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Marketing: An Introduction, 12e (Armstrong/Kotler)

Chapter 5 Understanding Consumer and Business Buyer Behavior


1) ________ refers to the practice of including ethnic themes within a company's mainstream
marketing.
A) Cross-cultural marketing
B) Buzz marketing
C) Viral marketing
D) Guerilla marketing
E) Cause marketing
Answer: A
Difficulty: Easy
Chapter LO: 1
Course LO: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior
2) Which of the following is most likely a true statement about social class?
A) Members of a social class vary drastically in their values, interests, and behaviors.
B) In the United States, the lines between social classes are fixed and rigid.
C) Social classes show distinct product preferences in areas such as clothing.
D) Wealth is a more important variable than education in measuring social class.
E) Consumers of the same age belong to the same social class.
Answer: C
Difficulty: Moderate
Chapter LO: 1
Course LO: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior
3) Which of the following is a social factor that influences consumer buying behavior?
A) family
B) life-cycle stage
C) economic situation
D) personality
E) occupation
Answer: A
Difficulty: Easy
Chapter LO: 1
Course LO: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior

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4) A shoe company's ads feature the members of a popular country music band. Product sales
increase significantly among the band's fans. From the fans' viewpoint, the band is a(n)
________.
A) membership group
B) reference group
C) laggard
D) subculture
E) late-majority adopter
Answer: B
Difficulty: Moderate
Chapter LO: 1
Course LO: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior
AACSB: Analytic thinking
5) ________ are people within a reference group who, because of special skills, knowledge,
personality, or other characteristics, exert social influence on others.
A) Opinion leaders
B) Late mainstream adopters
C) Strangers
D) Barnacles
E) Lagging adopters
Answer: A
Difficulty: Easy
Chapter LO: 1
Course LO: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior
6) Which of the following types of marketing involves creating opinion leaders to serve as brand
ambassadors to spread the word about a company's products?
A) social marketing
B) traditional marketing
C) buzz marketing
D) direct marketing
E) values marketing
Answer: C
Difficulty: Easy
Chapter LO: 1
Course LO: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior

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7) Opinion leaders are also known as ________.


A) lagging adopters
B) leading adopters
C) early mainstream adopters
D) late mainstream adopters
E) barnacles
Answer: B
Difficulty: Moderate
Chapter LO: 1
Course LO: Discuss how marketers can develop a safe and effective online presence
AACSB: Information technology
8) When marketers want to promote their products and services through word-of-mouth
marketing programs, they typically begin by ________.
A) pushing one-way commercials at customers
B) identifying and targeting late adopters
C) developing print and radio advertisements
D) generating person-to-person brand conversations
E) withdrawing from online social networks
Answer: D
Difficulty: Moderate
Chapter LO: 1
Course LO: Discuss how marketers can develop a safe and effective online presence
AACSB: Analytic thinking
9) Which term refers to the activities a person is expected to perform according to the people
around him or her?
A) motive
B) role
C) cue
D) status
E) attitude
Answer: B
Difficulty: Easy
Chapter LO: 1
Course LO: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior
10) A(n) ________ reflects the general esteem given to the different roles of a person by society.
A) motive
B) attitude
C) belief
D) tradition
E) status
Answer: E
Difficulty: Easy
Chapter LO: 1
Course LO: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior
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Copyright 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

11) Which of the following is a personal factor that influences a consumer's buying behavior?
A) life-cycle stage
B) motivation
C) status
D) family
E) social networks
Answer: A
Difficulty: Easy
Chapter LO: 1
Course LO: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior
12) A marketing firm has been assigned the task of watching trends in personal income, savings,
and interest rates. The marketing firm is most likely gathering information about consumers'
________.
A) social network usage rates
B) economic situations
C) occupational needs
D) purchasing perceptions
E) brand affiliations
Answer: B
Difficulty: Easy
Chapter LO: 1
Course LO: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior
13) Which of the following is a psychographic characteristic of a consumer?
A) gender
B) age
C) lifestyle
D) occupation
E) economic status
Answer: C
Difficulty: Moderate
Chapter LO: 1
Course LO: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior
14) ________ refers to the unique psychological characteristics that distinguish a person or
group.
A) Personality
B) Lifestyle
C) Status
D) Attitude
E) Role
Answer: A
Difficulty: Easy
Chapter LO: 1
Course LO: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior
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Copyright 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

15) Which of the following terms is used to describe a specific mix of human traits that may be
attributed to a particular brand?
A) brand perception
B) brand architecture
C) brand personality
D) brand loyalty
E) brand equity
Answer: C
Difficulty: Easy
Chapter LO: 1
Course LO: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior
16) A(n) ________ is a need that is sufficiently pressing to direct a person to seek satisfaction.
A) stimulus
B) motive
C) cue
D) perception
E) attitude
Answer: B
Difficulty: Easy
Chapter LO: 1
Course LO: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior
17) According to Sigmund Freud's theory, a person's buying decisions are ________.
A) easily revealed through online marketing surveys and questionnaires
B) affected by motives that the person is completely aware of
C) always driven by the need for status and independence
D) motivated by needs that are arranged in a hierarchy
E) affected by subconscious, hidden motivations
Answer: E
Difficulty: Moderate
Chapter LO: 1
Course LO: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior
18) Which of the following needs in Maslow's hierarchy is generally satisfied last?
A) physiological needs
B) social needs
C) esteem needs
D) self-actualization needs
E) safety needs
Answer: D
Difficulty: Moderate
Chapter LO: 1
Course LO: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior

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19) According to Maslow's hierarchy of needs, which of the following is most likely an esteem
need?
A) love
B) security
C) hunger
D) self-development
E) status
Answer: E
Difficulty: Moderate
Chapter LO: 1
Course LO: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior
20) According to Maslow's hierarchy of needs, which of the following is true?
A) The most pressing needs are placed at the top of the hierarchy.
B) Physiological needs include a sense of belonging and love.
C) An individual will try to satisfy least pressing needs first.
D) Lower-level needs are fulfilled before higher-level needs.
E) All needs in the hierarchy are biological needs.
Answer: D
Difficulty: Moderate
Chapter LO: 1
Course LO: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior
21) People tend to interpret new information in a way that will support what they already
believe. This is called ________.
A) selective retention
B) selective distortion
C) selective attitude
D) selective attention
E) selective learning
Answer: B
Difficulty: Moderate
Chapter LO: 1
Course LO: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior
22) ________ means that consumers are likely to remember good points made about a brand
they favor and forget the good points made about competing brands.
A) Selective retention
B) Selective distortion
C) Selective attention
D) Restraint bias
E) Subliminal perception
Answer: A
Difficulty: Moderate
Chapter LO: 1
Course LO: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior
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23) A(n) ________ becomes a motive when it is directed toward a particular stimulus object.
A) cue
B) drive
C) response
D) belief
E) attitude
Answer: B
Difficulty: Easy
Chapter LO: 1
Course LO: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior
24) ________ are minor stimuli that influence where, when, and how a person responds to an
idea.
A) Cues
B) Drives
C) Motives
D) Needs
E) Attitudes
Answer: A
Difficulty: Easy
Chapter LO: 1
Course LO: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior
25) A(n) ________ describes a person's relatively consistent evaluations, feelings, and tendencies
toward an object or idea.
A) role
B) cue
C) drive
D) attitude
E) motive
Answer: D
Difficulty: Easy
Chapter LO: 1
Course LO: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior
26) Which of the following is the first stage of the buyer decision process?
A) need recognition
B) information search
C) alternative evaluation
D) purchase decision
E) postpurchase behavior
Answer: A
Difficulty: Moderate
Chapter LO: 2
Course LO: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior

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27) Becca wants to buy a new coat. She asks her friends to recommend a store and/or a style of
coat. She looks for sale advertisements for coats in newspapers and also visits nearby stores to
check if she can find something in her budget. In this case, Becca is most likely in the ________
stage of the buyer decision process.
A) product evaluation
B) alternative evaluation
C) need recognition
D) information search
E) purchase decision
Answer: D
Difficulty: Moderate
Chapter LO: 2
Course LO: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior
AACSB: Analytic thinking
28) Which of the following sources of product information can marketers control completely?
A) public sources
B) personal sources
C) commercial sources
D) experimental sources
E) experiential sources
Answer: C
Difficulty: Moderate
Chapter LO: 2
Course LO: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior
29) Which of the following is a commercial source of product information?
A) acquaintances
B) family and friends
C) dealer Web sites
D) consumer rating organizations
E) Internet searches
Answer: C
Difficulty: Moderate
Chapter LO: 2
Course LO: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior
AACSB: Analytic thinking

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Copyright 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

30) Which of the following is an experiential source of product information?


A) salespeople
B) using the product
C) Internet searches
D) packaging
E) mass media
Answer: B
Difficulty: Moderate
Chapter LO: 2
Course LO: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior
AACSB: Analytic thinking
31) The most effective sources of information about a product tend to be ________ sources.
A) commercial
B) public
C) experimental
D) personal
E) paid
Answer: D
Difficulty: Easy
Chapter LO: 2
Course LO: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior
32) In which of the following stages of the buyer decision process does a consumer compare
multiple products with similar attributes?
A) alternative evaluation
B) need recognition
C) information search
D) purchase decision
E) postpurchase behavior
Answer: A
Difficulty: Moderate
Chapter LO: 2
Course LO: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior

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Copyright 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

33) Jeff is in the process of buying a new car. He carefully analyzes the features that he wants in
a car, and perceives significant differences in price, quality, and features among three of his
favorite models. He rates the models on each factor and ranks them in the order of his
preference. To which of the following stages of the buyer decision process will Jeff most likely
proceed next?
A) postpurchase behavior
B) evaluation of alternatives
C) information search
D) need recognition
E) purchase decision
Answer: E
Difficulty: Moderate
Chapter LO: 2
Course LO: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior
AACSB: Analytic thinking
34) Simone bought two bottles of wine from two vineyards in Bordeaux. When asked for an
opinion on the quality of the wines, she later mentioned that the Pontet Canet tasted like
alcoholic grape juice, but the Chateau Margaux had a crisp taste that she really enjoyed. Which
of the following stages of the buyer decision process do Simone's remarks reflect?
A) information search
B) situational analysis
C) alternative evaluation
D) purchase decision
E) postpurchase behavior
Answer: E
Difficulty: Moderate
Chapter LO: 2
Course LO: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior
AACSB: Analytic thinking
35) ________ is a discomfort caused by postpurchase conflict.
A) Selective retention
B) Cognitive dissonance
C) Selective attention
D) Restraint bias
E) Subliminal perception
Answer: B
Difficulty: Moderate
Chapter LO: 2
Course LO: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior
AACSB: Analytic thinking

10
Copyright 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

36) Alice is shopping for a new car, and she has narrowed her decision to a Honda Accord and a
Toyota Camry. Both sedans have similar features and prices, but Alice decides to purchase the
Honda based on her intuition. Which of the following situations would most likely cause Alice to
experience postpurchase dissonance?
A) The price of the Honda Accord increases by a huge margin.
B) The price of the Toyota Camry falls due to an increase in demand.
C) The Honda Accord meets all her expectations and satisfies her needs.
D) The Toyota Camry experiences technical failures that lead to a recall.
E) The maintenance costs of the Honda Accord decrease significantly over time.
Answer: B
Difficulty: Difficult
Chapter LO: 2
Course LO: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior
AACSB: Analytic thinking
37) Bill thought he had received the best deal on his new car. Shortly after the purchase, Bill
started to notice certain disadvantages of his new car as he learned more about other cars
available in the same price range. Bill is in which of the following stages of the buyer decision
process?
A) purchase decision
B) need recognition
C) postpurchase behavior
D) information search
E) alternate evaluation
Answer: C
Difficulty: Moderate
Chapter LO: 2
Course LO: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior
AACSB: Analytic thinking
38) In which of the following stages of the adoption process does a consumer seek information
about a new product?
A) interest
B) adoption
C) evaluation
D) awareness
E) trial
Answer: A
Difficulty: Easy
Chapter LO: 3
Course LO: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior

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39) In which of the following stages of the adoption process does a consumer consider whether
trying a new product makes sense?
A) interest
B) adoption
C) evaluation
D) awareness
E) trial
Answer: C
Difficulty: Easy
Chapter LO: 3
Course LO: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior
40) ________ are tradition-bound, suspicious of changes, and adopt an innovation only when it
has become something of a tradition itself.
A) Latent innovators
B) Early adopters
C) Early mainstream adopters
D) Lagging adopters
E) Late mainstream adopters
Answer: D
Difficulty: Easy
Chapter LO: 3
Course LO: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior
41) Fred's faith in his favorite brand makes him consider new initiatives and products introduced
by the brand. Fred is not a risk-taker, and he tends to evaluate each new product carefully before
adopting it. Fred is an opinion leader in his social networking community. Fred is best described
as a(n) ________.
A) lagging adopter
B) innovator
C) early adopter
D) early mainstream adopter
E) late mainstream adopter
Answer: C
Difficulty: Difficult
Chapter LO: 3
Course LO: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior
AACSB: Analytic thinking

12
Copyright 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

42) ________ is the degree to which an innovation appears superior to existing products.
A) Relative advantage
B) Compatibility
C) Complexity
D) Divisibility
E) Communicability
Answer: A
Difficulty: Easy
Chapter LO: 3
Course LO: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior
43) ________ is the degree to which an innovation fits the values and experiences of potential
consumers.
A) Relative advantage
B) Divisibility
C) Complexity
D) Compatibility
E) Communicability
Answer: D
Difficulty: Easy
Chapter LO: 3
Course LO: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior
44) ________ is the degree to which an innovation is difficult to understand or use.
A) Relative advantage
B) Compatibility
C) Complexity
D) Divisibility
E) Communicability
Answer: C
Difficulty: Easy
Chapter LO: 3
Course LO: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior
45) ________ is the degree to which an innovation may be tried on a limited basis.
A) Divisibility
B) Compatibility
C) Communicability
D) Relative advantage
E) Complexity
Answer: A
Difficulty: Easy
Chapter LO: 3
Course LO: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior

13
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46) ________ is the degree to which the results of using an innovation can be observed or
described to others.
A) Relative advantage
B) Compatibility
C) Complexity
D) Divisibility
E) Communicability
Answer: E
Difficulty: Easy
Chapter LO: 3
Course LO: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior
47) Which of the following is true of business markets?
A) The business marketer normally deals with far more but far smaller buyers than the consumer
marketer does.
B) Business markets generally involve far less money and items than do consumer markets.
C) Business demand is derived demand as it ultimately derives from the demand for consumer
goods.
D) A small percentage decrease in consumer demand can cause a large increase in business
demand.
E) The total demand for business products is much affected by price changes in the short run.
Answer: C
Difficulty: Easy
Chapter LO: 4
Course LO: Describe the business buying process
48) Which of the following generally increases the total demand for business products?
A) an increase in product price
B) a reduction in the number of business buyers
C) an increase in consumer demand
D) low buyer demand
E) high production costs
Answer: C
Difficulty: Moderate
Chapter LO: 4
Course LO: Describe the business buying process
49) In a straight rebuy, a buyer ________.
A) wants to obtain the same product from a lower-priced supplier
B) reorders something without any modifications
C) considers a product or service for the first time
D) needs a modified product to suit new requirements
E) finds new ways to add value to the same product
Answer: B
Difficulty: Easy
Chapter LO: 4
Course LO: Describe the business buying process
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50) A company regularly purchases cleaning supplies from a vendor and orders relatively
consistent amounts of the same products on each purchase from the same vendor. This is an
example of a(n) ________.
A) modified rebuy
B) new task situation
C) straight rebuy
D) dual distribution system
E) exclusive distribution system
Answer: C
Difficulty: Easy
Chapter LO: 4
Course LO: Describe the business buying process
51) A business buyer is considering a change in product specifications, terms, and possibly
suppliers. This buying situation is referred to as a(n) ________.
A) modified rebuy
B) new-task situation
C) straight rebuy
D) dual distribution channel
E) exclusive distribution channel
Answer: A
Difficulty: Moderate
Chapter LO: 4
Course LO: Describe the business buying process
52) ________ is defined as a business strategy where business buyers prefer to buy a complete
solution to a problem from a single seller rather than buying separate products and services from
several suppliers.
A) Modified rebuy
B) Straight rebuy
C) New task buying
D) Systems selling
E) Supplier development
Answer: D
Difficulty: Easy
Chapter LO: 4
Course LO: Describe the business buying process

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53) Which of the following statements about buying centers is true?


A) The buying center is a fixed and formally identified unit within a buying organization.
B) Roles in the buying center are specified in the organizational chart of a firm.
C) The CEO of an organization is always the decision maker in a buying center.
D) An individual's role in a buying center does not change with time.
E) Some buying centers involve informal participants.
Answer: E
Difficulty: Easy
Chapter LO: 4
Course LO: Describe the business buying process
54) Voorhees' Farms raises chickens. For years, it has used wooden coops for hauling its poultry
to market. When the owner, Jason Voorhees, went to reuse some of his coops, he noticed many of
them could not be sufficiently cleaned for reuse and needed to be replaced. Which stage of the
business buying process was Voorhees in when he decided to replace his old coops?
A) problem recognition
B) general need description
C) product specification
D) product value analysis
E) performance review
Answer: A
Difficulty: Moderate
Chapter LO: 5
Course LO: Describe the business buying process
AACSB: Analytic thinking
55) During which stage of the business buying process is a buyer most likely to conduct value
analysis by carefully studying components to determine if they can be redesigned, standardized,
or made less expensively?
A) general need recognition
B) product specification
C) proposal solicitation
D) order-routine specification
E) performance review
Answer: B
Difficulty: Moderate
Chapter LO: 5
Course LO: Describe the business buying process

16
Copyright 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

56) Mike's, a chain of department stores, regularly purchases plastic bags from a certain supplier.
The store decides to switch to less expensive bags made of biodegradable plastic. The change
will promote an environmentally-friendly image for the department store and cut costs. This
approach to cost reduction most likely occurred in the ________ stage of the business buying
process.
A) problem recognition
B) general need description
C) product specification
D) supplier search
E) proposal solicitation
Answer: C
Difficulty: Difficult
Chapter LO: 5
Course LO: Describe the business buying process
AACSB: Analytic thinking
57) GenX, a manufacturer of sport motorcycles, is seeking a new supplier of motorcycle
headlamps and brake lights. After searching trade directories, GenX invites five different
suppliers to make formal presentations about how their solutions can create greater value for
GenX than competing solutions. GenX is currently in the ________ stage of the business buying
process.
A) problem recognition
B) general need description
C) product specification
D) supplier search
E) proposal solicitation
Answer: E
Difficulty: Difficult
Chapter LO: 5
Course LO: Describe the business buying process
AACSB: Analytic thinking
58) Which of the following is most likely the final stage of the business buying process?
A) problem recognition
B) product specification
C) proposal solicitation
D) order-routine specification
E) supplier performance review
Answer: E
Difficulty: Easy
Chapter LO: 5
Course LO: Describe the business buying process

17
Copyright 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

59) Which of the following is the means by which companies post purchase requests online and
invite suppliers to bid for their business?
A) extranet links
B) intranet connections
C) trading exchanges
D) traditional procurement
E) reverse auctions
Answer: E
Difficulty: Easy
Chapter LO: 5
Course LO: Describe the business buying process
AACSB: Information technology
60) Which of the following do organizational buyers use when they want to connect with
important suppliers and create direct procurement accounts?
A) extranet links
B) intranet links
C) search engines
D) trading exchanges
E) reverse auctions
Answer: A
Difficulty: Moderate
Chapter LO: 5
Course LO: Describe the business buying process
AACSB: Information technology
61) Social class is not determined by a single factor, such as income, but is measured as a
combination of occupation, income, education, wealth, and other variables.
Answer: TRUE
Difficulty: Easy
Chapter LO: 1
Course LO: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior
62) Consumers within a social class tend to exhibit similar buying behaviors.
Answer: TRUE
Difficulty: Easy
Chapter LO: 1
Course LO: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior
63) A consumer's buying behavior is often influenced by reference groups to which the consumer
does not belong.
Answer: TRUE
Difficulty: Easy
Chapter LO: 1
Course LO: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior

18
Copyright 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

64) A role consists of the activities people are expected to perform according to the people
around them.
Answer: TRUE
Difficulty: Easy
Chapter LO: 1
Course LO: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior
65) People use the same products and services as they progress through each life-cycle stage.
Answer: FALSE
Difficulty: Easy
Chapter LO: 1
Course LO: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior
66) According to Maslow's theory, safety and social needs must be fulfilled after selfactualization needs.
Answer: FALSE
Difficulty: Moderate
Chapter LO: 1
Course LO: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior
67) Selective distortion describes the tendency of people to interpret information in a way that
will support what they already believe.
Answer: TRUE
Difficulty: Easy
Chapter LO: 1
Course LO: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior
68) Advertisements are internal stimuli that influence consumer needs.
Answer: FALSE
Difficulty: Moderate
Chapter LO: 1
Course LO: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior
69) When a consumer learns about a new product for the first time and makes a decision to try it,
the consumer is engaged in the alternative evaluation process.
Answer: FALSE
Difficulty: Easy
Chapter LO: 2
Course LO: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior
70) Personal sources of information normally inform the buyer, but commercial sources
legitimize or evaluate products for the buyer.
Answer: FALSE
Difficulty: Easy
Chapter LO: 2
Course LO: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior
19
Copyright 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

71) The larger the gap between expectations and performance of a product, the greater a
consumer's dissatisfaction.
Answer: TRUE
Difficulty: Easy
Chapter LO: 2
Course LO: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior
72) Early adopters are opinion leaders in their communities and adopt new ideas early but
carefully.
Answer: TRUE
Difficulty: Easy
Chapter LO: 3
Course LO: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior
73) Innovators are tradition-bound and adopt an innovation only when it has become something
of a tradition itself.
Answer: FALSE
Difficulty: Easy
Chapter LO: 3
Course LO: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior
74) Ben usually buys new devices such as PDAs, DVRs, and MP3 players only after his friends
and family start owning these devices. In this case, Ben is an innovator.
Answer: FALSE
Difficulty: Moderate
Chapter LO: 3
Course LO: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior
AACSB: Analytic thinking
75) A small increase in consumer demand can cause a large increase in business demand.
Answer: TRUE
Difficulty: Easy
Chapter LO: 4
Course LO: Describe the business buying process
76) A business marketer normally deals with far fewer buyers than a consumer marketer does.
Answer: TRUE
Difficulty: Easy
Chapter LO: 4
Course LO: Describe the business buying process
77) The business buying process tends to be longer and more formalized than the consumer
buying process.
Answer: TRUE
Difficulty: Easy
Chapter LO: 4
Course LO: Describe the business buying process
20
Copyright 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

78) A buyer and seller are less dependent on each other in a business buying process than in a
consumer buying process.
Answer: FALSE
Difficulty: Easy
Chapter LO: 4
Course LO: Describe the business buying process
79) In a straight rebuy, a buyer reorders something without any modifications.
Answer: TRUE
Difficulty: Easy
Chapter LO: 4
Course LO: Describe the business buying process
80) A company buying a product with modified specifications faces a new-task situation.
Answer: FALSE
Difficulty: Moderate
Chapter LO: 4
Course LO: Describe the business buying process
81) The buying center consists of key decision makers from both the buying organization and the
supplier.
Answer: FALSE
Difficulty: Easy
Chapter LO: 4
Course LO: Describe the business buying process
82) Of the different types of buying situations, a buyer makes the fewest decisions in a new-task
situation and the most in a straight rebuy.
Answer: FALSE
Difficulty: Moderate
Chapter LO: 4
Course LO: Describe the business buying process
83) In vendor-managed inventory, buyers share sales information directly with key suppliers.
Answer: TRUE
Difficulty: Easy
Chapter LO: 5
Course LO: Describe the business buying process
84) Business-to-business e-procurement lowers purchasing costs and reduces the time between
order and delivery.
Answer: TRUE
Difficulty: Easy
Chapter LO: 5
Course LO: Describe the business buying process
AACSB: Information technology
21
Copyright 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

85) In reverse auctions, companies put their purchasing requests online and invite suppliers to
bid for their business.
Answer: TRUE
Difficulty: Easy
Chapter LO: 5
Course LO: Describe the business buying process
86) Explain the cultural factors that influence consumer behavior.
Answer: Culture is the most basic cause of a person's wants and behavior. Each culture contains
smaller subcultures, or groups of people with shared value systems based on common life
experiences and situations. Subcultures include nationalities, religions, racial groups, and
geographic regions. Many subcultures make up important market segments. Social classes are
society's relatively permanent and ordered divisions whose members share similar values,
interests, and behaviors. Unlike nationality or ethnic subculture, social class is determined by a
combination of many variables, such as occupation, income, education, and wealth. Social
scientists have identified seven social classes within the American culture, ranging from upper
class to lower class.
Difficulty: Moderate
Chapter LO: 1
Course LO: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior
87) Describe the buying behavior and characteristics of different subcultures in the United States.
Answer: Many subcultures make up important market segments, and marketers often design
products and marketing programs tailored to their needs. Examples of three such important
subculture groups are Hispanic American, African American, and Asian American consumers.
Hispanics represent a large, fast-growing market. Although Hispanic consumers share many
characteristics and behaviors with the mainstream buying public, there are also distinct
differences. They tend to be deeply family oriented and make shopping a family affairchildren
have a big say in what brands they buy. Older, first-generation Hispanic consumers tend to be
very brand loyal and to favor brands and sellers who show special interest in them. Younger
Hispanics, however, have shown increasing price sensitivity in recent years and a willingness to
switch to store brands. African American consumers are more price-conscious than other
segments; they are also strongly motivated by quality and selection. Asian American consumers
are the most affluent U.S. demographic segment and are the second-fastest-growing population
subsegment after Hispanics. As a group, Asian American consumers shop frequently and are the
most brand conscious of all the ethnic groups. They can be fiercely brand loyal.
Difficulty: Difficult
Chapter LO: 1
Course LO: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior
AACSB: Diverse and multicultural work environments

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Copyright 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

88) Explain the concepts of word-of-mouth influence, opinion leaders, and buzz marketing.
Answer: Word-of-mouth influence can have a powerful impact on consumer buying behavior.
The personal words and recommendations of trusted friends, associates, and other consumers
tend to be more credible than those coming from commercial sources. Most word-of-mouth
influence happens naturally: Consumers start chatting about a brand they use or feel strongly
about one way or the other. Often, however, rather than leaving it to chance, marketers can help
to create positive conversations about their brands. Marketers of brands subjected to strong group
influence must figure out how to reach opinion leaderspeople within a reference group who,
because of special skills, knowledge, personality, or other characteristics, exert social influence
on others. Marketers try to identify opinion leaders for their products and direct marketing efforts
toward them. Buzz marketing involves enlisting or even creating opinion leaders to serve as
"brand ambassadors" who spread the word about a company's products. For example, Nike
created a ton of buzz worldwide during the 2012 London Olympics when it shod 400 of its Nikesponsored athletes in can't-miss incandescent green/yellow Volt Flyknit shoes. The shoes became
the talk of the Olympics. Many companies now create brand ambassador programs in an attempt
to turn influential but everyday customers into brand evangelists.
Difficulty: Easy
Chapter LO: 1
Course LO: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior
89) A consumer's behavior is influenced by social factors, such as the consumer's small groups,
family, and social roles and status. Explain the differences among these social factors.
Answer: Many small groups influence a person's behavior. Groups that have a direct influence
and to which a person belongs are called membership groups. Reference groups serve as direct or
indirect points of comparison or reference in forming a person's attitudes or behaviors. An
aspirational group is one to which the individual wishes to belong. Reference groups expose a
person to new behaviors and lifestyles, influence a person's attitudes and self-concept, and create
pressures to conform that may affect the person's product and brand choices. Opinion leaders are
also included in reference groups. Family members can strongly influence buyer behavior and is
the most important consumer buying organization in society. Marketers are interested in the
changing roles and influence of each family member, particularly as male and female purchasing
roles evolve and children wield more purchasing influence. Within groups, including families,
the position of an individual is defined by role and status. A role consists of the activities people
are expected to perform according to the persons around them, while status is the general esteem
given to that role. People tend to choose products that fit their roles and status.
Difficulty: Easy
Chapter LO: 1
Course LO: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior

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Copyright 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

90) What are personality traits, and how do they affect purchase behavior? Explain with an
example.
Answer: Personality refers to the unique psychological characteristics that distinguish a person
or group. Personality is described in terms of traits such as self-confidence, dominance,
sociability, autonomy, defensiveness, adaptability, and aggressiveness. Personality can be useful
in analyzing consumer behavior for certain product or brand choices. Consumers are likely to
choose brands with personalities that match their own. A brand personality is the specific mix of
human traits that may be attributed to a particular brand. One researcher identified five brand
personality traits: sincerity (down-to-earth, honest, wholesome, and cheerful), excitement
(daring, spirited, imaginative, and up to date), competence (reliable, intelligent, and successful),
sophistication (glamorous, upper class, charming), and ruggedness (outdoorsy and tough). Most
well-known brands are strongly associated with one particular trait: the Ford F150 with
"ruggedness," Apple with "excitement," the Washington Post with "competence," Method with
"sincerity," and Gucci with "class" and "sophistication." Hence, these brands will attract persons
who are high on the same personality traits.
Difficulty: Moderate
Chapter LO: 1
Course LO: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior
AACSB: Analytic thinking
91) Explain Maslow's hierarchy of needs.
Answer: Maslow suggested that our unfulfilled needs motivate us and that our needs are
arranged in a hierarchy. That hierarchy includes these needs: physiological, safety, social,
esteem, and self-actualization. Maslow suggested that we fulfill the lower-level, basic needs first
before moving up the hierarchy. Until more important, basic needs such as safety are fulfilled, an
individual has little interest in higher-level needs such as esteem and self-actualization. When
that need is satisfied, it will stop being a motivator, and the person will then try to satisfy the next
most important need. For example, starving people (physiological need) will not take an interest
in the latest happenings in the art world (self-actualization needs) nor in how they are seen or
esteemed by others (social or esteem needs) nor even in whether they are breathing clean air
(safety needs). But as each important need is satisfied, the next most important need will come
into play.
Difficulty: Moderate
Chapter LO: 1
Course LO: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior

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Copyright 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

92) Describe the steps of the buyer decision process.


Answer: The buyer decision process consists of five stages: need recognition, information
search, evaluation of alternatives, purchase decision, and postpurchase behavior.
1. Need Recognition: The buying process starts with need recognitionthe buyer recognizes a
problem or need. The need can be triggered by internal stimuli when one of the person's normal
needsfor example, hunger or thirstrises to a level high enough to become a drive. A need can
also be triggered by external stimuli.
2. Information Search: An interested consumer may or may not search for more information. If
the consumer's drive is strong and a satisfying product is near at hand, he or she is likely to buy it
then. If not, the consumer may store the need in memory or undertake an information search
related to the need.
3. Evaluation of Alternatives: Marketers need to know about alternative evaluation, that is, how
the consumer processes information to arrive at brand choices. Unfortunately, consumers do not
use a simple and single evaluation process in all buying situations. Instead, several evaluation
processes are at work. The consumer arrives at attitudes toward different brands through some
evaluation procedure.
4. Purchase Decision: In the evaluation stage, the consumer ranks brands and forms purchase
intentions. Generally, the consumer's purchase decision will be to buy the most preferred brand,
but two factors can come between the purchase intention and the purchase decision. The first
factor is the attitudes of others. The second factor is unexpected situational factors. The
consumer may form a purchase intention based on factors such as expected income, expected
price, and expected product benefits. However, unexpected events may change the purchase
intention.
5. Postpurchase Behavior: After purchasing the product, the consumer will either be satisfied or
dissatisfied and will engage in postpurchase behavior of interest to the marketer. If the product
falls short of expectations, the consumer is disappointed; if it meets expectations, the consumer is
satisfied; if it exceeds expectations, the consumer is delighted. The larger the gap between
expectations and performance, the greater the consumer's dissatisfaction.
Difficulty: Moderate
Chapter LO: 2
Course LO: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior
93) Identify and describe the stages in the adoption process of a new product.
Answer: Consumers go through five stages in the process of adopting a new product. In the
awareness stage, consumers become aware of the new product but lack information about it.
Then, consumers seek information about the new product in the interest stage. In the evaluation
stage, consumers consider whether trying the new product makes sense. Consumers try the
product on a limited basis in the trial stage. Finally, consumers decide to make full use of the
product in the adoption stage.
Difficulty: Moderate
Chapter LO: 3
Course LO: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior

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Copyright 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

94) Identify the product characteristics that influence the rate of adoption of a product. Explain
how each characteristic affects the rate of adoption.
Answer: The five most important product characteristics that influence the rate of a product's
adoption are relative advantage, compatibility, complexity, divisibility, and communicability.
Relative advantage is the degree to which an innovation appears superior to existing products;
the greater the perceived relative advantage, the sooner the product will be adopted.
Compatibility is the degree to which the innovation fits the values and experiences of potential
consumers; high compatibility leads to quick adoption. Complexity is the degree to which the
innovation is difficult to understand or use; the greater the complexity, the slower the adoption
rate. Divisibility is the degree to which the innovation may be tried on a limited basis; the higher
the divisibility, the slower the rate of adoption. Finally, communicability is the degree to which
the results of using the innovation can be observed or described to others; high communicability
lends itself to a higher rate of adoption.
Difficulty: Moderate
Chapter LO: 3
Course LO: Identify and discuss the factors influencing consumer buying behavior
95) Explain why business demand is considered a derived demand.
Answer: Business demand is derived demand because it ultimately derives from the demand for
consumer goods. If consumer demand for an end product drops, business demand for all of the
components used in that product will also drop. Similarly, when consumer demand for a product
increases, business demand for all of the components of that product also increases.
Difficulty: Moderate
Chapter LO: 4
Course LO: Describe the business buying process
96) Explain how the decision process in the business market and consumer market differ.
Answer: Business buyers usually face more complex buying decisions than do consumer buyers.
Business purchases often involve large sums of money, complex technical and economic
considerations, and interactions among many people at many levels of the buyer's organization.
Because the purchases are more complex, business buyers may take longer to make their
decisions and are likely to use a more formalized buying process. In the business buying process,
the buyer and seller are often much more dependent on each other.
Difficulty: Difficult
Chapter LO: 4
Course LO: Describe the business buying process
AACSB: Analytic thinking

26
Copyright 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

97) Explain the major types of buying situations.


Answer: There are three major types of buying situations. In a straight rebuy, the buyer reorders
something without any modifications. It is usually handled on a routine basis by the purchasing
department. In a modified rebuy, the buyer wants to modify product specifications, prices, terms,
or suppliers. A company buying a product or service for the first time faces a new task situation.
In such cases, the greater the cost or risk, the larger the number of decision participants and the
greater the company's efforts to collect information. The new task situation is the marketer's
greatest opportunity and challenge. The marketer not only tries to reach as many key buying
influences as possible, but also provides help and information. The buyer makes the fewest
decisions in the straight rebuy and the most in the new task decision.
Difficulty: Moderate
Chapter LO: 4
Course LO: Describe the business buying process
98) In the context of the business buying process, what is a buying center? Explain why it
presents a major marketing challenge.
Answer: The buying center is the decision-making unit of a buying organization. The buying
center consists of all the individuals and units that play a role in the business purchase decisionmaking process, including the actual users of the product or service, those who make the buying
decision, those who influence the buying decision, those who do the actual buying, and those
who control buying information. The buying center is not a fixed and formally identified unit
within the buying organization. Instead, it is a set of buying roles assumed by different people for
different purchases. Within the organization, the size and makeup of the buying center varies for
different products and buying situations. The variable nature of the buying center makes it a
major marketing challenge. The business marketer must learn who participates in each decision,
each participant's relative influence, and what evaluation criteria each decision participant uses.
Sometimes identifying the decision maker is difficult or even impossible, as no one single person
may make the purchasing decision.
Difficulty: Difficult
Chapter LO: 4
Course LO: Describe the business buying process

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Copyright 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

99) Describe the major factors that influence business buyers.


Answer: Business buyers are heavily influenced by factors in the current and expected economic
environment, such as levels of primary demand, the economic outlook, and the cost of money.
Business buyers are also affected by supply of key materials and technological, political, and
competitive developments in the environment. Finally, culture and customs can strongly
influence business buyer reactions to the marketer's behavior and strategies, especially in the
international marketing environment. The business buyer must watch these factors, determine
how they will affect the buyer, and try to turn environmental challenges into opportunities.
Organizational factors are also important. Each buying organization has its own objectives,
strategies, structure, systems, and procedures, and the business marketer must understand these
factors well. The buying center usually includes many participants who influence each other, so
interpersonal factors also influence the business buying process. Each participant in the business
buying decision process brings in personal motives, perceptions, and preferences. These
individual factors are affected by personal characteristics such as age, income, education,
professional identification, personality, and attitudes toward risk.
Difficulty: Moderate
Chapter LO: 4
Course LO: Describe the business buying process
100) What are the potential disadvantages of e-procurement?
Answer: While e-procurement offers plenty of advantages for buyers and suppliers, the rapidly
expanding use of e-procurement could also present some problems. For example, at the same
time that the Internet makes it possible for suppliers and customers to share business data and
even collaborate on product design, it can also erode decades-old customersupplier
relationships. Many buyers now use the power of the Internet to pit suppliers against one another
and search out better deals, products, and turnaround times on a purchase-by-purchase basis. Eprocurement can also create potential security concerns. Although home shopping transactions
can be protected through basic encryption, the secure environment that businesses need to carry
out confidential interactions is sometimes still lacking. Companies are spending millions for
research on defensive strategies to keep hackers at bay. Cisco Systems, for example, specifies the
types of routers, firewalls, and security procedures that its partners must use to safeguard
extranet connections. In fact, the company goes even further; it sends its own security engineers
to examine a partner's defenses and holds the partner liable for any security breach that originates
from its computers.
Difficulty: Difficult
Chapter LO: 5
Course LO: Discuss how marketers can develop a safe and effective online presence
AACSB: Information technology

28
Copyright 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.