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Artificial Lift Systems for

Oil Production
March 2012

Table of Contents
Definition of Artificial Lift

How an Oil Well is Produced


Types of Artificial Lift Systems
Beam Pumping/Sucker Rod Pumps

Electric Submersible Pumps


Progressing Cavity Pumps
Subsurface Hydraulic Pumps
Gas Lift

Summary
Selection of Artificial Lift Method
References

Definition of Artificial Lift


Artificial lift refers to the use of artificial
means to increase the flow of liquids from a oil
production well.
Generally this is achieved by :
the use of a mechanical device inside the
well (pumps) or
decreasing the weight of the hydrostatic
column by injecting gas into the liquid some
distance down the well.

Why Artificial Lift


Artificial lift is needed in wells when there is insufficient
pressure in the reservoir to lift the produced fluids to
the surface, but often used in naturally flowing wells
(which do not technically need it) to increase the flow
rate above what would flow naturally.
Used to lower the producing bottomhole pressure
(BHP) on the formation to obtain a higher production
rate from the well.
The produced fluid can be oil and/or water, typically
with some gas included.

Types of Artificial Lift Systems


Artificial-lift methods fall into two groups, those that
use pumps and those that use gas.
Pump Types
Beam Pumping / Sucker Rod Pumps (Rod Lift)
Electric Submersible Pumps (ESPs)
Progressive Cavity Pumps (PCPs)
Subsurface Hydraulic Pumps
Gas Method
Gas Lift

The most economical (for example using the


net present value) artificial lift method must be
selected based on:
Geographic location
Capital cost
Operating cost
Production flexibility
Reliability
Mean time between failures

Artificial Lift
There are approximately 2 Million oil
wells in operation in the world
Over 1 Million wells utilize some type of
artificial lift
Close to 900,000 Rod, ESP and PCP
pumps

Source: ABB

Sucker-Rod
Lift System

Sucker-Rod Lift System


Oldest and most widely
used method of
artificial lift.

This method can lift


150 BFPD from 14000
ft, and more than
3000 BFPD from less
than 2000 ft.

Rod Pumping
Sucker Rod Pumps (Donkey pumps or beam pumps) are the most
common artificial-lift system used in land-based operations

A motor drives a
reciprocating beam,
connected to a polished
rod passing into the
tubing via a stuffing
box
The rod string continues
down to the oil level and is
connected to a plunger
with a valve (pump) that is
inserted or set in the tubing
near the bottom of the well.

Each upstroke of the beam


unit lifts the oil above
the pumps plunger.

Downhole Sucker-Rod Pumps


The most important components are: the barrel, valves (traveling
and fixed (or static or standing)) and the piston.
Barrel: The barrel is a long cylinder, 10 to 36 feet long, with a
diameter of 1 inches (32 mm) to
3 inches (95 mm).
Piston/Plunger: This is a nickel-metal
sprayed steel cylinder that goes inside
the barrel
Valves: The valves have two components
- the seat and the ball - which create a
complete seal when closed
Piston rod: This is a rod that connects the
piston with the outside of the pump

Pumping Cycle Operation


At the start of the upstroke, the travelling valve closes due to the high
hydrostatic pressure in the tubing above it. Liquid contained in the
tubing above the travelling valve is lifted to the surface during the
upward movement of the plunger
At the same time, the pressure drops
in the space between the standing
and travelling valves, causing the
standing valve to open. Wellbore
pressure drives the liquid from the
formation through the standing
valve into the barrel below the
plunger. Lifting of the liquid
column and filling of the barrel with
formation liquid continues until the
end of the upstroke.

Pumping Cycle Operation


After the plunger has reached the top of its stroke, the rod string starts
to move downwards.
The travelling valve immediately
opens, and the standing valve closes.
When the travelling valve opens,
liquid weight is transferred from the
plunger to the standing valve. During
downstroke, the plunger makes its
descent with the open travelling
valve inside the barrel filled with
formation liquid. At the end of the
downstroke, the direction of the rod
strings movement is reversed, and
another pumping cycle begins.

Type of Pumps
Rod Pumps:
Also called insert pumps because they are
run (inserted) in the producing tubing.
No need to pull out the tubing string, which
reduce maintenance time and downtime.
Tubing Pumps:
The working barrel of this pump is coupled
with the production-tubing string.

Rod Pumping

System parts are manufactured to meet


existing API standards.
Numerous manufacturers can supply each
part, and all interconnecting parts are
compatible.

Sucker rods:
From to 1 inches in diameter.
25 or 30-ft lengths

DOWNHOLE GAS SEPARATORS

Used in gassy wells to increase the volume of free gas


removed from the liquids before reaching the pump.
These separators are called gas anchors.
Poor Boy Gas Anchor
Natural Gas Anchor

DOWNHOLE PUMP SIZING

PD = 0.1166 S N d

PD = pump displacement, BFPD


S = stroke length, inches
N = pumping speed, spm
d = diameter of the pump
plunger, inches

LEAKAGE LOSSES

Efficiency
Overall Efficiency 45 - 60%
Depending on design, higher
energy losses can be on the
subsurface equipment
Motors for pumping units
between 1 and 125 HP

Videos about Sucker Rod-Pumping System

ROD LIFT SYSTEM ADVANTAGES

High system efficiency


Gas or electricity can be used as a power source
Economical to repair and service
High-temperature and viscous fluids can be lifted
Upgraded materials can reduce corrosion concerns
Flexibility -- adjust production through stroke length and speed
High salvage value for surface unit and downhole equipment

ROD LIFT SYSTEM DISADVANTAGES

Limited to relatively low production volumes, less than 1,000


barrels per day {up to about 40 liters (10 gal) per stroke}
Incompatible with deviated wells, even with the use of rod
protectors. Maximum of 30 deviated wells with smooth
profiles and low dogleg severity.
Limited ability to produce fluids with sand.
Paraffin and scale can interfere with the efficient operation
of sucker-rod pumping systems.
The polished-rod stuffing box can leak.

Rod Pumps Market


Over 750,000 in operation World
Wide
350,000 in operation in USA
400,000 units installed in rest of
world

Electrical Submersible Pumps


(ESPs)

ESP Facility

ESPs incorporate an electric motor


and centrifugal pump unit run on a
production string and connected
back to the surface control
mechanism and transformer via an
electric power cable.

ESPs
The downhole components are suspended from the
production tubing above the wells' perforations.
Above the motor is the seal section, the Intake or gas
separator, and the pump.
The power cable is banded to the tubing and plugs
into the top of the motor.
As the fluid comes into the well it must pass by the
motor and into the pump.
This fluid flow past the motor aids in the cooling of
the motor. The fluid then enters the intake and is
taken into the pump.
Each stage (impeller/diffuser combination) adds
pressure or head to the fluid at a given rate.

The Pros
High Volume and Depth Capability.
High Efficiency Over 500-1000 bpd.
Low Maintenance (w/o sand, etc).
Good in Deviated Wells.
Minor surface equipment requirements
Possible in 4 Casing and Larger.
ESP applicable at any time of the

ESP

reservoir life.

The Cons
Requires Electric Power Source.

Adapt to Reservoir Changes?


(VSD).
Field repair usually impossible.
Problem production: Solids,
gas, other.
Viscosity: reduces , flow, etc.

ESP

Usually must pull tubing if


problems.

ESP Market
90,000 units in the world
60,000 units in Russia
A few thousand units in the US

ESP Growth Areas


More ESPs on depleting wells
Focus on:
Deep Water
More ESP in wells that might be
producing with gas lift

Design of an ESP installation


Well physical data:
Casing and liner sizes, weights, and
setting depths.
Tubing size, type, weight, and thread.
Total well depth.
Depth of perforations or open hole
interval.
Well inclination data.

Design of an ESP installation


Well performance data:
Tubinghead pressure at the desired rate.
Casinghead pressure.
Desired liquid production rate.
Static bottomhole pressure or static liquid level.
Flowing bottomhole pressure or dynamic liquid level.
Productivity data (PI or qmax for the Vogel model).
Producing gas/oil ratio.
Producing water cut or water/oil ratio.
Bottomhole temperature at desired liquid rate.

Design of an ESP installation


Fluid properties:
Specific or API gravity of produced oil.
Specific gravity of water.
Specific gravity of produced gas.
Bubble point pressure.
Viscosity of produced oil.
PVT data of produced fluids (volume factors, solution
GOR, etc.).

Design of an ESP installation


Surface power supply parameters:
Primary voltage available at the wellsite.
Frequency of the power supply.
Available power supply capacity.

Design of an ESP installation


Unusual operating conditions:
Production of abrasives, especially sand.
Paraffin deposition.
Emulsion formation.
Type and severity of corrosion.
Extremely high well temperatures.

How Much can the


well produce?

How Much does it take?

Fluid will flow up the tubing only if the pressure at the tubing intake
(bottom of the tubing) is greater than the hydrostatic weight of the
fluid, plus the friction pressure losses in the tubing, plus the
wellhead discharge backpressure.

Will it Flow?

This intersection point (surface flow rate, bottom hole pressure) is


the point at which the well should actually flow under stabilised
conditions.

Will it Flow?

The curves do not intersect. This well would not flow at any rate. A
pump must supplement the energy supplied by the reservoir in order
to produce fluid at the surface. The precise amount of energy needed
is represented by the vertical separation between the two curves.

How Much Do We Have To Add?

By measuring the difference between the tubing intake pressure


requirement curve and the wells inflow performance curve, we
obtain a curve representing the pressure increase required across the
pump as a function of rate.
.

The designer must compare


the well requirements
curve (similar to previous
Figure ) with the
performance characteristics
of different pumps.
These performance
characteristics are typically
given in the form of pump
curves.
The curves are based on fresh water and a fluid viscosity of 1 cp.
The horizontal axis represents actual rate through the pump. Head,
brake horsepower, and efficiency represent more than one pump
stage.

The intersection of the two curves on this plot represents the point at
which the well would be expected to produce under stable conditions
.

ESP Design Example


Well Data:
Casing from surface to 5600 ft: 7 in. OD and 26 lbm/ft
Liner from 5530 to 6930 ft: 5 in. OD and 15 lbm/ft
Tubing: 2 in. and 6.5 lbm/ft J55 EUE
Perforations: 6750 to 6850 ft
Pump setting TVD (just above liner top): 5500 ft.

Well Fluid Conditions:


Specific gravity of water, SGw = 1.085
Oil API = 32 (SGo = 0.865)
SGg = 0.7
Bubble point pressure of gas, Pbp = 1500 psig
Viscosity of oil: not available.

ESP Design Example (cont)


Production Data.
Tubing head pressure, Pth= 100 psig
Casing pressure, Pch = 100 psig
Present production rate, Q = 850 BFPD
Well flowing pressure, Pwf = 2600 psig
Static bottomhole pressure, Pr = 3200 psig at 6800 ft
Bottomhole temperature, Twf: 160F
Minimum desired production rate: 2300 BFPD (standard cond.)
GOR: 300 scf/STB
Water cut: 75%.
Power Sources.
Available primary voltage: 12470 V; frequency: 60 Hz.

ESP Design Example (cont)


Since Pwf > Pbp PI =

Q
850
=
= 1.42 BPD / psi
( Pr Pwf ) 3200 2600

The new Pwf at the desired production rate Qd is

Pwf = Pr (Qd / PI ) = 3200 (2300 / 1.42) = 1580 psig


The PIP is calculated correcting the Pwf for the difference in the
pump setting depth and datum point (1300 ft), friction loss negligible:

PIP = Pwf Ph
Ph = ( Head , ft SGL ) /(2.31 ft / psi)

SGL = Xo SGo + Xw SGw = 0.25 0.865 + 0.75 1.085 = 1.03


PIP = 1580 [(1300 1.03) / 2.31] PIP = 1000 psig

ESP Design Example (cont)


The solution gas/oil ratio at the pump intake pressure is:

10
Rs = SGg (Pb / 18) ( 0.00091Tf
10

0.0125 API

10
Rs = 0.7 (1000 / 18) ( 0.00091160 )
10

0.012532

1.2048

1.2048

= 180scf / STB

The total flow Vt of oil, gas and water at the pump intake is:

Vt = Vo + VIG + Vw in BFPD

ESP Design Example (cont)


The flow of oil Vo at the pump intake is:

Vo = Qd Xo Bo
Where Bo is the formation volume factor and is calculated by

Bo = 0.972 + 0.000147 F 1.175


F = Rs SGg / SGo + 1.25Tf = 180 0.7 / .865 + 1.25 *160 = 362
Therefore

Bo = 0.972 + 0.000147(362)1.175 = 1.12 actual barrel / STB


And

Vo = 2300 0.25 1.12 = 644 BOPD

ESP Design Example (cont)


The flow of free gas at the pump intake is:

VIG = free gas (VFG ) gas volume factor ( Bg )

VFG = Total volume of gas Gas in Solution = Vg VSG


Vg = ( BOPD GOR) / 1000 = 2300 0.25 300 / 1000 = 172.5Mscf
And

VSG = ( BOPD Rs ) / 1000 = [(2300 0.25) 180] / 1000 = 103.5Mscf

ESP Design Example (cont)


Therefore:

VFG = 172.5 103.5 = 69Mscf


And
Bg = (5.04 Z Tf ) / P = [5.04 0.85 (460 + 160)] / 1014.7 = 2.62bbl / Mcf

VIG = 69Mcf 2.62bbl / Mcf = 181BGPD

ESP Design Example (cont)


The flow of water is

Vw = Qd Xw = 2300 0.75 = 1725BWPD


Therefore:

Vt = 644 BOPD + 181BGPD + 1725BWPD = 2550 BFPD

% of free gas at the pump intake

% of free gas = (VIG / Vt ) 100 = (181 / 2550) *100 = 7%

ESP Design Example (cont)


The Total Dynamic Head (TDH) is

TDH = Discharge Pressure Intake Pressure = Pd PIP (in ft )


Pd = Pump depth + Ft + Hwh
And:

PIP( ft ) = ( PIP 2.31ft / psi) / SGcomp


SGcomp = TMPF /( BFPD 5.6146 62.4)
The Total Mass of Produced Fluid (TMPF) is

TMPF = [( BOPD SGo) + ( BWPD SGw)] 5.6146 62.4

+ (GOR BOPD SGg 29 / 379.5)

ESP Design Example (cont)


TMPF = [(575 .865) + (1725 1.085)] 5.6146 62.4 + (300 575 29 / 379.5

TMPF = 839064lbm / D
And:

SGcomp = 839064 /(2550 5.6146 62.4) = 0.939


Therefore

PIP( ft ) = (1000 2.31ft / psi) / 0.939 = 2460 ft

ESP Design Example (cont)


The tubing friction loss (Ft) is read from Figure below for 2550 BPD
Ft = 49 ft / 1000 ft of depth

For 5500 ft
Ft = 270 ft

Hwh = Pth 2.31 / SGcomp

Hwh = 100 2.31 / 0.939 = 246 ft

ESP Design Example (cont)


The discharge pressure is

Pd = 5500 + 270 + 246 = 6016 ft

Finally

TDH = Pd PIP = 6016 2460 = 3556 ft


Select the pump type with
the highest efficiency per
stage:
Head =41.8 ft at 2550 B/D
No of stages = 3556/41.8
= 85
BHP= 1.16 *85*0.939
= 92.5 HP

Design of an ESP installation

Design of an ESP installation

Design of an ESP installation

Design of an ESP installation

Design of an ESP installation

Progressing Cavity Pumps


(PCPs)

Progressing Cavity Pumps (PCPs)


Consist of a surface drive, drive string and
downhole PC pump
The PC pump is comprised of a single
helical-shaped rotor that turns inside a
elastomer-lined stator
The stator is attached to the production
tubing string and remains stationary
during pumping.
The rotor is attached to a sucker rod string
which is suspended and rotated by the
surface drive.

Progressing Cavity Pumps (PCPs)

Rotation of the rod string by means of a


surface drive system causes the rotor to spin
within the fixed stator, creating the pumping
action necessary to produce fluids to surface.
PCP usually rotates between 300 and
600 rev/min,

SEVERAL PCP DESIGNS

PUMP DISPLACEMENT (Single-lobe PC pump)


Pump eccentricity (e), is the distance between
the centerlines of the major and minor
diameters of the rotor.

ROTOR MOTION IN A SINGLE-LOBE PC PUMP


Pump eccentricity (e), is the distance between
the centerlines of the major and minor
diameters of the rotor.

Pump Displacement Rate


Pump eccentricity (e), is the distance between
the centerlines
of the major
and minor
PC pump displacements generally
range from
0.02 m3/d/rpm
diameters of the rotor.

[0.13 B/D/rpm] to > 2.0 m3/d/rpm [12.6 B/D/rpm].

The theoretical flow rate of a PC pump is directly proportional


to its displacement and rotational speed and can be determined
by:

where qth = theoretical flow rate (m3/d [B/D]),


s = pump displacement (m3/d/rpm [B/D/rpm]),
and = rotational speed (rpm).
The actual flow needs to consider some slippage rate.

Effect of fluid slippage on volumetric pump efficiency.


Pump eccentricity (e), is the distance between
the centerlines of the major and minor
diameters of the rotor.

Animation about PCPs

PCPs ADVANTAGES

Low capital investment

High system efficiency (typically in the 55 to 75% range)


Low power consumption
Pumps oils and waters with solids
Preferred method for lifting heavy viscous, sand fluids
No internal valves to clog or gas lock
Quiet operation

PCPs ADVANTAGES

Simple installation with minimal maintenance costs


Portable, lightweight surface equipment
Low surface profile for visual and height sensitive areas
Can be run into deviated and horizontal wells.
The production rates can be varied with the use of a
variable-speed controller with an downhole-pressure sensor.

PCPs DISADVANTAGES

Limited lift capabilities (approximately 7,000 ft. maximum)


Current elastomer temperature limits restricts their use to
about 325 F (163 C).
Limited production rates, maximum of 800 m3/d [5,040 B/D].
Chemical attack to the elastomer (aromatics and H2S)

PCP market
Over 60,000 units in the world
Main markets are Canada and
Venezuela
Fastest Growing market
Source: ABB

Electrical Submersible PCP

To alleviate problems inherent with


the conventional rotating-rod PCP
systems (the rotating rods wear and
also wear the tubulars), the ESPCP
system is available.
Because the PCP usually rotates at
approximately 300 to 600 rev/min,
and the ESP motor rotates at
approximately 3,500 rev/min under
load, a gearbox is used to reduce
speed before the shaft connects to the
PCP.

PCP DESIGN EXAMPLE FOLLOWS ..

Subsurface Hydraulic Pumps

Subsurface Hydraulic Pumps


Consist of a surface power fluid system, a prime mover, a surface
pump, and a downhole jet or piston pump.
Crude oil or water (power fluid) is taken from a storage tank and
fed to the surface pump.

Subsurface Hydraulic Pumps

The power fluid is controlled by


valves at a control station and
distributed to one or more
wellheads and directed to the downhole
jet or piston hydraulic pump

Subsurface Hydraulic Pumps


Types of installations
In a piston pump installation, power fluid
actuates the engine, which in turn drives the
Pump, and power fluid returns to the surface
with the produced oil, is separated, and
is sent to the storage tank.

A jet pump has no moving parts and employs


the Venturi principle to use fluid under
pressure to bring oil to the surface.

HYDRAULIC LIFT SYSTEM ADVANTAGES

Jet Lift
No moving parts
High volume capability
"Free" pump
Multiwell production from a single package
Low pump maintenance

HYDRAULIC LIFT SYSTEM ADVANTAGES

Piston Lift
"Free" or wireline retrievable
Positive displacement-strong drawdown
Double-acting high-volumetric efficiency
Good depth/volume capability (+15,000 ft.)

HYDRAULIC LIFT SYSTEM DISADVANTAGES


High initial capital cost

Complex to operate
Only economical where there are a number of well
together on a pad.
If there is a problem with the surface system or prime
mover, all wells are off production.

Animations about Hydraulic Lift System


1:06 to 3:00 min Hydraulic Jet Pump

Gas Lift System

Gas Lift
Compressed gas is injected
through gas lift mandrels and
valves into the production
string.

A source of gas, and


compression equipment
is required for gas lift.

The injected gas lowers the


hydrostatic pressure in the
production string to
reestablish the required
pressure differential between
the reservoir and wellbore,
thus causing the formation
fluids to flow to the surface.

Gas Lift

The Pros
Valves are wireline
retrievable
Sand travels in tubing, not in
valve.
No restriction to flow
Wellhead small but
compressor large
Many wellsone
compressor

Gas is injected between casing


and tubing, and a release valve
on a gas lift mandrel is inserted
in the tubing above the packer

Flexible to changing
conditions.

The Cons
Needs High-Pressure
Gas well or Compressor.
High initial capital
purchase cost.
One well may be
uneconomical.
Viscosity causes
problems.

Gas Lift

Can not achieve low


PRBHP
Maintenance intensive

Gas
Lift

Methods of Gas Lift System


Continuous gas lift
Reservoir pressure high enough to support a relative
high fluid column
Capable of rates of 200 to 60000 BPD
Intermittent gas lift
Wells producing relatively low production rates,
usually les than 200 BPD
It is injected until the slug reaches the surface and then
the gas injection ceases

Intermittent Gas Lift System

Designing a Gas Lift System


Minimise wellhead back pressure
Optimum Injection gas pressure
Gas flow determined by well performance (inflow and outflow)
Compressor design
Gas dehydration
Downhole Gas lift equipment

Minimise wellhead
back pressure, avoid:
No wellhead chokes.
Small flowlines.
Undersized gathering
manifolds.
High compressor suction
pressure.

The injection-gas pressure at


depth must > the flowing
producing pressure at the same
depth.
Less downhole equipment for
higher injection-gas pressures:
the 800-psig design reaches
only the depth of 4,817 ft and
requires seven gas lift valves.
The 1,400-psig design uses only
four gas lift valves to reach the
full depth of the well at 8,000 ft.

Optimum compression
pressure around 2000 psig.

Use of ANSI Class 900 pipe


(2160 psig working
pressure)

Reciprocating compressors
are used more often than
centrifugal compressors in
gas lift operations because
of their flexibility under
changing conditions and
applicability to small
flowrates.

Compressor Design

Gas dehydration
Gas is water-saturated at producing conditions
Water vapour should be removed to avoid:
Formation of liquids (slugs)
Hydration formation and blocking of lines/valves, etc
Gas dehydration:
Absorption (Triethylene glycol, TEG): 7 lb/MMSCF
Adsorption (desiccants solids)

Downhole Gas lift equipment


Consists of gas lift valves
and mandrels in which the
valves are placed. The API
Spec. 11V1 covers the
manufacture of these
devices.
A gas lift valve is normally
removed or installed by
wireline operations without
pulling the tubing.

Depth of the Top Gas lift Valve


The top gas lift valve should be located at the maximum depth
that permits U-tubing the load fluid from this depth with the
available injection gas pressure.

Animations about Gas Lift

GAS LIFT DESIGN EXAMPLE FOLLOWS ..

Summary of Artificial Lift

Artificial Lift Methods - Characteristics and Areas of Application


Operating Parameters

Rod Pumping

PCP

Hydraulic
Piston

Typical Operating Depth


(TVD), ft

100 to 11000

2000 to 4500

7500 to 10000

Maximum Operating
Depth (TVD), ft

16000

6000

17000

15000

15000

Typical Operating Flow,


BFPD

5 to 1500

5 to 2200

50 - 500

100 to 30000

100 - 10000

Maximum Operating
Flow , BFPD

Typical Operating
Temperature
Maximum Operating
temperature

6000

4500

4000

100 - 350 F
[40-177 C]

75 - 150 F
[24-65 C]

100 - 250 F
[40-120 C]

550 F
[288 C]

250 F
[120 C]

500 F
[260 C]

ESP

Gas lift
5000 to 10000

40000

30000

100 - 250 F
[40-120 C]
400 F
[205 C]

400 F
[205 C]

Artificial Lift Methods - Characteristics and Areas of Application


Operating Parameters

Corrosion handling

Rod Pumping

PCP

Hydraulic Piston

ESP

Gas lift

Good to
Excellent

Fair

Good

Good

Good to
excellent

Fair to good

Good

Fair

Fair

Excellent

Fair to good

Excellent

Poor

Fair

Good

Fluid gravity

> 8 API

< 35 API

> 8 API

> 10 API

> 15 API

Offshore applications

Limited

Good

Good

Excellent

Excellent

45% - 60%

40% - 70%

Gas handling

Solids handling

System efficiency

45% - 55%

35% - 60%

10% - 30%

Design comparison: Gas Lift Vs ESP


Data for Gas Lift
Surface injection pressure is 1800 psia

Well #

S-1

S-2

S-3

S-4

Num. of valves

Setting depth (ft)


(valve pressure, psia)

3554.8
(1490)

2714.4
(1470)

3223.7
(1490)

3069.6
(1480)

6389.5
(1535)

4548.1
(1460)

5604.4
(1525)

5140.7
(1510)

7678.6

5934.8
(1545)

7432.2

6595.5
(1625)

6928.9
(1645)

7525.2

7612.1

Design comparison: Gas Lift Vs ESP


Data for pumps
Well-S1

Comparison
Well-S2

Well-S3

Well-S4

ESP depth
ft

5872

7200

6500

7750

Target Production
STBD

4200

4100

5377

4287
REDA SN 3600, 5.38in

Pump type

REDA GN 5200, 5.13in

REDA S5200N, 5.38in

REDA SN 3600,
5.38in

No. of stages

132

97

137

137

REDA 540_90-0 STD


350 Hp, 2700 V,
78.5A

ESP_Inc 540_70
240 Hp, 2590 V, 59A

REDA 540-90-0 STD


225 Hp, 2075 V, 64
A

Motor type

REDA 540-91 STD


180 Hp, 2313 V, 47.5A

Pump efficiency %

66

70

65

61

Motor efficiency %

85

82

85

83

Liquid rate, STBD

4415

3932

3419

3803

Oil rate, STBD

2799

2493

1911

2240

%95 - %44

%90 - %36.6

%90 - %41

%90 - %41

GOR Limitations

( 730 - 658)SCF/STB

(650 - 477)SCF/STB

(870 - 564)SCF/STB

(700 - 373)SCF/STB

Pump wear factor


limitations

0.3 - 0.1

0.3 - 0.1

0.3 - 0.1

0.3 - 0.1

Water cut
limitations

Production Comparison with Gas Lift


Total liquid production comparison
Well #

S1

S2

S3

S4

Natural flow (bbl/day)

2500

1657

1147

1218

Gas Lift system (bbl/day)

3928

3262

2209

3110

Injection gas rate


(MMscf/day)

1.5

2.5

1.5

%of increase

57.2

96.8

92.6

155.3

Oil production comparison


Well #

S1

S2

S3

S4

Natural flow (bbl/day)

1401

1052

643

718

Gas Lift system (bbl/day)

2200

2068

1303

1831.8

%of increase

57.2

96.8

92.6

155.3

Production Comparison with ESP

Total production, bbl/d


Well-S1

Well-S2

Well-S3

Well-S4

Natural flow

2502

1660

1148

1218

ESP

4091

3932

3419

3803

Increase of production %

%63.51

%136.87

%197.82

%212.23

Oil production, bbl/d


Well-S1

Well-S2

Well-S3

Well-S4

Natural flow

1401

1052

643

718

ESP

2594

2493

1911

2240

Increase of production %

%85.15

%136.98

%197.20

%211.98

Profit after 6 months


Bbl Price 100$

Well-S1

Well-S2

Well-S3

Well-S4

ESP Profit per day

$119,300

$144,100

$126,800

$152,200

Revenues for 6 months

$21,474,000

$25,938,000

$22,824,000

$27,396,000

Total Costs

835,000

835,000

835,000

835,000

ESP Profit

$20,639,000

$25,103,000

$21,989,000

$26,561,000

Gas Lift Profit per day

$79,900

$101,600

$66,000

$51,900

Revenues for 6 months

$14,382,000

$18,288,000

$11,880,000

$9,342,000

Total Costs

274,250

289,250

274,250

281,750

Gas Lift Profit

$14,107,750

$17,998,750

$11,605,750

$9,060,250

Comparison

Total Cost for ESP & Gas Lift


$1,000,000.00
$800,000.00
Gas Lift Cost

$400,000.00

ESP Cost

$600,000.00

$200,000.00
$0.00
Well-S1

Well-S2

Well-S3

Well-S4

Profit ESP vs. Gas Lift after 6 months


$30,000,000.00
$25,000,000.00
$20,000,000.00
ESP profit

$15,000,000.00

Gas Lift profit

$10,000,000.00
$5,000,000.00
$0.00
Well-S1 Well-S2 Well-S3 Well-S4

References
Petroleum Engineering Handbook, Volume IV Production
Operations Engineering Joe Dunn Clegg, Editor
Artificial Lift R & D Council (ALRDC), http://www.alrdc.com
Gabor Takacs, Sucker-Rod Pumping Manual, 2003.
Centrilift Submersible Pump Handbook, Sixth Edition
Gabor Takacs, Gas Lift Manual 2005

References
Basic Artificial Lift, Canadian Oilwell Systems Company Ltd.
Oil and Gas Production Handbook, ABB 2006
Artificial Lift Design For Oil Wells, United Arab Emirates
University
http://www.slb.com/content/services/artificial/index.asp
Gabor Takacs, Electrical Submersible Pumps Manual 2009
Recommended Practice for Sizing and Selection of ESP
Installations, API RP 11S4, 2002.
Weatherford International Ltd., 2005