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Interbed Multiple Attenuation

Interbed Multiple Attenuation

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M u l t SECTION:

i p l e a tMt ue lntui ap tl ie o an t t e n u a t i o n

Malcolm Griffiths, Jeshurun Hembd, and Herv Prigent, CGGVeritas

useful in attenuating a significant proportion of the highamplitude multiple content in seismic data. Although generally

sufficient for exploration purposes, there is growing recognition

that more complicated interbed multiples exist within the data

and that they may interfere with the interpretation of reservoirs

and other areas of interest. In this paper, we examine a datadriven method and a model-driven method for attenuating

internal multiples showing both synthetic and real-world

examples of their application.

Introduction

Interbed multiple contamination has been observed previously

during reservoir studies from the North Sea, Middle East, and

Asia Pacific regions, where shallow carbonates or volcanics generate strong reverberations. Frustrating to all parties, this noise

has, for a long time, been categorized as "too difficult" to address because it resists traditional multiple attenuation methods; the multiples and primaries have similar moveout reducing

the effectiveness of Radon-based methods, the multiples and

primaries have similar frequencies and amplitudes reducing the

effectiveness of predictive filtering, and the multiples and primaries have similar dips reducing the effectiveness of f-k filters,

tau-p demultiple, and migration methods implementing dipdiscrimination techniques during the imaging (for example,

controlled-beam migration).

The discovery of the Tupi/Lula Field, offshore Brazil, in

2006, and later discoveries of Jupiter, Sugarloaf, Iara, Azulao,

and Iracema have confirmed the potential for significant, presalt,

oil accumulations in the Santos Basin. One of the seismic imaging challenges in the basin, however, is the existence of high-amplitude interbed multiple contamination across the reservoir. An

example can be seen in Figure 1 which shows a migrated image.

Figure 2 shows near-offset data from a second line in the

Santos Basin. Note that the first surface-related multiple appears

well below the presalt target. Strong interbed multiples, however, contaminate the presalt primaries. The interbed multiples

are generated by a series of strong reflectors above the target.

The water bottom, top of Albian layer, top of salt, and layered

evaporites can all contribute toward generating strong interbed

multiples. The strongest of these multiples appear below syncline structures in the top of salt and layered evaporites, due to a

focusing effect that traps multiple energy in the minibasin (Pica

and Delmas, 2008). The migrated results, Figures 1 and 2b,

show the interbed multiples cross-cutting the reservoir. These

interfere with the interpretation of the base of salt event, the

reservoir, and the presalt faulting.

Following the advent of data-driven surface-related multiple

attenuation by Berkhout et al. (Berkhout and de Graaff, 1982;

Verschuur, 1991; Berkhout and Verschuur, 1998), many authors

have extended the data-driven concept to include interbed multiple attenuation. Many methods based on the work of Jakubowicz (1998) have appeared in the literature, for example Ikelle

936

August 2011

single-trace correlation or some combination thereof. Equivalent

model-driven methods also exist based on the same concept, notably from Pica and Delmas (2008). The concept has also been

converted to the inverse data space by Luo et al., (2007). The

implicit limitation of this method is that it predicts only internal multiples associated with a single horizon, typically defined

inside a single layer, predicting internal multiples from the surrounding reflectors that will cross this horizon along their path.

A second extension to the data-driven internal multiple attenuation methods, again pioneered by Berkhout et al., (Berkhout and Verschuur, 1997 and 1999; Berkhout, 1999), utilizes

common focal point transforms (CFP) to partially redatum

(receiver side) and fully redatum the input seismic to the level

of the multiple-generating horizon. The method is similar to

Jakubowiczs method in that it requires a two-trace convolution followed by a single-trace correlation and predicts only the

multiples associated with a single horizon or layer, but it also

requires two redatuming steps and the associated CFP operators.

Kelamis et al. (2002) and Alai et al. (2006) demonstrated this

method on land data highlighting the difficulty associated with

the estimation of the CFP operators.

Yet another method of internal multiple attenuation has

been pioneered by Weglein et al. (1997) using the inverse-scattering series. This method is again fully data-driven but has the

added benefit of being capable of predicting all interbed multiples in a single iteration, (Weglein et al., 2008). Depending

upon the implementation complexity, it is possible to predict

either an approximation to the internal multiples (leading term),

or through an infinite series, the exact internal multiple contribution, (Ramirez, 2008). This method has been previously demonstrated on marine data by Otnes et al. (2004) and on land

data by Fu et al. (2010).

With the exception of these inverse-scattering infinite series,

all these methods rely upon some form of adaptive subtraction

in order to attenuate the internal multiple. This has a plethora

of problems associated with it, foremost of which is potential

primary damage. None of these issues are covered in this papersee Abma et al. (2002) for a detailed analysis of adaptive

subtraction techniques.

This paper describes the application of two of the above

from the Santos Basin. (Courtesy of Petrobras)

M u l t i p l e

a t t e n u a t i o n

Figure 2. Interbed multiples in data from the Santos Basin. Note the

strong interbed multiples obscuring the presalt target in the nearoffset data (left). The first surface-related multiple appears at the

bottom of the figure, below the target. The Kirchhoff-migrated image

(right) shows that migration swings crossing the base of the target and

interfering with fault interpretation at the target. (From Hembd et al.,

2011)

the secondary sources created at stage 2. (From Pica and Delmas,

2008)

2008)

1.

Pica and Delmas 2008)

method derived from Jakubowicz, and the 3D model-driven

method from Pica. The focus is on the interbed multiple contamination at the reservoir level for various exploration interests within the Santos Basin, Brazil. The results, however, are

equally applicable to reservoir-level contamination observed in

the North Sea, Middle East, and Asia Pacific.

Methodology

Many factors influence the effectiveness of the various internal

multiple attenuation algorithms; geological complexity (multiple periodicity) and acquisition design (offset coverage and

spatial sampling) are two key factors. It is then not surprising

that the application of any algorithm should first consider the

input limitations.

The 3D data-driven method, following Jakubowicz, is illustrated in Figure 3. An arbitrary horizon is chosen at a point

deeper than the known multiple-generating horizon. The internal multiples predicted are then limited using various muting

methods but are always those having the first upward reflection

below the user-defined horizon, a downward reflection above

the user-defined horizon, and a final upward reflection below

the user-defined horizon. The prediction is given mathematically in Equation 1.

section. (From Pica and Delmas, 2008)

P212 = P2P1*P3

(1)

P1 refers to the wavefields from the surface to the multiple-generating horizons, P2 refers to the source-side wavefield

reflecting from below the multiple-generating horizon, and P3

August 2011

937

M u l t i p l e

a t t e n u a t i o n

Figure 8. 2D synthetic data of the Santos Basin used for the data-driven interbed multiple attenuation: (left) input, (center) subtraction result,

and (right) difference. (From Hembd et al., 2011)

Figure 9. RTM comparison of the Santos Basin synthetic data: (left) before and (right) after data-driven interbed multiple attenuation. (From

Hembd et al., 2011)

multiple-generating horizon. P1* refers to the complex conjugate of P1. Equation 1 neglects both the source term and the

surface reflectivity which can both be compensated for using a

least-squares matching filter during the subtraction stage. It also

includes both primary and higher-order multiple contributions

to the interbed multiple prediction. The task of localized wavelet

matching falls upon the subtraction.

Without knowledge of the downward reflection point, however, it becomes necessary to sum Equation 1 over a user-defined

aperture. The method places a high reliance upon the input acquisition density. For accuracy, it requires shot and receiver stations at all possible surface locations as well as measurements

of the wavefield at zero offset. Not surprisingly, these are the

938

August 2011

and, as such, the method is found to work reasonably well in

deeper water where the near offsets can be easily extrapolated

and in wide-azimuth acquisitions where the azimuthal sampling

is closer to ideal.

The 3D model-driven method also follows the logic of

Jakubowicz. In it, the input data are backward-propagated

though a predefined model to the user-defined arbitrary horizon

(Figure 4). The horizon is defined in the same way as in the

data-driven method. Prior to the back-propagation, the input

data must first be muted to remove all reflections above the target horizon. Once at the target horizon, the wavefield is upward

extrapolated through the model to illuminate the shallow events,

thus identifying the downward reflection points in Figure 5.

M u l t i p l e

a t t e n u a t i o n

Figure 10. Kirchhoff comparison of Santos Basin 3D data: (left) before and (right) after data-driven interbed multiple attenuation. (From

Hembd et al., 2011)

Figure 11. Migrated comparison of Santos Basin 3D data: (left) before and (right) after model-driven interbed multiple attenuation. (Courtesy

of Petrobras)

propagated through the model a second time until it reaches the

reflecting horizons (Figure 6) where it is finally forward propagated to the surface (Figure 7). The entire procedure mimics the

data-driven case but has two distinct advantages; it doesnt require a dense shot sampling on the surface, and it doesnt require

records at zero offset. It does, however, require a reflectivity and

velocity model.

Application

3D data-driven interbed multiple prediction was performed on

2D synthetic data and on 3D real data from the Santos Basin.

With 3 s of water and shallow multiple generators, these data

were well suited to the data-driven interbed algorithm. The synAugust 2011

939

M u l t i p l e

a t t e n u a t i o n

thetic data (Figure 8) were generated using an acoustic waveequation modeling package, a velocity field extracted from the

3D real data processing, and an arbitrary density model. The

interbed multiples were predicted using the water bottom (at

approximately 3 s) and the top of salt horizon (at approximately

4 s) as the multiple generators. Figure 9 shows the synthetic results after migration highlighting the impressive attenuation of

the strongly focused interbed multiples beneath the minibasins.

The real data results (Figure 10) were generated using a

single iteration of interbed multiple prediction targeting the

water-bottom multiples. Analysis of the postmigration interbed

attenuation results shows a considerable reduction in the subsalt migration noise (attributed to interbed multiples). However,

some residual multiple-related events are visible on the real data

cross-cutting the base of salt. Although the subtraction is by no

means perfect, these residuals are most likely related to an imperfect or incomplete prediction. Interbed multiples generated

from the top of salt horizon and from the layered evaporate horizons remain unaccounted for.

3D model-driven prediction was also performed on the real

data to target the intrasalt multiples (Figure 11). The reflectivity model was obtained through prestack time migration of a

few near offsets and the arbitrary reference horizon was chosen 100 ms below the top salt (hence, considered the principal

downward reflector). All reflectors down to 1 km below top salt

were considered as potential upward generators. A minimum

gap separating upward and downward reflectors was also used.

This corresponds to the shortest leg of the modeled multiple and

is needed to avoid modeling primary signal. After modeling, a

conservative 3D adaptation and subtraction was performed in

the offset domain. The results (Figure 11) show a promising attenuation of some events cross-cutting the base of salt and slightly improved continuity on some targeted presalt events.

Conclusion

In this paper, we have demonstrated the impact of interbed

multiple attenuation on synthetic and real data from the Santos

Basin. It has been shown that clearer images of the reservoir

zone can be obtained by attenuating the influence of shallower,

internal multiple-generating horizons in an informed and deliberate fashion. The choice between data-driven and modeldriven prediction is shown to be one of convenience with both

methods performing admirably.

References

Abma, R., N. Kabir, K. H. Matson, S. A. Shaw, B. McLain, and S. Michell, 2002, Comparisons of adaptive subtraction techniques for

multiple attenuation: 72th Annual International Meeting, SEG, Expanded Abstracts, 21862189.

Alai, R. and E. Verschuur, 2006, Case Study of surface-related and internal multiple elimination on land data: 76th Annual International

Meeting, SEG, Expanded Abstracts, 27272731.

Berkhout, A. J., 1999, Multiple removal based on the feedback model:

The Leading Edge, 18, no. 1, 127131, doi:10.1190/1.1438140.

Berkhout, A. J. and M. P. de Graaff, 1982, The inverse scattering problem

in terms of multiple elimination and seismic migration: 52nd Annual

International Meeting, SEG, Expanded Abstracts, 113114.

Berkhout, A. J. and D. J. Verschuur, 1997, Estimation of multiple scat940

August 2011

tering by iterative inversionpart 1: Theoretical considerations: Geophysics, 62, no. 5, 15861595, doi:10.1190/1.1444261.

Berkhout, A. J. and D. J. Verschuur, 1998, Wave theory based multiple

removal, an overview: 68th Annual International Meeting, SEG, Expanded Abstracts, 15031506.

Berkhout, A. J. and D. J. Verschuur, 1999, Removal of internal multiples: 69th Annual International Meeting, SEG, Expanded Abstracts,

13341337.

Berkhout, A. J. and D. J. Verschuur, 2005, Removal of internal multiples

with the common-focus-point (CFP) approach: Part 1Explanation

of the theory: Geophysics, 70, no. 3, V45V60, doi:10.1190/1.1925753.

Berkhout, A. J. and D. J. Verschuur, 2005, Removal of internal multiples

with the common-focus-point (CFP) approach: Part 2Application strategies and data examples: Geophysics, 70, no. 3, V61V72.

doi:10.1190/1.1925753

Fu, Q., Y. Luo, P. G. Kelamis, S. Huo, G. Sindi, S. Hsu, and A. B. Weglein, 2010, The inverse scattering series approach toward the elimination of land internal multiples. 80th Annual International Meeting,

SEG, Expanded Abstracts, 34563461.

Hembd, J., M. Griffiths, C. Ting, and N. Chazalnoel, 2011, Application

of 3D interbed multiple attenuation in the Santos Basin, Brazil: 73rd

EAGE Conference and Exhibition.

Ikelle, L. T., 2004, A construct of internal multiples from surface data

only: 74th Annual International Meeting, SEG, Expanded Abstracts,

21642167.

Jakubowicz, H., 1998, Wave equation prediction and removal of interbed multiple: 68th Annual International Meeting, SEG, Expanded

Abstracts, 15271530.

Kelamis, P. G., E. Verschuur, K. E. Erickson, R. L. Clark, and R. M.

Burnstad, 2002, Data-driven internal multiple attenuationApplications and issues on land data: 72nd Annual International Meeting,

SEG, Expanded Abstracts, 20352038.

Luo, Y., W. Zhu, and P. G. Kelamis, 2007, Internal multiple reduction

in inverse-data domain: 77th Annual International Meeting, SEG,

Expanded Abstracts, 24852489.

Otnes, E., K. Hokstad, and R. Sollie, 2004, Attenuation of internal multiples for multicomponent and towed streamer data: 74th Annual International Meeting, SEG, Expanded Abstracts, 12971300.

Pica, A. and L. Delmas, 2008, Wave equation based internal multiple

modeling in 3D: 78th Annual International Meeting, SEG, Expanded Abstracts, 24762480.

Ramirez, A. C. and A. B. Weglein, 2008, Inverse scattering internal

multiple elimination: Leading-order and higher-order closed forms:

78th Annual International Meeting, SEG, Expanded Abstracts,

24712475.

Verschuur, D. J., Surface-related multiple elimination: an inversion approach: Ph.D. thesis, Delft University of Technology.

Weglein, A. B., A. C. Ramirez, K. A. Innanen, F. Liu, J. E. Lira, and S. Jiang, 2008, The underlying unity of distinct processing algorithms for:

(1) the removal of free surface and internal multiples, (2) Q compensation (without Q), (3) depth imaging, and (4) nonlinear AVO, that

derive from the inverse scattering series. 78th Annual International

Meeting, SEG, Expanded Abstracts, 24812486.

permission to publish this work, and Antonio Pica, Nicolas Chazalnoel, and Chu-Ong Ting for their helpful contributions.

Corresponding author: malcom.griffiths@cggveritas.com

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