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COURSE

FACILITIES LAYOUT TRAINING


EQUIPMENT

FACILITIES LAYOUT TRAINING COURSE


EQUIPMENT MAIN TOPICS
Skids and Packages
Rotating equipment (Turbines, compressors, pumps)
Static equipment (Vessels, heat exchangers, tanks, etc)
Valves, flowmeters
Cranes
Portable/temporary equipment
Tools / sampling areas / maintenance withdrawal areas
Access / clearances

FACILITIES LAYOUT TRAINING COURSE


SKIDS & PACKAGES - GENERAL
Skids & Packages covers both rotating and static equipment
NORSOK R-001, Mechanical equipment use it informative but
be critical

SKIDS & PACKAGES GENERAL


PACKAGE INTERFACES - PIPING
Piping interfaces, some options to think about:
Open drain
Closed drain
LP Flare system
HP Flare system
Closed loop cooling medium system
Fuel gas system
Instrument air system
Hydraulic Power System
Firewater
4

SKIDS & PACKAGES GENERAL


PACKAGE INTERFACES - PIPING

SKIDS & PACKAGES GENERAL


PACKAGE INTERFACES NOZZLE LOADS
For secondary / utility connection interfaces as guideline:
NORSOK R-001, sec. 5.1 gives the following requirement, which
may be adopted (based on old M. W. Kellogg guideline):

Allowable nozzle loads only required when very sensitive rotating


equipment and when connected lines are subject to stress analysis

SKIDS & PACKAGES GENERAL


PACKAGE INTERFACES POWER & CONTROL
Interface junction boxes shall be provided at skid edge, as appropriate. The following
need separate junction boxes:
Control system (IS signals)
Control system (non-IS)
ESD system (IS)
ESD system (non-IS)
Data transmission (if applicable), modulating, pulse and frequency
LV normal Power (230 V, 400 V)
LV emergency power (including UPS power, if applicable)
Skids/units containing electric motors and/or heaters will need to be equipped with
a Local Push Button Control Station.
7

SKIDS & PACKAGES GENERAL


PACKAGE INTERFACES JUNCTION BOXES
The control and ESD signals must be further sub-divided into
separate junction boxes:
Analogue signals
Thermocouple and RTD signals
Digital inputs (switch signals for electronic equipment)
Digital outputs: Solenoid valves, lamps, relays, actuators, etc.

FACILITIES LAYOUT TRAINING COURSE


TURBINES, COMPRESSORS & PUMPS
Gas turbines
API Gas Compressors
API Pumps

Also need for RPM control of major electric driven compressors


and packages addressed:
VFD (HV frequency control)
Permanent Magnet motors with variable speed
VSD (Variable hydrodynamic gear, Voith Vorecon or equal)

FACILITIES LAYOUT TRAINING COURSE


MAJOR EQUIPMENT - NEED FOR RPM CONTROL
HV frequency control (VFD) has no impact in the process area,
but the control unit in electrical equipment room is massive
Controller: Ca. 2 m3/MW ca. 1 ton/MW
PM Motor controller. Size and weight as the HV frequency control
but no gearbox required on the compressor or pump unit.
Hydrodynamic gear (Voith) has about same size as normal
mechanical gear is slightly larger - but require large oil unit and
large oil coolers)

HV VFD
Voith Vorecon
10

TURBINES, COMPRESSORS & PUMPS


GAS TURBINES
Gas turbines to API 616 (as appropriate)
Options / selections:
Steam
injection

Industrial

Single fuel
(gas or
diesel?)

Single shaft

Type?

Fuel?

Shafts?

Dual fuel (gas


and diesel)

Twin shaft

Water
injection

Yes

Dry (DLE)

Specify
Gas Turbine

AeroDerivative /
Modular

Low NOX?
(< 25 ppm)

No,
conventional

11

TURBINES, COMPRESSORS & PUMPS


GAS TURBINES
Gas turbines are always in acoustic enclosures

Electric / VFD
Hydraulic
Air or gas

Separate on
turbine

3-point
supported

Yes

Yes

Specified

AntiIcing?

Starter ?

Oil system

Skid

WHRU

No

Un Specified

Common with
driven
equipment

Directly on
Deck

No

12

TURBINES, COMPRESSORS & PUMPS


GAS TURBINES
Siemens SGT 200 (Ruston/ EGT Tornado) in acoustic enclosure
Typical from API 616

13

TURBINES, COMPRESSORS & PUMPS


GAS TURBINES MICRO TURBINES
Only for power generation.
Can be an option for emergency/UPS power generation
Or for remote unmanned installations w/o cable connection
Name

Sizes

Capstone

30 kW, 65 kW

Turbec

100 kW

Calnetix

100 kW, 125 kW

Capstone C30

Calnetix 125 kW

14

SPECIFIC LAYOUT REQUIREMENTS FOR EQUIPMENT

GAS TURBINE PACKAGES

Industrial gas turbines and driven equipment to have one


common lube oil system (preferably in machine frame)
Aero-derivative turbines must have their own lube oil system
(part of machine frame); driven equipment require external lube
oil console.
Turbine skid preferably on 3-point AVM support
Turbines in unclassified area:
Fuel gas supply: One flange per machine allowed in unclassified area
Combustion air & ventilation inlet air preferably from below cellar deck
(separate air intakes), but acceptable from above turbine when far
from classified area. Taken upwind if possible.

Turbines in classified area:


As above, but no requirements on fuel gas supply.
15

SPECIFIC LAYOUT REQUIREMENTS FOR EQUIPMENT

GAS TURBINE PACKAGES

Turbine exhaust in unclassified area as far from classified area as


possible
Mechanical handling equipment inside acoustic enclosure to be
part of turbine suppliers scope
Parts usually taken out of the side of the enclosure

16

SPECIFIC LAYOUT REQUIREMENTS FOR EQUIPMENT

GAS TURBINE PACKAGES

Example of mechanical handling facilities at gas


turbine (TWAD Dolly)

17

SPECIFIC LAYOUT REQUIREMENTS FOR EQUIPMENT

GAS TURBINE PACKAGES

Suitable lay-down areas provided close to the gas turbine for


components dismantled during maintenance.
Such components include sections of acoustic enclosure, casings,
ducting, covers, sections of exhaust diffuser, etc.
Floor must be rated to the maximum maintenance weights
Safe access to air filter (may be several levels on large turbine)
Permanent steps and platforms to be provided for easy and safe
access to turbine enclosure

18

SPECIFIC LAYOUT REQUIREMENTS FOR EQUIPMENT

GAS TURBINE PACKAGES

Turbine air intakes. Almost as low as possible for the two main
compressor turbines. Could have been lower.
Air intake for the smaller turbo generator on the side is not in
accordance with the book.
19

SPECIFIC LAYOUT REQUIREMENTS FOR EQUIPMENT

GAS TURBINE PACKAGES

Exhaust
Air intake
Turbo
compressors
After
coolers,
scrubbers,
gas chill.

How air intakes should not be


20

TURBINES, COMPRESSORS & PUMPS


API GAS COMPRESSORS - SELECTION

OPTIONS - ESPECIALLY
FOR CENTRIFUGAL
COMPRESSORS

API
COMPRESSORS

API 616 / ISO


10631 Gas
turbines
Positive
displacement types

Dynamic types
API 614 / ISO
10438
Lubrication &
shaft sealing

Rotary
compressors

Reciprocating
compressors

screw compressors
API 11P / ISO
13631,
Packaged
Reciprocating

Minor skid/container
mounted units "portable"

API 618 / ISO


13707
Reciprocating

API 619 / ISO


10441-1
Rotary

Major machines.
Permanent installed
machines

API 617 / ISO


10439
compressors

API 681
Liquid Ring
vacuum
pumps &
compressors
Centrifugal &
axial
compressors

Integral
geared
compressors

API 670
Machinery
Protection
Systems

Expander
compressors

(Special Not real API 617)


Dry
type

Oil
flooded

Motor
compressors
(sealless,
magnetic
bearings)

MAN Turbo HOFIM


Siemens Eco
GE ICL (Integrated Compressor Line)

API 671 / ISO


10441 Special
purpose
couplings

API 677
General
purpose
Gears

API 613 / ISO


13691
Special
purpose
Gears

21

TURBINES, COMPRESSORS & PUMPS


GAS COMPRESSORS - SELECTION

Source:
Shell DEP

22

TURBINES, COMPRESSORS & PUMPS


GAS COMPRESSORS MAIN REFERENCES

API 617, Centrifugal Compressors / Turbo expanders


API 618, Reciprocating Compressors
API 619, Rotary (screw) Compressors
API RP 686 Machinery Installation and Installation Design

And Shell DEPs in relation to the above

23

TURBINES, COMPRESSORS & PUMPS

GAS COMPRESSORS EXAMPLE. API 617 CENTRIFUGAL


Note the 3
point AVM
support

Centrifugal compressor (HP Compressor), a 7.6 MW electric driven


fixed speed compressor with 7 stages. Skid weight 78 tons,
compressor approx. 8 tons
This compressor operates at about 14000 RPM, and a turbo-gear is
included between the electric motor and the compressor.
24

TURBINES, COMPRESSORS & PUMPS


GAS COMPRESSORS

HP compressor on BE p/f.

LP / IP compressor on BE
p/f. Tandem compressor. (4
nozzles)
25

TURBINES, COMPRESSORS & PUMPS

GAS COMPRESSORS BARREL TYPE CENTRIFUGAL


Usually centrifugal compressors for offshore application are barrel
type (rather than split casing).

Compressor barrel

Compressor bundle

26

TURBINES, COMPRESSORS & PUMPS

CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSORS ANTI-SURGE LOOP


Centrifugal compressors are equipped with anti-surge loop

27

TURBINES, COMPRESSORS & PUMPS

CENTRIFUGAL GAS COMPRESSORS MAIN SYSTEMS

Lube oil system (sometimes a separate skid for larger machines)


Dry gas seal system most often separate skid
Often also a nitrogen generator is required for seal system

Dry gas seal system


for centrifugal
compressor

28

TURBINES, COMPRESSORS & PUMPS


CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSORS NOZZLE LOADS / ORIENTATION

BP wishes nozzles downwards but often this is not possible


Compressor nozzles are either:
ANSI flanges (RF/RTJ as per the piping spec)
Integral type
Hub type (Graylok, G-Lok, Techlok or equal)

Nozzle loads are given in API 617, Annex 2E. It refers to NEMA
SM 23.

29

TURBINES, COMPRESSORS & PUMPS


CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSORS NOZZLE LOADS / ORIENTATION

NOZZLE LOADS:
Nozzle loads API 586/API 617 require minimum 1.85 x NEMA
SM 23
It is strongly recommended to limit the nozzle loads, although
piping designers often ask for 4 x SM 23 or 6 x SM 23.
In some Maersk projects we agreed on 3 x SM 23 nozzle loads
(NORSOK R-001: 4 x NEMA SM 23. No good idea.......)
Large design nozzle loads require heavy/stiff skid frames and
heavy holding down bolting and machinery alignment is a
problem.

30

TURBINES, COMPRESSORS & PUMPS


CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSORS NOZZLE LOADS
Highest stress in flex legs
Relative rotation of compressor
axis
Highest risk for misalignment of
compressor is resultant moment
around vertical axis

FEA calculation results of a SCT-SV


compressor with flex legs

31

TURBINES, COMPRESSORS & PUMPS


CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSORS INTEGRAL MOTOR COMPRESSORS

These compressors are not to API 617


No gearbox, no lube oil system, no seal system,
Magnetic bearings, PM variable speed motor

GE Oil & Gas, ICL model

MAN Turbo, HOFIM &


MOPICO

32

SPECIFIC LAYOUT REQUIREMENTS FOR EQUIPMENT

CENTRIFUGAL GAS COMPRESSORS


Reference documents:

API 586, Machinery Installation and Installation Design


NORSOK L-002, Piping System layout, design and structural analysis
Shell DEP, BP standard

33

SPECIFIC LAYOUT REQUIREMENTS FOR EQUIPMENT

CENTRIFUGAL GAS COMPRESSORS


Located on one of the highest decks.

Suction drum on lower level, with compressor inlet piping sloping


down towards the suction drum
Anti-surge lines with slope and anti-surge valve on highest point
Preferably 3-point supported to deck
Access at sides of skid: 2 3 meter free space (minimum)
When more compressor casings on same skid, typically electric
motor/turbine must be removed before the compressor 2 bundle
can be taken out.

34

SPECIFIC LAYOUT REQUIREMENTS FOR EQUIPMENT

CENTRIFUGAL GAS COMPRESSORS

It must be possible to take out motor, gear, or complete


compressor (mechanical handling), but typically not the skid
Bundle removal maintenance area (about 1,5 times length of
compressor barrel)

35

SPECIFIC LAYOUT REQUIREMENTS FOR EQUIPMENT

CENTRIFUGAL GAS COMPRESSORS

Compressor mechanical handling gantry crane is a possibility.


Access by platform crane also possibility (prefered). Removable
hatches if located below main deck.
Bundle stored/transported in nitrogen filled container / canister
(typically vertical transport / storage)

36

SPECIFIC LAYOUT REQUIREMENTS FOR EQUIPMENT

CENTRIFUGAL GAS COMPRESSORS

If separate lube oil skid, it can be shared with other compressor


skids, but it must be located in the vicinity
Seal gas unit either directly on the compressor skid or as separate
skid located nearby (MOTS-06 require on-skid seal gas unit)
Start-up inlet strainer must be installed in inlet piping as near to
the compressor as possible
Inlet piping, Minimum 3 5 dia straight run (measured on
compressor flange nominal diameter)
Non-slam check valve(s) on compressor discharge piping after
branch for anti-surge loop.
Note flow direction on
start-up strainer
37

SPECIFIC LAYOUT REQUIREMENTS FOR EQUIPMENT

CENTRIFUGAL GAS COMPRESSORS

Compressor discharge line routed to cooler with no pockets


Limit volume of gas between discharge nozzle, anti-surge valve
and discharge check valve(s)
Instruments in relation to anti-surge loop located with tapping
points as near to the compressor as possible.
Horizontal run of inlet piping preferably parallel with the
compressor shaft

38

SPECIFIC LAYOUT REQUIREMENTS FOR EQUIPMENT

CENTRIFUGAL GAS COMPRESSORS

Compressor piping arrangement described in next slide

39

SPECIFIC LAYOUT REQUIREMENTS FOR EQUIPMENT

CENTRIFUGAL GAS COMPRESSORS


P&ID example from the notes:

Compressor inlet piping sloping back towards suction drum


Min 10 dia pipe run before flow orifice (FIT), 5 dia after
Inlet side, PV (inlet throtling) minimum distance from compressor
suction nozzle. PV to have mechanical minimum stop.
Suction strainer, minimum distance from compressor suction
Two non-slam check valves located as near to compressor
discharge as possible (required if upstream suction drum cannot
sustain the SOP (settle-out-pressure) for a larger volume of
discharge piping). Ref. NORSOK P-100
2 check valves in series will reduce design backflow rate (10% of
nominal ID of largest check valve). Ref. API 521, 4.3.4.4.
40

TURBINES, COMPRESSORS & PUMPS

API 618 RECIPROCATING GAS COMPRESSORS

Should preferably not be used offshore due to vibrations

Ariel recip
Nuevo Pignone recip

41

TURBINES, COMPRESSORS & PUMPS


API 619 SCREW COMPRESSORS

On some offshore installations used as LP gas compressors


In Europe also used as compressors in zero flare systems
Further: Booster compressors for gas turbine fuel gas
Two main types: Oil flooded & dry type

The oil flooded type has many auxiliaries, oil tank, oil
pump, oil cooler, etc.
42

TURBINES, COMPRESSORS & PUMPS


API 619 SCREW COMPRESSORS

Dry screw
compressors
with timing
gear.
MAN Turbo

Oil flooded screw


compressor.
Kobelco

43

TURBINES, COMPRESSORS & PUMPS


API 619 SCREW COMPRESSORS

Oil system for oil flooded


screw compressor
figure from API 619

44

TURBINES, COMPRESSORS & PUMPS


API 619 SCREW COMPRESSORS

Allowable nozzle loads:


API 619, Annex C (tables over loads)

45

TURBINES, COMPRESSORS & PUMPS


API PUMPS - SELECTION

API PUMPS

Positive
displacement
Pumps

Rotary
pumps

Plunger/piston
pumps

API 674 / ISO


13710,
Reciprocating
Larger high pressure
duplex, triplex,
quantoplex pumps

Dynamic pumps

API 675,
Controlled
Volume
Smaller, chemical
injection/
dosing pumps. Exact
dosing. Might be
a.diaphragm pump
head.

API 676/
Rotary
Gear-, lobe-,
twin/tripple screwProgressing cavity pump (excentric
worm)

Centrifugal
Pumps

API 610 / ISO


13709,
Centrifugal Pumps
All types of centrifugal
pumps, typical with mech.
seal - see separate API 610
overview

API 685,
Sealless
Centrifugal Pumps
Magnet-coupled /
Canned typer

API 682 / ISO


21049,
Shaft sealing systems

Shell DEP 31.29.02.11 gives recommendations in


text regarding selection between the types

46

TURBINES, COMPRESSORS & PUMPS


API PUMPS - SELECTION

From Campbell course material

47

TURBINES, COMPRESSORS & PUMPS


API 610 PUMPS - SELECTION

48

TURBINES, COMPRESSORS & PUMPS

API 610 PUMPS SELECTION / CLASSIFICATION


Source:
API 610

49

TURBINES, COMPRESSORS & PUMPS


API PUMPS - SELECTION

Source:
Ramboll ITA

50

TURBINES, COMPRESSORS & PUMPS


PUMPS POWER REQUIREMENT

Ptheory Q.H . .g
Power, Ptheory is in W,

For water:

Ptheory = 0,028.Q. P

flow Q is in m3/sec,

[Q] = m3/hour,

height (height difference) H is in meter


WG,

[P] = bar (differential


pressure over the pump)

density of the liquid in kg/m3,


gravity constant, g, is in m/sec2.

Actual power requirement: Assume hydraulic efficiency of 50 %,


for special designed pumps, multistage WI pumps, etc., assume
efficiency of 60 65 %
51

TURBINES, COMPRESSORS & PUMPS

PUMPS NPSH NET POSITIVE SUCTION HEAD


NPSHA: NPSH available
NPSHR: NPSH required (the pumps minimum required NPSH)
NPSHA > NPSHR

Ha:

The absolute pressure at the liquid surface in the suction tank [meter
liquid column] , in an open tank this number is the atmospheric pressure
in meter WG, in a closed multiphase separator operating at vapour
pressure, Ha is zero

Hb:

Height difference in meter liquid column, from the liquid surface in the
tank to the pump inlet (can be negative it is positive for pumps under
the tank and it is negative for pumps above the tank)

Hf:

Friction loss in the suction line

Hvp:

Vapour pressure of the liquid at pumping temperature(*)

Hv:

Velocity height on the suction side (meter liquid)

(*) A 3-phase separator operates at the vapour pressure in the separator.

Tank and pump definition of the terms


for calculating NPSHA

NPSHA = Ha + Hb Hf - Hvp - Hv
52

TURBINES, COMPRESSORS & PUMPS

PUMPS NPSH NET POSITIVE SUCTION HEAD


NPSHR is for many industrial pumps
in the range of 2,0 and 2,5 meter but
may with increased flow reach 8 to
10 meters or even more.
POSITIVE NPSH!

To the right: HA is positive


(pump below liquid level), to
the left HA is negative
(pump over the liquid level)
however, NPSHA is still
positive, otherwise the
pumping will not work

The above also indicates that the


calculated NPSHA shall always be
positive, and preferably larger than
+2.5 m.
Otherwise the layout (location of pump
in relation to the tank/vessel) most
probably will need to be changed until
the calculated NPSHA becomes
positive.
53

TURBINES, COMPRESSORS & PUMPS

PUMPS NPSH NET POSITIVE SUCTION HEAD

P
Ha
g

HVP

P
VP
g

V2
HV
2 g

P PVP
V2
( NPSH ) A
Hb
F
.g
2.g

54

TURBINES, COMPRESSORS & PUMPS

PUMPS NPSH NET POSITIVE SUCTION HEAD

NPSHR for study/estimation purposes (source: Brennan):

n(Q)0.5 / (NPSHR)3/4 = C,
where

Speed, RPM

Capacity, GPM

Constant between 7000 and 10000

55

TURBINES, COMPRESSORS & PUMPS

PUMPS NPSH NET POSITIVE SUCTION HEAD

NPSHR for study/estimation purposes (Source: Brennan)


C = 9000

For large required NPSHR, booster pump may be required


56

TURBINES, COMPRESSORS & PUMPS


API 610 PUMPS - TYPES

57

TURBINES, COMPRESSORS & PUMPS


API 610 PUMPS - TYPES

58

TURBINES, COMPRESSORS & PUMPS


API 610 PUMPS - TYPES

59

TURBINES, COMPRESSORS & PUMPS


API 610 PUMPS - TYPES

60

TURBINES, COMPRESSORS & PUMPS


API 610 PUMPS - TYPES

61

TURBINES, COMPRESSORS & PUMPS


API 610 PUMPS - TYPES

62

TURBINES, COMPRESSORS & PUMPS


API 610 PUMPS - TYPES

Vertical pumps are prefered


where low NPSHA

63

TURBINES, COMPRESSORS & PUMPS


API 610 PUMPS EXAMPLES OH6 PUMP

Sundyne LMV vertical


high speed with
integral gear. (OH6
pump)

Sundyne selection chart

64

TURBINES, COMPRESSORS & PUMPS


API 610 PUMPS EXAMPLES OH2 PUMP

SPX OH2 single stage centrifugal pump


65

TURBINES, COMPRESSORS & PUMPS


API 610 PUMPS EXAMPLES BB5 PUMP

Also for these large pumps,


3-point AVM installation is
recommended

Sulzer HPcp injection pump skid. Due to large


nozzle loads on the pump, the skid frame needs
to be very strong and heavy to avoid distortions
and deformations. Note the electric motor, gear
and the pump itself to the right
66

TURBINES, COMPRESSORS & PUMPS


API 610 PUMPS EXAMPLES BB5 PUMP

67

TURBINES, COMPRESSORS & PUMPS


API 610 PUMPS EXAMPLES BB5 PUMP

Sulzer HPcp with


twistlock allowing fast
change out of cartridge

68

TURBINES, COMPRESSORS & PUMPS


API 610 PUMPS EXAMPLES BB5 PUMP

The cartridge being drawn out of a Weir AHBP multistage pump.


The frame with beams and legs is erected only for drawing out the
cartridge and inserting a new one. Sulzers system is similar.

69

TURBINES, COMPRESSORS & PUMPS


API 610 PUMPS EXAMPLES BB5 PUMP

Stripped WI pump skid showing the withdrawal area and


withdrawal support structure in place

70

TURBINES, COMPRESSORS & PUMPS


API 674 RECIPROCATING PUMPS

Mainly used for


NGL Injection pumping

Power frame
end

Pipeline pressure testing


Well service purposes

Liquid end
David Brown triplex PD pump, 27
m3/hour, 690 barg. (API 674 equal
execution) power frame type

71

TURBINES, COMPRESSORS & PUMPS


API 675 CONTROLLED VOLUME PUMPS

Mainly used for


Chemical dosing / injection

1 Lewa dosing pumps. Each


pump head on a common drive
has a crank with adjustable
stroke. See adjustment handles
on top of the pumps.

Low flow, high


pressure, accurate

Milton Roy chemical injection pump

72

TURBINES, COMPRESSORS & PUMPS


API 675 CONTROLLED VOLUME PUMPS

Methanol injection
skid with 3 pumps

Danfoss axial piston pump


73

TURBINES, COMPRESSORS & PUMPS

API 676 PUMPS MULTIPHASE TWIN SCREW

Bornemann twin screw multiphase pump

74

TURBINES, COMPRESSORS & PUMPS


SEAWATER LIFT PUMPS & RISER PIPES

Electric
submersible
pumps

Riser pipes. Each


typically 3 m long
It is required with sufficient
head room above the pump
caison, to allow the riser
pipes and pump(s) to be
drawn up

75

TURBINES, COMPRESSORS & PUMPS


SEAWATER LIFT PUMPS & RISER PIPES

76

TURBINES, COMPRESSORS & PUMPS


SEAWATER LIFT PUMPS & RISER PIPES
Lift pump with the riser pipe
sections test assemblied in the
workshop (Sulzer Pumps)

77

TURBINES, COMPRESSORS & PUMPS


FIRE PUMPS

Angle gear and long


shaft submersible
pump

Diesel hydraulic or diesel electric


driven submersible pump

78

TURBINES, COMPRESSORS & PUMPS


FIRE PUMPS

Framo diesel-hydraulic unit with


booster pump in engine
container

Framo diesel-electric unit


without booster pump

79

MAINTENANCE WITHDRAWAL AREAS

SUBMERGED PUMPS

On cellar deck, sufficient head room (4 meter ca)


Traverse crane located above pump riser pipes
Space for laydown of riser pipes (4m x 3 m) ca
Space for laydown of pump itself (1 m x 4 m) ca.
Deck designed for the loads

80

SPECIFIC LAYOUT REQUIREMENTS FOR EQUIPMENT

PUMPS - GENERALLY

Consider 3-point AVM mounting for pumps > 200 kW


Ensure sufficient NPSH at all conditions
Typically low speed pumps = low NPSHR
Suction line one size larger than the suction nozzle, no pockets
Excentric reducer at the suction, flat top of reducer
Preferable 5 - 10 x Dia straight run suction pipe

81

SPECIFIC LAYOUT REQUIREMENTS FOR EQUIPMENT

PUMPS SUCTION LINE SLOPE (API RP 686)


If suction source higher than pump, slope towards pump
If suction source lower than pump, slope towards source

82

SPECIFIC LAYOUT REQUIREMENTS FOR EQUIPMENT

PUMPS NPSH EVALUATION


MOTS-06

Volatile liquids: Min margin between NPSH(A/R): 2 m liquid


Non flamable liquids: Min margin NPSH(A/R): 1 m liquid

Evaluate NPSHA from layout:

Evaluate NPSHR from Brannan curves, earlier slide this section)

83

SPECIFIC LAYOUT REQUIREMENTS FOR EQUIPMENT

PUMPS PUMP DISCHARGE

Must be provided with check valve to avoid backflow


For pumps > 180 kW consider non-slam check valve
Valves in pump discharge located as close to the pump as
possible

84

SPECIFIC LAYOUT REQUIREMENTS FOR EQUIPMENT

PUMPS NOZZLE LOADS

Centrifugal pumps: API 610, table 5


Metering pumps: API 675 has no nozzle load requirements

85

SPECIFIC LAYOUT REQUIREMENTS FOR EQUIPMENT

PUMPS INSTALLATION/ACCESS

All pumps: Easy access to mechanical seal for service


Smaller pumps: Piping must allow easy removal of complete pump
Mechanical handling for removing complete pump, gear and motor
as individual items (not the skid)

86

FACILITIES LAYOUT TRAINING COURSE


MAJOR STATIC AND PORTABLE EQUIPMENT
Fixed static equipment
Pressure vessels (separators, drums, etc)
Pig launcher / receivers
Heat exchangers (main types + S&T TEMA types)
Atmospheric tanks
Offshore pedestal cranes
Wellhead control panel
Life boats, MOB boat life rafts, other life saving appliances
Portable equipment
Containers, skips, temporary service equipment, etc.

87

MAJOR STATIC AND PORTABLE EQUIPMENT


FIXED STATIC EQUIPMENT
Pressure vessels (separators, drums, columns)
Pressure design to PD 5500, EN 13445 or ASME VIII
CE-marking to PED (where applicable, i.e. EU/EEA)

88

MAJOR STATIC AND PORTABLE EQUIPMENT


FIXED STATIC EQUIPMENT - VESSELS

Vessels are typically


Skirt supported or
Saddle supported

Minimum distance
between weld and
nozzle

89

MAJOR STATIC AND PORTABLE EQUIPMENT


FIXED STATIC EQUIPMENT - VESSELS
Large vessels (diameter > 1500 mm), must have manway for
inspection
Min. 24 manhole

Manway with davit


manway must be easy
accessible

Nozzle standouts at least so


bolting is
possible. Extra
long stand-out
when vessel is
insulated

Name plate for


pressure vessel

90

MAJOR STATIC AND PORTABLE EQUIPMENT


FIXED STATIC EQUIPMENT - VESSELS
All pressure vessels are designed for allowable nozzle loads
Design loads (example).
EXTERNAL FORCES AND MOMENTS ON NOZZLES
For pressure vessels, tanks, pig launchers/recivers and shell & tube exchangers.
Global forces (N)

Global moments (Nm)

Pipe

PIPE

Longitud.

C ircum

Axial

Resultant

Longitud.

C ircum

Torsional

Sch.

SIZE

Fl

Fc

Fa

Fr

Ml

Mc

Mt

Resultant
Mr

150# & 300#

1962

1472

1962

2452

255

196

294

322

b-value

2943

2207

2943

3678

574

441

662

724

0,50

3924

2943

3924

4904

1020

784

1176

1286

5886

4415

5886

7357

2295

1764

2646

2894

7848

5886

7848

9809

4080

3136

4704

5146

10

9810

7358

9810

12261

6375

4900

7350

8040

12

11772

8829

11772

14713

9180

7056

10584

11578

14

13734

10301

13734

17165

12495

9604

14406

15758

16

15696

11772

15696

19618

16320

12544

18816

20582

18

17658

13244

17658

22070

20655

15876

23814

26050

20

19620

14715

19620

24522

25500

19600

29400

32160

24

23544

17658

23544

29426

36720

28224

42336

46310

91

SPECIFIC LAYOUT REQUIREMENTS FOR EQUIPMENT

PRESSURE VESSELS

Separators and vessels otherwise with large liquid hydrocarbon


inventories. Locate on lower decks (as low as possible).
Flare drum, closed drain drum. Locate on cellar deck or sub-cellar
deck (air gap)
Check valves installed directly on block valves if possible
To reduce risk of overstressing vessel nozzles, pipe size should be
equal to or less than vessel nozzle

Nozzle
stand-out
92

SPECIFIC LAYOUT REQUIREMENTS FOR EQUIPMENT

PRESSURE VESSELS

Manway davits so oriented that cover opens away from ladders /


stairs and instrument access
Working platform on top of vessel (operation of valves, etc.)
All instruments, stand pipes etc. Located on one side of vessel.
Unobstructed access of 3 m from one side, other side normal for
walkway (1 m) or escape way (1.2 m)
No equipment installed over pressure vessels unless there is a
tight deck in between

93

SPECIFIC LAYOUT REQUIREMENTS FOR EQUIPMENT

PRESSURE VESSELS VERTICAL VESSELS


Previous slide also applies here
More manways may be required along height
Can access to manways be from deck or is access platforms
required?

Possibility to take loose ladder into vessel for inspection purposes?


Needs for access to trays inside vessel?
Need for fixed ladder inside vessel?

94

MAJOR STATIC AND PORTABLE EQUIPMENT


FIXED STATIC EQUIPMENT
Pig Launcher / receivers
Pressure design to PD 5500, EN 13445
or ASME VIII
CE-marking to PED (EU/EEA only)

Receiver - horizontal

Launcher - vertical

95

LAYOUT OF FACILITY - SPECIFIC AREAS


PIG TRAPS GENERAL DESIGN RULES
Designed as pressure vessel
Equipped with quick opening device (Scholz or equal)
Equipped with pressure-interlock to ensure against opening a
pressurised trap
Pressure indicator located so it is visible for the operator
Face outwards away from:
HC equipment
Laydown / Handling areas & travel routes

96

LAYOUT OF FACILITY - SPECIFIC AREAS

SPACE REQUIREMENTS PIG LAUNCHER / RECEIVERS

Recommendation from Shell DEP


97

SPECIFIC LAYOUT REQUIREMENTS FOR EQUIPMENT

PIG TRAPS DIMENSIONS

98

SPECIFIC LAYOUT REQUIREMENTS FOR EQUIPMENT

PIG TRAPS - ARRANGEMENT

Min 0.76 m headroom above deck (drainage, inspection)


Pig traps opening face to outbound
Horizontal traps sloped towards the trap closure
Retention tray directly underneath the end closure
Storage area for pigs
Cradle for inserting pigs in horizontal launcher
Mechanical handling facilities (crane, etc.)

99

SPECIFIC LAYOUT REQUIREMENTS FOR EQUIPMENT

PIG TRAPS - ARRANGEMENT

Wet Gas Receiver Crude Oil Receiver


Gas Slug catcher

Test separator
100

MAJOR STATIC AND PORTABLE EQUIPMENT


FIXED STATIC EQUIPMENT
Hydro cyclone
Pressure design to PD 5500, EN 13445 or ASME VIII
CE-marking to PED (where applicable, i.e. EU/EEA)
Contains liners / dummies
Ca. 1000 g acc.

101

MAINTENANCE WITHDRAWAL AREAS

HYDRO CYCLONE

Free space required in front to


change liners.
A liner is almost as long as the
hydro cyclone (1 meter ca.)

102

MAJOR STATIC AND PORTABLE EQUIPMENT


FIXED STATIC EQUIPMENT
Heat exchangers Plate heat exchanger

103

MAJOR STATIC AND PORTABLE EQUIPMENT


FIXED STATIC EQUIPMENT
Shell & Tube heat exchangers

Pressure design to PD 5500, EN


13445 or ASME VIII.
CE-marked to PED (EU/EEA)
Thermal design: TEMA R
104

FIXED STATIC EQUIPMENT


TEMA TYPES OF S&T HEAT EXCHANGERS
An exchanger
may for
example be
type AES

105

FIXED STATIC EQUIPMENT


TEMA TYPES OF S&T HEAT EXCHANGERS

106

MAJOR STATIC AND PORTABLE EQUIPMENT


FIXED STATIC EQUIPMENT
Shell & Tube heat exchangers

Stacked S&T heat exchangers


Vertical exchangers shell with
expansion joint.
107

MAINTENANCE WITHDRAWAL AREAS

HEAT EXCHANGERS

Complete plate pack need to be taken out at a


time.

Look at the actual


type to see if
withdrawal area is to
the left or right

108

MAJOR STATIC AND PORTABLE EQUIPMENT


FIXED STATIC EQUIPMENT
PCHE Printed Circuit Heat Exchangers (Heatric)

PCHE on BE platform
109

MAJOR STATIC AND PORTABLE EQUIPMENT


FIXED STATIC EQUIPMENT AIR COOLERS
Air coolers (for process cooling, API 661 / ISO 13706)
Two horizontal types:
Forced draft (as shown, fan under)
Induced draft (fan over)

Left: Vertical air cooler (non-API)


for example for engine cooling

110

MAJOR STATIC AND PORTABLE EQUIPMENT


FIXED STATIC EQUIPMENT AIR COOLERS
Air coolers (for process cooling, API 661 / ISO 13706)

111

MAJOR STATIC AND PORTABLE EQUIPMENT


FIXED STATIC EQUIPMENT
Box shaped & vertical atmospheric tank:
Design: Eurocode 3 (EN 1993-4-2)
Design loads: Eurocode 1 (EN 1991-4)

Other options:
a) Crane pedestal as
diesel storage tank
b) Space between main
deck beams as
potable water tank

API 620 and 650 are


not applicable as
they are for large,
vertical storage
tanks as seen
onshore in refineries
& storage plants
112

MAJOR STATIC AND PORTABLE EQUIPMENT


FIXED STATIC EQUIPMENT
Horizontal atmospheric tank:
EN 12285-2, Workshop fabricated steel tanks. Horizontal
cylindrical single skin and double skin tanks for the aboveground
storage of flammable and non-flammable water polluting liquids.
CE Marking to CPD/CPR

Standard has tables of standard


designs: Length, diameter and
shell thickness, i.e. no
calculations are required

113

SPECIFIC LAYOUT REQUIREMENTS FOR EQUIPMENT

STORAGE TANKS

Keep storage tanks for water, diesel etc. in unclassified (service /


utility) area - prefered
Storage tanks for methanol and process chemicals in classified
(process) area
Potable water tank may be embedded in deck structure
Diesel tank may be embedded in deck structure or crane pedestal
Otherwise, most recommendations for pressure vessels applies

114

SPECIFIC LAYOUT REQUIREMENTS FOR EQUIPMENT

ATMOSPHERIC TANK EXPANSION TANK

Tank is open in
the top!

115

SPECIFIC LAYOUT REQUIREMENTS FOR EQUIPMENT

BREAK-OUT SPOOLS

Break-out spools are required where equipment may need to be


taken out for maintenance / inspection when not sufficient pipe
flexibility
Often designed as an angle or as a U-spool

116

SPECIFIC LAYOUT REQUIREMENTS FOR EQUIPMENT

VALVES - ORIENTATION

Check valves horizontal with hinge vertical


Or vertical with flow upwards
If different specify to vendor when ordering valve

117

SPECIFIC LAYOUT REQUIREMENTS FOR EQUIPMENT

VALVES - ORIENTATION

Larger (12 and bigger), with stem horizontal

118

SPECIFIC LAYOUT REQUIREMENTS FOR EQUIPMENT

VALVES - ORIENTATION

Smaller gate valves installed horizontally: Tilt 45if possible

119

SPECIFIC LAYOUT REQUIREMENTS FOR EQUIPMENT

VALVES - ORIENTATION

Plug valves, standard is horizontal orientation with gear or handle


on top
If installed differently specify to vendor when ordering valve

120

SPECIFIC LAYOUT REQUIREMENTS FOR EQUIPMENT

VALVES - ORIENTATION

Actuated ball valves installed horizontally


If installed differently specify to vendor when ordering valve

121

SPECIFIC LAYOUT REQUIREMENTS FOR EQUIPMENT

VALVES - ORIENTATION

Valve wheel has a diameter up to 700 mm


Gear can be turned 180around the shaft/stem

122

SPECIFIC LAYOUT REQUIREMENTS FOR EQUIPMENT

FLOWMETER STRAIGHT PIPE LENGTH

Usually 10 x straight dia (NB) piperun upstream flowmeter


Usually 5 x straight dia (NB) piperun downstream flowmeter
But may vary and for fiscal / custody transfer often stronger
requirements

123

SPECIFIC LAYOUT REQUIREMENTS FOR EQUIPMENT

ORIFICE METER STRAIGHT PIPE LENGTH

124

FIXED STATIC EQUIPMENT


OFFSHORE PEDESTAL CRANES
API 2C, Specification for Offshore Pedestal Mounted Cranes
EN 13852-1, Offshore Cranes, General Purpose Offshore Cranes

Wire luffing with whip


hoist

Telescopic ram type

Ram luffing
Right:
Knockle
boom type
125

FIXED STATIC EQUIPMENT


WELLHEAD CONTROL PANEL

126

FIXED STATIC EQUIPMENT


LIFE BOATS, LIFE RAFTS, MOB BOAT

127

MAJOR STATIC AND PORTABLE EQUIPMENT


PORTABLE EQUIPMENT
Rented power generation units (temporary)
Hook-up support containers (workshop, storage, etc)
Painting container (epoxy work container)
Scaffold containers / skips
Rigger container
Transport containers (20 feet standard) equipment, spares,
consumables
Food Containers (10 feet, 14 feet)
Compactor for accommodation paper waste
Food waste skips

128

MAJOR STATIC AND PORTABLE EQUIPMENT


PORTABLE EQUIPMENT
Waste skips / production area
Helifuel tanks (tote tanks)
Chemical tanks (tote tanks)
Nitrogen bottle racks
Personnel basket / "Billy Pugh
MOB Boat / FRB
Nitrogen spread (initial start-up purge/leak test + start up after
major shutdowns), i.e. liquid nitrogen, pumps, evaporators, etc.

Well service equipment sets (wireline, coiled tubing)

129

MAJOR STATIC AND PORTABLE EQUIPMENT


Offshore containers are
PORTABLE EQUIPMENT
certified to DNV 2-7.1

20 ft closed
offshore container

40 ft cargo basket

Tote tanks

10 ft half height
basket (open)
Waste compactor
Waste skip

130

MAJOR STATIC AND PORTABLE EQUIPMENT


PORTABLE EQUIPMENT

Nitrogen spread

Aggreko 20 ft
temporary diesel gen

Nitrogen
bottle rack

Typical coiled tubing set


also contains control
container, tanks, pumps,
etc.
Coiled tubing reel & goose
neck

131

MAINTENANCE WITHDRAWAL AREAS

TOOLS

Cosasco corrosion fittings retrieval tool


Well service, VR tool (Cylinder, 15 x 110 from well center line)

In addition: Access for production sampling (cylinders)

132

ACCESS / CLEARANCE REQUIREMENTS


GENERAL
ISO 14122-2, Permanent means of access to machinery, Part 2:
Working platforms and Walkways
Guidelines from NORSOK S-002, Table B.1, Vertical and Horizontal
Clearances and distances.
Guidelines from NORSOK L-002, Table 1
ASTM F1166, Standard Practice for Human Engineering.
See next slides

133

ACCESS / CLEARANCE REQUIREMENTS


GENERAL

134

ACCESS / CLEARANCE REQUIREMENTS


GENERAL

135

ACCESS / CLEARANCE REQUIREMENTS


ACCESS TO INSTRUMENTS/VALVES

136

ACCESS / CLEARANCE REQUIREMENTS


VALVES - INSTALLATION

137

ACCESS / CLEARANCE REQUIREMENTS


ROG ITA Offshore Facility Layout
VALVES - INSTALLATION

138

ACCESS / CLEARANCE REQUIREMENTS


VALVES - INSTALLATION
ROG ITA Offshore Facility Layout (ref. ASTM F1166)

Operation from one


side only

139

ACCESS / CLEARANCE REQUIREMENTS


VALVES INSTALLATION RISER ESDV

Statoil require riser ESDVs to be in


horizontal lines.
Top entry riser ESDV to be placed
horizontally
140

ACCESS / CLEARANCE REQUIREMENTS


MAJOR EQUIPMENT DISTANCE BETWEEN
Minimum distance between major equipment (gas turbines,
centrifugal compressors, major pumps) is mainly given by the
requirement to be able to transport the largest component away.
Mechanical handling study will verify if it is possible.
For the conceptual layout, consider largest part (electric motor,
gearbox, power turbine of a gas turbine).
Depending on the actual machine size, it will typically result in a
minimum spacing of 2 3 meter (with free transport way)

141

ACCESS / CLEARANCE REQUIREMENTS


HOW NOT TO DO

142

ACCESS / CLEARANCE REQUIREMENTS


HOW NOT TO DO

143

ACCESS / CLEARANCE REQUIREMENTS


HOW NOT TO DO

144

ACCESS / CLEARANCE REQUIREMENTS


HOW NOT TO DO

145

ACCESS / CLEARANCE REQUIREMENTS


HOW NOT TO DO

146

ACCESS / CLEARANCE REQUIREMENTS


HOW NOT TO DO

147

THANK YOU

148