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Stanford Rock Physics Laboratory - Gary Mavko

Basic Geophysical Concepts

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Stanford Rock Physics Laboratory - Gary Mavko

Body wave velocities have form:

K + (4 / 3)
=

VP =

+ 2

velocity= modulus
density

VS =

E
VE =

where

P wave velocity
S wave velocity
E wave velocity

density
bulk modulus = 1/compressibility
shear modulus
Lam's coefficient
Young's modulus
Poisson's ratio
P-wave modulus = K + (4/3)

Moduli from velocities:


2
S

2 4 2
K = VP VS

3
E = VE2

= V

M = VP2

In terms of Poisson's ratio we can also write:

VP2 2(1 v )
2 =
VS
(1 2v)

VE2 (1+ v )(1 2v)


VP2 2VS2 VE2 2VS2
v=
2 =
2
2 =
VP
(1 v)
2(VP VS )
2VS2

Relating various velocities:

VP2
3 2 4
VE2
VS
=
VP2
VS2
1
VS2

VE2
4 2
VP2
VS
=
VE2
VS2
3 2
VS

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Stanford Rock Physics Laboratory - Gary Mavko

We usually quantify Rock Physics relations in


terms of moduli and velocities, but in the field
we might look for travel time or Reflectivity

1V1
2V2
The reflection coefficient of a normally-incident Pwave on a boundary is given by:

2V2 1V1
R = V + V
2 2 1 1
where V is the acoustic impedance. Therefore,
anything that causes a large contrast in impedance
can cause a large reflection. Candidates include:
Changes in lithology
Changes in porosity
Changes in saturation
Diagenesis
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Stanford Rock Physics Laboratory - Gary Mavko

AVO
Amplitude Variation with Offset
1

V P1, VS1, 1
1

Deepwater Oil Sand


Reflected
S-wave

Reflected
P-wave

Incident
P-wave

Transmitted
P-wave
2
VP2, V S2, 2

2
Transmitted
S-wave

N.4

Recorded CMP Gather

Synthetic

In an isotropic medium, a wave that is incident on a


boundary will generally create two reflected waves (one
P and one S) and two transmitted waves. The total shear
traction acting on the boundary in medium 1 (due to the
summed effects of the incident an reflected waves) must
be equal to the total shear traction acting on the boundary in
medium 2 (due to the summed effects of the
transmitted waves). Also the displacement of a point in
medium 1 at the boundary must be equal to the displacement of a point in medium 2 at the boundary.

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Stanford Rock Physics Laboratory - Gary Mavko

AVO - Aki-Richards approximation:


P-wave reflectivity versus incident angle:
Intercept
Gradient
1 VP
VS2
VS 2
R( ) R0 +
2 2
+2
sin

2
V
V
V

P
P
S

1 VP
2
2
+
tan sin
2 VP

1 VP
R0
+
2 VP

In principle, AVO gives us information about


Vp, Vs, and density. These are critical for
optimal Rock Physics interpretation. Well
see later the unique role of P- and S-wave
information for separating lithology,
pressure, and saturation.

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Stanford Rock Physics Laboratory - Gary Mavko

Seismic Amplitudes
Many factors influence seismic amplitude:

Source coupling

Source radiation pattern

Receiver response, coupling, and pattern

Scattering and Intrinsic Attenuation

Sperical divergence

Focusing

Anisotropy

Statics, moveout, migration, decon, DMO

Angle of Incidence

Reflection coefficient
Source

Rcvr

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Stanford Rock Physics Laboratory - Gary Mavko

Intervals or Interfaces?
Crossplots or Wiggles?
Rock physics analysis is usually applied to intervals, where
we can find fairly universal relations of acoustic properties to
fluids, lithology, porosity, rock texture, etc.

Interval Vp vs. Phi


Interval Vp vs. Vs
In contrast, seismic wiggles depend on interval boundaries
and contrasts. This introduces countless variations in
geometry, wavelet, etc.

A
B

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Stanford Rock Physics Laboratory - Gary Mavko

Convolutional Model
Impedance
Reflectivity
vs. depth

Rock properties
in each small
layer

Normal Incidence
Seismic

Convolve
With
wavelet
Derivatives of
layer
properties

Smoothed image
of derivative of
impedance

Normal incidence reflection seismograms can be


approximated with the convolutional model. Reflectivity
sequence is approximately the derivative of the
impedance:

1 d
R(t)
ln( V )
2 dt

Seismic trace is smoothed with the wavelet:

S(t) w(t) R(t)


Be careful of US vs. European polarity conventions!
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Stanford Rock Physics Laboratory - Gary Mavko

Inversion
Two quantitative strategies to link interval
rock properties with seismic:
Forward modeling
Inversion
We have had great success in applying
rock physics to interval properties.
For the most part, applying RP directly to
the seismic wiggles, requires a modeling
or inversion step.
We often choose a model-based study,
calibrated to logs (when possible) to
Diagnose formation properties
Explore situations not seen in the wells
Quantify signatures and sensitivities

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Stanford Rock Physics Laboratory - Gary Mavko

The Rock Physics Bottleneck


At any point in the Earth, there are only 3
(possibly 4) acoustic properties: Vp, Vs,
density, (and Q).

No matter how many seismic


attributes we observe, inversions can
only give us three acoustic attributes
Others yield spatial or geometric information.

Seismic
Attributes
Traveltime
Vnmo
Vp/Vs
Ip,Is
Ro, G
AI, EI
Q
anisotropy
etc

Acoustic
Properties
Vp
Vs
Density
Q

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Reservoir
Properties
Porosity
Saturation
Pressure
Lithology
Pressure
Stress
Temp.
Etc.

Stanford Rock Physics Laboratory - Gary Mavko

Problem of Resolution
Log-scale rock physics may be different
than seismic scale

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Stanford Rock Physics Laboratory - Gary Mavko

Seismic properties (velocity, impedance,


Poisson Ratio, etc)
depend on pore pressure and stress
Units of Stress:
1 bar = 106 dyne/cm2 = 14.50 psi
10 bar = 1 MPa = 106 N/m2
1 Pa = 1 N/m2 = 1.45 10-4 psi = 10-5 bar
1000 kPa = 10 bar = 1 MPa
Stress always has units of force/area

Mudweight to Pressure Gradient


1 psi/ft = 144 lb/ft3
= 19.24 lb/gal
= 22.5 kPa/m
1 lb/gal = 0.052 psi/ft

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