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Page 39

Method of drying out

Normally hot oil circulation method should be used for drying out the transformer. In special
circumstances where the above method does not give satisfactory results, short circuit method
with hot oil circulation as described in 8.1.2 should be used. In this method both oil and the core
and winding inside the tank are simultaneously dried out with stream line or other filter with
heater and vacuum pump. The moisture is driven out from the windings into the oil and removed
from the oil by evaporation and filtering. Constant circulation of hot oil through a filter will lead to
gradual deterioration of the oil and probably a partial breakdown of the constituents of the oil due
to the continuous mechanical action and filtering under high temperature. Further this tends to
increase the acidity of oil. Great care should. Therefore, be exercised in circulating the oil
through the filter during the drying out period.
The tank sides and top cover should be covered with some covering like tarpaulin. The LV
winding should be short circuited and a three phase supply of 415 volts be applied to HV side of
the transformer. It should be ensured that the short circuit current does not exceed the rated
current of transformer. The temperature of the top oil should be measured by a thermometer.
The oil temperature should not exceed the limit of 80 degree C.
During the drying out process temperature of the top oil and the insulation resistance of the
winding should be taken every two hours.
As the temperature of the oil rises, the insulation resistance may fall and will eventually reach a
steady value. The temperature should be kept constant until the insulation resistance shows
steady increasing upward trend. When this poking is reached the drying out process is complete
and the application of heat may be discontinued. As during the cooling down process, the
transformer reaches 60dgree C the insulation resistance should again be measured. The
insulation resistance in mega ohms varies inversely with the temperature and for a 10dgree C
change of temperature, mega ohms change by ration generally in the range 2.1 to 1.4 :1.
Precautions during drying out :
Drying out is a delicate operation and great care and judgment are necessary in carrying it out
correctly to avoid damage to the transformer winding or oil.
Care should be taken to see that maximum limits of temperature specified are never exceed
i.e.80 degree c.
It is essential that the insulation tester and the thermometer used for the purpose are reliable.
Only spirit type thermometer are to be used for temperature measurement. Mercury
thermometer shall not be used everywhere except in the pocket provided for this purpose.
In no case transformer should be left unattended during any part of the drying out period. The
transformer should be observed continuously throughout the drying out process and all
observations shall be recorded.
Insulation resistance should be measured at least with a 100 volts meggar.
The life of the insulation decreased with every drying out process. Therefore, it would be
desirable to dry out the transformer at 50dgree c less that maximum temperature stipulated i.e.
80dgree c.