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The concept of electronics is used about electronic components, integrated circuits and electronic systems. 30
years ago, no one has ever thought of the expansive growth of the electronics-, information- and communication
technology we have seen the last decades. Our new digital life is built on the development of miniaturized
electronic circuits (microchips) and broadband telephone- and data transmission through optical fiber and wireless

1.1 Symbols, Abbreviations, tools and measuring instrumentsResistors & Variable Resistor

Capacitor & Variable Capacitor



Inverting Input

Oscillator Crystal


Iron Core Transformer


Voltmeter & Ammeter

Silicon Controlled Rectifier

Bi-Polar Transistors

Electronics Abbreviation List


a atto (prefix for 10 )

A ampere (unit of electrical current)
ac alternating current
ACC Affiliated Club Coordinator
A/D analog-to-digital
ADC analog-to-digital converter
AF audio frequency
AFC automatic frequency control
Ah ampere hour
ALC automatic level control
AM amplitude modulation
ANT antenna
ARQ automatic repeat request
ASCII American National Standard Code for
Information Interchange
ATV amateur television
AVC automated volume control
AWG American wire gauge

az-el azimuth-elevation
balun balanced to unbalanced (transformer)
BC broadcast
BCD binary-coded decimal
BCI broadcast interference
Bd baud (bit/s in single-channel binary data
BER bit error rate
BFO beat frequency oscillator
Bit binary digit
BPF band-pass filter
BT battery
BW- bandwidth
c centi (prefix for 10 )
C coulomb (quantity of electric charge); capacitor
CB Citizens Band (radio)
CCTV closed-circuit television
CCW coherent CW


ccw counterclockwise
CMOS complementary-symmetry metal-oxide
coax coaxial cable
COR carrier-operated relay
CPU central processing unit
CRT cathode-ray tube
cw clockwise
CW continuous wave
DAC digital-to-analog converter
D diode
da deca ( prefix for 10 )
D/A digital-to-analog
DAC digital-to-analog converter
dB decibel (0.1 bel)
dBi decibels above (or below) isotropic antenna
dc direct current
D-C direct conversion
deg degree
DET detector
DF direction finding; direction finder
DPSK differential phase-shift keying
DS direct sequence (spread spectrum); display
DSB double sideband
DTMF dual-tone multifrequency
DVM digital voltmeter
DX long distance; duplex
E voltage
ECL emitter coupled logic
EHF extremely high frequency (30-300 GHz)
ELF extremely low frequency
EMF electromotive force
EMI electromagnetic interference
EPROM erasable programmable read-only
f- femto (prefix for 10 ); frequency
F farad (capacitance unit); fuse
FAX facsimile
FET field-effect transistor
FL = filter
FM frequency modulation
f foot (unit or length)
g gram (unit of mass
G giga (prefix for 10 )
GaAs galium arsenide
GHZ gigahertz
GND ground
H hecto (prefix for 10 )
H henry (unit of inductance)
HF high frequency (3-30 MHz)
HFO high-frequency oscillator
HPF highest probable frequency; high-pass filter
Hz hertz (unit of frequency
I current; indicating lamp
IC integrated circuit
ID identification; inside diameter
IF intermediate frequency
IMD intermodulation distortion
in inch (unit of length)
in/s inch per second (unit of velocity)
I/O input/output

j operator for complex notation, as for reactive

component of an impedance (+j inductive; -j
2 2
J joule (kg.m /s ) (energy or work unit; jack
JFET junction field-effect transistor
k kilo (prefix for 10 ); Boltzmanns constant (1.38 x
10 J/K)
K kelvin (used without degree symbol) (absolute
temperature scale); relay
kbit 1024 bits
kbyte 1024 bytes
kHz kilohertz
kV kilovolt
kW kilowatt
k - kilohm
l liter (liquid volume)
L lambert; inductor
Lb pound (force unit)
LC inductance-capacitance
LCD liquid crystal display
LED light-emitting diode
LF low frequency (30-300 kHz)
LHC left-hand circular (polarization)
LO local oscillator
LS loudspeaker
LSB power sideband
LSI large-scale integration
m meter; milli (prefix for 10 )
M mega (prefix for 10 ); meter
mA milliampere
MDS minimum discernible (or detectable) signal
MF medium frequency (300-3000 kHz)
mH millihenry
MHz megahertz
mi mile, statute (unit of length)
mic microphone
MIX mixer
MOD modulator
Modem modulator/demodulator
MOS metal-oxide semiconductor
MOSFET metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect
MS meteor scatter
MSI medium-scale integration
MUF maximum usable frequency
mV millivolt
mW milliwatt
m - megohm
N nano (prefix for 10 )
NBFM narrow-band frequency modulation
NC no connection; normally closed
nF nanofarad
NF noise figure
nH nanohenry
NiCd nickel cadmium
NMPS N-channel metal-oxide silicon
NO normally open
NPN negative-positive-negative (transistor)
ns nanosecond
NTS National Traffic System
OBS Official Bulletin Station


OD outside diameter
OES Official Emergency Station
OO Official Observer
op amp operational amplifier
ORS Official Relay Station
OSC oscillator (schematic diagram abbrev.)
OTS Official Traffic Station
oz ounce (force unit, 1/16 pound)
p pico (prefix for 10 )
P power ; plug
PA power amplifier
PAM pulse-amplitude modulation
PC printed circuit
PEP peak envelope power
PEV peak envelope voltage
pF picofarad
pH picohenry
PIA Public Information Assistant
PIN positive-intrinsic-negative (transistor)
PIO Public Information Officer
PIV peak inverse voltage
PLL phase-locked loop
PM phase modulation
PMOS P-channel (type) metal-oxide
PNP positive-negative-positive (transistor)
pot potentiometer
P-P peak to peak
ppd postpaid
PRAC Public Relations Advisory Committee
PROM programmable read-only memory
PSHR Public Service Honor Roll
PTO permeability-tuned oscillator
PTT push to talk
Q figure of merit (tuned circuit) ; transistor
QPR low power (less than 5-W output)
R resistor (schematic diagram abbrev.)
RAM random-access memory
RC resistance-capacitance
R/C radio control
RF radio frequency
RFC radio-frequency choke
RFI radio-frequency interference
RHC right-hand circular (polarization)
RIT receiver incremental tuning
RLC resistance-inductance-capacitance
RM rule making (number assigned to petition)

r/s-revolution per second

RX-receiver, receiving
S siemens (unit of conductance); switch
SASE-self-addressed stamped envelope
SHF-super-high frequency (3-30 GHz)
SM silver mica (capacitor)
S/N-signal-to-noise (ratio)
SSB-single sideband
SSI-small-scale integration
SSTV-slow-scan television
sync-synchronous, synchronizing
SWR-standing-wave ratio
T-tera (prefix for 10 ); transformer (schematic
diagram abbrev.)
trf traffic
TTL--transistor-transistor logic
TTY teletypewriter
TV television
TVI television interference
TX transmitter, transmitting
U integrated circuit
UHF ultra-high frequency (300 MHz to 3 GHz)
USB upper sideband
UV ultraviolet
V volt;vacuum tube (schematic diagram abbrev.)
VCR video cassette recorder
VFO variable-frequency oscillator
VHF very-high frequency (30-300 MHz)
VLF-very-low frequency (3-30k Hz)
VLSI very-large-scale integration
VMOS-vertical metal-oxide semiconductor
VOM volt-ohm meter
VR voltage regulator
VSWR voltage standing -wave ratio
VXO - variable crystal oscillator
2 -3
W watt ( kg m s , unit of power )
WBFM wide-band frequency modulation
WVDC working voltage, direct current
X reactance
XCVR transceiver
XFMR transformer
XO crystal oscillator
XTAL crystal
XVTR transverter
Y - crystal ( schematic diagram abbrev.)

Soldering iron - The iron's power rating should be 15 to 25W and it should be fitted with a small bit of 2 to 3mm


Soldering iron stand - You must have a safe place to put the iron when you are not holding it. The stand should
include a sponge which can be dampened for cleaning the tip of the iron.

Disordering pump (solder sucker) - A tool for removing solder when desoldering a joint to correct a mistake or
replace a component.

Solder remover wick (copper braid)This is an alternative to the desoldering pump shown above.

Reel of solder - The best size for electronics is 22swg (swg = standard wire gauge).

Side cutters - For trimming component leads close to the circuit board.

Wire strippers -Most designs include a cutter as well, but they are not suitable for trimming component leads.


Small pliers - Usually called 'snipe nose' pliers, these are for bending component leads etc. If you put a strong
rubber band across the handles the pliers make a convenient holder for parts such as switches while you solder
the contacts.

Small flat-blade screwdriver - For scraping away excess flux and dirt between tracks, as well as driving screws!

Heat sink - You can buy a special tool, but a standard crocodile clip works just as well and is cheaper.

Track cutter - A 3mm drill bit can be used instead, in fact the tool is usually just a 3mm drill bit with a proper
handle fitted.

PCB rubber - This is an abrasive rubber for cleaning PCBs. It can also be used to clean stripboard where the
copper tracks have become dull and tarnished.

Small electric drill - Ideally this should be mounted in a drill stand. You will need a range of small drill bits, but for
most holes a 1mm bit is suitable. Larger holes can be drilled with a hand drill but 1mm bits are too fragile to use
reliably in a hand drill.


Measuring Instruments
Ammeters measure current. Current in electronics is usually measured in mA which are called milliamperes,
which are 1/1000s of an ampere. Basically an ammeter consists of a coil that can rotate inside a magnet, but a
spring is trying to push the coil back to zero. The larger the current that flows through the coil, the larger the angle
of rotation, the torque (= a rotary force) created by the current being counteracted by the return torque of the
Usually ammeters are connected in parallel with various switched resistors that can extend the range of currents
that can be measured. Assume, for example, that the basic ammeter is "1000 ohms per volt", which means that to
get the full-scale deflection of the pointer a current of 1 mA is needed (1 volt divided by 1000 ohms is 1 mA - see
"Ohm's Law"). To use that ammeter to read 10 mA full-scale it is shunted with another resistance, so that when 10
mA flows, 9 mA will flow through the shunt, and only 1 mA will flow through the meter. Similarly, to extend the
range of the ammeter to 100 mA the shunt will carry 99 mA, and the meter only 1 mA.

Voltmeters are basically ammeters that are connected in series with resistors. Assume that the basic ammeter is
"1000 ohms per volt", meaning that to get a full-scale deflection, 1 mA is needed. To extend the range to measure
10 volts for full-scale deflection the resistor needed to be connected in series has to be large enough to take up
most of the voltage, so that only 1 mA will flow through the meter when 10 volts are connected.

Ohmmeters are basically ammeters that are connected to an internal battery, with a suitable resistance in series.
Assume that the basic ammeter is "1000 ohms per volt", meaning that 1 mA is needed for full-scale deflection.
When the external resistance that is connected to its terminals is zero (the leads are connected together at first
for calibration), then the internal, variable, resistor in series with the ammeter is adjusted so that 1 mA will flow;
that will depend on the voltage of the battery, and as the battery runs down that setting will change. The full scale
point is marked as zero resistance. If an external resistance is then connected to the terminals that causes only
half of the current to flow (0.5 mA in this example), then the external resistance will equal the internal resistance,
and the scale is marked accordingly. When no current flows, the scale will read infinity resistance. The scale of an
ohmmeter is NOT linear.

Multimeters contain Ohmeters, Voltmeters, Ammeters and a variety of capabilities to measure other quantities.
AC and DC voltages are most often measurable. Frequency of AC voltages. Multimeters also feature a continuity
detector, basically an Ohmmeter with a beeper if the multimeter sees less than 100 then it beeps otherwise it is
silent. This is very useful for finding whether components are connected when debugging or testing circuits.
Multimeters are also often able to measure capacitance and inductance. This may be achieved using a Wien
bridge. A diode tester is also generally onboard, this allows one to determine the anode and cathode of an
unknown diode. A LCD display is also provided for easily reading of results.


The instrument is used to view AC waveforms. For better explanation of the oscilloscope

Spectrum Analyzer
spectrum analyzer is a device used to examine the spectral composition of some electrical, acoustic, or optical
waveform. Often, it measures the power spectrum.

Signal Generator
This instrument is used to generate low voltage AC signals. Most common signal generators can create
sinusoidal(sine), triangular and square waves of various frequencies. They are used in conjunction with the
oscilloscope to test analogue circuits.

Logic Probe
This instrument generates high and low logic states to test digital circuits. If a logic probe is not available a square
wave through a signal generator can be used. Square waves can also be used to test the response time of a
digital circuits.