is
a change
of position of the car with respect to the earth's surface and any
buildings and the like that may be nearby. Anybody who an
nounced "There
is
relative
it
We
and therefore at
accept the
rest relative to
and measured.
motion of an object
it is
is
entirely
a matter
is
most efficiently
up and down
the ship itself
uniform
motion
of
The
(according to deck number).
directions fore
46
and
aft,
may be
on the navigation
officers.
become accustomed
We would
not say
so.
We
have
its
And
since
'i
'
'
JK
f'
'
Fig.
22
Apparent
circular molions
of
'
ff
'f
ir
Tower of Wellesley
College, Wellesley,
Mass., from J. C.
Duncan, Astronomy,
19.)
%ti<$
47
Frames of reference
&Row,J954,p.
ntjaKKm
we regard
the totality of
them
as
It
it
really rotating
on
to
is
Later
we
judgment
for preferring
others.
The "best"
COORDINATE SYSTEMS
frame of reference, as we have said, is defined by some array
of physical objects that remain at rest relative to one another.
Within any such frame, we make measurements of position and
doing
this
we have
In
is
we must
us
first
let
48
Fig.
23
(a)
Square
of
Carlesian coordinates
in
a specific direction.
uniquely define
by
ing r
is
23(b).
r
makes
in
Here
axis, as
P
r
two dimcnsions)
as shown in Fig.
(r, 0),
P from O and
r is the distance of
measured
(In
we can
axes,
d is
in
a counterclock
= x2 +
y
= 
tan
(21)
X
x =
cos d
= r sin
We
shall
unit vectors
ordinate directions.
shall
we
respectively.
two dimensions)
xi
we
in the direction
(22)
symbol e r to
of increasing r at constant
49
+ y\
Coordinate systems
the
9.
German word
for
unit,
this
which
is
/*>"
'""'V
y>iui.ins<
(b)
(a)
Example of Cariesian coordinales in use a portion of midtown Manhattan, New York City. (b) Example of plane polar coordinales in
fig. 24
usea
North
(a)
is shown
afew
km,
200 km; the lighter circles are spaced by 25 km. (Photograph courtesy of
Department of Meteorology, M.l.T.)
important as
As we
soon as we
all.
shall see,
why
r is
simply
however,
it
is
becomes very
pendicular to
r.
one
a non
50
may
possess.
Fig.
25
Ihal
is freguently
relativity.
confocal ellipses
If
(b)
Orthogonal
and hyperbolas.
necessary to specify
it is
ofthe kind
all
(r, 6, <p).
z),
illus
chosen to
direction
is
it,
the process
It
then
righthanded
+z
to
in Fig.
23(a),
would
51
xi
+ yi + zk
Coordinate systems
(23)
26
Fig.
(a)
in three
dimensions,
ofa
and longitude) on a
by angular coordinates
sphere,
and
question.
The
take.)
The
distance
One
origin.
end point
tween the positive x axis and the projection ON. This angle (p)
The geometry of the figure shows that the
is called the azimuth.
rectangular and spherical polar coordinates are related as follows:
x =
y =
z =
If
52
we
set
r sin
cos
r sin
sin
tp
(24)
<p
r cos
tt/2,
we make
to the two
The
first
two equations of
r cos
y =
r sin
>
v?
It is
symbol
d,
the vector
as
r
we
and the
x axis
twodimensional case.
in this special
This need not become a cause for confusion, but one does need
to be
We
negative.)
e^,,
points
due
is
As with
given simply by re r
at
a point P\ on a
flat
by
Fig.
27
(a)
make the
+x and +y in
P g. Imagine
Suc
cessiue displacements
is
independen!
of the order
in
which
made.
{b)
Addition
53
that
we
Fig.
28
Seatar
2r
multiples of a given
veetor
r,
including
negative multiples.
IHnBBHBBHHBBHBB^HEHBHiBI
sz
due
su
cast
su
due north, or
(2) travel
rcach the
veetor
yj
is
r in
sum
all
those quantities
combinations
we
illustrate
head to
tail,
we
how
veetors
call
and
is
not confined to
at right anglcs.
and C, placed
drawn from the original starting point to the final end point.
This is what we mean by adding the veetors A, B, and C. The
order in which veetors are added is of no consequence; thus
successive displacements of an object can be
combined according
is
that
What we mean by
a veetor
it is
we changc the
ing
is
its
means that
direetion.
defined to
added to the
direetion, so that
negative multiplier,
tion
positive multiplier, n,
and changed
n, then
in length
original veetor
it
gives zero.
by the faetor
n.
is
accomplished by
we form
Thus
the veetor
A  B = A
54
if
veetor
B and
is
add
(B)
to be subtraeted
it
to
A:
from veetor A,
Fig.
29
Addilion
and subtraction of
Iwo given vectors.
may be
{as
In Fig. 29
we show both
We
veetors.
the
sum and
A B
emphasize the
is
and
A +
B;
combination
is
P\
is
r2
ri2
r 12
[see Fig.
The
(210)],
such that
is
to be read as
"onetwo" and
is
r,
Fig.
210
tion
of the
(i> 2 )
r2
P!
Clearlyr 2
P2
relative to
i
= r 12
is
Construc
ofone
with re
55
common
Similarly,
relative
position vector
point
P2
ri
is
position of
r2
Fig.
211
(a)
Com
ponents of a given
vector in two different
rectangular coordi
by an angular
dis
placemenl 9 in the
xy plane.
(b)
Com
ponents of a given
vector in a rectangular coordinate system
and
in
an obligue co
ordinate system.
is
its
components
this
is
is
its
in a given
coordinate system,
is,
however, an important
we had
a vector
its
A x = Acosa
We know
that
separate angles
'U
is
hoped that
/3
/4cos<3
(tt/2)
>
we have a formalism
this seetion
may
56
In this
axes.
cos
cos 2 /3
cos 27
A = AJ + A v\
=
{A cos d)\
(A cos
;8)j
is
two
vectors.
is
and B,
is 0,
equal to the product of the lengths of the two vectors and the
because
d.
This product
is
conventionally written as
it is
B. Thus
we have
= A B = AB cos d
B we now choose
is
just the
component of A along
the direction
Ax = A
Ay = A
A =
(Ai)i
written as follows:
(Aj)j
statement that
along xand y:
A = Ax +
Ay\
Forming the
Now
(i
57
The
i,
= A x (i
i)
unit length
both sides of
scalar product of
this
equation with
we have
i)
and
A(i
i)
i)
(j
0,
resolution of vectors
are
and t/2,
respectively.
all
of
Thus
we have a more or
less
in turn.
no
this
above development
further, the
more apparent
if
is interested in relating
different coordinate
vector in
given
one
Its
value becomes
the components of a
Consider, for
systems.
example, the second set of axes (x\ y') shown in Fig. 21 1 (a)
they are obtained by a positive (counterclockwise) rotation from
The vector
valid representations:
AIf
AJL
we want
= AJV + A u '
Aj
to find
i')
i'
cos 6
terms of
A(i
Looking
AS
in
the
i'
i'
i')
we
cos f
sin
Hence
A z = A z cos
'
sin
Similarly,
A y = AAf)
'
+ AJl'f)
/*xCOs(;;
+B +
)
/*COS0
Therefore,
Ay =
'
A x sin d + A y cos 6
useful
if
a vector
is
to be resolved
shown in Fig. 21 (b). The axes are the lines Osi and
Os 2 and the components of the vector A in this system are OE
and OF. If we denote unit veetors along the coordinate direetions
by ei and e 2 we havc
situation
58
A =
siei
we form
we havc
If
s\
S2*2
= A zi +
A\
J2(e2
ei)
= A x (i
ei)
/i(j
ci)
this
.
and
s 2 separately.
It is
and
e 2 are
no longer
or
e2 )
and the
is
This
it
is
is
surface
is
curved.
As
and
flat,
earth's
poses
the
is
all is well.
But
if
59
(i.e.,
This
Fig.
212
Successiue
displacements on a
sphere are not com
of the displacements
are not small compared to
the radius of
the sphere.
This means, in
it
effect,
tests for
departures from
it
is
can
be used to
of the
making two
successive displacements
on a sphere and use the data to deduce the radius of the sphere.
When we acknowledge that the space of our ordinary experience
is
we look
at
from a different point of view. We recogon the surface of a sphere can actually
be scen as displacements in a threedimensional world that obeys
the foregoing analysis
a merely twodimensional
in
to be nonEuclidean.
this point
itself,
is
itself:
But at
Can we
rigorously Euclidean?
is
60
Space,
tirae,
and motion
in
a "hyperspace"
Some
'
have sought
exactly 180.
threedimensional space has been detected through such observations. The concept that space may, however, be "curved," and
that this curvature might be revealed
if
observations over sufficiently great distances, occupies an important place in thcoretical cosmology.
You may
another
in
geometry
We
(Chapter
in
it
in
shall
very
general
8).
TIME
In the preceding sections
of spatial displacements.
let
us very
tions of
men philosophers,
scientists,
so.
every one of
us.
We know, in
some elemental
sense,
what time
is.
'Kari Friedrich Gauss (17771855) was one of the outstanding mathemaIn the originality and range of his work he has never been
surpassed, and probably never equaled. He delved deeply into astronomy
ticians of all time.
and geodesy and was perhaps the first to recognize the possibility of a nonEuclidean geometry for space. See E. T. Bell's essay about him in The World
of Mathemalics (J. R. Newman, ed.), Simon and Schuster, New York, 1956.
61
Time
'
human thought
the world of
particularly, the
those to which
To
gencrally,
if
one
may
in physical science
it is
Nevertheless,
and
tries to
to time.
is
we
events or situations
the
We
almost subconsciously
line
But
we have
the rest
is
in terms of direct
an
knowledge
intellectual construction.
is
Thus, although
it
may
is
It is
phenomenon
make
it
successive intervals in
How
do we know
is
truly cqual?
The
No
fact is that
clock
is
we
don't;
perfect, but
we
better
in the
and
watch, however,
is
62
N. J.,
tells
more nearly
equal.
found to be
Human
is
doctor observes
itself irregular
when compared
1947.
more
critically
is
we approach
that
We
flow existed.
observing
its
the
the remarkable
measurement of time as
if this
we can quote
its
steady
And
in
using
it
interval with a
when we proceed
then,
we introduce
time,
the symbol
and
treat
as a continuous
r,
/,
and so on.
tities
Our choice
and standards.
is
and reproducibility
and present
state
in
of this process
is
briefly
summarized below.
Length
The
the
meter
was
introduced,
along with the rcst of the metric system, in the drive for
tenmillionth (10
in
France
scientific
But
it
proved im
on
the
most
line
to
krypton 86.
63
units of length
to
part in 10
or better
there
is
the
measured,
in
ordinary sources.
on observing
if
is
that the
measurements depend
development of
lasers
of over 100 m.
some
It
wash out
1 ft.
The
up
and
at
The reason
to path lengths
Time
The
it
significantly apart
nomenon and
assumirrg that
it
same length.
The Standard of time the second
intervals of the
the
earth's rotation.
mean
solar day
It
was
first
i.e.,
the average,
defined
from noon to noon or midnight to midnight at a given placc on the earth's surfacc. This is an awkward
definition, because the length of the day, as measured from noon
over
to noon,
is
not a constant;
it
and its distance from the sun are continuously changing during
one complete orbit. A logically more satisfaetory definition of
the second can be based
on the
sidereal
day the
day
it
has gradually
come
to be rccognized, thanks to
Some
Standard
64
is
and
logical grounds.
on
its
axis is exactly
abrupt variations.
to be lengthening
(A
year 1900.
tropical year
is
We
equinox.
"latehes
on"
poses.)
It
how one
is
it
defines
fre
time as defined by
keep step at
all
celestial
atom?
Does
interest involved.
1938 by P. A.
M.
It
was suggested
itself,
i.e.,
about 10 10
years.
If this
were
would,
in the
true,
is
how
these basic
especially,
mea
precise
Dirac, a British theorelical physicist, was one of the leaders in the development of quantum thcory around 19261930. He was awarded the Nobel
prize for this work.
65
'
which astronomical observations over the centuries have contributed data of a refinement that almost passes belief.
SPACETIME GRAPHS
The primary data
in
an astronomer's logbook, or a
photograph such as
Fig.
21.
In general
mensions of space.
may
many
Fig.
213
if
the motion
is
along a straight
Example
of a spacelime graph
for a onedimensional motion.
the
(From
PSSCfilm,
M.
Hafner, Edueation
Deiselopment Center
Time
'For further reading see, for instance, An Introduction to the Physics of Mass,
Length and Time, by N. Fealher, Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh,
1959. On the matler of time in parlicular, which probably holds the greatest
1968.
66
'
rule, thc
time
is re
way
is
It
it
conveys directly, in a
motion.
minimum
from the
distance
identify points of
a given
maximum and
which the
VELOCITY
The
that of velocity.
It is
The
vcctor.
motion
is
quantitative measure of
is
one of the
is
and
based on
Has it ever struck
have invcntcd names for the units
a deriued quantity,
time.
all sorts
it,
In nature
we have not
that
directly rccognizablc as a
is
length or time,
magnitude
c
It
we do
find a
itself,
things
seem to be quite
thc
(2.997925
(Seafaring
0.000001)
empty space:
10 8 m/sec
c.
And
in a
comparable way,
Mach number
is
used
sound
in air.
But
this
devcloping.
67
Velocity
is
in
The measurement of a
two measure
and
(ri, Ij)
and
(r 2 ,
2 )
of what we can
direction
T2U
Vav
t%
However,
this
/l
average velocity
Sometimes we may
interesting quantity.
versus
linc,
(let
not, in
is
most
cases, a very
find that a
graph of s
is
a straight
and
is
the same.
But there
is
problem:
much more
INSTANTANEOUS VELOCITY
Richard
P.
Feynman
for speeding at
tells
who
is
caught
"That's impossible,
sir,
was traveling
The lady's objection does not convince us (or the police omcer);
we understand that what is at issue is not the persistence of a
uniform motion for a long time but the property of the motion
as measured over a time interval that might be arbitrarily short.
In order to talk about this in specific terms, imagine that alongside a straight section of a
point, P,
we have placed
details,
his
68
field theory.
Fig.
214
Arrange
of a car as
it
passes
the point P.
On
The
each pole
movie camera
is
an
electric
face,
A car comes along the road; the cameras are set running and
photographic records are developed.
of a race. Each film
the front
pole.
will
is
more or
let
range of distance
Ax
and
centered on P.
Now
smooth curve
values of As.
We
=
is
We
(a)
Eual
by extrapolation
to
of a graph of
against As.
instantaneous velocity
ds/dt by extrapolation
WAt =
of a
graph ofAs/At
against At.
69
it
can
intervals A/, as
As m
As/At
215
Unless the
extrapolate
Fig.
construct a graph, as
in Fig.
As/A/ for As
multiple of 10
shown
less
called A;.
the
the photofinish
We now
It is like
Instantaneous velocity
is
shown
in Fig.
2 15 (b);
216
Fig.
is
measured in whatever
each
graph
itself
terms,
is
velocity,
A Q and Aq,
evaluated
shrunk to zero.
is
notation, which
in
speaks for
we write
itself,
to the mathe
in this case, of
instantaneous velocity o
=
dt
lim
(25)
AoA/
The
synonym
quantity ds/dl, a
is,
in
mathe
first
geometrical terms,
graph of s versus
it
at a particular value of
In
t.
t.
216
is
in
is
order.
The graph
e. g.,
in
as in
Thus
alone.
there
is,
in general,
we mean simply
(Q 2
<2i)/(<72
<7i)
In
this ratio,
is
its
own
characteristic units
e.g.,
same
If the
we
= hm
Ar
= dt
dt
In Fig. 217(a)
Clearly,
(26)
ArO Ar
if
wc
we
indicate
70
entails.
is
tangent
Fig.
217
diagram
(a) Vector
to define
(b) Instan
path.
With
this
is
is
made
The speed
thus,
by
is
The
The spced
is
o that figures
the velocity;
it
may
which of course
direetion of
Even
if
is
motion
we
in the
onedimensional case.
line,
will
be necessary
Fig.
218
if
on
the line.
71
Instantancous velocity
(b)
Corresponding
on the
line itself.
because
It is,
motion from
a straightline
this
it
We
larger context.
can become
displacement vcctor Ar
the position vcctor
in general, in
r,
This then
origin O.
is,
its
scem
[Fig. 218(b)]
although
may
it
less abrupt.
It
be very convcnient,
in the
may
necessary and
case of straightline
itself, this is
certainly not
is
is
just
Thus
if
one
is
from object
R =
The
at r!
r2
to object 2
Vm
given by
is
 n
rate of changc of
to object
is
is
and wc have

dt
dt
dt
i.e.,
V =
v2
~7)
(2
vi
is
1.
that at
some
shown
in Fig. 219(a).
72
Fig.219
(a)Paths
ship
(b)
Path of
relative to ship
do not
collide even
move.
The paths of
initial
The answer
distance?
B, intersect at a point P.
to this question
stiek to the
A and
will
if
we
is
not at
all elear if
deseribe things
we
from the
we
brings
to rest, as
it
ship B, relative to A,
and V],
the ships
as
is
shown
is
in Fig.
miss
by
A by
So now we
line shown, as
the distance
to the line of V.
is
The
21 9(b).
AN,
The time
at
which
BN divided
this elosest
It will
from A
approach oecurs
sight,
73
you
will
know
Relative velocity
that
and
it
relative
motion
it is
pointing.
in particular
of
its relative
first
own
accuracy for several thousand years. But the question has always
been
how
Fig.
220
(a)
Palh
ofob
servalions on Mars.
{.Both
E.
M.
diagrams after
Rogers,
Princeton Uniuersity
Press, Princeton,
N. J., 1960.)
IA
is
that nakedeye
astronomy
is,
stars.
century B.c.)
moon
'
is still
all
first
we need
if
place in terms
with
sphere
its
own
It is
the
celestial
them with
to find
shown
axis of rotation
(cf.
Fig. 22).
in Fig. 220.
the projections,
on the
celestial sphere,
of orbital motions of
various kinds.
(geocentric)
or
suncentered
(heliocentric)
solar
system.
The most
is
Not one
of us, without
any
other way, and the ancient descriptions, such as the biblical one
in Genesis, are entirely justifiable in these terms.
It
who
was the
built this
and
also
Chapter
8.
M.
Physical Science,
lis
MIT
Press,
Cambridge,
astronomy.
75
Fig.
221
in the
(a)
{b)
C follows a
P moues on
described
be
The motion of a
planet,
is
closely
fairly
an approximately
year, around the earth, E, as
however, is compound. It can
center.
reflection
in his great
it
the
travels uniformly
travels in
extra circle
motions,
is
if
path that can have backward loops as shown. Precisely the same
result
would be obtained
circles.
If
it
we
onto the
celestial
this
earth,
and
We
tion that
path,
is
shown
which
in Fig. 220.
carries the
76
(Verify this.)
distance,
This
we interchanged
projecting
tilting
if
is
known
as the ecliptic.
circle
little.
To
fit
it is
neces
sary to choose appropriate values for the ratio of the radii of the
two
circles
of each.
It is
and
in the
is
sidereal year.
we now regard
as the truer
picture.
same radius
the
planet, P, travels
at the center, as in
around a
travel
circle that
has
Then
the
circle,
if
of radius equal
to that of the primary circle in Fig. 221 (a), the relative positions
velocities of
and
We
before.
E and P
and
in the
The reason
two
for
two
It is this
associate the
in
his
("On
was much
suggestion that
who from
other observations
knew
no
first
distant
it
is).
There
is
was developed
interesting, by the
in quantitative detail
before Copernicus.
It is
Here
"For
is
a translation of
all
change
his
in position
own
which
seen
is
due to a motion
moved equally
same
things,
For when
no motion
'From Arthur
New
77
relatively to the
Berry,
Publications,
York, 1961.
Given the
Ptolemaic scheme,
may seem
it
much
when
its possibility
It
we have been
system,
solar
numerous auxiliary
introduce
were driven to
nicus
and
circular
itself
of the
of
all celestial
the
laws
more
We
shall
fully, in
come back
Chaptcr
to
13.
PROBLEMS
21
travels
30 miles northeast
in a
SSW
straight line,
a.
ship
making a countcrclockwise
Find the x and
eastward, y northward) and its
direetion
(a
y coordinates of
its final
posilion (x
22
The
ABcosOah, where 6 mi
(a) By expressing
nents, show that
cos d a u
(b)
is
B,
is
equal to
the
relation
show
and (R,
6\, <p\)
compo
A,B Z
veetors,
A Z BX + AyBy
AB
By using
two
sin 0i sin
between the
on a sphere
$2 cos (^2
is
given by
<pi)
(Notc that the distance between the two points as measured along the
78
expressed in radians.
23
New
(a)
(41
York, U.S.A.
Take an
origin
pole and an
The
earth's
(b)
Compare
(c)
Sydney.
You
flight.
this,
directly
it
on a
24
(a) Starting
a eastward and
then through an
of the point
is
that
coordinates are
its final
x2
Verify that
= R2
final position
through an angle
a northward,
/3
then changes
along a great
circle that
out eastward.
starts
Show
(c)
that
As 2 = 2 2 (sin/3
sin
(d)
(1)
is
As between
the
end
given by
a cos P) 2
result,
of
position
(b)
initial
x R, y = 0, z = 0, show
R cos a cos /3, R sin a cos /3, and R sin 0.
taken to correspond to
in
the text
The approximation
1000 miles.
cos 6 s 1
(Put
2
d /2
Ra = Rp =
will
be found
useful.)
25
If
planet,
what
To
To
(a)
(b)
26
The
of
its
radius?
day at noon,
He
79
also
the Nile,
knew
Problcms
mouth of
and observed
He
lived at Alex
that on
midsummer
^AleKandria
7.2
Equator
/
/
/ 500
milesi\
sun
Alexandria saw the sun as being directly overhead at the same date
this
What was
27
It
answer?
is
repre
(i.e.,
a nucleon diameter.
of the universe
28
in
particle
fiecting walls at
is
is
and x =
x =
a.
upon each
i>2
collides with
an
v/2. Construct
and after collision
(a) For the case that
moves
upon reaching
is
foi).
at
with velocity
velocity
it
reflection
reduced by a factor/(i.e.,
29
limits
(b) If
results.
x = xo
+v (along x)
= with
at /
velocities.
(b)
210
tion
is
r(f)
particle
given by
(a)
xi
moves along
x =
the curve
= Ax
upon impact.
such that
its
posi
Bt.
+ yy
80
We
(=
/.
light
may be understood by
purely kinematic
light takes
the shortest
medium
point
2,
it
medium
1 be vi and
go from point A
in
x.
let
i?2
takes light to
to
Given that
vi
where the
and
c/rti
n's are
V2
known
c/ri2
refraction:
i sinfli
/2sin02
the
It is
is
10
of a certain
same time
ship
is
50
km east and
40
At
is
Draw
(a)
and
relative to A.
(b) If the ships continue to
is
to
is /.
plane
fiies
occur ?
it
a straight course
V relative
from
air.
speed v
to
is
(a)
B and
move with
if
to the
a wind of
Along
the line
from A
to B.
At an angle d
to this line.
is
of the wind.
214
ship
is
offshore, at speed V.
81
Problems
is
< V) sets
q^*
*
o=
f:
Port
(a)
Show
point a distance
D(V 2
must
start
(H ini: Draw
a vector diagram to show the vclocity of the cutter as seen from the
ship.)
(b) Tf the cutter starts
out at the
latest possible
moment, where
Bulge rotates
to keep pace
with
it
on
its
axis in
moon
amount
sidereal
is
the
mean
day ?
(b)
That
is,
in this
on
is
longer than
Show
216
The
orbital radii of
min
tide
moonsee
(60
min =
cor
solar day
is
an ocean
the figure.)
solar day).
moon
stars.
successive days
rotation
noon
1.52 times
.88
how
with time as seen from the earth, assuming that the orbits of
planets
lie in
(b)
the
same
plane.
Compare your
ecliptic (the
all
three
tilted
own
by about
217
(a)
What methods can you suggest for finding the distance from
moon (without using radar or space fiight) ?
Moon
82
(b)
ago,
same
days to
hr.
moon
itself
Use
and
by the earth
moon
2%).
The moon
takes about 29
moon's
is
about
distance.
Moon
87.
What
result
would
this
really is
on earth 
Problems
found
Observer
83
imply?
At present
it is
investigate
and
to demonstrate
may
be).
Two New
Sciences (1638)
Accelerated motions
ACCELERATION
from THn purely
of motion
velocity
is
the
little
se (kinematics) to
This
is
Again we
shall
in
the
first
instance in the
found to be a
is
the
same
is
we
at all
times and equal to the slope of the graph as evaluated from any
two points on
it.
If,
by
in Fig.
31 (b),
a limiting process:
instantaneous acceleration a
dv
A?
a,_o
Ad
i
lim
..
,.
(31)
di
Thus
the acceleration
'The units
in
which
is
the
first
the acceleration of
a car
is
is
But
in
the
85
uniformly acceleraled
motion. (b) Motion
with varying acceleration.
In the indicated
respect to time.
we
however,
If,
wish to
tie
our definition of
wc can
write
it
/:
(32)
In general,
we must be ready
so
we previously considered
neighboring instants, as
in Fig. 32,
to a state
Av
dv
'^oAtdidfi
As
reason
far as kinematics
why we should
by
itself is
stop here.
is no good
and evaluate
concerned, there
We could
define
is
and acceleration.
you have some prior
You may
fcel, cspccially
v(/
if
we have gone
A/)
86
Fig.
32
bot/i
Small change of a
Accclcratcd motions
familiarity
mistake about
But make no
The notion
it;
that
that point
antiquity. Indeed,
it is
who contended
that
if
an object
l
was moving it could not be said to be anywhere.
If you want to test your own mastery of these ideas, try
explaining to someone how an object that is at a certain point
(i. e.,
we have
shows an example of
in Fig. 33,
this.
The
and acceleration.
variations of velocity
sequence of diagrams
a straightline
in
this
doing
The
basic definitions of
From Eq.
this.
(31)
we
change of velocity Av
by the equation
Av = aAt
Of course, "approximately"
that the smaller we choose
is
At to be, the
In Fig. 34(a)
graphical presentation.
celeration versus time
it
more nearly
we show
a graph of ac
t.
From
strip, the
there
top of which
it is
a short step
tributions.
is
obtained by summing
(We
also negative.)
'On a
all
We
87
The
motion
made
quanlum mechanies
and the velocity of a
analysis of straightline
is
moving
two given
Av an
values of
is
Again we resort to a
v.
(a)
Fig.
33
Sel ofre
of
(a) posilion,
(b) velocity,
and
(c) acceleralion.
This
is
u2
sum
of
all
t.
01
wherc we write
sidered as a
(33)
aU) di
a(t) to
show
specific function
evaluated up to
some
of time.
indefinite
time
00
is
/,
Most
starting
.
is
to be con
is
Thus we put
(34)
fl(0 di
88
(or at
some
/.
Accelcratcd motions
(b)
(a)
Fig.
34
o/a graph of
of velocitytime graph
to find
displacement.
arately; v
requires
is
some knowledge of
or
of the
specific value of v at
of v against
(which
may
may
itself
we can proceed
It is
represented
and
the ordinates at
S2
si
axis,
t:
(35)
v(t) dt
up to
most usual to evaluate the integral from / =
an arbitrary time, and again a constant of integration the
must be supplied
position s o at t =
Again
it is
Very
Si)
(36)
v(t) dt
often, of course,
it
is
possible to choose Sq
0,
but one
should never forget that the area included under the velocitytime graph gives us only the change of position.
The
a
first
or a
in Fig. 35(a).
89
The
If
is
the acceleration
analysis of straightline
In the
motion
Fig.
35
(a) Veloc
(b)
Velocitylime graph
for a constant
(positice) acceleration.
is
given by
is
The magnitude of
appropriate.
Fig. 35(b)
celeration
a = slope =
do
we took
a as given, then
we would
DO
The area
/ dt
Jo
(37)
at
Hence
s
so
Combining
s
so
vot
the last
Dot
\{o
Uo)l
two equations, we
get
\at 2
result of evaluating the
so
(dq
+ at) dt
=
=
Dot
+
+
at:
(38)
%at
./o
It is
the time, by
o2
90
2a(s
so)
Accelerated motions
all explicit
(38).
reference to
This gives us
(39)
lv
Kinematic
equations
=
=
=
+ at
vq
(310a)
+ 2a(s
+o +
useful,
it
(310b)
so)
\at 2
as a group:
for
(31 Oc)
accelerated
should be remembered
correspond to the
is
Later
there.
less
may
we
on
free
do not
facts,
become
celeration to
g, really
For low
it
which the
varies
in
problems
in
kinematics
problems on motion
will
e.g.,
+&t) =
v(t)
+a(/)Ar
s(/+A/) =
s(l)
+ v(t)At
v(t
s(t)
so
+!>(') A'
dynamical processes go on
prime reason for
is
this is that
is
and acceleration into their components in a rectangular coordinate system and then proceed to
work with the separate components. Under these conditions, as
we have mentioned before, it is not necessary to make use of
vectors of position, velocity
91
The
anaiysis of straightline
we know
motion
that
we
are dealing
becomes
It
sufficient to
choose an
made
we must
of a particular problem
Which we choose
negative.
is
stick to
it.
Directed quantities
e.g.,
the unstraight
will
line
matically
of the
moving along a
known
as
tells
In other words,
origin.
comes out
the answer
If
it
it is
is
inject
Example.
10
will
acceleration a
and position
do
in the
=
x
it
15
for you.
direction.
its
velocity
We have
=
=
o(0
d(8)
oo
+ at
15
= 25
(5)(8)
m/sec
Also
x(t)
x(8)
Thus at
= x +
= 10 +
ial 2
(15)(8)
(5)(8) 2
8 sec
much
is
shown
information
sees at once
t
sees
how
is
in
is
The whole
creasingly negative x.
 30 m
provided at a glance
in these
how
the
maximum
its
diagrams.
3 sec and at
its initial
One
value.
its initial
sign,
original displacement (x
how
One
up to
Notice
at
6 sec
particle
when
has
92
Acceleratcd motions
m
Fig.
36
(a) Veloc
40
30
of ini
20
and con
10>
sianl (negatiue)
acceleration.
(b) Posiiion versus
/20
plays
many
various details
fit
worthy of note.
And
seeing
how
the
basic kinematics.
How
velocity at
does not
tell
sequence whatsoever
For example,
from
93
rest at
if
an
A comment
how
lndeed,
it
of no con
initial
is
falling freely
on exlraneous roots
we have
O and
We may
h.
its initial
from
it
The most
i.e.,
for
Eq. (310c).
is
identical in
both
cases.
is
the equation
Mathematically, this
the time
is
or
rest,
is
a quadratic equation
is
given and
to be found.
Because
initial
may
not be valid.
To
Suppose we
x(t)
Putting
i
10
x =
6t
15?
we
0,
x =
0.
We have
at which
V 13
6.6 sec or
0.6 sec.
Figure
36(b) makes quite apparent the origin of these two roots and
may be
quite unjustified.
it
10
We
might,
if
direction with
But that
"Oh
yes, I
and then
its initial
velocity of
0.
asked, say:
t
x = Oat* = 0.6
recognize that
should
not,
it
One
reality.
asking, in the
way we have
first
a clear
The matter
In quantum mechanics,
were
an electron
positive
having no physical
94
After
all,
Accelerated motions
Fig.
37
Idealized
parabolic trajectory
absence of
air resistance.
states
and was
the existence
predicted
of positrons and
which
other "antimatter"
particles.
TRAJECTORY PROBLEMS
One
is
IN
TWO DIMENSIONS
that of free
fail
It
provides an
illus
may be
not present.
Systems (1632),
We
initial
may be
first
recognized this
speed v
analyzed as
at
an angle
fact.
if
Galileo's insight
and
intellectual sophistication.
95
They
above a
level plain.
motion
is
to the actual
g (=
9.8
is
m/sec 2 ) downward.
the motion
of air resistance
effects
Later
we
Let us
now
How
1.
long
What
What
2.
3.
We
see
shall
is
how
is
the range
is
the velocity
38
=

t'o
ground?
upward
(y)
we
and to the
righl (x).
The
values of the
components, and
in Fig. 38.
separale horizontal
pt
striking the
the acceleration
Fig.
upon
directions to be
and
initial
shall consider
and
vertical components.
cos e
*
wmm,
Horizontal
< ! ox
"l
Component
'o
COS
W,,
cos
Vertical
v sin o
e0
u
H (unknown)
ai
(always)
Component
li
(minus because it is
below the origin of the
coordinate system
g (acceleration due to
gravity)
(a)
96
Accelerated motions
(b)
[A note about
to gravity
32 ft/sec
The
in order here.
g.
acceleration due
In this
book we
shall
is,
is
That
signs
represented by a vector,
is
This
vector A.
or
convention in which
the symbol
is
if
the
y com9.8 m/sec 2 ). In
direction as positive.
set
We
equal to +g.
y component of g must be
calculation,
we
direction, but
on
we
depend
this.]
We
Figs. 37
1.
now
return
and 38:
How
long
We know
is
as applied to
motion
in the
vo y t
+ \ay
direction,
if
we take Eq.
we know
(310c),
everything
i.e.,
h =
We
(do sin 8
)t
\{g)t 2
relevant one.
2.
What
is
ha **
i.e.,
R =
In this
culation
97
we
(do cos
0oV
1.
obtained in cal
What
3.
the velocity
is
The components of
the value of
Vz
vx
do cos Ba
Then from
may
striking the
=
vv =
oy
azt
4
ground?
upon
io
1.
Oyt
"o sin do
( g)'
components we have
these
Magnitude of
Direction of v
tan d
(v z
vu 2 ) l/2
ov
ox
downward below
tion pointing
we can
calculate the
represents a direc
be negative, because
will
the horizontal.)
magnitude of o 2
directly
Alternatively,
as follows:
=
=
o 2
vy 2
Or
v
oo 2 cos 2 0o
2a u y
sin 2 6
2(*)(A)
Therefore,
v2
The
oy
direction of v
sin d
2gh
in
vacuum
cast sharp
On
(initially
moving horizontally)
lem of the
problem.
last section,
It
fail vertically
at such speeds?
would be just
Figure 39(a)
we take
prob
the horizontal
98
Accelerated molions
^
.
*
Fig.
39
tory
ofaloms
vacuum
with
(a)
(a) Trajec
^^^^.
in
an
inisial
horizontal velocity.
The
vertical displace
ment
is greatly
gerated.
exag
{b) Para
bolic trajectory
of
atoms in an atomic
(b)
>
and
slils
Lt
>3
Oven
to reach the
detector
lm *j
D.
start
v,
lm
 D
we have
Horizontal component:
X =
GQ xt
%ax t 2
Therefore,
L =
vt
Vertical
y
y
=
=
component:
v 0y t
+ \ayt~
K*)'
gives us
g L
this result to
sec (2 msec)
and we should
have
The
2
2
\500/
10
5
is
it
99
Frcc
fali
effect,
of individual atoms
ment was
as
shown schematically
Fig.
in
al.
Their arrange
Atoms of
39(b).
oven
slits
in
and
beam was
mm
wide.
collimated by two
level, as
shown. The
slits
detected by
mm
across.
As
have a small
initial
In the absence of any gravitational deflection, the intensity distribution across the
beam should be
Some
results are
moving so fast that they are scarcely deflected at all; others are
moving so slowly that their deflection is many times greater
than the most probable deflection (which corresponds to the
maximum of the intensity distribution). The complete curve
must reflect a characteristic distribution of speeds of the atoms
in the
We
on the
pattern but
comparison
mass =
39)
move on
it
the
136 (1946).
K. atom, striking the hot wire, becomes ionized by losing
nearby electrode at a negative potential with respect to the
wire will collect these positive ions and the resultant current flow can be
detected with a sensitive electrometer or galvanometer. If a thin straight wire
2
neutral
an electron.
Cs or
is
used,
(e.g.,
100
Accelerated motions
Oven
* Detector current
Slit/f
Vertical line
along which
detector travels
(a)
10 _
'E
.O
<0
"S
l/l
4)
*
+"
/\
c
*,
'
Widthof
Width of
detector
\_;
>>!_
03
0.4
Deflection,
mm
0.2
0.1
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
Def lection,
mm
(b)
IPflJPI^^H^^^JIP^flU^^^^^^H
F/g. 310
(a) Magnified detail of geometrical image
formed by atoms moving in siraiglu lines through Iwo
slits.
by the detector
in
any given
position.
average
much
faster
is
an expression of the
fact that
result that
As
133) at
we quote without
the thermal velocities, let us look at the peak of the cesium curve.
It is
by about
101
Free
fail
0.11
mm.
Now
in
the arrangement
of individual atoms
shown
in
beam
Fig.
39(b),
A B = BC =
if
v*
Hence
1/2
L'L = lm and y =
1.1
10~ 4 m we
get,
300 m/sec.
temperature.
'
We
cite
it
vacuum
it is,
laws of free
is
in fact,
fail
air.
if it is
possible to
an immensely more
difficult
way.
completely
swamp
all
is
a rather complicated
IN
affair.
FREE FALL
moving object
near the earth's surface, the horizontal component of velocity
always remains constant and the vertical acceleration always
has the same value, g (downward). It may be interesting to point
In the idealized description of motion of a freely
1)
N. B. Johnson and
102
Accelerated motions
Fig.
311
"Universal
and a
given horizontal
component of velocity.
beiween poinis
C and
D corresponds lo
the
about
this,
but
it
can be useful
in helping
in
For example, it
between the two atomicbeam paths
relation
i.
is
Then the
obtained by adding to v
shown.
illus
vertical
(downward) vector a At as
motion has
same
is
the
This
its
end point on
value.
Yet another aspect of this same freefall problem is illusby the venerable demonstration of the hunter and the
trated
Fig,
312
Array of
successive velocity
eralion
is
constant
under gravity
in the
(This type
of diagram
is
known
as a hodograph.)
103
in.
frce fail
aA/
Fig.
313
bullet
Ihe
placements in
monkey
lets
monkey.
from
The
and
monkey undergo egual gravilational disegual limes and are doomed to meet if ihe
ihe
directly at the
makes no
gun fired.
go as soon as he sees
This
is
monkey
as
it
hangs
it
path as shown.
monkey
begin falling at
the same
it
It
and the
bullet
Thus the
and monkey
receive the
2
same contributions, \gt
to their
Thus
monkey's
fail
is
bound
to be reached at the
value of g;
it
it,
104
Accelerated motions
Quite
Fig.
314
(a)
in
a uniform
circular motion.
(c)
Vector diagram
motion
if
in a circular
and acceleration
path
to the
is
some constant
at
is
speed.
uniform
to
rate.
and
r,
its
The instantaneous
magnitude v
is
[Fig.
314(a)].
directions of r
A0 =
is
is
v A/,
velocity
constant.
is
its
from
From
to
Pz
direction at a
we can
distance traveled
problem of
In this case,
readily
A/, the
the
two corresponding
oAt
105
Uniform
circular
this angle
motion
is
diagram
in
which Av
As A0
is
M).
vanishingly small, sin(A0/2) becomes in
made
is
A0/2
distinguishable from
itself (in
radian measure).
Thus we
'
can put
= 2usin(A0/2)x;A0
Av
But &d
v M/r, so
Av
we have
M/r
o2
and
direction
its
circular path
This
is
given by
(312)
is
the
called
is
a
is
acceleration
(literally,
"center
any motion
that
is
IN
component
itself.
POLAR COORDINATES
and other
results
of more general
of some
starting point
a center of force
is
if
and the
unit vector e r
(313)
re r
We now consider
a change of
The
product of
its
length, or
from a change of
its
direction, or
from
g,0.
106
We
this
Accclcraled motions
Fig.
315
(a) Vector
form
(b)
uni
circular motion.
Changes
in the
unit vectors t,
and
how Ae,
et
is
and Ae
parallel to
is
parallel
a combination of both.
change of
which
is
a short time At
r in
Ar
shown
direction of this
Its
drawn
at
magnitude, as
is
from
The
is
right angles to e r as
The
change (Ar)
clear
is
rAdee
we then have
the
result
(Circular motion)
If
we
= dB
dt
dt
(314a)
dt
(measured
in rad/sec),
we have
(Circular motion)
length
is
by
expression of
ce
(314b)
result
Although
its
with r
wree
its
r itself.
rate of
In fact,
we can
d6
(315a)
ues
direction of
107
Velocity
shown,
r ; it
it
is
ej.
If the
change of
and accclcration
in
is
e$ is in the
polar coordinates
** =
 (e.)
we
(315b)
is
in rectan
we
If
and
to
both
(Uniform circular
d (e)
,
a =
...
motion)
cor
= co2 re r =
er
di
(316)
Thus the
by Eq. (312)
result expressed
together with
its
correct direction.
restricting ourselves to
If, still
out automatically,
falls
we
If
motion
in
circle,
we remove
component
(Arbitrary circular
radial
circular
component of a
motion
do
dd
e o e
di
dt
motion)
The
Starting
also.
from Eq.
we have
the
is
(since dd/dt
by a transverse component,
same
a.
v/r
as
,.
,_
(317)
we obtained
), but
it
is
for uniform
now
joined
Thus we have
{_r=r
ae
do
do)
di
dt
(where
co
=r d6
(318)
dfi
dd/dt)
PROBLEMS
31
At
building.
an object
At the time
/o
is
released
a second
from
object
rest at the
is
top of a
tali
point.
(a)
108
Accelerated motions
glo
/ is
given by
1T
How
the result.
32
first
is set
at the
Distance (cm)
Time
in
photo
0.56
0.84
1.17
1.57
2.00
2.53
3.08
3.71
4.39
by the equation s
33
these data, to
to)
Taking
a constant acceleration.
the car
%a(t
on
at
is
(a)
x =
What
m at =
/
2
,
and
show
a sloping floor
is
x =
sec,
find /o
known
to have
at / = 0, it is observed
and at x = 4 m at / = 2 sec.
and
initial
that
to
(b) Plot the position of the car as a function of time up
/
4 sec.
(c)
When
is
the car at
x = 2
m?
an illegal waterfilled
window. Having lightning reflexes, he
observes that the balloon took 0.15 sec to pass from top to bottom of
his window a distance of 2 m. Assuming that the balloon was re34
The
how
window was
the
guilty party?
35
next page
109
Problems
is
(a)
and 65
(b)
Sketch a graph of
(c)
From
celeration
36
at
25, 45,
sec.
had
y as a function
of
for the
its
greatest positive
and negative
whole
trip.
values.
In 1965 the world records for women's sprint races over different
60
(a)
Make an
7.2 sec
100
yd
10.3 sec
100
11.2 sec
seconds.
(b)
The graph
will
show you
can be well
fitted
by
l>,
If this description
Set
v.
a,
is
up
and t that
what
correct,
fit
the de
is
the dis
tance in meters traveled by the sprinters before they reach their steady
velocity?
Two cars are traveling, one behind the other, on a straight road.
Each has a speed of 70 ft/sec (about 50 mph) and the distance between them is 90 ft. The driver of the rear car decides to overtake the
2
car ahead and does so by accelerating at 6 ft/sec up to 100 ft/sec
37
(about 70
110
mph)
after
which he continues
Acceleratcd motions
he
is
90
ft
How
car.
coming in
and end of
this
operation?
If
a third
and
(If
you are a
38
how
note of
driver, take
In Paradise Lost,
Book
I,
is.)
fail
of Vulcan
To Noon
he
from Noon
fell,
to
M om
from
dewy Eve,
setting Sun
(It
was
(9.8
m/sec 2 )
can be ignored
If
What would
the fact
Heaven and
39
particle
moves
in a vertical
its
(horizontal)
and y
(vertical) coordinates at
/,
sec
x,
10 2
10~ 2
y,
4.914
4.054
5.000
4.000
5.098
3.958
(u x
= Ax/At,
etc), calculate
(a)
The x and
The
to 2
10
acceleration vector.
[similar to Fig. 39(b)] shows a parabolic atomicvacuum, passing through two narrow slits, a distance L apart on the same horizontal level, and traveling an addiVerify that the atoms
tional horizontal distance L to the detector.
310
beam
(a)
The figure
trajectory in
111
Problems
below the
first slit,
such
Oven
*.
L/
that
>>
gL 2/v 2 where u
is
L.)
through two
slits
component of velocity
initial vertical
311
maximum
obtained at a
is
first slit?
the theoretical
at the
initial
speed
of 45 to the horizontal,
firing angle
5 (where 5 can be
and furthermore that the ranges for angles 45
any angle < 45) are equal to one another. Verify these results if you
maximum
at the
312
Wall
same
instant
is
half
what
it
is
back over the head of the thrower, as shown in the figure. When
above the ground and 4
leaves the thrower's hand, the ball is 2
from the
wali,
and has
i>ox
i>o
How
10 m/sec.
4m
313
A man
a with
at
on a smooth
stands
He
the horizontal.
hillside that
(a)
Show that,
down
2v
(b)
sin(0
if
air resistance
it
far
behind the
10 m/sec 2 .)
at a distance j
initial
speed vo
figure).
+ a) cos 8
g cos 2 <x
Hence show
value of s
Tmn*
is
obtained with
(Use calculus
112
would be
if
t'o
(1
45
a/2 and
is
sina)
g COS2 *
if
you
likc, but
Accelerated motions
it is
not necessary.)
and
a, the biggest
given by
314
A baseball
is hit
is
ft
actually cannot),
implied by these
315
cm
initial
that
speed would be
What
(a)
is
hand
be
What
(b)
marked 4
the point
0.)
on the
sec
and
it
passes
dial ?
( 10 m/sec 2 ):
The acceleration toward
multiples of g
(a)
on
The
The
(b)
(c)
acceleration of an electron
on
acceleration of a point
of 26
in.
diameter, traveling at 25
317
particle
r cos
r sin
0,
(the
first
moves
in
mph.
a plane;
its
x =
a proton at
The
(d)
the earth.
moving around
a speed of about 2
orbit of the
moon toward
acceleration of the
and y = r
(r, 0),
where
sin 6,
and
Calculate a z and a y as the time derivatives of r cos
where both r and B are assumed to depend on /.
(a)
respectively,
components
in polar
coordinates
are given by
ar = az cos
= ax sin
+
6
au
sin 6
a cos 6
and
0j,
from
(a)
318
x =
particle oscillates
0.05 sin(5/
tt/6),
where x
(a)
What
are
(b)
Make
a drawing to
its
is
in meters
and
in sec.
and acceleration at t = 0?
show this motion as the projection of a
velocity
Using
the position
through the
113
(b), find
how long it
is,
through
Problems
//
seems clear
to
me
that
broad,
Scientific
Thought (1923)
as
we
in
More
But
was
to learn about
does not
this
on an object
than that, he
the muscular
We
puli.
shall
initially
It
push or a
we
look at forces
and
in
veloped
in
another context
equilibrium.
Coulomb
rest, in static
the
gravitational force
still
was
static
and the
obtained largely
equilibrium situations,
we
shall
begin
with
shall
115
we
involved;
shall then
do not
of development
IN
we
we
FORCES
is
ideas.
STATIC EQUILIBRIUI
Let us consider a very simple physical system
In Fig. 41 (a)
and
straight
situation
shown
its
the
human,
in the
Fig.
41
A
(a)
resting stale.
What
an arrow
in the
shape shown
in Fig.
41 (b)?
Putting aside
force
is
are in balance.
not disembodied;
it
is
drawn back
(r)
at midpoint,
Arrow
in the pro
this
applied to something.
116
into the
back
it
bow
bow
must
mean?
the
there, a force
hold the
in Fig.
Remove
an archer's bow.
the
We
taut.
be supplied.
toward
we show
Fig.
42
(a)
Balanc
S S ^>
S fe
l>
ofunequal
forces in accordance
with the law ofthe
(a)
lever.
(b)
on which
exerted.
it is
is
some
This
directions
CA
and
piece of string
little
CB
and
ACB.
of angle
We
is
C in
string,
the bisector
Fig.
in
forces,
string.
These
combine
latter
along the
line of
and opposite
to F,
librium requires that the bowstring supply a net force equal and
opposite to
back up
that this
is
obvious, but
It will
we can
involve one
if
And
by equal amounts.
is
this balancing
all
equi
librium situations.
But
let
bow
will
not be
new
to
at equal distances
on
F2 h
is
satisfied.
suggest the
ment.
'
establish
117
not so.
Forces
we need
to have a
in static
Archimedes
is
[Fig. 42(a)].
first result,
To
equilibrium
result
way of obtaining
by pure
logic,
but this
Fig.
43
Basic ar
rangement of a
"steel
of a Standard
the
all at
single spring, or
on the other
in Fig. 42(b).
way
in
side of the
some
entails
it
to measure an
no assump
and
unknown
justified
force in terms
of an arbitrary Standard.
shown
different
side, as
since
purpose of weighing
its
many
UN1TS OF FORCE
For the purposcs of
librium,
we do not
magnitudes of
force,
unit,
forces.
The
of forces
in
equi
strictly
will often
be convenient
going further we shall state what these measures are. (You have
The
all before, in
118
we
is
any
shall
case.)
This
is
a force
of
The
all
kg
it
it
mass
to a
MKS
system.
we need
that
for the
moment
is
The magnitude of
size.
is
m/sec 2
is
most appropriate
about 9.8 N.
this
kg
force of about
on a mediumsized apple
may
well be true) that the fail of an apple provided the starting point
CGS
In the
force
is
acceleration of
and
dyn
10
3
cm/sec 2 to a mass of
we have
kg,
= 10 5
lished, so that
Since
g.
cm =
10~ 2 m,
the relationship
we take
the relation
F = ma
as already estab
The dyne
is
thus an ex
on a mass of
mg as
by roughly
The only
is
the pound.
we
shall
is
we can
still
pound
is
we
practical implications
and
of that
in
is
pound.
more
We
detail later
(Chapter
8).
static
conditions:
1
119.
The object
Fig.
44
(a)
An
ob
ject in ekuilibrium
(6)
Two
equally acceptable
condition
2F =
0.
(b)
(a)
move
bodily;
it
The
2.
it is
to twist or rotate
The
in
what we
first
what we
it; it is in
of the bowstring.
It
has been
known
Newton's
that they
in the
same way
tional displacement.
to
it
and
fit
nitudes
it
Suppose that
it
a loosc
3,
and
4,
5,
as defined by corresponding
is
removed,
if
mag
numbers of
when
is
Then
in equilibrium,
ex
even
shown
in Fig. 44(b).
Fi
+F2 +
It is a basic
120
we say
one
In formal terms,
to zero:
F3 =
immaterial (Chapter
addition in
up
many
2).
same
Thus,
object,
if
we have a
it is
large
is
number of
Fig.
45
(a) Seueral
same poin:,
(b)
The
force veciorsform a
closed polygon, showing equilibrium.
(c) Equioalent veclor
diagram lo
(b).
a closed polygon
Since forces
may
(i.e.,
be applied
and the
is
in
any direction
if
in
equilibrium
will in general
add up to zero
though
exists.
threedimensional
usually,
al
When
figure.
Thus the
condition of equilibrium
first
can
be written
as follows:
Vector statement:
F = Fi
+F2 +
F3
(4la)
Component statement:
Fz = FU + F2l + F 3l +
Fu = Fi + F2u + Fa, +
F = Fu + F2l + F3l +
z
It is
=
=
=
(41 b)
its
components.
xy plane, resolved
components:
F = Fj
121
+ Fj
Fig.
46
(a)
inlo orthogonal
com
ponents.
(b)
theforce
F,
giue zero.
(c) Resoluiion
of F
to
inlo
nonorthogonal components.
We represent F by a
stitute for F
triangle, in
F,
itself.
full line
In Fig. 46(b)
we show a
FA + Fvi + (F) =
We
can then recognize that any other pair of veetors that give
zero
equivalent to
forees
Fm
>
and
Fv
>
in
itself.
way
of
way of resolving
In a similar vein,
as in Fig. 47(a),
Fig.
47
(a)
if
any
we can
The
F 2 and F 3
,
is
bal
ibrantFB
FK
122
combine to give
zero,
combination offorees
Fi,
set of forees
labeled here as
the others.
E)
as the equilibrant
force equal
their resuJtant,
shown as R
the balancer) of
(i.e.,
and opposite
to
sum of
FE
is
all
then a force
in Fig. 47(b).
familiarity
IN
We
have already used a kind of principle of uniformity to prescribe a way of reproducing a force of a given magnitude or
force.
We
assume that
identical
forces.
spring
is
is
his
compressed.
You know
Regard
is
In
its
123
yields,
it is
No
existence.
gives a
little
force until
matter
how
it
There
in
may
rigid a surface
sefem,
it
always
no basic
in a
sit
difference between
comfortably upholstered
down on
a concrete ftoor.
and
yield visibly
by
We
shall
now
satisfied.
way
first
is,
condition,
in fact, in
forces.
If,
is
An
forces remain
tion
Fig.
48
is finally
bound
A and B
(a) Rota
applied at different
points of an extended
(b) Equal,
plied in
a way
that
Iffree to rotate,
the object
mouesfrom
orientation (b) to
an
equilibrium orientation.
124
acted
at which the
truly in equilibrium;
to twist.
is
If
[e.g.,
as
it
has no
shown
in
unchanged as the object turns, equilibrium orientashown in Fig. 48(c). How do we con
reached, as
object.
object
0,
F =
equilibrium
Fig.
F,+F,
rotational equilibrium?
The law of the lever provides the clue. Look again at the
situations shown in Fig. 42. In particular, consider situation (b).
The balancing of the forces F and F 2 with respect to the pivot
The product of the
at O reauires the condition FJi = F 2 / 2
force and its lever arm describes its "leverage," or twisting
ability; the technical term for this is torque. The torques of F t
t
and
F2
with respect to
direction
that
F2
due to
Let us
counterclockwise.
call
is
is
in
equal to zero.
is
of magnitude F,
be
2 if
the
first
Now,
is
as
itself.
let
it
must be
condition of equilibrium
satisfied.
Fig. 49.
+F
However, what
if
is
to
shown in
no torque
we choose
to
but
it
exactly balanced
to
Fj and
F2
new
this result is
of
its
correctness.
to you, take a
What
it
says
is
= F2 / 2
momcnt
is satisfied.
If
to convince yourself
sum of
the
other point
So
far
is
also zero.
we have
of parallel forces.
that a force
125
is
Suppose
K
l
sin
\Sf
COS
ip
(J*
'
/v
(
(a)
Rgi 4/0
(a) Force
F by finding
effeclive lever
its
some other
(c)
r.
arm,
be
The
first
I.
thing to notice
diagram.
into components
Evaluation of lorgue of
F would be
if
were indeed a
it
and F
It
lie.
therefore
makes
excellent
itself,
regarded
torque?
We
to
as a vector of
that r
is
we have chosen
of
sin^)
(b)
Z'
=r
some
sort.
between
If the angle
r.
indicated
perpendicular to
first,
and F
is
<p,
these
r,
gives a torque of
this result
is,
arm
Then
acts.
magnitude rFsin
ON
from
is
F can
to the line
just the
same
as
if it
lever
arm of
We
length
equal to r sin
'
<p.
symbol
M for the
126
<?.
magnitude
a force in this
way
Fig.
411
A and B.
and F.
{a)
(b)
Torque vector,
Then we have
of the torque.
M = rF
(42a )
siri <p
is
A and
This
at hand.
two
vectors.
defined
is
and B and of
magnitude given by
C = AB sin
where
is
other being 2v
d).
There
are, of course,
A and B
(the
41
until
it lies
l(a)].
thumb
extended (do
it!),
If the
rota
body
all
is
these properties,
is
then written as
C = A XB
127
Note
is
crucial; reversing
B X A = (A
Using
is
XF
(42b)
of
B)
two
different values
<p;
which
down
and
the
the vector
sum
of
second condition
Then,
to occur.
of cquilibrium
we can
finally,
all
on an
object,
equilibrium
with
YM
ri
If the object
Fi
X F2 +
r2
on which a
as an ideal particle
(i.e.,
rotational equilibrium
set
r3
F3
(43)
all
the forces
are applied at the same point, they cannot exert a net torque
about
this point;
and
if
the condition
is
also satisfied,
they cannot exert a net torque about any other point either.
If
the
same value of r
condition
r
this in
more formal
(EF) =
F =
no new
information.
embody
paused to
In Fig.
128
Fig.
412
#E>^
in equi
Objecl
(o)
~n=\
(g)
ofa
the action
single uerlical
(c)
The
measured weight
to
(C)
(b)
is
W.
from a
Experience
us that this
tells
is
How
an unbalanced situation.
This may seem like a trite or even
At
upward on
this time
do we
trivial
we
it is
quite clearly
dilemma?
resolve the
question. In fact,
examine
shall
it
has
much
it is
only from
it
it.
Later
we
wider ramifications.
to imagine
sum
and so on.
your confidence
You
are used to
Now
is
you
fuli
see
an equilibrium
it is
the reading
upward force on
force, as
shall call
129
it.
The magnitude
of this equilibrating
we
shall restate
it
be defined as the
will
of what
process that
in
now
measurement
question.
an example
is
is
of the quantity
is
This
it
called
is
fail freely,
is
(We
we
If
Chapter
it.
broken, so that
is
way
graviin
the
8.)
held
is
On
we can say
is
as
is
shown
in
indeed a static
not synonymous.
much
But keep
it
firmly in
mind
By maintaining
this distinetion
we
shall be
problems involving
pulleys
and
more physics
first.
If the
pivot
is
F2
arms of length
exactly at
its center).
magnitudes of Fj and
T, which
130
we can thus
is
pivoted
F2
the strength
Fig.
413
(o)
Ten
of a string where it
meels a slationary
circular pulley must
be
in rotational equi
librium.
(b)
Set of
(O
(b)
(a)
applying a force of
gicen magnitude in
its
The
length.
its
magnitude.
sum
F2
of F, and
ments of the
2Tcos(6/2)
its
lie
If the tension at
is
and
string,
W,
of the object
is
of magnitude
in any desired
can be used to supply a force of magnitude
direction. Figure 414 illustrates the typical kind of arrangement
a simple experiment
To
to study the
Fig.
414
(a)
Simple
rangement involving
three nonparallel
pomt
P.
(b) Vector
(a)
131
Pulleys
and
strings
(b)
F 2)
and
2,
PROBLEMS
The ends of
41
puli
on
it
with
show why
42
may
defined
F, not 2F.
is
It is
object
on an
of the object.
(a)
Use
this fact to
show
of the figure]
may
be
x)/L acting
l
(b) If
at
H. I'
one end
of the
is
hung
atPif x =
(b)
43
LW/UW +
Diagram
v).
(a) represents
corners.
its
H'.
H,
>
iy
w,
'W,
(b)
(a)
(a)
To
CG
of
this
x and y axes
132
as shown.
and
(= wi +K2fH'3
from
w4)
this axis at
will
keep the
system
rotational equilibrium.
in
be
to
Then the
ing distance y.
(b)
An
center of gravity, C,
is
To
each case.
CG
is
to
hang the
is
and
You
want
to mail
fortunately
it is
it
You
letter to
your
at once, so that
it
giri friend
will
(or
be collected
office is closed,
and a
and you happen to have learned somewhere that the density
of nickel is about 9 g/cm 3 The ruler itsclf balances at its midpoint.
When the nickel is placed on the ruler at the 1in. mark, the balance
point is at the 5in. mark. When the letter is placed on the ruler,
centered at the 2in. mark, the balance point is at S^in. The postal
a
letter scale
12in. ruler
nickel,
rate
is
You
on?
(This problem
is
How much
drawn from
real life.
45
(a)
As mentioned
in
17),
/,
from
from a fulcrum
must balance (by symmetry), he argued that one of these forces could,
again by symmetry, be replaced by a force F/2 at the fulcrum and
another force F/2 at 21. Show that this argument depends on the
truth of
(b)
133
what
Problems
it is
less
purporting to prove.
vulnerable argument
is
Suppose that
vectors.
parallel
Show
that this resultant intersects the bar at the pivot point for which
Fili
46
F2/2.
The weight
47
(a)
way
0.5 kg
elothesline
hung
is
at the
by 8 cm. What
is
is
tied
When
middle of the
line,
the midpoint
is
and a
tree that
is
pushes with
on the car?
man
The
a,
down
pulled
were
(= 50 kg
suflicient to
to be 50 ft
midpoint.
its
ft
move
that
Instead, he ties
when
),
begin to
stranded
is
knows
happens
displaced transversely by 3
force of 500
If this
car
driver
is
he
apart, in such
(b)
negligible.
is
in the
is in static
how
man
this exert
the car,
ft,
If the
the
and the
would
far
the car be shifted, assuming that the rope does not streteh any further?
seem
Does
this
48
Prove that
like
on an
if
must be coplanar and their lines of action must meet at one point
(unless all three forces are parallel).
49
Painters sometimes
is
is
Keeping
(a)
side,
what
(b)
150
lb.
around
he
lets
410
is
the
On
in
mind
maximum
that he
must be able
to
move from
side to
One day he
this instead
go of the rope,
An
it
breaks and he
is
is
falls
hung
as
But as soon as
to the ground.
shown
Why?
in the figure.
lb,
and
The
the
134
works on
lb.
system
by
One
at its ends
long ropes that pass over fixed pulleys, as shown in the figure.
lb.
Slr Isaac
Newton
(a)
poin t
What
(b)
What
the supporting
411
man
the
is
minimum
above
A?
A man
the magnitude
is
arm
at
A under
and
weighs 180
lb,
on
these conditions?
the ladder 20
The
lb.
The
smooth, which means that the tangential (vertical) component of force at the contact between ladder and wali is negligible.
The foot of the ladder is placed 6 ft from the wali. The ladder, with
rests is very
it,
man
hang a picture
to
at a certain place
1 ft
ift
How
lb.
up
far
safely climb?
to the left
figure).
You
and 2
ft
to the right
appropriate lengths from these nails to the top corners of the picture,
2ft
2ft
balancing weight of
some
(b) In
straight unless
frame weighs 10
lb,
hang
what
it
A
is
(a)
is
the least
(Hint: Find
the
discussion, be
yoyo rests on a table (see the figure) and the free end of
its
What
is
geometrically
if
135
how would
string
in the strings.)
picture
413
you add
kind.
Problems
it
is
you consider
What happens
(b)
a yoyo, test
414
a
diffcrential
of rotation.
free pulley
An
is
based on what
is
callcd
connected with a
common,
is
radii
fixed axis
and around a
figure).
If the
part of the chain will (ignoring friction) suffice to prevent the load
from descending
if
can be neglected?
(b)
(more
realistic)
415
force
F with components
x = 0, y =
nitude
and
Fz
5
3N,
m, and
M,
of
Fy = AN, and Fz = is
= 4 m. Find the mag
F about
angles that
the origin.
i.e.,
(Express
416 Analyze
vertically
weight w?
total
terms
how
(Clearly
the contact of the rear wheel with the ground plays an essential role
in this situation.)
136
And
almost
all the
attracting
and
and
Powers ....
The
various forces
of nature
we know of
that
The following
at present:
of their masses.
2.
in
motion.
about 10
It
>An
15
m.
may be
excellent
background
to this topic
is
the
PSSC
film,
"Forces," by
J.
R.
make
easy
and
New
139
dream
is
to
all these
forces as aspects of
different kinds
we
shall
briefly
consider these
significant.
standpoint of classical
classification
will
It
what we
"contact forces"
shall call
the
forces
Al
though these forces are merely the gross, largescale manifestation of the basic electromagnetic forces between large numbers
of atoms, they serve so well to describe most of the familiar
phenomena
interactions in mechanical
of their own.
GRAVITATIONAL FORCES
Ali our experience suggests that a gravitational interaction be
is
a universal phenomenon.
The
an attractive interaction.
It is
always
its
by the
by
we
call its
mass.
Newton
any other
is
will
at
by
particle attracts
this
of the force
Departures from
ihis
theory of relativity.
particle
It is
is
tational interaction.
The various
particles.
measurable de
3 that a particle of
They are
140
two
force has no
forces of natura
of
m2
can be written as
G^f
Fl2 =
where
mass
particle of
(51)
r l2 is the distance
and
is
mi
to the center
gravitational constant.
size.
The value of
the constant
the
first
example
of a physical law.
what
it
in this
It is
really says.
book
it,
is
By m
in
is
one that
Thus
But
it
is
always the
particle at
Keep those
italicized phrases in
Thus
it
really con
By
The
classic
141
Henry Cavendish
Gravitational forees
in 1798.
It
involved a
Fig.
51
lorsion
balance experiment.
arrangement
torsion balance
to
Two
rod
to
is
its
midpoint.
Two
The
fiber attached
An
is
reached
when
equilibrium
a substantial
arrangement of
of the most
The
this type,
on
torsionbalance
is
one
gravitational foree
is
astonishingly
it is
kg each.
The centertocenter distance between a small sphere and a
lead spheres, each of 15g mass,
and
142
The
various forees
of nature
Fig.
52
Globular
M 13
in the
constellation Hercules).
from
(Photograph
the
Hale Obser
vatories.)
one
large
is
about 5 cm.
Under
weight of a single
than
human
hair
is
about 6
10~ 10 N.
The
this!
stars
edge of the
due to
maximum
all
cluster
and the
star will
The
net
143
Gravitational forces
Fig. 53
Schematic
Galaxy.
of
all
all
its
times
The
cluster).
is
Thus a
starting position.
star
center of cluster.
much
any
stellar collision is
is
chance of a
Thcre
stars is so very
star, the
this).
clusters.
Galaxy
and there
is
cluster), again
each other.
between masses
illustrate cases
is
where gravita
the motion.
where at
that
it is
exercises
least
is
size is
involved
note
lives.
One can
144
The various
forces of naturc
atoms
under
their
galaxy.
on one another
The basic law of
force
is
that found
known, Coulomb
force. Coulomb's law
states that a
will
of
their separation
given by
*km
(52)
is
coulomb
more than
is
is
coulomb
the
The
The constant k
identical in
10
huge amount of
Nm 2 /C 2
electric
3500 N
charge
vastly
One coulomb
(approximately 800
(C).
in. in
lb).
Yet
diameter contains
'Their experiments were performed at almost the same time, but apparently
they acted quite independently of one another in their choice and development
of the torsionbalance technique.
2
Note
of"
145
that insertion,
is tacitly
Electric
assumed.
'
54
Fig.
Cakulaled
irajectories
its
its
magnetic field.
(After D. J. X. Monlgomery,
It is interesting
to
compare the
balance mentioned
in
earlier.
If
electrons
electric
and
processes
biological
domain).
It
in
(i.e.,
and
is
chemical reactions.
We
have been
discussing
the
forces
electrical
between
in
Chapter
An
7.
illustration
is
provided by the
earth.
of protons approaching
146
The various
in
forces of nature
magnetic
It is
field.
confidently
motion.
Actually, from the standpoint of relativity theory, the magnetic force is not something new and different. Charges that are
one accepts the basic idea of relativity, one may expect to be able to relate a magnetic force, as
observed in one reference frame, to a Coulomb force, as obThus,
respect to another.
if
NUCLEAR FORCES
Although
atomic
For we
nuclei.
electrically repelling
themselves,
know
all
one another and not stabilized by a comBut nature has supplied another
known
of
10
Coulomb
unknown
13 cm (=
small,
Although much
in a nucleus.
but
it
F) this
dominates over
still
force that
is,
down
all
It is
to about 0.4
smaller separations.
It is, in part,
a noncentral
Coulomb
interactions,
it is
particles, the
known
among
8
sec or less).
of which are unstable and very shortlived (10
interactions
nuclear
associated
with
force
type
of
Another
147
Nuclear forces
is
also
known
to exist but
is
yet.
estimated to be only
weak
interaction
is
15
two protons 10~
different
m apart
i.e.,
Type of interaction
Gravitational
Coulomb
X 10"
X 10 2
Nuclear (strong)
The magnitude
in
which
it is
of the
weak nuclear
effective, is
but even so
force,
it is
10
1
of the order of 10~
of the electrical
23
by a factor of the order of 10 ,
greater,
tween two
particles.
is
We
cannot
cite
any
particles is
direct observa
tions
gravitational
is
theory that has almost no use for the concept of force as such.
really
in
we
are
tion,
fact
the electric
in contrast to gravita
may be
148
The various
forces of nature
two
clectrically neutral in
On
no
the face of
forces
it,
therefore,
on one another at
all
quite true.
It
if
This, however,
not
is
and negative
point. We know,
the positive
distribution
when
nucleus
particle
named
force increases
Dutch
much more
manifestation of this
(to put
atoms a
between neutral
physicist
J.
much more
One
it
force
This
as
way
off with
increasing distance
in a
falls
is
two unbalanced
The
Waals force
is still,
of course, the
its
quantum
mechanics.
neutral
The
varying as l/r
detailed
between
There
is,
is
is
made
to squash
with decreasing separation even more rapidly than the van der
force.
neutral
if
the
sum
atoms are
identical.
The
repulsive
component of
below r
that
is
tion).
149
Fig.
55
The dashed
nonphysical
idealization
one anolher.
attract
The dashed
line in Fig.
55
in
>
<
Since almost
all
the objects
we
from the
importance, as
we
is
of fundamental
CONTACT FORCES
Many
we
strings
we
and
push and
cables,
upon by such
ordinary
forces as
puli of struts
and so
on.
servation.
The book
is
supported by the
sum
these interactions
purposes, however,
all
table.
would be
we can
in
A submicroscopic analysis of
prohibitively complex.
For most
lump
call
we
shall
category but a
useful one.
on a
150
The various
makes
it
Our
discussion in
forces of nature
Fig.
56
(a)
Two charged
conlact.
apparently in conlact.
this
Two
is
balanced by
uncharged spheres,
aries
would disappear.
The development
is
pressed against
It is characteristic
of
such forces that their variation with the distance between the
objects
is
much more
no fundamental distinction between the situation represented by two charged spheres, visibly held apart by their electrical repulsion, and the same two spheres, uncharged, apparently
There
is
in contact, as
assumes a
trical
shown
force on
separation
in Fig. 56.
final position
it
it
just balances
(a) Quali
charged spheres
ofFig. 56{a).
conlact
i. e.,
is
if
in Fig. 57,
is
so abrupt that
it
The
"soft"
tween
F and
slowly with
(b)
weight.
its
Fig.
W varies
r.
Comparable graph
The conlact
is
"hard"
W occurs only
Separation of centers, r
over an extremely
narrow range of
(a)
values of r.
151
Contact forces
Separation of centers.
(b)
Do
an
and that
not
forget,
refined
is
idealization,
sufficiently
discussion
in
of two objects. Such forces are then at right angles to the surface
we
of contact
of that word.
call
But
them normal
when
the attempt
is
made
We now
apply a hori
zontal force P.
being supplied via the contact between the block and the surface.
This
is
balance P, just
crease if
rection,
we
It
automatically adjusts
deliberately pushed
down
we can imagine
(a)
Block
on a rough horizontal
table, subjected to
its
maximum
limiting value,
it
may
horizontal puli, P.
{b) Qualitative
graph
The condiiion
can be
S = P
satisfied
up to
S =
nN. After
the eguilibrium
bound
that,
is
to be broken.
152
But then,
S
when P is
broken
is no longer ablc to keep step with it. The equilibrium is
down, and motion ensues. A graph of S against the applied
force P might look like Fig. 58(b). Once S has been brought to
increased beyond a
Fig.58
in
In both cases
electric
to
itself
would automatically
The various
forces of naturc
even drop at
first
as
is
F
v
(i')/
Fig.
59
(a) Force
on a sphere in a
flowing fluid.
(b) Total force o
fluidfriction is
1
mtri
r^
)
Av

mode
P ofseparate terms
and quadratic
in the
relativeflow
celocity, v.
and
to motion,
it
value thereafter.
ff
may depend
JF
is
in detail
on the
P >
(n)
The only
velocity.
S corresponds
F is
is
the empirical
the
their quotient
coefficient
of friction
is
11N
(53)
The above
surfaces.
One
ferent.
is
The
basic
driven past
it
is
is
Over a wide
well described
where
The
first
second
is
= Ao + Bv 2
and
153
fluid,
and the
knows
(54)
first is
proportional to
is
Since
v,
one
domi
nated by turbulence, however small the ratio B/'A may be. The
same consideration guarantees that at sufficiently low speeds the
resistance will be
directly propor
CONCLUDING REMARKS
In this chapter
we have
To
recapitulate:
Nuclear
force
is
important only
if
magnetic interactions.
The study of
physics
is
In mechanics
we
essentially the
their
con
more
all
in
how we
PROBLEMS
At what distance from the earth, on the line from the earth to
the sun, do the gravitational forces exerted on a mass by the earth
and the sun become equal and opposite? Compare the result with
51
52
By what
of
normal
its
ft
Do you
away?
could be detected ?
53
is
is 5
154
The various
is
forces of naturc
8
10
Scale
^20 g
is
(Remember
that the
through
turned.)
when
observed that
effect
Deduce
the value of
shifted
is
their initial
on the
moved from
mean
m away.
by 8 cm.
more
distant of the
larger spheres.
on
The
54
more
distant spheres.
original
is
natural
made a miniature
suspensions.
sensitivity
if
It is
which the
radii
A and
and separations of
all
down by
maximum
with respect to A.
We
a certain factor
each
sensitivity in
apparatus by using the thinnest possible torsion fiber that will take
Now for a
the weight of the suspended masses without breaking.
torsion fiber of given material
mum
and
supportable load
its
Using
is
torsion constant
this
proportional to
is
two
section, the
where d
is its
d2
different sizes
maximum
maxi
diameter,
/ is its
length.
angular deflections
of apparatus.
(Remember, the
lengths of the torsion fibers also differ by the scaling factor L.)
55
155
The
Problems
atom according
to the original
Bohr
'
is
0.5 A.
(a)
What
theory
is
the
the
How
(b)
Coulomb
far apart
A? What
is this
com
parable to?
56
Coulomb
gravitational attraction.
electrons that
57
What would be
would achieve
For a person
mass of
this?
living at 45 latitude,
what
the day,
minimum
gravitational forces
is
the approximate
between the
maximum and
from the fact that the earth's rotation causes the person's distance
from the moon to vary ? What is a manifestation of this kind of force
effect in
58
nature?
You know
that the
Coulomb
force
and the
Suppose that
is
gravitational force
it
Thus
would not be
What
(a)
and negative
How
could
59
The
(a)
two
nucleons close together but also suggests that to describe the nuclear
interactions in terms of forces
any way
in
(b)
is
earliest
and simplest
F( ,)
Can you
suggest
two nucleons
Yukawa)
at large separation
theoretical
the force of
would be given by
_d e '"o
15
m and the constant A is about
where the distance r o is about 10~
10" 1 Nm. At about what separation between a proton and a neutron
would the nuclear force be equal to the gravitational force between
these
two
particlcs?
156
The yarious
forces of nature
tional, electromagnetic,
511
As mentioned
all
of the
For a number of
well
is
FV w
where
newtons and r
is in
in meters.
C]:
mentary charges [Eq. (52), with<?i = ?2 = e = 1.6 X 10~
=
about
equal
to
the
diameter
is
a
distance
r
4
A.
(This
(a) For
of a molecule of oxygen or nitrogen and hence barely exceeding the
closest
in a collision.)
One
the
is
is
the
tensile force
terms:
(a) If
3in.
3 in. wide,
a water film
and a
Waterfilm
is
lg
it
across
and
film.
atoms
takes
This
lying
Supposing
its
lower end.
First,
calculate this breaking force in tons per square inch. If the fracture
is
on
the upper
and lower
sides
about
513
A.
timehonored trick method for approximately locating the
is
to support
it
horizontally
any two arbitrary points on one's index fingers and then move the
fingers together.
(Of course, just finding its balance point on one
finger alone works very well, too!) Explain the workings of the trick
method, using your knowledge of the basic principles of static equilibrium and a property of frictional forces: that they have a maximum
at
/x
com
157
Problems
514
A string in tension
(a)
is
in
A0
on
r)
that
the pulley
equal to TA9.
is
Hence show
(b)
This
to T/r.
AN with
Show
is
that the
is
equal
bigger as r decreases.
when a
string is
tightly tied
as
it
the contact
(c) If
is
amount AF
AN, where n is
Deduce from this
The
AT is
value of
equal to
and
rod.
y.
= T
ep
string
a dock
and a bollard on
of
T corresponding
7"
For
is 0,2.
100
values
note that
proportional to To
is
This allows
will,
amplifier.)
To make
(r
due to a flow of
air
of speed v
is
(newtons)
where u
due to
is in
2.5
10 6 <;
10
s,,2
The
158
cm
apart).
(Hint:
Do
not bother to
v.
enough to
159
Probiems
values of u so obtained
is
clearly already
To
tell
by which
it
But
acts
is
endowed with an
to derive
two or three
how
the properties
in
would be a
We
by forces?
on the face of
it,
How
really began.
We
saw
much
What can we
simpler:
is
Chapter 4
in
how
will
in the
is
zero.
What
For an object
this, to
net force
conclude that
following diseussion
in
if
is
superfluous.
on
not,
on
and, as a kind
many problems
Do
at rest
at rest, the
of corollary to
>You
was
moving a
It
is
is,
subjected to no forces?
an object
objects
all,
our experience
of Newton's
assume that the
in the use
that account,
wish to get
down
to business
have come about in just this way. Einstein arrived at special relativity by
thinking deeply about the nature of time. And Newton, when asked once
about how he gained his insight into the problems of nature, replied "By
constantly thinking unto them."
161
'
Limitalions on in
Fig. 61
ertial
surface.
An
mighl end up on a
In the process
hilttop at B.
would be bound
to slow
it
down.
effort
does have to
possible;
is
in
is
Initially, this
resistive forces,
plane.
it
free of all
if
For a
a limited sense.
truly
flat
if
is
horizontal plane
true only
is
tangent
it
must
form
uniform motion
in his "first
body perseveres
in
its
which we probably
upon
all learn
shows a
say? The
in
it."
our
It is
first
state of rest,
in
or of
compelled to change
a familiar statement,
practical illustration of
it.
But
Thus
objects.
is
much
around and make a
We
it
it
goes
For
Galileo's
Two New
tions,
162
own
Sciences (H.
New
York.
Fig.
62
(Photograph by Prof.
good
an
inertial
Most
observations
made
within
was on
is
After
suitable.
first
place!
A more critical seruti ny shows that this is not quite good enough,
and we need
own
doesn't."
163
The
Ann
principle of inertia
line,
it
version
in its state
except insofar as
to
what
is
No
is
under
test
is
deviation,
due to extremely massive objects at very large distances. Moreover, there is the far from trivial question of defining a straight
line in a real physical sense:
nor
is
it is
it
Nevertheless,
a valid generalization
is
it
Closely linked to
this is
is
affected
by
affected
"Force"
ciate
it
is
ticularly clearcut if
otherwise
move
we apply
164
(a)
63
Fig.
(a) Strobo
scopic pholograpli of
a uniformly accel
The
eraled molion.
Acceleratior
(From PSSC
2 springs
Physics, D. C. Heath,
Lexington, Massa
chuselts, 1960.)
(b)
Simple dynamical
Acceleration
block
block
deoeloping Newton'
second law.
spring
(b)
spring, stretched
produced
2. If a
in
is
doubled.
is
the accelera
is
constant.
first
That
is,
if
we
take a
known
and
stretch
first,
the ac
multiple of a
is
165
Force and
ineriial
down
F and
simple equations
accelerations a:
= kF
a
or
F=
k'a
k' describc thc inertial properties of the particular
where k and
Which of
object.
We
convenient?
3.
If
we
place
on
the
answer
first
is
more
by given arrangements of the springs are rcduced to half of what was obtained
with one object alone. We can express this most easily by choos
it is
observed that
all
accelerations produced
ing the second of the above equations, so that the inertial property
is
additive
i.e.,
two
different objects
can be simply added together, and the acceleration of the combined system under a given force
F=
(Ar'i
k'2 )a
is
immediately given by
l+2
i.e.,
1+2
fci
It is
is
+ JG
universally
F = ma =
m
di
(61
is
tities
and
is
always
in the
same
direction as
An
interesting
historical
fact,
often
overlooked,
is
that
the Principia.
Instead,
time.
In other words,
of
to
Newton's version
FAt =
166
mAo
(62)
We
shall see in
Direct
mg sin
regarded as
6, is
fulfilling this
purpose.)
we remind
If
given instant.
frame
in
In fact,
is
measured
fills
celeration vector
an important
result;
it
is
an expression of the
This
combine
in a linear
way.
attached to
it
force Fi in the
acceleration
y.
F /m
t
direction.
along
Acting alone
direction.
that
the
acting together
is
just
vectors Fi and
F2
to
is
it
acceleration caused
not
by
F2
n the
predictable by
the
two springs
mass
[Fig. 64(c)].
The observed
on the object a
would produce an
exerts
x.
it
Spring
Acting alone
It is
pure logic
167
inertial frame.
along
an
is
this role.
Next comes
is
we see
cannot be separated from
we tacitly assume that the
in
the trajectory
we
discusscd as a
problem of Chapter
is
3.
the
'
Fig.
64
(a)
ular directions.
Obserced acceleralion
as found in (b).
If this
difficult.
The
of instantaneous components
we can always
of acceleration
automatically proceed to
consider
in
magnetic
more
detail later, if a
field, the
charged particle
component of
is
moving
in a
pends on the component of velocity perpendicular to that direction. In such a case, we have to keep traek of the way in which
that perpendicular velocity
component changes
one may
is
in the
same
it
is
intuitively
is
sufficiently
comes the
It
may
be worth
if
high
fast to require
the
relativity.
at a certain rate
a,
168
in this series.
Fig.
65
inertial
Increase of
mass with
speed, as revealed in
experiments on high
speed electrons.
Based on data of
(open circles) Kauf
mann
(1910), (filled
circles)
Bucherer
(1909),
and
(crosses)
New
York, 1961.)
remarkable result;
Newton's law
let
ment,
or
is
No!
it
its inertial
us consider
it
mass m.
is
all
a very
further.
by any
conditions.
This
is initially
this state
stationary
speeds that
the acceleration
way
The
(63)
 oVc2)" 2
(1
This relation
is
in all situations to
for
any v
which
classical
c the value of
preciably different
from
is
inap
169
plication
is
in itself a
remarkable
result,
which as
far as
we know
high
velocities.
It
if
one
We
all
car,
know
the
that phrase
to
an acceleration that
is
is
it
be called a "jerk"
should
be introduced as
The conclusion
is
that
ultimately limited in
discussion
applica
its
particles.
chanics.
they produce.
from the observed acceleration that it produces. Because the measures of force and
inertial mass are linked in the single equation F = ma, there is
danger of circularity in our definitions. But we shall not delve
into the subtleties of this problem; we shall simply present a
analytical tool for deducing the force
is
stretched to the
170
same elongation,
it
object attached to
exerts the
for
it
we
We can then
...
1, 2, 3,
a x a 2 a3
F=
scale because
number
at a time
(i.e.,
We
take a
them one
puli
mass
inertial
we can put
m\a\
12^2
W!l
fl3
W3<33
Therefore,
m\
One
fl2
all
called a "kilogram."
(arbitrarily) as
quantitative measure
Standard object.
was defined
to be the
3
mass of 1000 cm of water at its temperature of maximum
density (about 4C), but it is now the mass of a particular cylinder
of platinumiridium alloy, kept at the International Bureau of
France.
in Sevres,
was discovered
it
liter
was decided
in
to switch to the
terms of durability,
and convenience.)
If the inertial
mass
is
used.
different
The
mass
different accelerations,
same as
mass as a
Our
one
before.
inertial
so that in the
MKS
inertial
system, as
New
we mentioned
in
our
first dis
m/sec 2
1
kg an
is
acceleration of
kgm/sec 2
171
Scales of
mass and
in other systems of
force
measurement can
be defined
Chapter
i.e.,
in
4, is
formulation of
F = ma
may
be tempted to
experimental
As
test.
commonsense
is,
it is
sum of
to the
a shade
But
sound.
just to
question here,
we
let
them come
mass of the
and proton?
Why?
less.
is
and
that
No;
You
Is the inertial
electron, separately,
atom equal
additive.
in principle, a legitimate
we have measured
imagine that
and an
is
mass
then
atom, with the binding together of the proton and electron, the
equivalent of a tiny
radiation.
it
individual parts
For ordinary
in
is
it
sum of
etc.
objects,
we can
inertial
masses
e. g.,
This proportion
:2:5: 10 ....
for
The very
in fact, a definition
first
is,
a given material.
a definition that
"How," they
say,
fire,
because some
critics
regard
it
as circular.
Newton had
manner, and
it
The
calculation of the
this
mass of a
172
effect
in this chapter
of a
is
force.
look
first
is:
What
is
You
is applied to an object and maintained for a while?
no doubt aware that the answer to this question can be given
in more than one way, depending on whether we consider the
time or the distance over which the force is applied. To take the
that
are
let
F=
we have
motion
that
is
is
Then
is
kinematic equations:
d
at
x =
At time
caleulate
Ft
\ttfi
and we can
of F:
= mat = mv
2
Fx = (ma)$at 2 ) = %mv
Thus we
arrive at the
energy.
The
effect
of
as
is
called
its
what we
call
defines
work or energy
basic unit of
in the
MKS
system
the
joule.
Thus we have
impulse
work
* momentum in
>
= kgm/sec
Nm = joules
Nsec
kinelic energy in
The invariance
o\'
Newton's law;
relativity
Fig.
66
a particle
to
Molion of
P referred
iwoframes
that
have a relatiue
uelocity v.
The
frame of reference.
will vary
therefore,
how
It is
worth
seeing,
which
The
one
inertial
forces
S',
first
point to establish
frame,
(i.e.,
moves uniformly
is
that, if
we have
Thus
if
first is
any
is
identified
if
if
is
and the
u',
To
up rectangular
y and
moved a
the coordinates of
ing equations.
work
in
law of
0, at
and
which
at a later time,
/,
when the
Then
axis of S.
that
Galilean transformations.)
174
in the
(It is
at
known
as the
x'
(Galilean transformalion:
moves
S'
relative to
a constant speed u
L'
with
in the
The
last
r'
  vt
(o
const.)
=y
=
=
z'
\x direction)
= X
(65)
z
r
We
**
dx'
= x
Putting x'
u'z
d
=
,
(x
two
dx
d7
in the
'
'di
and
vi,
vt)
u,
dt'
dt,
we have
dt
The transformations of
all
three
components of
velocity are as
follows:
u'x
u'y
's
= ux
= u
(66)
"z
we have
time,
(for
components of acceleration:
du'x
du x
dUy
dUy
du'z
du z
dt'
dt
dt'
dt
dt'
dt
acceleration
is
the
same
in
both frames:
(67)
Since this identity holds for any two inertial frames, whatever
their relative velocity,
we say
in classical mechanics.
relativity in
This result
is
it
175
The
illustrate
an invariant
To
is
relativity).
Fig.
67
Two
ferent views
trajectory
after
it
dif
of the
of an object
has been
with respect to a
moving frame.
ide released
from rest
n .V frame
S'.
Frame S
Frame S'
BI
simple and familiar example of a particle falling freely under
Suppose that at
gravity.
0,
when
from
The
drops a particle
in S'
in
is
and
In the
initial
aetion of gravity,
different frames
falls
down.
straight
ma, where
they use the same F, accounts properly for the trajectories for
any
particle
launehed
in
any manner
in either frame.
The frames
cerned
frame
either
in
frame
may
correct explanations
we
a simple
is
itself.
more
carefully
what
is
have an
explicit
law of foree,
by something
like a stretehed
is
provided
can put
F = f (r).
For further
simplicity, let us
176
i.e.,
is
we
motion
object 2
by object
F12
=/(*2
as measured in
F 12 =
f(x?
x\)
now
shall
X2
S,
can be written
(68)
2, is
(69)
/M2fl2
entirely in terms of
Eq. (65)
frame
*i)
We
is
measurements made
in the
it is
frame
expressed
S'.
From
we have
Xi
(X2
X[)
vl)
(x[
+ ot) =
x2
x\
Thus
Fl2
f(X2
but according to
f(x'2
x[)
is
the
terms of measurements
Fl2
assumed law of
force,
function
the
of the force
F i2
in
in S'.
F\2
mass
F[ 2
We
motion
inertial
is
a constant:
= f(x 2 
x\)
a';
and
m2 =
m'i.
= m'2a 2
how
more complicated
invariance.
force law,
it
same property of
on
absolute positions
however, the force depended
e.g., if the force law were of the form
and
to write
(610)
in
If,
this
velocities
F12
= f(xl 
x?)
same
177
make
re
appear different
in
If the
at constant velocity.
It
how
exist, in the
in
form of a
light
could be
carried.
(Otherwise,
earth?)
all
all inertial
more
dramatically, although
Look
two
objects.
Which were
"We
don't know."
motion
picture of these
and it
of Newton's
laws.
The reason
is
motion.
acceleration
the
unchanged.
downward
(Gravity,
This
direction.)
is
by
it
in
the
leaves the
remains in
itself.
We
do not
see attractions
And
it
yet,
when we
see
in reverse,
leaving
objects
human
that
actions, which appear strange for quite different reasons
Imagine,
for
direction.
most physical actions havc a welldefined
example, a sequence
in
which a glass
178
Force, inertia,
and motion
falls
V/
(b)
(a)
Fig.
68
(a) Strohoscopic
down?
collision.
lis
(b) Slroboscopic
time sequence
completely reversible.
is
photograph ofan
lo all intents
and purposes
179
elaslic
jumped up onto
would
clearly be
Yet a
"micromovie" of the individual atomic encounters at every stage
that.
Thus we
numbers of
particlcs,
The
reversible.
statistical analysis
in the detailed
As long
we
as
do not
we
are dealing, as
them
found
is
of manyparticle systems
as statistical mechanics.
sider
is
large
shall
particles,
the problems
and we
arise
further.
CONCLUDING REMARKS
It will
The
is
complex and
law
first
version of
it.
in
many
is
still
Newton
stated
"The Origin
mass? Or
is it
acceleration?"
Consider
fields
it is
to define
Is it
a definition of foree?
Of
Ellis
argucs that
how Newton's
it
is
something of
second law
is
all
of these:
actually used.
In
a seale of foree.
How
else, for
example, can
But
is
it
is
some
is
used
we meaalso
un
sometimes used
in yet
other
fields,
where
foree, mass,
and
Newton's second law of motion funetions as an empirical coracceleration are
all
easily
Colodny,
180
Newton 's second law in ballistics and rockTo suppose that Newton's second law of motion, or
any law for that matter, must have a unique role that we can
the application of
etry
and
an unfounded
is
unjustifiable supposition.
Since forcc and mass are both abstract concepts and not
objective realities,
we might conceive of a
description of nature
in
reality
it is
'forces,'
the description
accelerate,
nomena can
Now
accelerate.
it
acting
in
split
Ellis spells
many and
out
this
same idea
measurements,
elastic forces
forces by current
made and
is
momentum
this re
sultant foree.
And
so
it is
that
we obtain an immensely
fruitful
and accurate
PROBLEMS
61
Make
is
indeed ac
is
181
Problem,
62
at a speed of 0.3
is
10
:i
kg.)
m/scc
A man
63
a
it.
its
is
thereafter he pushes
Can he
A man
(a)
window
after
on the dock
on
of mass 80 kg jumps
down
is
bends
it
is 1
it
N to
He
his
when
it
neglects to bend
arrested in a distance of
1.5
bone structure ?
his
distance h after
his feet
on him by
ground
the
is
normal weight ?
64
An
object of
mass 2 kg
20
N at 8 =
tion.
47r/3.
is
xy plane:
The
direction 6
at 6
0,
10
at 6
corresponds to the
velocity
object's velocity
and position at
jt/4,
+x
and
direc
m and
has
Find the
2 sec.
Note!
Parabolic
(a)
(Vertical lines
equally spaced)
Direction
,of
motion
(b)
/
=
(c)
182
An
66
observer
first
to be
components
For each
Fx and
case,
F.
full
of 5
g,
(a)
(b)
(c)
67
has a mass
If the object
take a
partiele of
mass 2 kg
oscillates
the equation
x =
where x
0.2 sin
is in
(b)
68
!)
meters and
What
What
(a)
5/
in
seconds.
is
is
the
maximum
car of mass 10 3
kg
is
on the
partiele at
on
traveling at 28
= 0?
the partiele?
m/sec
(a
over
little
The
ahead.
and comes
to
(a)
is
driver applies
What
(take g
fraetion
is it
9.8 m/sec 2 )?
1
with
had been on a downward grade of sin
the brakes supplying the same decelerating force as before, with what
speed would the car have hit the tree ?
^)
69
partiele
of mass
xy plane
that
is
de
Sketch
(b)
Can you
670
suggest a
if
183
is
way
the circle
maximum
is
Pro b lem s
/,
is
the
this
motion.
tension T,
What
this path.
maximum
in a cireular path.
may be
whirled
Part II
Classical
mechanics
at
work
Does
of a given
it
Of course. Does
Yes.
strength of a field
mass
in
Does
its
acceleration in a given
by measuring
ha t field? Certainly.
the acceleration of a
Why
then, should
known
any one
is
brian
that
it
ellis,
rr is
worth
used
in
1.
we can
calculate
its
all the
motion.
2.
may be
infer
what
may seem
This
and quite
trivial
separa
it is
not.
law
in
is
Skill in the
physics and
satisfaction.
thrill
study of motions.
It
was
in this
way
that
Newton discovered
atomic nucleus, and that the particle physicists explore the structure of nucleons (although, to be sure, this last fleld requires
analysis in terms of
quantum mechanics
rather than
Newtonian
mechanics).
If the law of force is also known, this can be used to obtain information
about an unknown mass. The quotation opposite treats this as a third
category.
187
thing
will
else.
And some
We
later.
Thus we
shall be able
(310)].
=
=
=
Kinemalic
equations
>
d2
do
so
+ eot +
do
here:
at
2a(s
(71)
so)
first
to identify
all
We
merely an exercise
of the situation
Do
lies in
in
Taken
troductory problems.
Generally, this
trivial
nature of these
more
We
sophisticated problems.
in
is
is
used in far
lems are
trite.
Examp!e
we mean one
to
itself.
this to
No
that
is
on a smooth
table.
method it is powerful.
By a "smooth" surface
be a useful idealization.
Wc
first
Question:
What
In
this
188
full
diseussion.
is
at
only approxi
Fig. 71
(a)
BIock
pulled horizontally on
a perfeclly smooth
surface.
(b)
Same
an arbitrary
direction.
showing
all
draw a sketch
on the block.
They are
=
T =
force of gravity
We
is
letter
acting in
ma.
we conclude
vertical direction,
is
that
thus
+N+
no acceleration
in the
N+
Expressing this a
of F
is
diflferent
The
sum of
the forces
on
its
direction,
is
defined as a
the
in
the equation
0.
The
both
'We
with
189
and a horizontal).
shall, in these
all
Some
if it
were a point
introductory cxamples
particle,
The
initial
N+
Vertically
Tsind
N
(The
Tcosf?
equation
and horizontal
=
= ma
us the magnitude of
tells
is
into vertical
Horizontally
first
it
we
substantial if
The
is
N'.
= Fg  Tsmd
component of
vertical
less
than
Fg
.)
The second
tells
ccleration.
We notice
that there
is
on
a physical limitation
this analysis.
necessarily upward, as
is
necessarily positive.
it
Thus,
if
in the
Tsin
and we
is
Fig. 72).
Although
we can put 5
The value of
equal to
<
nmg.
A'
The
72
<
the
satisfy
table.
As
Example
in
1,
we
frictional force 3\
Fa
/* is
If
it
is
"dry
fric
in this case,
and
so, writing
gravitational acceleration g,
FB
as
we have
itself,
up to a
Block
pulled horizontally
on a rough surface.
190
we cannot
F,
where
fiN,
cqual to
times
force to adjust
Fig.
is
>
certainly
is
this
will
its
shall
to support
shown
T+
T<
If T >
If
We
nmg:
nmg:
JF
acceleration, leads to
ff
=
=
(and hence a
T nmg = ma
[and hence a
0)
(T/m)
fig]
of
You
5F.
and hence,
in turn,
bound
to
We
Two
incline.
normal
forces act
on
to the (frictionless)
These are
in different
we wished, introduce horizontal and vertical coordinates x and y and write equations for
F = ma that would define the components az and a y of the
block must accelerate.
could,
if
vector acceleration a
Ncosd
N
It is clear,
= ma
= ma x
siri
however, that a
in this case to
is
and
it is
representing distance
in
F sin 6
N
cos 6
the
we
tions gives us
= g sin
Fig. 73
Forces acting on a
191
the forces
= ma
=
If
simpler
Some
introductory examples
first
of these equa
Fig. 74
BIock at
respect to
resi with
an accelerating elevator;
apparent weight.
Example
A block sits on a
4: BIock in an elevator.
package
down?
it.
They
are:
Va =
N =
The package
is
is
what we
N. The
measwed
weight
{W) of
the
block.
If the elevator
acceleration a,
la
it)
has an
measured as positive
w requires
Thus,
if
velocity
the elevator
upward
is
stationary or
on
the block.
m(g
N=
is
But
if
is
equal to
we have
a)
192
on
it.
One
will
often
on the
of the
feet,
the elevator
is
is
acceleration
Similarly,
soles
when
the elevator
if
is
slowing
when
when it
upward
down
in its
acquires
(upward) acceleration,
little
If the elevator
heart
onc's
and
tissues to
is
a simple example
apply
F = ma
to
it
alone.
is
free to
surface.
the situation?
P,
and the
common
to both
mass
P =
is rtii
(mi
plus
m2
Hence we have
+ mi)a
This at once
tells
we can imagine an
masses. Next,
Ti
and
isolation
In Fig. 75
Two
applied to
its
ends.
con
193
Some
is
boundary surrounding
we
is
introduetory examples
The sum of
its
must
Assuming
these forces
acceleration
a.
the string.
what
is
worth noting
is,
any
that, in
is
would
at the
Finally,
and
m2
isolation boundaries
around
T = m\a
P T = mza
Adding
these equations,
we
But
if
we take
motion of
Once again
these problems.
T in
terms of
we
shall
But
if
own
way
in
which
they will be
MOTION
IN
F = mz.
TWO DIMENSIONS
Ali the examples in the last section dealt with motion along one
is
situation at
force
in
It is
occurs when
directions.
the acceleration a
is
The
a constant
velocity
example of
this
procedure
is
194
'
Accelerating
Vertical
Fluorescent
deflectins
screen
plates
anode
(a)
Controlgrid
Focusing anode
Horizontal
deflecting
Glasswallof tube
plates
Vertical deflection
Fluorescent
plates (simplified)
screen
Resultant
deflection
from central
axis
(b)
Fig.
76
Diagram of
(a)
cathoderay tube.
the
(b) Simplified
is
Let us consider
ray tube.
this as a
beam
in a cathode
dynamical problem.
a schematic diagram of
is
wellfocused
beam
strike
beam
principal features.
some
transversely
if
away from
We
shall
transverse deflection,
The
'We
shall
electron
make
gun
in a real oscilloscope.
(2nd
195
ed.),
Motion
in
two dimensions
tential difference
eV
(where e
is
gitudinal velocity
it
acquires a lon
component v 2 given by
= eVo
jn?,fi
(72)
Therefore,
is
We
shall
an electron were
it
on
by the transverse
it
in
its z
co
applied
is
plates.
plate to another,
electric force
Fy
If
we suppose
the plates
to be parallel
to their
points between the plates, so that the gain of energy would also
Fv d.
be given by
Hence we have
=^d
Given
Fv
this value of
between the
plates,
md
How
plates.
zontal
component of
passage
its
it
be deflected?
This will
of the plates
is
/,
and the
hori
given simply by
is
]_
Vz
From Eq.
we
196
(71)
sy
vov t
+ \a
2
cari
yt
md\vj
(72),
mvz 2 /e
is
2V
just
so
we
obtain
IL
(73)
it
plates.
The
resultant displace
ment away from the central axis of the spot on the fluorescent
screen may bc found from trigonometric considerations. The z and
y components of the displacement of the electron while between
the plates are given
z
by
o,
is
no further force on
it
and
it
= aj =
plates.
is its
an
transverse velocity
Now we
have
Y as the
eV
%
i
eVI
VI
vz
mdo?
IVad
to the screen
is
thus given by
r*?g
2Vod
(74)
v,
If
/,
as
is
[sensitivity
AU
we can
of an actual oscilloscope
We may note
(74).
sensitivity
in
Any
It
and
remains
true,
which the deflection depends on the accelerating and deflecting voltages, and also, in a less specific way,
197
indicate the
way
Molion
two dimensions
in
in
MOTION
IN
A CIRCLE
The problem of
circular
motion
is
it
F =
it
of the acceleration
is
is
component
we suppose that
around a circle of radius r at a
Such a motion can be set up, for
first
an object of mass
is
traveling
object
nitude
is
We know
o' /r.
is
of mag
F = ma =
(75)
we have
the string
magnitude,
77
And
it
will
198
T in
would
is
Fig.
now
free of forces
along a tangent.
S*
>
n*
u e
To center
of curve
~^j
/
/
/
/
/r
F.
(b)
Rjf.
75
(a)
m front.
practical
this type.
presents an important
and
is
banked
at
an angle a
as
shown
in Fig. 78(b).
with speed
v,
of banking
is
to
make
it
/r.
diagram
The purpose
some
on
it
were horizontal.
(And
i.e.,
would have to be
thcre
if
would be no
F = wa, we have
Nsina =
r
(76)
Ncosa Replacing
tana
Fa
=
for a,
we
find that
(77)
gr
199
Motion
in
a circlc
of a frictional force
nitude
ij.N)
perpendicular to
banked surface
(see
Problem 717).
changes
its
speed as
travels
it
it
the path.
component of
acceleration tangent to
is
in
easily
component of
a,
(r is the radius
of
curvature)
transverse acceleration)
}
a$
,
lim
a<.o
= do
Al
the change of
di
is
magnitude (only)
of the velocity
vector]
(78)
With only
slight rcinterpretation,
we may apply
these results
and
u to
mean
and the speed, the above expressions are perfectly general. They
give the instantaneous acceleration components tangent to the
as
200
we have
diseussed.
is
in faet
(i.e.,
centripetal),
Arbitrary path
Fig. 79
for
graph turntable as
example of a
it
particle
starts
components.
celeration
(Fig. 710)
(a r
is
the
1'
2
.
is
we
of a string, so as to bring
circular
motion
(as, for
it
from
rest
the
hammer") we
(1)
and
Fig.
(2)
710
vector
ofa
Net acceleration
particle attached to
201
mv 2 /r
Fig. 711
Pariide tracels in a
To
in
PO'
circle.
supplied by
it
circle.
To
fiil
this
if the
con
is
This
tinually
path, as indicated.
the
instinctively in practice.
IN
the
circular
motion
The separate
section
is
is
the
fields.
F mag =
where q
moving
magnetic
(79)
is
now imagine
Let us
q,
X B
in the
fieid
plane of
this page, in
points perpendicularly
a region
down
in
which the
F = qvB
This
is
(710)
a pure deflccting
particle's
motion.
change, but
its
although there
ticle
202
Hence
force,
Thus,
no center of
[Fig.
(b)
(a)
Fig.
in
712
(a)
circular path
tracks ofelectrons
and posilrons
is
the paih
MeV going
a cloud chamber.
in
ofan
eleclron of inilial
loses energy.
71 2(a)].
The
centripetal acceleration
is
law we have
qvB
mu
whence
mo
Thus
203
(711)
Charged
particles in
is
a mcasure of the
uniform magnetic
momentum mv
ftelds
in a given
nuclear physicist's
magnetic
method
for
This fact
field.
determining the
or bubble chamber
circular track which
known.
is
qvB = mwv
or
o>
% = 1B
which
is
(712)
mass of the
led
him
fre
magnetic
a fixed
particle.
Lawrence that
is
The angular
It
in
first
cyclotron, in
field
The holdmeans
of constant frequency.
of a magnetic
field is
an
essential feature of
most highenergy
nuclear accelerators.
in
we can imagine
ular to
a plane perpendicular to
But
if this
v to be resolved into
condition
713
parallel to B.
Helical
having a velocity
vs
component parallel
t o a magnetic field.
204
(Jsing
Newton's
lavv
not
is,
of
satisfied,
Fig.
is
const.
The
it;
latter,
by
the former
in precisely the
perpendicular to
CHARGED PARTICLE
It is
IN
is
fixed circle, as
described above.
Thus
shown
in Fig. 713.
A MAGNETIC FIELD
a matter of experimental
particle
way
is
an
fact that
electrically
in space, experience
charged
a force when
moving which is abscnt if it is at the same point but staThe cxistence of such a force depends on the presence
somewhere in the neighborhood (although perhaps quite far
it is
tionary.
away) of magnets or
The
force
is
[cf.
Fig. 714]:
The
force
is
is
3.
is
force
reversed
is
The force
amount of charge,
reverses
if
is
For motion
parallel to
tion in which a
W at that point.
(o) Situa
of zero force
in
Field direction
magnet ic field.
(b) General veetor
relationship
ity,
of veloc
magnetic field,
(b)
205
align itself.
at a given
is
zero.
size
v.
Field direction
tions
q,
It is called
Fig. 714
the
reversed.
5.
if
reversed.
of the force
4.
The
proportional to the
charge
Detailed observations
electric currents.
Charged
particle in a
magnetic
field
force
is
field
direction.
6.
The magnitude of
the force
is
and the
field direction.
summarized
in a very
compaet
mathematical statement.
field
way
by the
it
may be of
(Note
normal to the plane
Then the value of F, in both magnitude and
either sign
is
and that F
is
F =
We
vXB
of the magnetic
this
field
with a speed of
1) to a
charge of
moving
N.
MASS SPECTROGRAPHS
The
magnetic
field
make
The
and second
whercas the
on
electric force
in
the
charged partiele
is
not.
fmag =
first
in the
is
is
proportional to
given by
(713)
is
$<'
206
manner deseribed
Fa =
in
all
as a velocity selector
last seetion.
q/m
in opposite direetions
by
Fig.
715
(a)
spectrometer.
Exampfe ofisolopic
separalion
and
207
Mass spcctrographs
There
is
field at right
field.
(714)
Bd
Figure 715(a)
that uses a velocity
is
filter
in a semicircular
alone.
field
path
Figure 7 15(b)
possibility of fracture
they
portion of
it
as a wheel
is
rotating, every
Suppose, for
required.
is
is
rotating about
Then
any small section of the hoop, such as the one shown shaded,
by
its
Fig.
716
2irn
(a) Rotat
a small
ele
208
is
defined
its
mass, m, multiplied
by the equation
If
ar
(715)
isolation
diagram
shown shaded
portion of material
on
it
on
'
via
at
its
contact with
to the
Am
must be supplied
exerted
given by
lirrn
we make an
be tangential
is
if
the force
radially outward,
with which
it
was
in
But
Am
portions such as
asymmetries of
in
this kind.)
Thus we can
a uniform hoop,
is
no
by
all
any
basis for
T at each
it
end.
subtends
an angle A0, equal to As/r, at the center O, and each force has a
Thus
component equal
= Am
27"sin(A0/2)
Putting sin(A0/2)
7"A0
^ Am
r
i.e.,
T ~ Am
or
7" A.?
Let us
o2
Am
now
(716)
Am
is
A,
If the
we have
Am = pAAs
'We
shall
assume
gible strength.
209
The
negli
Eq. (715), we
CM7)
T = 4trV<
Now,
from
lirrn
an cxperimental
it is
rod of a given
if
that a
hoop of
the kind
above which
ratc of rotation,
it
will burst.
We
have, in fact,
1/2
Wmox
iw
(718)
and
The
ultimate strength
its
is
is
N/m 2
about 10
hoop of radius 1 ft
about 7600 kg/m 3
steel
density of steel
rpm much
faster
However, the
up to a
shall
an object
now
is
motion opposed by
a resistive force,
but has
an object
is
and so on.
its
pulled along a
in
Typical of such
moving
a funetion of
must be written
as follows:
F 
= m
R(o)
As we saw
in fact nearly
that
Chaptcr
=
Usili;
5,
independent of
we can put
R(c)
210
in
(719)
const.
Newton's
la
is
Resistive
force
Fig.
717
(o) Dric
Driving force
Driving force
mg and resistive
RW
Frictional force
by dryfric
(b) Dricing
and
object resisted
ff
an
by
"m
fluid friction.
(b)
(a)
MHHHnfflBH
MBBHHBHBimiHHi
The
Eqs. (71).
situation
is
o,
as
by the
relation
In this case,
the force
force
is
= Ac
R(c)
(720)
we consider an
if
,
Bv 2
object starting out
FJm,
is
from
rest
under
it
is
because as soon
exposed, in
its
m
dt
Fq
Av
One must be
Bu
(721)
A, B, and v are
what
careful to consider
all
taken to be positive.
is
reversed.)
The
is
not at
all
awkward
solution to an
to
plunge into
stead, this
211
is
all
are
now
We
do not intend
a suitable
Motion against
Wc
differential equation.
moment
In
resistive forces
proximate numerical
methods in
have a good
some
method
in
Chapter
it.
First,
We
outlined
however,
let
we
us consider
with slope
2.
As c
/m.
increases,
There
is
(Fig. 718).
foree.
It is
seeted
by a horizontal
Algebraically,
717(b)].
it
is
equal to
is
inter
[see Fig.
equation
Ao  F =
B v*
(What
is
and why
is
it
to be
discarded?)
is
approached (and
in principle
if
and
it is
Fig.
718
ccrtainly
lo terminal
Asymplolic approach
speed for object in a
fluid resislice
212
medium.
traveling under zero net force. This basic dynamical fact tends to
motion once
it
is
the large
In order to see
(721)]
works
feature
in
their
dependence on the
Fig. 719).
that
we have
A = C\r
B = C 2 r'2
and thus
R(v)
C\ro
+ C2'V
(722)
become equal
at a critical
Vc
(723)
c 2r
We know
picture if v
Fig.
719
Bv 2 /Av
(a) Linear
a small
object, with
viscous resistance
predominant.
(b) Similar
graphfor
predominates at
a/l
213
v),
dominate the
but we know
much
>
in excess of vc (say v
If the resistive
medium
10uc ) the
the
is air,
ci
c2
Thus,
if
0.87
10 4
3.1
kg/m
kgm
sec
_1
we have
expressed in meters,
is
...
3.6
v c (m/sec)
10~ 4
,, ...
(724)
is
in free fail
problems of practical
(we
interest
shall consider
in
resisting
^
di
The
F  B
(725)
resistive term,
Bv 2
is
motion of
putting dv/dt
tional force,
radius
in
we
if
The
:s
pr
c 2r
4(2.5
is
2
)
Bu, 2
10
(10"
2 3
)
for
an object of
in the
10" 2 kg
The value of
this size is
about 10
the coef
4
kg/m.
equation
find
Vi
Under
214
by
B (=
F 
:!
we
set
value of
ficient
mg.
of water,
This
30 m/sec
fail, this
speed would
be attained
about 150
We
appreciably
significant
than these.
Iess
problems of
meets
become quite
sistance
ized
in a
ft.
free fail
within
under
re
many
of the ideal
in his first
now
Let us
to handle the
Given a computer,
these problems.
it is
almost as
full
it
is
little
trouble
form.
We
and
will
in
A/,
of Af. In the simplest approach, we assume that the acceleration during each small interval remains constant at the value
(n)
Thus, for an
is
The
end
At
initial
is
set
of this interval
thus given by
Using
ci
2 At
02
At:
m Cl
tfo
given by
is
We know
this
we
Applying
aoA/
this velocity,
ai
F Jm).
(=
equal to a
velocity Vi at the
first
vi
fli
At
that the
first
The
calculated values
x +i
215
vAt
Fig.
720
(d) Basis
ofsimple ealculation
of acceleration versus
time for objecl start
ingfrom
resistive
resi
n a
medium.
The acceleration
is
{b)lmproved
interval.
=
=
=
x\
X2
X3
ro A/
(clearly
x\
oi
X2
CiAt
At
an underestimate)
vi At
would be the
result
of
n.
more
is
1)
At
is set
Fig. 721
(a) Veloc
on
velocities at the
Improved graph
based on velocities
evaluated at midpoints of the time
intervals.
216
J)
At.
v n +i
a n+ i /2 A/
*+l
Vn+i /2 &l
This looks
fine,
but
(726)
of the
first interval,
were able to
and a
Fig.
722
(a)
.)
start
We are
Com
parison ofidealized
(resistanceless)
and
aclual dependence
of
of
radius l cm.
(b) Idealized
and
by such a pebble.
217
initial
conditions v
little,
although we
are
still Ieft
V112
vn 2 from
What we do
is
the equation
(727)
o z
and then we are under way. Figures 720(b) and 721 (b) show
what this method means in terms of graphs of a and v against
time.
of speed and distance with time for our 1cmradius pebble falling
in air,
frcefall
for comparison.
we
such as particlcs of dust, then, in contrast to the situations discussed above, the resistance
is
due almost
of radius
v.
If,
m (= 10
we con
for cxample,
6
and Bo
bccome equal,
is
alone,
writtcn, without
and
Av
controlled by viscous
any appreciable
form:
*
m di mFo Ao
(728)
with
A =
c\r
air.
known, the
resistive
driving foree
foree
is
it
at v
218
electric
Fig.
723
experiment.
In order to apply
electric forces to
Two
by
of a battery.
'
The force on a
q anywhere be
given by
where
is
particle of charge
(729)
is
If
is
and d
is
is
measured in coulombs,
Thus
a dynamic balance
cathoderay oscilloscope,
p.
up between this
force Av, we should have
were
set
qj=
a
The
Ad,
if
and the
resistive
ciru,
droplets
of various sizes.
195.)
are
for
his experiments were the smallest (partially because they had the
own
weight).
were so
no
direct
their
size.
between the
Fo =
plates.
mg =
Under
these conditions
y pr g
where p
is
speed of
fail
voltage
we have
under gravity
is
kg/m 3 ). The
terminal
then given by
Millikan himself used plates about 20 cm across and 1 cm apart and several
thousand volts. Most modern versions of the apparatus use smaller values
of all three quantities.
219
Motion governed by
viscosity
4jt
y pr g =
(Gravitational)
cirDB
(730)
Putting r
f
10
lju
4
i?
10
m/sec
0
10 r 2
find
(u in m/sec,
(
m)
in
m, we have
0.1
mm/sec
we
It
term Bo 2
is
motions as
(It is clear,
sistive
is
utterly negligible.)
stability
of this system,
it
up.
Conversely,
motion of a
if it
If
little,
air,
being
If
a net
is
it is
there
behavior would
made up
of individual
homogeneous
fluid.
In
some
is
and sign
will
if
we measure
velocity in both
is
velocities
magnitude
mg + *r cm,
where
motion of
(731)
and q is the net charge on the drop (positive or negative). Although in principle the terminal velocity is approached but never
quite reached (see Fig. 718), the small droplets under the conditions of the Millikan experimcnt do, in effect, reach this speed
much
less
than
msec
in
most cases
220
Using Ncwton's
lavv
'
for
many
which to puli
it
up or down
its electric
at will.
charge as a handle by
The
tained.
crucial observation
was that
in
set
of sharp and
comes
itself
in discrete units.
obtained the
first
elementary charge.
You
method
on a charged
principle be possible to hang such
measure the
electric
force exerted
would in
on a balance and measure the force in a
However, in practice, when only a few
static arrangement.
elementary charges are involved, the forces are extremely weak
and such a method is not feasible. For example, the force on a
After
particle.
an
all, it
electrified particle
cm
charge of 10 elementary
between them,
is
units,
between plates
13
N,
only about 10~
resistive fluid
medium
What happens
value.
We can
rises asymptotically
if
is
suddenly removed?
speed
is
If the initial
sistance alone
and
=
m
dt
is
governed by a
is set
special, simplified
re
form of
equal to zero:
Av
(732)
or
do
=
dt
where a
'For his
at)
= A/m.
own
full
see R. A. Millikan,
221
in a
Series),
Chicago, 1963.
rcsisted
motion
Fig.
724
Growth
ofa parlicle
controlled by a vis
cous
resistiue force
proportional to v.
You may
equation of
not,
is
recognizc Eq.
all
you may
how
this
Whether you do or
like to see
number
1)A/
proportional to the
is
mean
n At and
interval:
Au =
Solving
t;
v n+ i
we have
this,
+i
*~"\2) At
+ a Al/2
aAt/2 _
where/is a constant
ratio, less
and putting k =
1
fO
o(t)
t/At,
we
(= k
Al)
is
If the
given by
thus get
aAr/2\
a At/l)
l/Ai
we
made shorter and shorter, and their
number correspondingly greater. To simplify the discussion, we
We
shall
now
shall put
aAt =
222
The quantity
approach
is
oi/=
Besides substituting
u(l),
we
we
shall
allow to
infinity.
exponent t/At by
its
equivalent
Thus we have
quantity, azt.
/l
\/2z\
a"
\TTtj2z)
\i r i/^z/
i.e.,
o (0
tfO/>
where
As z
increases, the
made
is
number p
larger
and
clearly ap
is
TABLE 71
Decimal value of p
y(z)
0/3)'
0.3333
(3/5)
0.3600
(5/7)3
0.3644
(7/9)*
0.3659
(9/1 l) 5
0.3667
(19/21)'
0.3676
10
this value is
famous number
0.367879
and
is
the
(= 2.71828
.), which forms
or Napierian logarithms. Thus in Eq. (732)
e
we can put
lim p(z)
0.367879
1
e
Z*X
223
v(i):
v(t)
The
reciprocal of
v e~'
(734)
in
Eq. (734)
resisteci
is
molion
We can
m_
ar
air,
for
t,
the ex
is
express this in
terminal velocity of
much more
fail
vivid terms
under gravity, vg
by introducing
the
we have
mg
"'w
It
(735)
Thus t
is
a velocity equal
free fail.
this
under conditions of
/j.,
For example,
v(t)
and put
v
voe'
we take
if
falls
ir
(736)
becomes
less
than 10
4
toward
its
terminal velocity
is o,
v(l)
If
oAl
t v
u(0
the approach to
is
it,
In
under these
described by
 e" T )
(737)
this in the
form
lir
(
explicitly
how
closely the
224
of
AIR RESISTANCE
When
projectile
made
It
a great contribution
may
be worth pointing
down
of ordinary
size.
is
At a given
instant let
the horizontal,
its
velocity v be directed at
as shown." The
gravitational force, F,
and a
object
an angle
above
is
of magnitude
m ^= R z
= Bo 2 cose
at
dCy
= mg
m^
Since v cos 6
vz ,
_ 2
Bu
and v
n
sin 6
sin 6
vu ,
we can
=
do*
\
 la
{BojOm
m = mg dt
(flOPy
velocity
is
a)
ferent
Fig.
725
partiele
225
The
larger
this cross
the magnitude of v,
Resistive
moving
in
the
total
motion of a
falling
really
dif
cannot
a vertical plane.
to the horizontal
component.
who
Recognition of
this fact
may
be
there
is
same
horizontally at the
The
first?
Which one
is
fired off
fast horizontal
it in
will
is
demonstrably
false,
isn't
Notice that
Moral: Beware of
if
the resistance
is
facile idealizations.
may depend
critically
on
of a mass
to
its
confined to the
F(x)
all
dynamical problems
that
is
by a force proportional
the motion is assumed to be
axis
If
we have
= kx
(7
~38)
would normally
rest at a position in
226
is
neither
into play
in either direction is
The constant k
is
by a
then well
(a)
726
Fig.
(a)
horizontal surface.
(b)
vertical
(c)
'
from
this equilibrium
of
its
new
The
mg) propor
ya).
mass
we
shall just
He
first
later
it
227
was!
d\
Rewriting
(739)
this as
we
d x
dfi
k/m
recognize that
Denoting
dfi
We can
is
this
by w
2
,
our
is
2
.
becomes
= W X
(740)
i(
di \<//^
i)
in a small interval
of time At
2
  CO X
and so
(f)~ w! xM
This
is
defined
Fig.
727
Chapter
3).
Displace
motion.
228
(741)
originally
Suppose, to be
x = x
and v
Then
727.
(=
at time
xo
i>o
 w 2 A;oAr
x
rfx
we
that
specific,
dx/di)
both
with
shown
in Fig.
out at
start
positive, as
A/ we have
f o Ar
As
long as x
we go from
if
dx/dt
2.
to
negative
is
The
graph has
Using
as
more
change of dx/dt
it
gets smaller;
proportional to x.
is
The
it
becomes
less
and as x
x becomes
negative, dx/dt
these considerations,
a curve that
positive
is
a straight line.
As soon
negative or
\idx/dt
becomes almost
3.
is,
Several
A/. That
it
rate of
its
is
Using
less.
on.
we can
is
axis), necessarily
(i.e.,
the
Now
x = A
where
is
sin(af
the
^o)
maximum
value attained by
Testing this
fit
(time)
the value of
trial function
1
at
0.
/:
= aA
cos(atf
at
+ <^o)
.2
= 2 =
at
We see
a = w.
229
oc
sin(a/
<f>o)
fit,
final result:
= A
x(t )
Equation (742a)
what
is
1/2
(742a)
harmonic
called a
is
what
is
The
oscillator.
is
ip
w =
is
equation of motion
this
at
where
constant
ay
+ *?o)
sin(w/
The
instant.
is
0).
result represented
by Eq. (742a)
= A
cos(at
<p'
/:
(742b)
<p'
This form of the
some purposes.
is
is
for
characterized by
its
period, T, which
end of which
T is
readily obtained
Eqs. (742) by noting that each time the phase angle (at
tpi
2vr
ip
cycle of variation.
<pi
x and
from
+
o>(/i +
uti
</>o
T)
vo
Therefore, by subtraction,
2w = 10T
or
'
/'
(r)
!(!)'
The form of
and
if
more
result
this
knowledge that
if
the spring
is
(743)
madc
stiffcr (largcr
more
slowly,
rapid.
Example.
a fixed point.
When
a mass of 2 kg
is
is
stretched by 3 cm.
What
is
the period
230
we
The
gravitational
force
on the mass
of
extension
is
9.8
m; therefore,
we then have
0.03
N.
19.6
= 653 N/m.
19.6/0.03
1/2
""
'*(&)
(You might
like to
= 35!sec
note that
cm when a
mass
Any
will
certain
is
this
hung on
it
same mass.
Why?)
We
initial
x.
position,
we
initial
A and
A and
<p
>n
Eq (742).
<po
and v we
as follows:
Eq. (742a),
= A sin(co/ +
=
we
phase. If
From
as the
Most commonly we
and the initial
x
= wA
^
dt
ifio)
cos(o>/
+ *>o)
(744)
Therefore,
xo
Vq
= A sin v>o
= o>A cos v>o
It follows that
1/2
'k+(?)T
tan^o =
oixo
oo
231
More about
(745)
geometrical representation of
There
is
basic connection
very
Imagine that
728(a).
peg
will
way of
SHM.
u about a
angular speed
that a peg
SHM
vertical axis
mounted on
is
Then,
if
the disk
through
its
center.
Suppose
shown
in Fig.
to ut
<pq.
SOP
in Fig.
as
it
travels
728(c)
is
around the
is
equal
seen as the
circle.
The
peg has a velocity v that changes direction but always has the
magnitude u A.
(744).
728
Fig.
a uniformly
disk.
(a)
Thus
Resolving v parallel to
the
Peg on
rotating
(b) Displace
Detailed relation
of circular motion
to
simple harmonic
motion.
232
Ox
sponds
along the
Dynamical
performing
SHM
axis.
relation
between
motion of a harmonic
oscillator
may
be.
particle of
A by means
v,
mass
is
of a string attached
If the particle
given by
mv
T=
~A
Now
and the
acceleration,
total acceleration at
any instant
doing
Fig.
729
this,
because
and
a,
Dynamical
relationship between
and
circular motion
linear
harmonic
motion.
233
More about
nitudes.)
mu
cos e
Fx =  T cos e =
ax
cos 8
motion with
SHM, we
uA.
We
Fx and
ax
putting v
and
then have
Fx  mco 2 Acosd = mw 2x
ax = u 2 Acos8 = u 2 x
The
first
was our
exactly to
d x
Thus we
every respect.
dynamical correspondence
It tells us,
is
complete in
if
we wished,
go the other way and treat a uniform circular motion as a superposition of two simple harmonic motions at right angles. This
is, in fact, an extremely important and useful procedure in some
contexts, although
we
it
up here
and now.
PROBLEMS
71
Two
identical gliders,
speed and
tow rope
is 7"o.
A and B immediately
234
What
Two
72
on a horizontal
table.
M as shown.
to block
blocks, of masses
and the
There
m =
2 kg, are
F =
in
contact
is
applied
be
block
first
kg and
is
73
mass
sled of
is
surface of snow.
It
Draw an
on
at angle 8
The
isolation
W exerted on
diagram showing
all
the sled.
F = ma
(b)
horizontal and
vertical
the
for
(c)
terms of P,
6,
m,
n,
and
g.
(d)
in
the
biggest acceleration.
74
it
is
mi
block of mass
on a
rests
eyelet, to a
mi
that rests
on
a frictionless incline
Draw
(a)
tion of
and write
the equa
(b)
(c)
in the string
jt/2,
pected results.
75
In the figure,
F acts on
(a)
it
is
An
external force
as indicated.
and lefthand
and the
tensions.
(b)
What
relation
among
the motions of m.
M, and P
is
pro
Use
the
above
results
and
F.
Check
make
simplified situations.
A man
move without
235
Problems
is
raising himsclf
frietion,
tilting effects
of the platform.
Assume g = 10m/sec 2
(a) What are the tensions
.
(b)
Draw
draw a separate
isolation
What
clearly indicate
all
direction.
its
is
and C?
man and
in the ropes A, B,
on
the
man
by the
platform ?
77
is
balanced by the
masses 3mo and 2mo, which are connected by a string over a pulley
of negligible mass and prevented from moving by the string
the figure).
e.g.,
if
the string
is
(see
suddenly severed,
"S
5i
3i
2m
78
prisoner in
jail
He
down
rope to a hook outside his window; the bottom end of the rope hangs
If the
the least velocity with which he can reach the ground, starting from
79
(a)
length by
means of a
force
is
fric
F pulling
it
its
an expression
mass
is
Assuming
the mass of the rope to be w, calculate the tension for the horizontal
and
vertical cases.
236
07
K
o
momentarily
Wilh
zerc.
the voltage
if
on
equal to 2.449
10
Hz
(1
Hz =
equal to
at a frequency
cycle/sec), Kirchner
found that
when
Under
these
(K
was
set at
1735 V.
to
one
(b)
(c)
way between
the front
and
is
to have
rear axles. It
How
known
when
is
the car
its
driven
up
a 20 incline.
is
child sleds
10
ft.)
down a snowy
hillside, starting
from
rest.
The
The
hill
child starts 50
the ride.
713
beam
parallel plates, 3
mm
apart and 2
It is
cm when 100 V
if
long.
cm
Vo on
the electron
gun?
What must
(Show
first,
be
in
237
is that
Problem s
used on p. 197.)
714
ball
known
It is
of mass
is
made
table, is
/.
The
ball,
supported by a frictionless
775
cm
mass of 100 g
is
long.
circle
Draw a
(a)
mass
You
716
all
on the
for
in a horizontal direction,
Red Baron
is
just 300
ft
with
stand only 4 g's of acceleration before blacking out, whereas you can
withstand 5
down
g's,
You
dive straight
Assume
comes
is
constant after you start to puli out and that the acceleration you
experience in the are
will follow
is
Since
5 g's.
you know
that the
Red Baron
you, you are assured he will black out and crash. Assuming
initial
point (but with initial speeds given above), to what altitude must
Assuming
must
a poor shot
down,
in trying to follow
will
and must
ft
that the
recall reading
if
on your plane?
717
curve of 300
of 25 m/sec
is
55
mph)
What
(b)
The
radius
on a
level
Red Baron
you
your subsequent
road
is
Is
at this speed.
bank ?
tires and road can provide a maximum
tangential force equal to 0.4 of the force normal to the road surface.
What is the highest speed at which the car can takc this curve without
is
the angle of
frietion
between
skidding?
718
238
large
mass
M hangs
(stationary) at the
end of a
string that
passes through a
a circular
from m to the top end of the tube
in
Write
down
the
must
dynamical equations that apply to each mass and show that
v2
Consider
whether
time
of
2ir(lm/gM)
orbit
in
a
complete one
.
there
is
any
719
model rocket
restriction
rests
motion.
on a
/
in this
and is
moves
/.
The string will break if its
The rocket engine provides a thrust F of
The
constant magnitude along the rocket's direction of motion.
in
from
rcst at
0, at
what
(b)
What was
(c)
What
/ 1 is
the rocket
acceleration at time
when
later time
720
It
equator
is
about 0.3
or 3
10
5
MKS
(at.
With
units (Nsec/Cm).
(i.e.,
orbit
lead
721
1.6
atom have
to be accelerated to give
form of a
it
239
Problems
singly ionized
The maximum
is
speed ?
in the
frictional
equal to a fraction n of
wali.
to avoid slipping
down?
(b)
At what angle
(c)
If
to the horizontal
(<p)
must he be inclined?
m,
is
at
the
cyclist
air.
valid over a
It is
R(c)
4rJ
3.1
10
0.87/V
N, r
is in
in
1%
determined within
by the
first
term alone
R(v)l
(b)
determined within
(c)
were no
If there
rest before
723
An
paratus.
oil
experiment
The
mm
When
is
radii,
mm
is
made 1100 V
is its
net charge,
1.6
plates un
from one
line to
10" 19 C.)
What voltage would hold
fail
What
What
is
With the
apart.
deduccd
724
Assume
charges? (e
(c)
(b)
mm.
from
apart.
kg/m 3
two horizontal
(a)
fail
is
plates are 8
charged, a droplet
distance.
it
the other.
air resistance,
[Use the
in part (b)].
Two
R and
equal charges q.
The
in
Iarger sphere
is
resistive force
i>o
and
on a sphere of radius
vi, the
vo (down
lm (upward).
r at
As
speed o
is
725 Analyze
in
240
Using Ncwion's
lavv
Do you
ground.
about
inside) of
cm
7500
kg/m 3 .)
airfilled toy
0.5 g.
of an
it
727
is
What
(b)
The
(c)
and
the 2kg
What
0.
cm
When
is
cm and
table.
then
is
is
with a speed of
what would be
728
a mass of 2 kg
spring
I f,
x =
is
cm when
is
released at
x,
extended by 10
(a)
The mass
off at
pression
the
the equation of
mass
is
doubled
motion?
diagram
in
//.
What
is
AH
diagram (b)?
(a),
shown
individual springs
are identical.
729
Any
submerged
in a fluid,
rn: _L
n
2m
cylinder of density p
length
/ is
floating with
its
is
buoyed
uniform
axis vertical, in a
730
(a)
and
fluid.
(a)
(b)
at
when
731
is
of length
SHM
L and
under
is
that the
mass
in
mass
is
attached
motion of amplitude
A and
is
period T.
vertical,
is
what
is
horizontal,
is
string
a distance
is
The
constant tension T.
deseribes
is p.,
what
is
the
value of
and the
the
maximum
coefficient of frietion
maximum
value of
that
200 kg give
it
How
far
passengers, each of
241
Problems
mass 75
(b)
The
road whcn
2
in.
it
car with
its
passengers
is
Assume
in.
before the
body of the car begins to movc upward. In the ensuing rebound, are
the passengers thrown clear of their seats? Consider the maximum
acceleration of the resulting simple
242
harmonic motion.
in
we must,
in
and all
likewise
in like
manner towards
conseauence of this
rule, universally
moon
of mutual gravitation.
newton,
Principia (1686)
Universal gravitation
we have
built
it is
first
to establish.
in
In a
now
consider, as a topic
splendid example of
its
We
and displacements.
own
shall
and most
how
and
historically
study of motions.
It is
convcnient,
The
sense that
the law of force that governs the motion of objects near the
earth's surface
is
Newton was
The proof
that
the
true planetary
law of
force.
orbits,
which are
explained by an inversesquare
we
fully,
245
Newton himself
had
originally
to)
how
which
is
close to
its
surface.
We
shall present
Chapter
in
is
11,
where
discussed.
this special
The
third
is
something that we
shall not
go into
how
motions of the
and Saturn
By
this
we mean
enough span
We
known.
same
position in
uses.
Let us
more
The
first
thing to recognize
is
that,
to a
all
depends
now look
it
is
the
From
approximation, as a small
whose
That
for these
two
of the epicycle [Fig. 81 (a)] to travel once around the deferent
i.e., the same time that it takes the sun
is exactly 1 solar year
The planets Mercury and Venus never get far from the
sun. They are always found within a limited angular range from
the line joining the earth to the sun (about 22J for Mercury,
2.
246
Universal gravitation
of
.'/.'(
Venus always
earlh.
range
$m
angular
of the
sun's direction.
(6) Heliocentric
picture
of the same
situation.
46
for Venus).
Both of these
for if
we go over
We
8 l(b)].
circle
own
orbit
this
accounted
we can proceed
to
may
make
orbit of the
be).
Given
quantitative in
This
Thus
we
maximum
equation
sin
(rB
The radius of
>
(8la)
r)
is
mea
suring other astronom ical distances, and has long been used
for this purpose:
1
astronomical unit
(AU)
mean
(1.496
247
The
we
then have
distance
from earth
X 10" m)
to sun
For Mercury:
For Venus:
When
it
sin 225
sin 46
AU
0.72 AU
0.38
linked to the sun's position; they progress through the full 360
with respect to the earthsun line. This can be readily explained
if
we interchange
epicycle
sun.
is
now
is
taken to be the
and the
is
now
Thus
0m
of the epicycle
is
^=sin
(rB
<
(81 b)
r)
in
which the
(8la).
roles
of
and
1,
and
6, respectively.
These would
esc 6
For Mars:
For
Jupiter:
For Saturn:
esc 11
AU
5.2 AU
9.5 AU
1.5
Thus with the Copernican seheme (and this was its great triumph)
construct
it became possible to use the longestablished data to
Fig.
82
(a)
Motions
from
The
angle 8 m here
charaeterizes the
magnitude of the
retrograde (epicyclic)
motion.
(6) Helio
centric picture
same
of the
situation.
248
Universal gravitation
Fig.
83
Universe
according lo
Copernicus.
(Reproduced from
his hisloric work,
De
Revolutionibus.)
a picture
distance
historic
his
too,
1400 years before him) were actually far too good to permit a
simple picture of the planets describing circular paths at constant speed around a
common
center.
was
offset
Thus Copernicus
how
carried
this
problem, but
shall
this,
not discuss
as
its
when he recognized
compIexities.
PLANETARY PERIODS
The problem of determining
249
Planctary pcriods
'
Fig.
&4
(a) Relative
posilions
the
of the sun,
earth, and Jupiter
Et
at the beginning
fr
Comparable
gram for
earth,
dia
*
E,
//
V/ 1
\
and Venus,
>
v,
(b)
(a)
^^HBH BI
ifit is to be visible.
is
our earth.
in
some
is
the
which the sun, the earth, and another planet return, after
same positions relative to one
The length of
another.
in question.
this
is
known
as the
the sun.
Consider
Jupiter.
first
lie
in a
The
straight line.
the celestial
and
is
Ei and J t of the earth and Jupiter, the next one will oecur rather
ycar later, when the earth has gained one whole
more than
revolution on Jupiter. This is shown by the positions E 2 and J2
1
6.
observer
250
Universal gravitation
figurations
by the symbol
in general
r.
we have
unit time,
Hr
rtjr
But n E and
Te and Tj
tij
and solving
we have
Tj we have
this for
Tj =
(82a)
 i.
Te /t
Tb/t
Putting
two con
is
365/399
0.915,
we
we
is
little different.
naked eye, see these planets when they are in line with the sun,
because it would rcquire looking directly toward the sun to do
We
so.
can
easily get
ES and EV
Venus as a morning
tions
star,
around
this
Thus
it is
Venus
251
Tb/t
Planetary periods
hr or so
The same
This
In this
we now have
1
east.
instead of the
ngt
about
from west to
TE /r
Putting
7V
365/583
0.627,
we
find that
^224 days
is
diagram (Fig. 83) and are repeated in his text: Saturn, 30 yr;
Jupiter, 12yr; Mars, 2yr; Venus, 9 months; Mercury, 80 days.
The worst
(9
cases are
Mars
(2 yr instead of
7$).
about
i)
and Venus
was
Perhaps he was
careless about quoting the periods because his real interest was
in the
The
any event,
is
most part,
for the
quoted. This
ican
and
the
is
differ
significantly
lists
TABLE 81:
AU
Sidereal period
Modern
Planet
Copernicus
Modern
Mercury
Venus
0.376
0.3871
115.88
87.97 days
87.97 days
0.719
0.7233
538.92
224.70 days
Earth
1.000
1.0000
224.70 days
365.26 days
365.26 days
Mars
1.520
1.5237
779.04
1.882 yr
1.881 yr
Jupiter
5.219
5.2028
398.96
11.87 yr
11.862 yr
Saturn
9.174
9.5389
378.09
29.44 yr
29.457 yr
tical
Copernicus
Copernicus
own
b.c.
up to
252
Universal gravitation
This
is
displayed
Fig.
85
Smooth
of the planets.
The
first
In
was
it
first
believed
the
World.
was dreaming
it is
absolutely certain
TABLE
82:
Radius r of
of planet,
orbit
Period T,
/T2 ,
Planet
AU
Mercury
Venus
0.389
87.77
7.64
0.724
224.70
7.52
Earth
1.000
365.25
7.50
Mars
1.524
686.98
7.50
Jupiter
5.200
4,332.62
7.49
Saturn
9.510
10,759.20
7.43
days
(AU)'i /(dayy2
10"
shows the data used by Kepler and a test of the near constaney
2
of the ratio r 3 /T
Figure 86 is a different presentation of the
.
show
T~
This
is
this relationship:
r3 ' 2
known
(83)
253
!HBHnaHMMngHBmHHnHmaHgnBMjfl
Fig.
86
Loglog
plot of planetary
period
T versus
radius
r,
orbit
using data
guoted by Copernicus.
T is proporlional
to
in the Prologue)
concerning the
elliptical
planets.
third law
had
to
it is
possible
if
we
the center.
It
254
2itr
Universal gravitation
is
at work.
known
quantities, r
and
T,
we have
4
==
ar
From Newton's
=ma
From
we
law, then,
on a mass
= *&
we have
the relation
Y=K
(86)
K might
applies to
all
(85)
where
in
must be given by
circular orbit
Fr
(84)
it
(86)
gives us
= 
Fr
The
(87)
implication
of Kepler's third
in
planet
proportional to
is
its
inertial
its
is
mass
therefore,
Huygens
when
on a
law,
analyzed
all
Newton's
appear to have
the planetary
in
in
terms of his
the
naturalseeming of
all
conceivable effects
something
spreading
gets
weaker according
The
required
an inversesquare relationship.
to
by Eq.
appreciated the
(87),
full significance.
mean
object just as
Newton
it is
is
to the
must
of the attracting
Each object is
concerned. Hence
one
is
255
must be expressed
famous
the
in
Gmxm2
F_ _
where
(8 _ g)
is
matter of determining
the
in
led
We
m, and
we
shall discuss
his greatest
It is
an old
as a
young man of
story,
still
23,
is
there
is
much more
striking
way of looking
discussing.
structed
an
intellectual
at
moon
it
the familiar
describing an ap
To this extent it is
we have just been
and the
latter
phenomenon
his garden.
that
it
moon was
away than any other falling object in our experience. But perhaps t was all part of the same pattern.
As Newton himself described it, he began in 1665 or 1666
to think of the earth's gravity as extending out to the moon's
orbit, with an inversesquare relationship already suggested by
so
much
farther
'
We
it
to the
any point A
in
its
In effect hc said
orbit (Fig. 87).
256
Universal gravitation
this:
moon, but
it is
own way
of dis
Imagine the
moon
Fig.
87
portion
ofa
y from the
ment
AB ( = x)
lltat
would be
would
the
AB, tangent
Instead,
it
moon
is
its
far the
moon
radial distance r
falls, in this
ft
is
AB as x, and
bit of analytic
the distance
sec,
BP
toward O, even
Let us caleulate
how
and compare
with
it
unehanged.
sense, in
to the orbit at A.
though
First,
If
fail in
that
geometry.
BP as y,
it
If
will
same time.
we denote the distance
be an exceedingly good
approximation to put
(89)
~2r
ON =
NP
result
= x
is
OP =
y)
x2 =
x
r2
= 2ry  y 2
Since
as a
AP (=
s) is
257
A B, we
*
(810)
The
distance to the
moon,
as
known
to
discussion
is given in Figs. 88 and 89 and the accompanying
everyone,
is that the
(pp. 259261). The final result, familiar to
r
(m
During
denote
sec)s
this
y>i
= 2ttX
3.8
2A x
same time
to identify
it,
it
falls
0*

in
10
1
m.
sec
it
_ 1000
WM m
1Q
we
will
>i7: ^lo
(ini sec)
=1 3X,0 ~ 3m

In other words, in
a distance of
mm,
indeed
or about 5V in.;
slight.
sec
is
On
projected
surface,
1
its
falls vertically
through
is
the
vertical
displacement
in
given by
y2 = yr = 4.9
Thus
'i
'O"''
Newton knew
moon's
orbit
was about
And
yet,
what an astounding
result.
Even granted an
inverse
258
Universal gravitation
is
attracted as
though
Newton
He
first
p.
earth's
One way
came
out, perfect
and
MOON
it all
radius
made 500 miles farther south at Syene (now the site of the
Aswan Dam) showed the sun to be exactly overhead at noon.
(In other words,
Cancer.)
It
follows at once
from these
angle of 7.2 or
Hcnce
_
Re ~
Re ~
4000 miles
500
or
Fig.
88
Basis of the
method useci by
Eratosthenes to find
the earth's radius.
When
the
midday sun
259
moon
g rad
AS,
at the
in
who
made observations
of Rhodes,
in
earth
radii
lived mostly
about 130
B.c.
on the island
from which he
and moon.
moon
Hipparchus measured
a.
that sun
and
at the earth.
1/103.5 rad); he
also
sun
We know
is
knowledge
in
(Fig. 89).
The shaded
plete
shadow;
its
moon by
boundary
lines
is
the earth
com
is in
PA and QB make an
angle a
coming
from the extreme edges of the sun. The moon passes through the
the
this passage
now do some
moon
geometry.
is
If the distance
PQ
AB 2RB  aD
89 Basis of the method used by Hipparchus tofind
moon's distance. The method depended on obseroing
Fig.
the arc
260
shadow of the
AB.
Universal gravitation
of the moon's
earth, as represented
from the
BA
is
very
diminished by the
amount aD:
the
itself.
by
AB ~
_
2.5a
AB
2.5aZ>
or
first
equation WC have
3.5aDi 2R F
,
or
D _
2
3.5o
Since a
Z)
5
Combining
of .Re
itself,
we have
236,000 miles
Modern methods
Refined triangulation techniques give a mean value of 3,422.6",
or 0.951, for the angle subtended at the
radius.
(Re
6378
km =
moon by
the earth's
earth's radius
3986 miles)
one obtains almost exactly 240,000 miles for the moon's mean
distance.
far surpassed
The
fiight
time of such signals (only about 2.5 sec for the roundtrip) can
be measured to a fraction of a microsecond, giving range determinations that are not only of unprecedcntcd accuracy but are
also effectively instantaneous.
his discovery
261
The
extcnding to the
discrepancy, resulting
earth's radius.
from
his use of
since
fail,
was
of
moon's
method discovered by
When Newton
first
more
in a
(In
Let us
Chapter
1 1
now
we
consider a
shall tackle
way of
it
again
sophisticated way.)
assume that the density of the material of the sphere may vary
with distance from the ccnter (as is the case for the earth, to a
very
We
is
the
same
at all points
Fig.
810
(a)
shells.
by treating
262
it
(b)
Universal gravitation
The
befound
The
total
is
the
by a
Thus
all
basic problem
masses.
we show
In Fig. 810(b)
a shell of mass
AP.
shell.
we
If
mass
M,
radius R, of
at a distance r
it
exerts
on
It is clear
the resultant force due to the whole shell must be along the line
near
will
we need
near A,
force transverse to
OP
due
to material
Thus
if
only consider
dM
its
shell to
m.
GmdM
s2
now
Let us
shaded
is
in the
diagram.
shown
It
and
and the same mean values of s and <p apply to every part of
Thus, if we calculate its mass, we can substitute this value
dM in
the belt
2irR
R dd
is
and
sin 6 dd.
mass of the
_. =
dM
belt
2TrR
OFr
263
The
task
now
circumference
is
is
..
sin
Now
the width of
sm6d6 M = M
is
4irR
2
;
its
area
hence the
d6
gives us
GMm
j
its
The area of
is given by
Our
as
is
it.
to
co s f
sin 9
dd
..
sum
,.
(olZ)
Ti
dFr
over the
whole of the
and
e.
shell, i.e.,
<p,
.?,
little
From
and
<p
in
,+ *cose = 
From
the
sin 6
first
n
dd =
,
uar
s.
By two
R2
~^T
sds
rR
we
+ s2 
=~
"* v
is
it
terms of two
<p
and
sin 6
dd in Eq. (812),
obtain
dFr
The
= " GMm
~4^R
total force
minimum
is
+ s2 
(r
R 2 )ds
found by integrating
value of
(=
R) to
its
this expression
maximum
from the
value (r
R).
Thus we have
d4^'f
"^ir

The
integral
is
just the
sum
r+B
f
/TR
we
2
2
"*"% _
2 J.
S*
R
ds
[(r
+ R)
(r
= 2R  (r R)
= 4R
264
Universal gravitation
R)]
 R _ r  R2\
\r+ R " r R J
_ (r
(r
R)
we have
we
have
Fr = 
(814)
What a wonderful
the radius
result!
It is
all.
It is
uniquely a
effect of
would
force law
no other
follows at once.
way
which the
in
density varies between the center and the surface (provided that
it
though
not matter
how
it is
in fact outside.
feet
is
to the surface
Take a moment to
is.
Ask yourself: Is
fiat
down?
It is
little
about as
far
own
between
satisfaction, the
grand connection
terrestrial
moon and
81
is
an
of having other
embraced the
satellites
possibility
at
illustration
World (which
transition
explicitly
is
from the
of short
of a
satellite
orbit at a distance r
265
Other
satellites
from
of the earth
The necessary
Fig.
811
Newlon's
normal
parabolic trajectories
to complete orbits
encircling the earth.
is
provided by gravitational
attraction:
= G Mnm
mv
r*
Mg
where
and
is
the
mass of
the earth,
the
mass of the
satellite,
(815)
.(T
often convenient to express this result in terms of
It is
familiar quantities.
object of
on
it,
by Eq.
F.
But
mass
We
(88), is
GMatn
Re 2
can be
set equal to
GMgm
mg =
2
Rs
or
GME
= gRE
266
more
Universal gravitation
we
get
mg
for the
mass
in
W
1/2
The
2xr _
2^/2
(816)
g ll2 R E
g =
Putting
by
9.8
m/sec 2
/?g
6.4
10 m,
we have
a nu
Tw
(Earth satellites)
where
T is
in seconds
For example, a
and
5.3
The
first
10 ;i sec
manmade
an orbit as shown
10~ 7 r 3/2
(817)
r in meters.
satellite
3.14
minimum
at
6.6
practicable altitude
10 m, and hence
90 min
satellite,
Sputnik
Its
distances from the earth's surface were initially 228 and 947
respectively, giving a
Fig.
812
satellite
(a) Orbit
mean value
of Sputnik
I,
manmade
the first
satellite
com
267
Othcr
satellites
of the earth
km,
With
this value of r,
on
that
satellites
such
its axis.
satellites will
and a
figure.
attaches to synchronous
set of three of
them,
in Eq. (817),
Putting
spots.
km
42,000
T=
day
Thus
or 26,000 miles.
must be about 22,000 miles above the earth's surabout 5 earth radii overhead. The first such satellite
such
satellites
face,
i. e.,
to be successfully launched
was Syncom
II in
July 1963.
satellite traveling in
a circular
mass of
about 100 kg
debris with a
direct
G,
This result
is
any object
THE VALUE OF
is strictly
proportional to
its
own
mass.
Although the
result expressed
it is
The
calculation that
we have
carried out
shows
mass m)
mass M. But now we can apply the result
a second time. Thus we arrive at Fig. 81 3(c),
and a point
of the
particle of
Iast section
r,
as a rigorously
The above
result is
268
important
in
Universal gravitation
in the analysis
Chapter
5, for
of the experi
Fig.
813
lion.
(a)
Two
treating
it
ofone
(b) Effect
spliere
as a poinl mass.
(M)
(c)
can be calculated by
gravitation constant. G,
spheres of
effect
known
masses.
is
so extremely weak,
is
it
usual
by only a
little
the radii.
It is
then a great
Some
determine
have
made
them
of the measurements to
to high precision.
explicit
The
G =
6.670
X 10" m 7kgsec 2
(818)
Principia, he
common
remarks
at
little
lower, in mines,
about
it
we denote
the
if it
mean
consisted
The
value of
G',
of water
269
all
on a
is
is
about
is
found
probable
may be
.
five
."
partiele of
by
9Mn
F=
(819)
R2
where
Hence
4*
F =
 (GpR)m
acceleration
is
in free fail,
we
also have
F = mg
It follows, then,
that
^GpR
g =
(820)
If in this cquation
we put g
9.8
m/sec 2
5000
R ~
to
6.37
10 m,
6000 kg/m 3 , we
find that
(6.7
0.6) X
10"
:,
/kgsec 2
Thus Newton's estimate was almost exactly on target. In practice, of course, the calculation is done the other way around.
Given the
directly
G [Eq. (818)] we suband (820) to find the mass and the mean
The result of these substitutions (with
determined value of
R =
6.37
5.97
=
=
10
m)
X
X
10
5.52
10
is
24
3
kg
kg/m 3
LOCAL VARIATIONS OF g
If
we take
F =
270
GMm
+ A)2
(R
Universal gravitaiion
is
on an object of mass
given by
at
If
we
identify
we have
tion,
For
F with m
/i
R,
this
(82,)
linear decrease
of g with height.
GM(.,h\
,,,
* 2~
\
h,
we have
gCA)w(lf)
= GM/R 2
where g
(822)
[Alternatively,
It is
GM
= ^T
Therefore,
ln
g =
const.
2 ln r
R, g
Differentiating,
As
k _ 2 Ar
r
g
Hence, putting
Ag
go,
and Ar =
h,
we have
^  2go 
to
Eq. (822).
Notice
how
this
method
271
e.g.,
the value of
fact
Local variations
ofg
lot
of unnecessary arithmetic in
some
to
lationship.]
He
height.
Hooke,
Robert
contcmporary,
Newton's
made
several
Not surprisingly, he was unable to find any difBy Eq. (822) one would have to ascend to a point
about 1000 ft above ground (e. g., the top of the Empire State
of deep wells.
ference.
As we
10,000.
shall
Superimposed on the systematic variations of the gravitaforce with height are the variations produced by in
tional
one
is
For example,
much lower
in density
value of
to be reduced.
small, can be
tool in geophysical
prospccting.
Almost
all
which a mass
gravity
and an
other words,
in
modern
is
in
it is
by a
spring.
as the instrument
is
change
methods or
In
electrically
is
de
capacitance,
displaccment.
To
is
changed by the
slight
7
or
Figure
less.
With
made
for effects
272
in these gravity
gal
cm/sec 2
surveys
is
\Q~* g
altitude,
in
ment
due to varying
(a)
Fig.
814
ofa
sensitiue
carries a pointer P.
control spring
S\ and a
made by
be oblained
Example
indicating
an ore
deposit.
D. S. Parasnis, Mining
273
(.b)
(After a survey
52
provided by a
is
ofa
main weight.
Local varialions of g
This
far
is
One can
appreciate
how
impressive this
is
by noting that a
8
(1 part in 10 ) corresponds to a change
about
cm
We
(Fig. 815).
how
law,
have seen,
the use of
in the diseussion
of Kepler's third
F = 
4tt
mr
/
Fr
is
Fr = 
GMm
r*
where
is
expressions,
the
these
4*y
(823)
GM
We may
Fig.
815
maled by a
sun at the
cemer.
274
two
Iniversal gravitation
commented on
in
con
What does
other planet.
M,
in
is
independent of the
matter
is
the
we have an equation
that
tells
some
if we
us the
*
<H4>
3
2
Kepler's third law expresses the fact that the value of r /T
The statement of
of r and
T for
either.
It is sufficient
to
know
is
this result
or,
the values
and period.
mass
of the sun from Eq. (824), however, the use of absolute values
We
essential.
days of antiquity.
to the sun
is,
known with
how
is
the length
mean
in this chapter,
The
The development of
this
is
summarized in
final result,
expressed as a
story,
which
Eq. (824), along with the other necessary quantities as folio ws:
r*** 1.50
TK ~
G =
We
3.17
6.67
XlO H m
X 10 7 sec
X 10" m 3 /kgsec 2
M m
2.0
10
30
kg
first
the great
made
third century
but
made
ineffectual
in principle
He knew
is
in
moon was
moon were
275
Sun
Earth
Fig.
816
(a)
moon.
(b) Triangutation
to find
SEM at half
melhod of cslablishing
the
scale
of Venus front
When
the
moon
differenl poinls
is
on
exactly half
Ihe earth.
full,
the angle
SME is 90.
If, in
this situation,
a ~ 3 ~ 55 rad and
measured angle is 9 and
judged
hcnce
/\s
20/\u.
Our
present knowledge
tells
may
be (and
is
is)
very great.
in the situation
hundred instead of
20.
by Kcpler, although
its full
exploitation
until
later.
Even so it at once becamc clear that the sun is
more distant than Aristachus had concluded. The basis of the
method is indicated in Fig. 816(b). It involves observations on
much
276
Universal gravitation
both planets
line joining
distance between
Now
radii.
earth,
When Mars
if
them
Mars
more
to the vastly
to the sun.
is
is
should appear
it
with respect
The
A and B
is closest to
it
is
S,
To measure
by
the earth's
this angle
one does
arc,
which
distance to
is
Mars
in this configuration
relatioe
(Table 81),
it
distance
was
at least
radii, i.e.,
80 million
An
miles.
Italian
astronomer,
involved what
is
known
as a transit of Venus,
disk, as seen
As
and
which the
Edmund
Halley, best
known
on
i.e.,
from the
Its
a passage of
earth.
it
apparent path,
earth.
for the
Figure
passes aeross
depend on
comet named
Flamsteed
in
Long
277
before
is
accurately
yield accurate
measures
can be used to
transit
one can use an analysis just like that for Mars. These transits
arc fairly rare, because the orbits of the earth and Venus are not
in the
same
would occur
then
in
them
in 1761
between about 8.5 and 9.0 seconds of arc, corresponding to a distance of between about 92 and 97 million miles. Thus
the currently accepted result was approached. (The best meadcfinitely
surements of
its
elosest
this
made on
to
E2
Jupiter
one of
is
Jupiter's
planet.
186,000 miles/sec in
deduce that the earth's orbital radius is equal to this speed times
about 480 sec, or about 90 million miles. (The caleulation was
originally donc just the other way around, by the Danish astron
Fig.
817
light.)
Measure
of Jupiter's moons
and
the apparent
of light
through space.
278
Universal gravitation
we must
still
however, we can
If
fact that
we ignore
make
this
use of the
rE
AU =
1.496
10 n
was the fundamental connection that he recognized beinertial mass of an object and the earth's gravitational
force on it a force roughly equal to the measured weight of the
object.
(Remember, we have defined weight as the magnitude
science
tween the
It
the earth
it
was
fail
just
a kinematic
fact.
have
by F =
ma,
F, =
It
But
If
objects near
Until
g.
Newton
Newton's law
an object
is
it
observed to
given
it
i.e.,
mg
(825)
the acceleration g
it is strictly
remarkable
same
the
is
is,
static
experiment.
a springlike device
and has, as
qg
appreciate
a torsion
the force
fiber.
One
it
finds a quantity,
with
which
This "charge"
inertial
purely
in a
by balancing
is
do with the
how
serateh to in
One measures
To
to
in terms of
significance.
all
mass, which
is
nothing at
stretehed springs).
One
all
all sorts
and so on.
It
by
of
then
charge
is
strictly
279
Is this just a
remarkable coincidence,
or does
this
it
may,
that gravitation
be equioalenI to acceleration.
in a sense,
Einstcin's
"postulate of equivalence,"
charge q
and the
inertial
mass
embodied
that
gravitational
own theory
when we
the
same
of gravitation as
We
shall
come back
reference.
We
of F to
in