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Electric Vehicles and Power Electronics

August 16, 2001


Presentation at
Universidad Technica Federico Santa Maria
Valparaiso, Chili

Jih-Sheng (Jason) Lai


Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University
Center for Power Electronics Systems
668 Whittemore Hall
Blacksburg, VA 24060
TEL: 540-231-4741
FAX: 540-231-6390
EMAIL: Laijs@vt.edu
JSL

Outline of Presentation
Part A: Background and Introduction
What are Electric Vehicles?
Why Electric Vehicles?
Partnership for Next Generation Vehicles

Part B: Overview of EV/HEVs on the Market

GM EV1
Ford Ranger
Honda EVPlus, Insight
Toyota Prius
Ford P2000

Part C: Power Electronic Technologies in EV/HEV

Energy Sources
Traction Motors/Inverters
Auxiliary Motors/Inverters
Bi-directional Chargers
Basic Structure of a Fuel Cell Vehicle

JSL

Part A: Background and Introduction

What are Electric Vehicles?


Why Electric Vehicles?
Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles
Specification of Supercar
EV/HEV Configurations

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EV/HEV Definitions
An Electric Vehicle is
A vehicle fueled with mains electricity. An EV usually requires a
battery pack as energy storage.

A Hybrid Vehicle is
A chemically fueled vehicle equipped with at least one bidirectional energy reservoir. The fueled hybrid power unit
(HPU) is usually a heat engine, but may be a fuel cell. Energy
storage and delivery is usually electric.

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Driving Forces for EV/HEV


! Simplicity (1910)
! Energy Security (1970)
! Environmental Concerns (1990)
! Customer Expectations (2000)

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US Customer Expectations for EV/HEVs

!
!
!
!
!

Range:
Safety:
Performance:
Cost:
Features:

Minimum 160 km/charge


Same as ICE Vehicles
Same as ICE Vehicles
No more than ICE vehicles
No less than ICE vehicles

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Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles


Technology Areas
Hybrid/electric vehicle drive trains
Direct-injection engines
Fuel cells
Lightweight materials

LONG-TERM GOAL Development of a Supercar


Gas mileage: 3X average of Concorde/Taurus/Lumina, or 80 mpg
Load: Six passengers + 200 pounds of luggage
Range: Similar to todays models
At least 80 percent recyclable

JSL

Specifications of Baseline Vehicle and Supercar

Baseline
Curb Weight
3200 lbs
Drag coeff.
0.32
Friction:
0.005
Engine:
Internal Combustion
Fuel Efficiency: 26.6 mpg
Recycleability: 75%
Range (HWY): 380 miles
Accel (0-62 mi): 12 seconds
Luggage:
168 ft3
Load:
6 passengers + 200 lb
Life:
100,000 miles

Supercar
40% less
0.20
0.008
flywheel, battery, ultracapacitor
80 mpg (3X)
80%
same or better
same or better
same or better
same or better
same or better

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PNGV Time Table

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Where are the Energy Goes in a Conventional Car?


For Metro-Highway Driving Cycle
Rolling
5%
Accessories
2%
Fuel

Aerodynamics
6%

Engine
Driveline

100%

Engine
77%

Driveline
6%

Braking
4%

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Electric/Hybrid Electric Vehicle Configurations

Fuel
tank

Fuel
tank

ICE

Xmission

Xmission

Diff.
Wheels

Battery

Pure ICE
Drive

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ICE

ICE

Diff.
Generator
Wheels

Electric
Motor

Fuel

Battery

tank

Electric
Motor

Diff.
Wheels

Electric
Motor

Diff.
Wheels

Battery

Parallel Hybrid

Series Hybrid

Hybrid Drives

Pure Electric
Drive

ICE: Internal Combustion Engine


Xmission: Transmission
Diff.: Differential gear

How Does a Hybrid Electric Vehicle Work?

(a) Shaft driven by both ICE and


electric motor

(b) Shaft driven by electric motor


and battery is charged

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Part B: Overview of EVs on the Market

GM EV1

Ford Ecostar, Ranger

Honda EVPlus, Insight

Toyata Prius

Ford P2000

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General Motor EV1

Price: $33,995 MSRP


Lease: $424 - $574 / mo
36-month lease
$0.20/mile over
30,000 miles

http://www.gmev.com/index.htm

Power:
Top speed:
Drag coeff.:
Acceleration:
Range:

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Charging:
Braking:

137 hp
80 miles per hour
0.19
0 to 60 miles, less than 9 seconds
55 to 95 miles with 26 lead-acid battery pack
75 to 130 miles with Nickel-Metal Hydride (NiMH) battery pack
220 V, 6.6 kW non-contact inductive charging, 6 hours
front disk, rear drum, and regenerative

GM Inductive Charge Coupler

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Ford Ranger and US Post Office Electric Vehicles

Battery:
Fourth generation sealed lead acid
39x8 volt modules; 312 volt system
Capacity rating @ FUDS:
23 kWh (18 kWh at 80% discharge)
On-board Charger:
On-board, 240 V/30 A

Performance:
0-50 mph acceleration:
Rated top speed (governed) :
Customer range @ 72F:
Range - FUDS cycle @ 72F:

13 seconds
75 mph
50 miles
58 miles without A/C or heater operation

JSL

Ford Ranger Schematic


90 hp, 3-phase AC
induction

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Honda EVPlus
New Technology Features

Standard Features

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Nickel-metal hydride batteries


Permanent-magnet motor
Single-speed, direct-drive transmission
Regenerative braking
On-board charger 110- or 220-volt
Heating and air conditioning
High-intensity headlights

EPA City: 100 miles; Highway: 84 miles (Use 80% battery capacity)
Meets all federal motor vehicle safety standards
Dual airbags and 3-point seat belts
Anti-lock braking system (ABS)
Power windows, door locks and mirrors
AM/FM/CD audio system
Remote keyless entry and security system
Cargo area with "fold-flat" rear seats
Walk-in feature for rear seat access

Honda Insight Hybrid Electric Vehicle

Integrated Motor Assist:


EPA mileage ratings:
Driving range:
Drag coefficient:
Electric motor:

Battery:
Inverter:

1.0-liter, 3-cylinder gasoline engine + electric motor


61 mpg city/70 mpg highway
600 - 700 miles
0.25
36 ft-lb, 10-kW DC-brushless motor, 2.3 wide,
sits between the engine and transmission,
mounted directly to the engine's crankshaft
A 144-volt nickel metal-hydride battery pack
An advanced electronic Power Control Unit (PCU),
adopted from Honda EV PLUS

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Drivetrain of Honda Insight

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10

Toyota Prius - A Hybrid Vehicle

Engine:

1.5-liter, DOHC, 16-valve, EFI 4-cylinder with Variable


Valve Timing with intelligence (VVT-i)
Maximum Engine Output: 58 hp at 4,000 rpm
Maximum Speed:
100 mph (engine and motor combined)
Motor Type:
permanent magnet, 30 kW/40 hp at 9402,000 rpm
Battery Type:
sealed nickel-metal hydride with 40 modules
Combined Horsepower:
58 hp engine + 40 hp motor + 3 hp batteries = 101 hp
Fuel Efficiency:
66 mpg (Japanese 1015 city drive mode)
Maximum Range:
850 miles (combined city/highway)
Regeneration Braking:
Front disc/rear drum brakes with ABS
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Prius Hybrid Drivetrain

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11

Power Flow in Prius


Engine Flow
Starting from rest/low speeds
Full-throttle acceleration
Normal driving
Deceleration/braking
Generator

Inverter
Batteries

Engine
Motor

Electrical power path

Reduction Gear

Motive power path


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Emission Comparison of Prius and Corolla

Curb
Weight

Nonmethane
Organic gases
(NMOG), g/km

Carbon
Mononxide
g/km

Nitrogen
oxide
g/km

Fuel
Economy

Accel
From
0-60
mi/h

TE

Km/L

Sec.

Carbon
dioxide
g/km

Vehicle

(kg)

Car

TE

Car

TE

Car

TE

Car

Prius

1237

0.002

0.033

0.025

0.062

0.001

0.063

112 155

20.8

12.7

Corolla

1143

0.025

0.068

0.808

0.864

0.124

0.205

157 217

14.7

10.3

Note:
Car values are vehicle exhaust (tailpipe) emissions
TE values are total emissions-Car plus upstream, including fuel
cycle emission
Source: IEEE Spectrum, March 2001, Pages 47 50.

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12

Ford P2000 Low Storage Requirement (LSR) Car

Features:

Low Storage Requirement (LSR)


Direct Injection Aluminum Through-bolt Assembly (DIATA) engine
Integrated Starter/Alternator
Engine shut-down during braking and at rest
Very fast engine restart
Improve engine dynamics and shift fell
Modified shift strategy for reduced emissions
Weight and cost penalties low relative to full hybrid
enables limited re-generative braking

JSL

Comparison of P2000 LSR and Hybrid Vehicles


Series
5 + passenger, AlIntensive, Sedan

Parallel
5 passenger, Lightweight prototype

P2000
5 passenger, Lightweight prototype

HPU

55 kW, TurboAlternator

55 kW, 1.2 L, CIDI

55 kW, 1.2L, CIDI

Transmission

none

Auto 5-speed

Auto 5-speed

Traction Motor

75 kW, EV transaxle

18/30 kW motor on
4x4 transfer case

8 kW
starter/alternator

Battery
Weight

180 kW x 6 kWh
1401 kg

48 kW x 2 kWh
1258 kg

15 kW x 0.4 kWh
1000 kg

Platform

Fuel Economy Metal


(v. Taurus) City: 1.8x

Ceramic
2.9x
2.4x

2.5x

Highway

1.9x

1.9x

1.4x

2.2x

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13

Ford P2000
Hydrogen Fuel Cell Car

Traction
Inverter
Motor
Fuel
Cell

Hydrogen
Tank

Transxle
Turbo
Compressor

Chemical Energy

Electrical Energy

Mechanical Energy

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Daimler-Chrysler NECAR IV
A Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle with Built-in Reformer

Fuel:
Emission:
Top Speed:
Range:

Methanol
zero
90 mph
280 miles

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14

Part C: Power Electronic Technologies in


EV/HEV
Energy Sources and Storages
! Batteries
! Fuel Cells

Traction Motors
Soft-Switching Inverters
Bi-Directional Chargers

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Energy Sources and Storages

Lead Acid Batteries


Nickel Metal-Hydride (NiMH) Batteries
Lithium Batteries
Fuel Cells

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15

Lead Acid Batteries


Flood type:

First design in 1880s


With flat pasted plate immersed in a dilute sulfuric acid
electrolyte

Valve Regulated Lead Acid (VRLA) type:

Original development in 1960s with sealed lead acid


batteries
The gases produced during operation are recombined
to minimize water losses
Typical gas recombination efficiency is 95%
Gas recombination cell can be made with Absorptive
Glass Mat separator or Gel Electrolyte

Electric Vehicles use deep charge/discharge type


VRLA batteries
JSL

Source: www.hawker.invensys.com

VRLA Battery Charging Voltage and Current


for a Typical Tubular Gel Product

Typical
State of Charge
100%
70%
50%
20%
*

Voltage
2.13 V
2.09 V
2.06 V
2.02 V

Measuring open ckt voltage after


battery rested >24 hr.

Charging Voltage
at diff temp.
0C
2.35 V
10C
2.28 V
20C
2.23 V
30C
2.20 V
35 C
21.7 V

Charging Current

JSL

Typically 10% of the 10-hour capacity, C10

In general, not exceed 30% of C10

For fast charge, keep 2.35 V per cell with 10% of C10 as the current
limit

Source: www.hawker.invensys.com

16

Nickel Metal-Hydride (NiMH) Batteries

Negative Electrode:
rare earth/nickel alloys LaNi5 (AB5 alloys)
titanium and zirconium (AB2 alloys)

Positive Electrode: Sintered-type positive electrodes are economical


and rugged while exhibiting excellent high-rate performance, long
cycle life, and good capacity

Electrolyte: Alkaline, a dilute solution of potassium hydroxide

Energy Density: Improved energy density (up to 40 percent greater


than Nickel Cadmium cells)

GM EV1 Test Range: 55 to 95 miles with 26 lead-acid battery pack


75 to 130 miles with Nickel-Metal Hydride (NiMH) battery pack

JSL

Comparison of Nickel-Metal Hydride to Nickel


Cadmium Batteries
Nominal Voltage

Same (1.25V)

Discharge Capacity

NiMH up to 40% greater than NiCd

Discharge Profile

Equivalent

Discharge Cutoff Voltages

Equivalent

High Rate Discharge Capability

Effectively the same rates

High Temp (>35oC) Discharge Capability

NiMH slightly better than NiCd cells

Operating Temperature Limits


Self-Discharge Rate

Similar, NiMH slightly better at cold temp


Similar to NiCd

Cycle Life

Similar to NiCd

Mechanical Fit

Equivalent

Selection of Sizes/Shapes/Capacities

Equivalent

Environmental Issues

Reduced with NiMH because of elimination


of cadmium toxicity concerns. Collection
of spent NiMH batteries is not mandated

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17

Lithium/Thionyl Chloride Batteries


Negative Electrode: mixture of carbon, Teflon, fiberglass, alcohol, and water
Positive Electrode: Lithium
Electrolyte: Thionyl Chloride

Lithium batteries have been widely used in


computers and communications and will be
competing with NiMH batteries for EV
applications

JSL

Fuel Cell Vehicle - Future Trend

A fuel cell produces electricity by combining hydrogen and oxygen in


an electrochemical reaction. Fuel cells require no combustion, unlike a
conventional gasoline- or diesel-powered engine. The only emission
from hydrogen fuel cells is water vapor.

Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles (FCEVs) are similar to a battery-powered


EV except that fuel cells replace batteries. As with batteries, fuel cell
emit no carbon dioxide, although carbon dioxide and other emissions
may be created in vehicle manufacturing and fuel production.

JSL

18

Fuel Cell Vehicle Configurations with Different


Sources
Methanol
reformer

Hydrogen storage

Fuel Cell Stack

Fuel cell stack

Bi-directional
dc-dc
converter
Inverter

Fuel cell stack

Bi-directional
dc-dc
converter

Battery

Bi-directional
dc-dc
converter

Battery

Inverter

Gasoline
storage

Battery

Inverter

Motor
/Gen

Motor
/Gen

Motor
/Gen

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Partial
oxidation
ref.

Methanol
storage

Gear

Gear

Gear

(a) With hydrogen

(b) With Methanol

(c) With Gasoline

Basic Hydrogen-Oxygen Fuel Cell


-

Electrical loads

2e-

2e-

Oxidant

2H+

H2

2H+

Fuel (H2)

1/2
O2

(Air O2)
Water
H2O

Electrolyte

Electrode (-)

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(H2O)

Electrode (+)

Ion Exchange Membrane


(IEM)

19

Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cell


-

Electrical loads

6eCO2

Methanol
Fuel
CH3CH

CO2
+
6H+

Vaporizer
Methanol
Reformer
CO2
Oxidization
Catalyst

Water
H2O

+
6e-

H+

H+

H+

H+

H+

H+

H+

H+

H+

H+

Water
3H2O
(H2O, N2, O2)
6H+
+
3/2 O2

Oxidant
(Air O2)

Electrode (+)

Electrode (-)

Proton Exchange Membrane


(PEM)

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Fuel Cell Output Voltage and Current


Characteristic
400

Stack Voltage(V)

350
300
250
200
150
100
50
0
0

100

200

300

Stack Current(A)
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20

Fuel Cell Output Power and Current


Characteristic
90

Net Power (kW)

80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
0

100

200

300

Stack Current (A)

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20 kW Future Car Stack

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21

Traction Motors/Inverters

Motor Design Consideration


1. Using Federal Urban Driving Schedule to Find Most
Critical Speed and Torque Region
2. Optimize Motor Design in Proper Torque-Speed
Regions

Motor Types
Inverter Partitioning for Integrated Inverter-Motor
Soft-Switching Inverter Considerations
Bi-directional Chargers for Fuel Cell Vehicles
1. A 20-kW Non-isolated Bi-directional Converter
2. A 5-kW Isolated Bi-directional Converter

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Motor Design Consideration 1


Using Federal Urban Driving Schedule to Find Most Critical
Speed and Torque Regions

Speed (mph)

FUDS CYCLE
60
40
20
0
0

500

1000

1500

Current (amp)

Battery Current
(Pos=Discharge)
Time
(sec)
150
100
50
0
-50
-100
0
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500

1000

1500

Time (seconds)

22

Motor Design Consideration 2


Optimize Motor Design in Proper Torque-Speed Regions Resulting
High-Speed (20,000 rpm) Design that Cuts Size and Weight by 30%
Torque-Speed Envelope
120

100

Torque (lbft,hp)

80

Torque
Power
Efficiency

60

40

20

0
0

10

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15

20

25

Speed (x1000 rpm )

Motor Types

Induction Motor

Permanent Magnet Motor

Switched Reluctance Motor

Other Combinations

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23

Inverter Partitioning for Integrated Inverter-Motor


ADVANCED AC MOTOR
AND CASING
GEAR
ASSEMBLY

CONTROLLER
MOUNTING
BLOCK

MOTOR LINE
COOLANT
INVERTER

GEAR
LUBRICANT

POWER
MODULE
INSULATOR

COOLANT/LUB
RICANT
INTPUT
TRACTION
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COLD PLATE

OPTICALDRIVE
SIGNAL
OPTICAL STATUS
SIGNAL

POWER INPUT

Inverter Design and Partioning

Battery

Fuel Cell
Unit

Power Flow Control

IGBT Modules

Hall Sensors

ia ib

Gate Driver with


Protection

DSP
Circuit

Induction
Motor

Optical
Encoder

va vb

Sensor
Conditioning

Interface
Circuit

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24

Using Optical Fiber to Link Integrated Power


Stage and Control Interface
Optical fiber link

Gate
Driver

Gate
Driver

Gate
Driver

Interface
Board

IGBT Based Inverter


Power Stage
Motor

DSP

Sensing
Board

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Compact Gate Driver with Optical Fiber Link


+15V
6

Optical Fiber
4

MC33153

Fault

8
+15V
Ron
5

PWM

IGBT
Module

Roff
-5V

2
-5V

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25

Soft-Switching Inverter Considerations

Zero-Voltage-Transition Auxiliary Resonant Commutated Pole


(ARCP) Inverter for AC Motor Drives

Zero-Current Transition (ZCT) Inverter

Advantages:
Allow high switching frequencies
Low switching losses
Low EMI

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Turn-on Loss Reduction with Soft-Switching

Vce(100v/div)

Vce(100v/div)

Is(10A/div)

Is(10A/div)

Hard-switching

Soft-switching
Current, Iswitch
Voltage, Vswitch

Power, Pswitch
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26

Turn-off Loss Reduction with Soft-Switching


Is(10A/div)

Is(10A/div)

Vce(100v/div)

Vce(100v/div)

Hard-switching

Soft-switching
Voltage, Vswitch
Current, Iswitch

Power, Pswitch
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A Zero-Voltage-Transition Inverter for AC Motors


Auxiliary Resonant Commutated Pole (ARCP)

Csp

S1

C1

S3

C3

S5

C5

Lra
Vs

Lrb

Sa

Sb
Csn

auxiliary circuits
S4

C4

S6

ac
motor

Lrc
Sc
C6

S2

C2

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27

Basic Operating Principle of ZVT SoftSwitching


C1

S1
ILr

Lr

ILoad

C1

S1
ILr

ILr

Ix

Lr

ILoad

ILoad
0

C2

S2
From t1 to t2

C1

Lr

IS1
0

From t2 to t2

S1
ILr

C2

S2

ILoad

IS2
C1

S1
Lr

ILr

IC2
0
IC1

ILoad
0

C2

S2

Sr

C2

S2

t1
t 2

From t2 to t3

t2 t3 t4
t 3

From t3 to t4

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ARCP ZVT Inverter Test Results


A
CX1

B
C

SX1

SX2

Vdc

LX1
CX2

DS2

D
2 s/div

D1 C S

ia

M1
S2

ia
D2 C S

Auxiliary Circuit
Inverter efficiency [%]

A : vg(S2) (20 V/div)


B : ia (200 A/div)
C : iax (200 A/div)
D : vS2 (200 V/div)

S1

DS1

97

96

95

94

without diodes
with diodes

93

92

91
50.2 80.9 5.0 20.7 50.5 101.4 5.9 12.2 41.6 10.1 14.8 31.9 13.3 20.4 Torque [N-m]
1920

3770

5635

7560

9460

Speed [rpm]

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28

Zero Current Transition Inverter

Sr1

Sr3

Sr5

S1

S3

S5

Lr Cr
Vs

Cs

AC
Motor
Sr4

Sr6

Sr2

S4

S6

S2

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Basic Operation of ZCT Soft Turn-on


S1
ILr

Lr

Cr

S1
ILoad

current + VCr
direction
S2
in this
period

ILr Lr

From t1 to t2

S1

From t2 to t3

0 S1
0

VCr

ILr

VCE1

IS1

ILoad

S1
ILoad

S2

ILoad

current
direction
S2
in this
period

From t0 to t1

ILr Lr

Cr

0 Sr

ILr Lr

ILoad
S2

t0

t1 t2 t3 t4

From t3 to t4

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29

Test Results of 30-kW Soft-Switching Inverters


ARCP ZVT

Ix (200 A/div)
Iload (200A/div)
Vce (200 V/div)
5ms/div
5

/d i

Vce (250 V/div)

ZCT

Ix (200 A/div)
ILoad (200A/div)
5ms/div
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Basic Operation of ZCT Soft Turn-off


S1
ILr Lr

Cr

S1
ILoad

ILr Lr

Cr

0 Sr
ILoad

0 S1

+V

Cr
Initial
VCr is S2
negative

S2

From t5 to t6

From t6 to t7

S1
ILr Lr

ILr

VCE1

IS1

Vdc

ILoad

S1
ILoad

S2

VCr

ILr Lr

ILoad
S2

t5 t6 t7 t8 t9
From t7 to t8

t10

From t8 to t10

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30

Soft-Switching Inverter Assembled in EV1


Chassis
Development...

Testing...

On the Road...

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Bi-directional Charger for Fuel Cell Powered


Electric Vehicles

Other
Loads

Energy
Storage Cap.
Inverter

Battery
for Startup

CMEU
Controller

Bi-directional
Power Flow
dc-dc Converter

Fuel Cell

Voltage Clamp

High Voltage Bus (>300V)


+

Motor

Compressor
Motor
Expanding
Unit

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31

Why Bi-directional DC-DC Converter is Needed?


1. Need to have high voltage to start up the CMEU controller.
2. Need to stabilize the bus voltage during transient
conditions.
3. Need battery to charge the dc bus bus for the initial startup
power (Boost operation)
3. Need to keep battery charged (Buck operation)

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Circuit Topology Considerations for the


Bi-directional DC-DC Converter
1.
2.
3.
4.

Single-directional vs. bi-directional


Isolated vs. non-isolated
Multiple-leg Interleaved vs. single-leg
Voltage source vs. current source for either primary or
secondary side
5. Low side battery with 12 V, 42 V, or 180 V vs. high side
fuel cell at about 300 V

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32

Non-Isolated Buck Converter


d

Q1

Vg

vgs
g

D1

C v

vgs Gate on

Gate off

Inductor
charged

Inductor
discharged

Capacitor
charged

Capacitor
discharged

Average output voltage:

V = DVg
where D is the duty ratio.
Because D < 1, V is always less
than Vg " buck converting

iL

DTs

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DTs

Non-Isolated Boost Converter


L

iL

+ vL

Vg

iD
Q1

iQ

D1

iC

vgs
vgs Gate on

Inductor
charged

Gate off

Inductor
discharged

iL

v
JSL

Capacitor
discharged

DTs

Capacitor
charged

+
R

Average output voltage:

V=

1
1
Vg = Vg
D'
1 D

where D is the duty ratio, and


D = 1 D. Because D < 1, V
is always greater than Vg "
boost converting

DTs

33

Non-Isolated Single-Directional Boost Converter


Non-Interleaved vs. Interleaved

Load

L1

+
VFC

Vbatt

Sd

L2

S2u

i1

i2

VFC

S1d

Vbatt

(a) Non-Interleaved

Load

S1u

Su

S2d

(b) Interleaved

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A Non-Isolated Bi-Directional DC-DC Converter


with Interleaved Control
Power module
S2u

S3u

VFC

Ld3
Vbatt

S2d

Load

Ld2

S3d

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34

Ripple Current Cancellation Effect in a 20 kW


Interleaved Boost Converter
IL1 IL2

33 A/div
IL1 + IL2

33 A/div
50 s/div
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Efficiency (%)

Efficiency Test Results of a 20 kW Interleaved


Boost Converter
98
96
94
92
90
88
86

Predicted

experimental
At Vin = 200 V, Vo = 300 V

5000

10000

15000

20000

25000

Output Power (W)


DCM operated converter has parasitic ringing losses at the light load
condition, and the efficiency is suffered.
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Isolated Buck Converter


L
Q1

Q3
1:n

+ Cf
Vg

b
Q4

Q2

+
v

Suitable for high voltage input and low voltage output


Zero-voltage switching can be achieved with phase-shift modulation

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Isolated Boost Converter


L
Q1

+ Cf
Vg

1:n

C
Q2

Q3

b
Q4

+
v

Suitable for low voltage input and high voltage output


The main problem is high voltage stress on the switching devices

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Low-Voltage Side Half-Bridge Current-Fed


Isolated Bi-directional Converter
S5
L1

S8

L2
Llk

1:n

Vb

Co

S1

S7

S2
Rc

!
!
!

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S6

Cc

Low switch counts


Simple transformer winding structure
Low transformer current
Start-up problem
Low choke ripple frequency (fs)
Duty cycle limitation
Passive clamp is easy to implement but lossy

Low-Voltage Side Full-Bridge Current-Fed


Isolated Bi-directional Converter
L
S1

S4

S5

S8

Sc
Llk

1:n

Vb

Co

Cc

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!
!
!
!

S3

S2

S7

S6

Simple voltage clamp circuit implementation


Simple transformer winding structure and lower turns ratio
Low transformer current
High choke ripple frequency (2fs)
Start-up problem
High switches count

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Complete Bi-directional dc-dc Charger with


Clamping and Start-up Circuits
Start-up circuit
Df

If

Lkf
L

p
+

IL

S5

Tr

Vpn A
Cin

Lk

Vo

C
Is

Ic

1:n

S7

Co

-Ip

Vb

S8

S4

S1

Sc

1:n

S6

S2

Cc _ S3
n

Active Clamp circuit


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Prototype of a Liquid Cooled Bi-directional


DC-DC Converter to be Installed in a Fuel
Cell Vehicle

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Start-up Mode Operation

IL

125 A/d

Is

20 A/d

Start Up Process:
t0-t1
t1-t2

100 A/d

ILref

t2-t3
100 V/d

Vo

t0

t1

Start-up
Transition
command from start-up
initiation to regular
boost

t2

t3-

Start up mode, open loop


controlled
Boost mode, open loop
controlled
Boost mode, inner current
loop regulated
Boost mode, outer voltage
loop regulated

t3

Load
Vo
engaged at regulated
Vo=255 V

Vb = 12 V, IL = 161 A, Vo = 280 V,
Pd = 1.83 kW in steady state

Average current
loop regulated

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Switch Voltage and Current Waveforms in


Boost (Discharging) Mode Operation

S3

Is

10 A/d

Vpn

10 V/d

Vb = 8 V, IL = 228 A, Vo = 288 V, Pd = 1.55 kW


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Comparison of Measured Efficiency Profile for


Efficie ncy Discharging (Boost) Mode Operation
0.94
10 V

0.92
8V

Full-Bridge

Test conditions:

0.9

Start-up, battery discharging


0.88

10 V

0.86

8V

L-Type

Battery voltage: Vb = 8 and 10 V


High side voltage: Vo = 288 V
Switching freq.: fs = 20 kHz

0.84
0.82
400

1.
2.
3.
4.

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600

800

1,000 1,200 1,400 1,600


Po

Higher battery voltage, higher overall efficiency.


Full bridge is more efficient than the L-type half-bridge converter in overall
operating range.
Efficiency at light-load exceeds 90% with full-bridge version.
L-type converter is lossy due to passive clamp circuit.

Switch Voltage and Current Waveforms in


Buck (Charging) Mode Operation

Vcd

250 V/d

Is

20 A/d

Vpn

50 V/d

Vb = 15 V, IL = 335 A, Vo = 425 V, Pcp = 5 kW


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Comparison of Measured Efficiency Profile for


Charging (Buck) Mode Operation
Efficie ncy
0.95
0.925

Full-Bridge

0.9
0.875
0.85
0.825
0.8
0.775
0.75
0.725
0.7

1.
2.

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Test conditions:

L-Type

Regenerative Mode
Battery voltage: Vb=15 V
High voltage bus: Vo=425 V

1,000

2,000
3,000
Pch (W)

4,000

5,000

L-type half-bridge efficiency reaches only 90%


Full bridge converter is more efficient with peak efficiency 95% because

more devices in parallel on low-voltage side

active clamp circuit provides lossless snubbing

soft-switching with zero-voltage zero-current operations

Summary and Discussions


Development of EV/HEV is very vital in recent years
HEV has hit the market since 1999
Fuel cell is becoming the choice of energy source for future
EVs
Power electronics is the main driver of EV/HEV
Key power electronics technologies are traction motor/inverter
drives and bi-directional chargers
Power electronics engineers are in great demand

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