Presentazione Innsbruck 2011 Handout

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Presentazione Innsbruck 2011 Handout

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Thermodynamical foundations

Conventional elastoplastic models for soils

Advanced topics: anisotropic hardening plasticity

Theory of Plasticity

Theoretical fundamentals and applications to soil mechanics

Claudio Tamagnini

Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile e Ambientale

University of Perugia

Innsbruck 11.03.2011

Theoretische Bodenmechanik

Claudio Tamagnini

Theory of Plasticity

Thermodynamical foundations

Conventional elastoplastic models for soils

Advanced topics: anisotropic hardening plasticity

Outline

1

Thermodynamical foundations

Fundamental assumptions

Constitutive equations in rate form

A simple 1d example

Phenomenological generalization: nonassociative behavior

Perfect plasticity

Isotropic hardening plasticity

Introduction and definitions

Experimental evidence of anisotropic behavior

Constitutive modeling of anisotropy

Anisotropic hardening plasticity for soils

Claudio Tamagnini

Theory of Plasticity

Thermodynamical foundations

Conventional elastoplastic models for soils

Advanced topics: anisotropic hardening plasticity

Granular materials exhibit very

complex responses under applied

loads, even under relatively simple

loading conditions.

Examples of axisymmetric loading:

isotropic compression:

a = p

r = p

1 = a

r = 0

a > r

r = const.

Claudio Tamagnini

Theory of Plasticity

Thermodynamical foundations

Conventional elastoplastic models for soils

Advanced topics: anisotropic hardening plasticity

p = (a + 2r )/3 = c

Claudio Tamagnini

v = a + 2r

Theory of Plasticity

Thermodynamical foundations

Conventional elastoplastic models for soils

Advanced topics: anisotropic hardening plasticity

p = (a + 2r )/3

q = a r

Claudio Tamagnini

Theory of Plasticity

r = c = const.

Thermodynamical foundations

Conventional elastoplastic models for soils

Advanced topics: anisotropic hardening plasticity

qf = M p f

Claudio Tamagnini

Theory of Plasticity

Thermodynamical foundations

Conventional elastoplastic models for soils

Advanced topics: anisotropic hardening plasticity

The main features of the observed response nonlinearity, irreversibility,

pathdependence must be described by any constitutive equation which

aims at providing accurate predictions of the soil response under applied

loads.

Constitutive equations do not represent universal laws of nature, but

rather they define idealized materials (costitutive models).

When available, constitutive models can be used to predict soil behavior

under any possible circumstance, starting from the limited knowledge

gathered from a few experimental observations.

The quality of predictions depends crucially on the ability of defining a

suitable idealization for the real materials, for the class of loading paths

of practical interest.

Claudio Tamagnini

Theory of Plasticity

Thermodynamical foundations

Conventional elastoplastic models for soils

Advanced topics: anisotropic hardening plasticity

To incorporate the observed nonlinearity and pathdependence in a

global stressstrain relation, nonlinear and nondifferentiable functional

must be used (Owen & Williams 1969).

Therefore, rather than in global terms, constitutive equations are usually

defined in rate form:

O

= F (, q, d) |{z}

= C(, q, dir d) d

rateind.

where:

O

d := sym( v): rate of deformation tensor;

q: additional set of state variables (internal variables), taking into

account the effects of the previous loading history.

Claudio Tamagnini

Theory of Plasticity

Thermodynamical foundations

Conventional elastoplastic models for soils

Advanced topics: anisotropic hardening plasticity

provide a rational framework within which formulate the constitutive

equations in rate form, taking into account:

the existence of a well defined limit to admissible stress states in

stress space;

the flowing character of the deformation rates in ultimate failure

states, with strain rate depending on current stress rather than

stress rate.

Claudio Tamagnini

Theory of Plasticity

Thermodynamical foundations

Conventional elastoplastic models for soils

Advanced topics: anisotropic hardening plasticity

The foundations of the classical theory of plasticity can be traced back to

the fundamental works of Hill (1950) and Koiter (1960).

A thorough treatment of this subject can be found, e.g., in the treatises

by Lubliner (1990), Simo & Hughes (1997), Simo (1998), Han & Reddy

(1998), Lubarda (2001), Houlsby & Puzrin (2006).

For applications to soil mechanics, good references are Desai &

Siriwardane (1984), Zienkiewicz et al. (1999), Houlsby & Puzrin (2006),

Nova (2010).

The application of plasticity concepts such as failure criterion and flow

rule to soil mechanics are as early as the works of Coulomb (1773) and

Rankine (1853), referring to the problem of evaluating the earth pressure

on retaining structures. These concepts still form the basis of limit

equilibrium and limit analysis methods, widely used in current practice.

Claudio Tamagnini

Theory of Plasticity

Thermodynamical foundations

Conventional elastoplastic models for soils

Advanced topics: anisotropic hardening plasticity

Fundamental assumptions

Constitutive equations in rate form

A simple 1d example

Phenomenological generalization: nonassociative behavior

In the following, it is assumed that displacements and rotations are

sufficiently small that the reference and current configurations can be

considered almost coincident (small strain assumption).

The material behavior is assumed to be rateindependent (non viscous).

Under such hypotheses, the CE in rate form reduces to:

= C(, q, dir )

where:

: Cauchy stress rate tensor;

: infinitesimal strain rate tensor.

= sym( u)

Claudio Tamagnini

Theory of Plasticity

Thermodynamical foundations

Conventional elastoplastic models for soils

Advanced topics: anisotropic hardening plasticity

Fundamental assumptions

Constitutive equations in rate form

A simple 1d example

Phenomenological generalization: nonassociative behavior

an elastic (reversible) and a plastic (irreversible) part:

= e + p

In terms of rates, this yields:

= e + p

Claudio Tamagnini

Theory of Plasticity

Thermodynamical foundations

Conventional elastoplastic models for soils

Advanced topics: anisotropic hardening plasticity

Fundamental assumptions

Constitutive equations in rate form

A simple 1d example

Phenomenological generalization: nonassociative behavior

We postulate the existence of a free energy density function (per unit

volume):

= (e , )

where = strainlike internal variable.

The ClausiusDuhem inequality thus reads:

D := + 0

D :=

e

+ 0

e

Claudio Tamagnini

Theory of Plasticity

Thermodynamical foundations

Conventional elastoplastic models for soils

Advanced topics: anisotropic hardening plasticity

Constitutive equations in rate form

A simple 1d example

Phenomenological generalization: nonassociative behavior

Introducing the strain decomposition into the CD inequality:

+ 0

p

e

and, rearranging:

e

!

: +

p

0

e

For non dissipative processes ( = 0,

Therefore:

any possible choice of .

=

Claudio Tamagnini

e

Theory of Plasticity

Thermodynamical foundations

Conventional elastoplastic models for soils

Advanced topics: anisotropic hardening plasticity

Constitutive equations in rate form

A simple 1d example

Phenomenological generalization: nonassociative behavior

q=

ClausiusDuhem inequality yields the following reduced dissipation

inequality:

0

D := p + q

Claudio Tamagnini

Theory of Plasticity

Thermodynamical foundations

Conventional elastoplastic models for soils

Advanced topics: anisotropic hardening plasticity

Constitutive equations in rate form

A simple 1d example

Phenomenological generalization: nonassociative behavior

Let the state of the material be described by the generalized stress:

= (, q)

Irreversibility of the material response is brought in by requiring that the

state of the material belongs to the convex set:

n

o

E = Sym Rnint f () 0

For fixed q, the set E represents the region of admissible states in stress

space.

The interior int{E } is referred to as the elastic domain. The boundary:

n

o

E = Sym f (, q) = 0

is called the yield surface. The yield surface is convex in stress space.

Claudio Tamagnini

Theory of Plasticity

Thermodynamical foundations

Conventional elastoplastic models for soils

Advanced topics: anisotropic hardening plasticity

Constitutive equations in rate form

A simple 1d example

Phenomenological generalization: nonassociative behavior

Claudio Tamagnini

Theory of Plasticity

Thermodynamical foundations

Conventional elastoplastic models for soils

Advanced topics: anisotropic hardening plasticity

Constitutive equations in rate form

A simple 1d example

Phenomenological generalization: nonassociative behavior

Let the quantities:

p := ( p , )

E p := (p , )

From the definitions of generalized stresses and strains, the RDE reduces

to:

p

=E

D := p + q

Principle of maximum dissipation. In plastic loading conditions, for a

given generalized plastic strain rate, the actual state of the material is

the one, among all admissible states, for which plastic dissipation D

attain its maximum, i.e.:

n

o

p ) = E p = max D( , E

p)

D(, E

Claudio Tamagnini

Theory of Plasticity

Thermodynamical foundations

Conventional elastoplastic models for soils

Advanced topics: anisotropic hardening plasticity

Constitutive equations in rate form

A simple 1d example

Phenomenological generalization: nonassociative behavior

According to a standard result in optimization theory, the actual state is

the stationary point of the following unconstrained Lagrangian:

p

+ f ()

L (, )

= E

subject to the following Kuhn-Tucker optimality conditions:

0

f () 0

f () = 0

The stationary point of L are found by setting to zero its first variation

w/r to :

L

p + f

= E

which yields:

p = f

E

Claudio Tamagnini

Theory of Plasticity

Thermodynamical foundations

Conventional elastoplastic models for soils

Advanced topics: anisotropic hardening plasticity

Constitutive equations in rate form

A simple 1d example

Phenomenological generalization: nonassociative behavior

Associative flow rule:

p =

f

q

0 , f (, q) 0 , f (, q) = 0

Claudio Tamagnini

Theory of Plasticity

Thermodynamical foundations

Conventional elastoplastic models for soils

Advanced topics: anisotropic hardening plasticity

Constitutive equations in rate form

A simple 1d example

Phenomenological generalization: nonassociative behavior

p = f

E

0 ,

f () 0 ,

f () = 0

flow may take place only if the current state is on the yield surface.

p is normal to the yield

The generalized plastic flow direction E

surface. Therefore the flow rule and the hardening law are said to be

associative (alternatively, the material is said to obey to the

normality rule).

Claudio Tamagnini

Theory of Plasticity

Thermodynamical foundations

Conventional elastoplastic models for soils

Advanced topics: anisotropic hardening plasticity

Constitutive equations in rate form

A simple 1d example

Phenomenological generalization: nonassociative behavior

Due to hardening, the yield surface can change in size, shape and

position in stress space.

Isotropic hardening/softening

Claudio Tamagnini

Theory of Plasticity

Thermodynamical foundations

Conventional elastoplastic models for soils

Advanced topics: anisotropic hardening plasticity

Constitutive equations in rate form

A simple 1d example

Phenomenological generalization: nonassociative behavior

Kinematic hardening

When no internal variables are present, the yield surface remains fixed in

stress space. The material is defined perfectly plastic.

Claudio Tamagnini

Theory of Plasticity

Thermodynamical foundations

Conventional elastoplastic models for soils

Advanced topics: anisotropic hardening plasticity

Constitutive equations in rate form

A simple 1d example

Phenomenological generalization: nonassociative behavior

Max dissipation requires that:

E

p0

( ) E

This is possible only if the yield surface is convex and the plastic flow is

associative.

Claudio Tamagnini

Theory of Plasticity

Thermodynamical foundations

Conventional elastoplastic models for soils

Advanced topics: anisotropic hardening plasticity

Constitutive equations in rate form

A simple 1d example

Phenomenological generalization: nonassociative behavior

The KT complementarity conditions are not sufficient to determine

whether plastic flow will actually occur or not for a given stress state on

the yield surface.

the plastic multiplier is obtained by prescribing that, upon plastic loading,

the stress state must remain on the yield surface.

Claudio Tamagnini

Theory of Plasticity

Thermodynamical foundations

Conventional elastoplastic models for soils

Advanced topics: anisotropic hardening plasticity

Constitutive equations in rate form

A simple 1d example

Phenomenological generalization: nonassociative behavior

Mathematically, the consistency condition requires that, if plastic loading

is occurring:

f

f

f

=

+

q = 0

f =

q

The quantities and q can be obtained from the hyperelastic CEs and

the flow rule:

2

f

= e

= Ce

Ce := e

e

q=

q = H

f

q

H :=

2

(cont.)

Claudio Tamagnini

Theory of Plasticity

Thermodynamical foundations

Conventional elastoplastic models for soils

Advanced topics: anisotropic hardening plasticity

Constitutive equations in rate form

A simple 1d example

Phenomenological generalization: nonassociative behavior

Substituting:

f

f

+

q

f =

q

f

f

f

f

=

Ce

H

=0

q

q

which yields:

f

f

f

f

Ce

+

H

q

q

=

f

Ce

(cont.)

Claudio Tamagnini

Theory of Plasticity

Thermodynamical foundations

Conventional elastoplastic models for soils

Advanced topics: anisotropic hardening plasticity

Constitutive equations in rate form

A simple 1d example

Phenomenological generalization: nonassociative behavior

Solving for ,

we have:

=

1 f

Ce

Kp

where:

Kp :=

f

f

f

f

f

f

Ce

+

H

=

Ce

+ Hp

q

q

Constitutive assumption:

Kp > 0

Claudio Tamagnini

Theory of Plasticity

Thermodynamical foundations

Conventional elastoplastic models for soils

Advanced topics: anisotropic hardening plasticity

Constitutive equations in rate form

A simple 1d example

Phenomenological generalization: nonassociative behavior

Plastic modulus

The quantity:

Hp :=

f

f

H

q

q

When Hp > 0 the material is hardening (the elastic domain

expands).

When Hp < 0 the material is softening (the elastic domain shrinks).

For Hp = 0, the material is in a perfectly plastic condition (the

elastic domain remains stationary).

Limit to allowable softening:

Kp > 0

Hp :=

Claudio Tamagnini

f

f

f

f

H

>

Ce

q

q

Theory of Plasticity

Thermodynamical foundations

Conventional elastoplastic models for soils

Advanced topics: anisotropic hardening plasticity

Constitutive equations in rate form

A simple 1d example

Phenomenological generalization: nonassociative behavior

Loading/Unloading conditions

The plastic multiplier cannot be negative. Therefore, from the previous

expression we distinguish 3 possible cases:

f

Ce = 0 neutral loading process, = 0

Hence:

=

1

Kp

Claudio Tamagnini

f

Ce

Theory of Plasticity

Thermodynamical foundations

Conventional elastoplastic models for soils

Advanced topics: anisotropic hardening plasticity

Constitutive equations in rate form

A simple 1d example

Phenomenological generalization: nonassociative behavior

Let:

tr = Ce

Claudio Tamagnini

Theory of Plasticity

1

Kp

f

tr

Thermodynamical foundations

Conventional elastoplastic models for soils

Advanced topics: anisotropic hardening plasticity

Constitutive equations in rate form

A simple 1d example

Phenomenological generalization: nonassociative behavior

Example: 1d plasticity

We assume an uncoupled, quadratic form:

1

1

= e C e e + H

2

2

Thus:

=

= C e e

e

Claudio Tamagnini

q=

= H

Theory of Plasticity

Thermodynamical foundations

Conventional elastoplastic models for soils

Advanced topics: anisotropic hardening plasticity

Constitutive equations in rate form

A simple 1d example

Phenomenological generalization: nonassociative behavior

Example: 1d plasticity

Yield function:

f (, q) = || (Y + q) = 0

Claudio Tamagnini

Theory of Plasticity

Thermodynamical foundations

Conventional elastoplastic models for soils

Advanced topics: anisotropic hardening plasticity

Constitutive equations in rate form

A simple 1d example

Phenomenological generalization: nonassociative behavior

Example: 1d plasticity

Flow rule and hardening law:

p =

f

= sgn()

f

=

q

Plastic multiplier:

Kp =

1

=

Kp

f

f

f e f

C

+

H

= Ce + H

q

q

f e

C

Claudio Tamagnini

Ce

hsgn() i

Ce + H

Theory of Plasticity

Thermodynamical foundations

Conventional elastoplastic models for soils

Advanced topics: anisotropic hardening plasticity

Constitutive equations in rate form

A simple 1d example

Phenomenological generalization: nonassociative behavior

Example: 1d plasticity

For sgn() > 0 (plastic processes):

= C e ( p )

f

= C e C e

e

1

f

f e

C H

= C e e

Ce

, C =

C +H

Ce + H

Claudio Tamagnini

Theory of Plasticity

Thermodynamical foundations

Conventional elastoplastic models for soils

Advanced topics: anisotropic hardening plasticity

Constitutive equations in rate form

A simple 1d example

Phenomenological generalization: nonassociative behavior

Example: 1d plasticity

= C e

1

Ce + H

Ce

Claudio Tamagnini

e

f e

C H

, C =

Ce + H

Theory of Plasticity

Thermodynamical foundations

Conventional elastoplastic models for soils

Advanced topics: anisotropic hardening plasticity

Constitutive equations in rate form

A simple 1d example

Phenomenological generalization: nonassociative behavior

There exists a scalar function g(, q) (plastic potential), such that:

p =

Claudio Tamagnini

Theory of Plasticity

Thermodynamical foundations

Conventional elastoplastic models for soils

Advanced topics: anisotropic hardening plasticity

Constitutive equations in rate form

A simple 1d example

Phenomenological generalization: nonassociative behavior

There exists a pseudovector h(, q) Rnint (hardening function) such

that:

q = h (, q)

=

1

p

K

f

Ce

where:

p := f Ce g f h > 0

K

q

p := f h

H

q

Claudio Tamagnini

Theory of Plasticity

Thermodynamical foundations

Conventional elastoplastic models for soils

Advanced topics: anisotropic hardening plasticity

Perfect plasticity

Isotropic hardening plasticity

f () = dev() dev() k 2 = 0

Claudio Tamagnini

Theory of Plasticity

Thermodynamical foundations

Conventional elastoplastic models for soils

Advanced topics: anisotropic hardening plasticity

Perfect plasticity

Isotropic hardening plasticity

f (, n ) = c |n | tan = 0

f (1 , 3 ) = (1 3 ) 2c cos (1 + 3 ) sin = 0

Claudio Tamagnini

Theory of Plasticity

Thermodynamical foundations

Conventional elastoplastic models for soils

Advanced topics: anisotropic hardening plasticity

Perfect plasticity

Isotropic hardening plasticity

Elasticperfectly plastic models are a rather crude idealization of the

actual behavior of geomaterials.

Nonetheless, they are still among the most widely used constitutive

models in the FE analysis of practical geotechnical problems, especially in

situations where site characterization is problematic.

Claudio Tamagnini

Theory of Plasticity

Thermodynamical foundations

Conventional elastoplastic models for soils

Advanced topics: anisotropic hardening plasticity

Perfect plasticity

Isotropic hardening plasticity

A radical change in perspective in the application of plasticity to soil

mechanics occurred after the work of Roscoe and the Cambridge group,

leading to the socalled Critical State Soil Mechanics.

In the language of plasticity, CS models are isotropic hardening models

with associative flow rule and nonassociative volumetric hardening:

the internal variables reduce to just one scalar quantity;

yield function and plastic potential coincide;

its evolution depends only on volumetric plastic strain rate.

Consequence: at failure conditions, the material flows at constant

stress and constant volume. Such conditions are called Critical States.

Claudio Tamagnini

Theory of Plasticity

Thermodynamical foundations

Conventional elastoplastic models for soils

Advanced topics: anisotropic hardening plasticity

Perfect plasticity

Isotropic hardening plasticity

Ref.: Roscoe & Burland (1968). Suitable for soft to mediumstiff

finegrained soils.

Nonlinear elastic behavior

p =

p e

v

s = 2G e e

where:

s = dev()

e e = dev(e )

Claudio Tamagnini

Theory of Plasticity

Thermodynamical foundations

Conventional elastoplastic models for soils

Advanced topics: anisotropic hardening plasticity

Perfect plasticity

Isotropic hardening plasticity

Yield surface and plastic potential

f (p, q, , ps ) = p(p ps ) +

f

= 2p ps

p

q

M ()

f

= 2q/M 2

q

Claudio Tamagnini

Theory of Plasticity

2

=0

f

= p 0

ps

Thermodynamical foundations

Conventional elastoplastic models for soils

Advanced topics: anisotropic hardening plasticity

Perfect plasticity

Isotropic hardening plasticity

Volumetric hardening law

Derived from exptl. observations on isotropic compression of clays.

Virgin compression line (VCL)

v = v0 + log

p

p0

Unloading/reloading line

(URL)

v = v0 + log

p

p0

v =

ps

;

ps

ev =

ps

ps

(cont.)

Claudio Tamagnini

Theory of Plasticity

Thermodynamical foundations

Conventional elastoplastic models for soils

Advanced topics: anisotropic hardening plasticity

Perfect plasticity

Isotropic hardening plasticity

Volumetric hardening law

Derived from exptl. observations on isotropic compression of clays.

For the loading cycle ABA:

v =

ps

;

ps

ev =

ps

ps

Subtracting:

pv = ( )

ps

ps

ps

pv

ps

f

=

p

ps =

(cont.)

Claudio Tamagnini

Theory of Plasticity

Thermodynamical foundations

Conventional elastoplastic models for soils

Advanced topics: anisotropic hardening plasticity

Perfect plasticity

Isotropic hardening plasticity

Volumetric hardening law

Derived from exptl. observations on isotropic compression of clays.

Nonassociative hardening

law:

ps = hs (p, q, , ps )

Comparing with the expression

derived for ps we obtain:

hs =

Claudio Tamagnini

Theory of Plasticity

f

ps

p

Thermodynamical foundations

Conventional elastoplastic models for soils

Advanced topics: anisotropic hardening plasticity

Perfect plasticity

Isotropic hardening plasticity

Plastic modulus

1

p = f hs =

H

pps (2p ps )

ps

Claudio Tamagnini

Theory of Plasticity

Thermodynamical foundations

Conventional elastoplastic models for soils

Advanced topics: anisotropic hardening plasticity

Perfect plasticity

Isotropic hardening plasticity

A refined version of MCC: the RMP model (De Simone & T, 2005).

Simulation of TX-CD tests on a pyroclastic soil.

Claudio Tamagnini

Theory of Plasticity

Thermodynamical foundations

Conventional elastoplastic models for soils

Advanced topics: anisotropic hardening plasticity

Perfect plasticity

Isotropic hardening plasticity

the development of Critical State soil mechanics marks the transition

between classical and modern soil mechanics (a change of paradigm!).

In spite of their limitations, CS models are capable of reproducing

qualitatively, and, in most cases quantitatively, the main features of the

inelastic response of granular materials:

irreversibility;

pressure dependence;

dilatant/contractant behavior;

brittle/ductile transition with increasing confining stress.

Claudio Tamagnini

Theory of Plasticity

Thermodynamical foundations

Conventional elastoplastic models for soils

Advanced topics: anisotropic hardening plasticity

Perfect plasticity

Isotropic hardening plasticity

simple mathematical structure;

limited number of material constants, easily linked to the observed

response in standard laboratory tests;

limited pool of internal variables (in most cases just one), of scalar

nature: easy definition of initial conditions.

Claudio Tamagnini

Theory of Plasticity

Thermodynamical foundations

Conventional elastoplastic models for soils

Advanced topics: anisotropic hardening plasticity

Experimental evidence of anisotropic behavior

Constitutive modeling of anisotropy

Anisotropic hardening plasticity for soils

Anisotropy in geomaterials

Almost all geomaterials are characterized to a certain extent by the

existence of some preferential orientations at the microstructural level.

Claudio Tamagnini

Theory of Plasticity

Thermodynamical foundations

Conventional elastoplastic models for soils

Advanced topics: anisotropic hardening plasticity

Experimental evidence of anisotropic behavior

Constitutive modeling of anisotropy

Anisotropic hardening plasticity for soils

Anisotropy in geomaterials

These preferential orientations can be due to the geological processes

which led to the formation of the deposit, or be the result of particle

rearrangements induced by the applied engineering loads.

In some cases, the existence of particular symmetries at the

microstructural level is apparent (i.e., bedding planes).

In other situations, the detection of preferential directions requires the

definition of suitable (statistical) indicators which quantify the geometry

of grains and the directional properties of their interaction.

For example, in granular materials, such preferential orientation can be

associated to the spatial distribution of intergranular contact normals,

grain shape and void shape (Oda et al. 1985).

Claudio Tamagnini

Theory of Plasticity

Thermodynamical foundations

Conventional elastoplastic models for soils

Advanced topics: anisotropic hardening plasticity

Experimental evidence of anisotropic behavior

Constitutive modeling of anisotropy

Anisotropic hardening plasticity for soils

Anisotropy in geomaterials

As a consequence of the directional properties of the microstructure, the

phenomenological response of geomaterials may be characterized by a

more or less marked anisotropy:

strength) depends on the relative orientation of the applied load w.r. to

the microstructure.

Claudio Tamagnini

Theory of Plasticity

Thermodynamical foundations

Conventional elastoplastic models for soils

Advanced topics: anisotropic hardening plasticity

Experimental evidence of anisotropic behavior

Constitutive modeling of anisotropy

Anisotropic hardening plasticity for soils

According to Casagrande & Carillo (1944), two different kind of

anisotropic behavior can be distinguished:

a) inherent anisotropy: [...] a physical characteristic inherent in the

material and entirely independent of the applied strains.

b) induced anisotropy: [...] a physical characteristic due exclusively to

the strain associated with the applied stress.

Some Authors tend to identify inherent anisotropy as the result of the

geological processes which led to the formation of the deposit, and of the

geometrical properties of the solid grains (e.g., Wong & Arthur 1985).

The above distinction is somewhat arbitrary, as the possibility of altering

the microstructural properties of a granular material (or a rock) do

depend on the intensity of the applied load.

Claudio Tamagnini

Theory of Plasticity

Thermodynamical foundations

Conventional elastoplastic models for soils

Advanced topics: anisotropic hardening plasticity

Experimental evidence of anisotropic behavior

Constitutive modeling of anisotropy

Anisotropic hardening plasticity for soils

An interesting series of experimental data has been obtained in a number

of Directional Shear tests on dense sand performed by Wong & Arthur

(1985).

Claudio Tamagnini

Theory of Plasticity

Thermodynamical foundations

Conventional elastoplastic models for soils

Advanced topics: anisotropic hardening plasticity

Experimental evidence of anisotropic behavior

Constitutive modeling of anisotropy

Anisotropic hardening plasticity for soils

Anisotropy due to bedding (inherent anisotropy)

plane strain compression with different orientations of the principal directions

w.r. to the bedding plane (after Wong & Arthur 1985).

The angle is the inclination between the bedding plane and the max principal

stress direction.

Claudio Tamagnini

Theory of Plasticity

Thermodynamical foundations

Conventional elastoplastic models for soils

Advanced topics: anisotropic hardening plasticity

Experimental evidence of anisotropic behavior

Constitutive modeling of anisotropy

Anisotropic hardening plasticity for soils

Anisotropy due to previous loading history (induced anisotropy)

with the bedding plane coincident with the plane of deformation.

and unloading up to 1 = 3 ; B) plane strain compression with fixed principal

directions, oriented differently from those of stage A.

Claudio Tamagnini

Theory of Plasticity

Thermodynamical foundations

Conventional elastoplastic models for soils

Advanced topics: anisotropic hardening plasticity

Experimental evidence of anisotropic behavior

Constitutive modeling of anisotropy

Anisotropic hardening plasticity for soils

Stresspath controlled TX tests on dense Aio Sand (Yasufuku et al. 1991).

Claudio Tamagnini

Theory of Plasticity

Thermodynamical foundations

Conventional elastoplastic models for soils

Advanced topics: anisotropic hardening plasticity

Experimental evidence of anisotropic behavior

Constitutive modeling of anisotropy

Anisotropic hardening plasticity for soils

Stresspath controlled TX tests on Pisa clay (Callisto & Calabresi 1998).

Claudio Tamagnini

Theory of Plasticity

Thermodynamical foundations

Conventional elastoplastic models for soils

Advanced topics: anisotropic hardening plasticity

Experimental evidence of anisotropic behavior

Constitutive modeling of anisotropy

Anisotropic hardening plasticity for soils

General principles

Ref.: Boehler (1987).

Consider a general CE of the form:

= F (d, )

in which:

= Cauchy stress

d = applied load (either e or p )

= structure tensor

This can represent an elastic CE, in which case d e , or a flow rule, in

which case d p .

Claudio Tamagnini

Theory of Plasticity

Thermodynamical foundations

Conventional elastoplastic models for soils

Advanced topics: anisotropic hardening plasticity

Experimental evidence of anisotropic behavior

Constitutive modeling of anisotropy

Anisotropic hardening plasticity for soils

properties of the microstructure which are responsible for the anisotropy.

The symmetries of the structure tensor coincide with those of the

microstructure.

The principle of Material Frame Indifference requires that:

F (QdQT , QQT ) = QF (d, ) QT

Q O

However, this does not mean that F describes an isotropic mechanical

response!

Claudio Tamagnini

Theory of Plasticity

Thermodynamical foundations

Conventional elastoplastic models for soils

Advanced topics: anisotropic hardening plasticity

Experimental evidence of anisotropic behavior

Constitutive modeling of anisotropy

Anisotropic hardening plasticity for soils

Isotropy

A material is isotropic if no changes in the response occur for a given

load, upon an arbitrary transformation of the microstructure:

F (d, QQT ) = F (d, )

Q O

= 1

F (QdQT ) = QF QT

load d.

Claudio Tamagnini

Theory of Plasticity

Thermodynamical foundations

Conventional elastoplastic models for soils

Advanced topics: anisotropic hardening plasticity

Experimental evidence of anisotropic behavior

Constitutive modeling of anisotropy

Anisotropic hardening plasticity for soils

Anisotropy: definition

A material is anisotropic if there exist a transformation of the

microstructure which affects the response to a given load:

Q O

response unchanged:

:= F (d, QQT ) = F (d, ) =

Q S

group on invariant transformations for the structure tensor.

Claudio Tamagnini

Theory of Plasticity

Thermodynamical foundations

Conventional elastoplastic models for soils

Advanced topics: anisotropic hardening plasticity

Experimental evidence of anisotropic behavior

Constitutive modeling of anisotropy

Anisotropic hardening plasticity for soils

General anisotropy:

S = {+1, 1}

Orthotropy:

Sorth = {+1, 1, S 1 , S 2 , S 3 }

Transverse isotropy:

Stras = {+1, 1, S 1 , S 2 , S 3 , R (0 2)}

where:

S 1 , S 2 , S 3 = reflections w.r. to the principal directions of d;

R (0 2) = rotation around the axis of anisotropy.

Claudio Tamagnini

Theory of Plasticity

Thermodynamical foundations

Conventional elastoplastic models for soils

Advanced topics: anisotropic hardening plasticity

Experimental evidence of anisotropic behavior

Constitutive modeling of anisotropy

Anisotropic hardening plasticity for soils

In the framework of the theory of plasticity, the description of anisotropy

requires the introduction of one or more structure tensors (or order 2)

as material parameters (inherent) or as internal variables (induced).

The structure tensors can affect:

the elastic behavior of the material;

the yield function and plastic potential.

Intrinsic anisotropy is typically described by assuming that the structure

tensors remains constant during plastic deformation.

Induced anisotropy is typically described by introducing in the set of

internal variables one or more symmetric second order tensors as structure

tensors, which control the position and the orientation of the yield locus.

Claudio Tamagnini

Theory of Plasticity

Thermodynamical foundations

Conventional elastoplastic models for soils

Advanced topics: anisotropic hardening plasticity

Experimental evidence of anisotropic behavior

Constitutive modeling of anisotropy

Anisotropic hardening plasticity for soils

Inherent anisotropy can be described by means of an approach first

proposed by Hill (1950). In this approach, the structure tensors are

employed as metric tensors in the construction of the invariants

appearing in the yield function and plastic potential.

Example. Model by Nova & Sacchi (1982) for transverse isotropic

materials, constructed starting from MCC model:

f (, k) := Z CZ 3k 2 = 0

Z :=

1

s + (p k) 1

0 0

0

0

0 0

0

0

1 0

0

0

C :=

(, , = const.)

0

0 0 0 2 0

0 0 0 0 2 0

0 0 0 0

0 2

Claudio Tamagnini

Theory of Plasticity

Thermodynamical foundations

Conventional elastoplastic models for soils

Advanced topics: anisotropic hardening plasticity

Experimental evidence of anisotropic behavior

Constitutive modeling of anisotropy

Anisotropic hardening plasticity for soils

Predictions of Nova & Sacchi (1985) model of experimental data on

diatomite by Allirot & Boehler (1979).

Claudio Tamagnini

Theory of Plasticity

Thermodynamical foundations

Conventional elastoplastic models for soils

Advanced topics: anisotropic hardening plasticity

Experimental evidence of anisotropic behavior

Constitutive modeling of anisotropy

Anisotropic hardening plasticity for soils

Induced anisotropy is typically described by incorporating a symmetric

second order tensor (structure tensor) in the set of internal variables.

This tensor controls the position and the orientation of the yield locus.

Most plasticity models for soils with anisotropic hardening can be

grouped in two broad classes:

a) kinematic hardening models, in which the yield surface can expand,

contract and translate in stress space, along the prescribed stress

path;

b) rotational hardening models, in which the yield surface can expand,

contract and rotate in stress space, being oriented by the stress path

direction.

Claudio Tamagnini

Theory of Plasticity

Thermodynamical foundations

Conventional elastoplastic models for soils

Advanced topics: anisotropic hardening plasticity

Experimental evidence of anisotropic behavior

Constitutive modeling of anisotropy

Anisotropic hardening plasticity for soils

Ref.: Mroz (1967); Iwan (1967).

qk ) = 0

f (, , qk ) = f(,

Claudio Tamagnini

:=

Theory of Plasticity

Thermodynamical foundations

Conventional elastoplastic models for soils

Advanced topics: anisotropic hardening plasticity

Experimental evidence of anisotropic behavior

Constitutive modeling of anisotropy

Anisotropic hardening plasticity for soils

Several KH models have been proposed for geomaterials since the late 70.

See, e.g., Prevost (1977, 1986); Mroz, Norris & Zienkiewicz (1978, 1979,

1981); Mroz & Pietruszczak (1983a,b); Hashiguchi (1980, 1981, 1985,

1988); Wood and coworkers (1989, 2000); Stallebrass & Taylor (1997)...

The main reason for their development stems from the need to improve

the description of cyclic behavior of soils. These model are quite effective

in modelling hysteresis and such phenomena as the so-called Bauschinger

effect.

KH models have also been advocated to reproduce the observed

non-linearity at small strain levels and the effects of recent stress history

on the stiffness decay with increasing strains (see Stallebrass 1990).

Claudio Tamagnini

Theory of Plasticity

Thermodynamical foundations

Conventional elastoplastic models for soils

Advanced topics: anisotropic hardening plasticity

Experimental evidence of anisotropic behavior

Constitutive modeling of anisotropy

Anisotropic hardening plasticity for soils

Ref.: Sekiguchi & Otha (1977); Ghaboussi & Momen (1982).

I a := a

f (, a , p0 ) = f (I a , J a , Z a , p0 )

(J a )2 := (1/2) sa sa

Z a := 6 tr (da )3 /[tr (da )2 ]3/2

sa :=

Ia a

da := dev (sa )

Claudio Tamagnini

Theory of Plasticity

a a = 3

Thermodynamical foundations

Conventional elastoplastic models for soils

Advanced topics: anisotropic hardening plasticity

Experimental evidence of anisotropic behavior

Constitutive modeling of anisotropy

Anisotropic hardening plasticity for soils

RH models can be subdivided in two main classes:

i) RH models with yield surfaces open towards the positive side of the

hydrostatic axis (conical YS). Best suited for sands, where plastic

volumetric strains are typically much smaller than deviatoric ones;

ii) RH models with closed YS, suitable for both coarse and

finegrained soils.

Among the RH models for geomaterials, we mention, e.g., Ghaboussi &

Momen (1982); Gajo & Wood (1999a,b); Anandarajah & Dafalias (1985,

1986); Banerjee and coworkers (1985,1986); Whittle and coworkers

(1994, 1999); di Prisco (1993a,b); Manzari & Dafalias (2004); Karstunen

and coworkers.

Claudio Tamagnini

Theory of Plasticity

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