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Academic paper by Vagati et al.

Academic paper by Vagati et al.

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Annual Meeting

New Orleans, Louisiana, October 59, 1997

A. Vagati I,M. Pastorelli l 1G. Franceschini 21 C. Petrache

Dip. Ing. Elettrica lndustriale - Politecnico di Torino - C.so Duca degli Abruzzi, 24 - 10129 Torino - ITALY

Phone + 39 11 5647108

Fax + 39 11 5647199

E-mail: vagati@athena.polito.it

2Dip. Ing.delllnformazione Universita di Parma V.le delle Scienze 43100 Parma ITALY

Phone + 39 521 905821

E-mail: chiara@ee.unipr.it

Fax + 39 521 905822

3ABB Servomotors S.r.1. - Fr. Stazione di Portacomaro - 14100 Asti - ITALY

Phone + 39 141 476857

Fax + 39 141 296455

Abstract

A design approach oriented to

minimization of torque-ripple is presented, for

synchronous reluctance motors of the transverselaminated type. First, the possible types of rotors

are classified and the more suited rotor structure

is evidenced, to be matched to a given stator.

Then, the inner rotor design is described, pointingout the low-ripple measures. Last, experimental

results are given, from three different rotors: they

confirm the validity of the proposed approach.

I. INTRODUCTION

Since

adoption

of vector-controlled

drives,

synchronous reluctance motors could represent a

viable alternative to other types of a.c. motors, such

induction or P.M. synchronous ones. Consequently,

the design of synchronous reluctance motors has

experienced a renewed interest, to obtain a

performance which is comparable with that of

competitors a.c. motors.

Many recent papers deal with this subject [1+16].

Some of them refer to the axially-laminated type of

rotor, while other consider the transverse-laminated

type, which looks as the most suited to industrial

manufacturing. However, the most of these papers

are mainly concerned with obtaining high anisotropy and high torque-per-volume values: very few

papers deal specifically with torque-ripple problems.

experiment and very low torque-ripple values are

found.

11. CLASSIFICATION OF ROTOR STRUCTURES

structures, to outline the existing degrees of freedom

in rotor design. Main reference is made to rotors of

the transverse-laminated type, although axially

laminated rotors could be considered as a particular

case of this classification. Reference is also made to

two-pole structures, for easiness of drawing only.

Disregarding salient-pole rotors, which are not suited

to high-anisotropy, we can consider the rotor of a

general

synchronous

reluctance

motor

as

constituted by n iron segments, which can assume a

magnetic potential different from each other,

because of a q-axis m.m.f. excitation. This is shown

schematically in Fig. 1, for a five segment per pole

pair machine. The eight separation points between

adjacent segments are evidenced by circles. They

represent the rotor iron ribs, which are saturated by

stator m.m.f. thus allowing different segments to

have different magnetic potentials.

to evaluate the torque-ripple content of a given

machines design.

On the other hand, as far as high performance drives

are concerned, a design approach specifically

oriented to minimization of torque-ripple is highly

desirable. In fact, as shown in [14], rotor (or stator)

skewing does not constitute, for such a machine, an

ultimate solution to torque-ripple problems.

The aim of this paper is showing a general design

approach, aiming to minimization of the torque0-7803-4067-1/97/$10.00 0 1997 IEEE.

286

Fig. 1 - Two-pole,

reacts like shown in the figure: r, represents the perunit magnetic potential of the i-th segment, while f,

is the average value of the sinusoid, across a

segment span. The various f, define a staircase

Analogously, a staircase function r(5) represents the

magnetic potential distribution along the rotor

periphery.

The shape of [sin 5 - f (E,)] is related to flux lines

which circulate across each segment end, while that

of [f(5) - r(Q] represents flow-through flux lines,

crossing the magnetic barriers [6, 151.

If there are n, separation points, equally spaced

around the periphery, the Fourier expansion of the

staircase distribution f(5) does contain, in addition to

first, only harmonic terms of the order knr 5 1. This

can be shown mathematically: however, this result is

quite intuitive, because f(5) is obtained from sin 5 by

a way which is closely related to a sampling process.

On the contrary, the harmonic content of [f(S)-r(t)]

function can include other additional harmonic

orders, depending on the design of flux barriers.

Starting from Fig. 1, if the eight separation points

are shifted by one-half pitch, a different rotor

structure is obtained, which is shown in Fig. 2.

structure becomes difficult and one or more flux

barriers near to q-axis have to be omitted. In such a

case, an incomplete structure arises. Its main

harmonic content is still of kn, & 1 order, since it is

defined by the rotor angular pitch 2dnr: however,

other spurious rotor-produced harmonics are

introduced. We will discuss this point later.

From above it is clear that a main point in rotor

design is the choice of the even number n, or, which

is equivalent, the choiice of the rotor pitch. For a

sinusoidally wound and slotless stator the choice of

nr would not affect torque-ripple because, in this

case, no ripple would be present. As a

consequence, the correct choice would be

increasing nr as much i3S possible, thus leading to a

distributed-anisotropy rotor. In this way minimization of zig-zag reactance would be achieved.

On the other hand, a practical winding in a slotted

stator does generate h,armonics which can interact

with rotor ones, producing torque-ripple. As a

consequence, the n, value must be properly related

to the n, value, that is ,the number of stator slots per

pole-pair. This, at least, when torque-ripple

minimization is a main concern.

111. CHOICE: OF THE nR VALUE

as Fig. 1 (n, = 8 ) , although the two separation points

across the q axis (cross) become virtual, in this case.

The structure in Fig. 1 can be called positive while

the Fig. 2 one will be named negative. In general,

negative structures are not suited to shaft

embedding, because they do not have iron across

the d-axis. For this reason, negative structures will

not be considered in the followings.

Regarding positive structures, they will have virtual

separation points across the q-axis when nr/2 is odd,

like shown in Fig. 3, for nr = 10.

and slot harmonics. However, the former can be

greatly reduced by a proper winding design, while

the latter are clearly unavoidable.

Thus, we can refer to a stator which generates slot

harmonics only, both from conductor discretization

and permeance variation due to stator slots.

With reference to Fig. 41, the airgap flux-density wave

We have indicated by ~ ( 56)

,

can be written as in (I),

the stator m.m.f. wave and by Tr (5, 6 ) the rotor

reaction (magnetic potential around the rotor

surface). l(5, 6) is a permeance function, accounting

for stator slots. 5 is a rotor coordinate, starting from

the d-axis, while 6 is the angle between rotor and

stator.

I d

structures. Once n, (even) is given, they show nr

jumps in the f(5) function, including the virtual jump

across the q-axis. As previously told, they exhibit

harmonics of kn, 1 order only. However, as n, is

287

~ ( 56), and

B(5, 6 ) into

are symmetrical with respect to q axis, e.g.

zq(nn()= zq(t), while for d components zd(n-5) = ./td(c)

holds . Regarding Tr(5, 6), its d-component is zero for

rotor construction: as a consequence, (6) must be

verified.

If belt harmonics are disregarded, the d, q

components of the stator m.m.f. z can be written as

in (16), (17). In addition to first, they contain

harmonics of hns+l order only, modulated by a

sinusoidal function of hn,6. A sinusoidal current

supply is supposed. The angle y represents the

argument of current vector with respect to d-axis.

zd (5,fi)= tl cos y cos 5 +

+c(-l,[

Thn,+1cos(hns6-y)cos(hns +1)5+

r r (n-5, f i ) = zr

(5, 6)

(6)

I({, e)= lo +

(7)

(16)

h

- zhn,-l

+c(-lr[

(7), with a proper choice of the I9=0 reference.

By substitution of (7) into (I), giving evidence to d, q

components, the general relationships (8),(9) are

found. The Id, I, functions are defined by (IO), (11).

Since hn, is even, they satisfy conditions (12) and

(13), like the other d, q quantities do, respectively. h

is any positive integer, different from zero.

(10)

Iq((,19)=Io+c

IhCOS

h

Id (n- 5,6)= -ld(t,

hnS6.cos hns<

e)

(11)

(12)

(13)

sinusoidal currents. Apart from current module, the

flux-linkages Ad(*), h(I9)can be written as in (14),

(15), by integration of B d T d and B,z, products along

the rotor periphery: the integrals of cross-products

are zero, for a symmetry reason.

-x

-R

R

hq(fi) OC

-R

IlqTqrdt

(17)

+I)<]

Eqs. (16), (17) can be substituted into the last two

integrals of (14), (15), together with Id, I, expressions

(IO), (11). Of course, the result is quite complicated.

However, let us simply observe that the I&, l,zq terms

do contain spatial (5) harmonics of hns+l order.

They can derive, obviously, from the harmonic terms

of (17) multiplied by I,. In addition, harmonics of

hn&l order are produced by the first-harmonic terms

of (16), (17) multiplied by the harmonic terms of

(IO), (1I ) , respectively. This second effect, very

similar to the former one, is often predominant in

practice, from a quantitative point of view.

Since the aim of this analysis is illustration of the

effect of a nr choice on torque-ripple, we must verify

the existence in the Zr factor (14), (15) of spatial

harmonics of ( h n d l ) order, which can interact with

stator ones, thus producing torque-ripple.

To find an analytical expression of Zr(c, 6) function

is a quite complicated task, in general. Some

simplification is achieved if the flow-through flux is

separated by that circulating across the airgap (zigzag), like it has been done in the simplest case of

Figs. 1+3.

Anyway, it is evident that the rotor must react by a

staircase function like those shown in Figs. 1+3.

However, the amplitude of the various levels are, in

general, modulated by 6. This because of the joint

effect of m.m.f. harmonics and permeance function

I(5, 19). Let us then focus our attention to two

particular cases: nr = n, and nr -+

For nr = n,, the m.m.f. harmonics are nearly

averaged over one rotor pitch, while the permeance

values at each end of a segment are in phase.

However, some modulation with 6 of the staircase

rotor reaction still exists, as shown in [14]. Anyway,

due to first-order m.m.f. excitation, the Tr reaction

-zhn,+lsin(hns6-y)sin(hns

(9)

l d ( 5 , 6 ) = - c lhsin hns6.sin hn,c

-1)c+

zhn,-lsin(hns6+y)sir(hn,

W.

(I5)

-R

zero, the produced torque would be zero too. As a

consequence, let us disregard the first terms of (14),

(15) and focus our attention on the second terms,

288

n,= n,. They will then produce a torque-ripple,

whose lower harmonic pulsation is n,6, like that of Id,

I, functions (lo), (11).

Let us consider now a completely different case,

that is nr + 00. It means to refer, in practice, to an

axially-laminated rotor structure. The rotor now

reacts to higher-order m.m.f. harmonics. In

particular, the joint effect of first-order m.m.f. and

permeance variations generates spatial harmonics

of h n s f l order in the rotor magnetic potential Zr.

This situation has been treated in [6]. It is shown

there that (18) can be written, for a two-pole

machine and considering only the first harmonic

order of the permeance function.

00

Considering only the first harmonic of Ahns+l, Ahns-1,

after interaction of Zr with IdTd, I,T,, the produced

torque-ripple will have a lowest-order pulsation of

2n,6, that is double than in the former case.

From above a simple criterion can be drawn,

regarding the choice of n, number, for a given n,.

The first type of rotor reaction, that is the one giving

a n,6 pulsation, can be strongly reduced if nr is

chosen so as the spatial harmonics n,+l and nr+l are

of different order: in this way, only higher-order terms

can be interacting. Since both n, and nr must be

even and positive numbers, condition (19) must be

satisfied. In addition, also the second type of

reaction (pulsation 2ns6) should be minimized,

because stator and rotor tooth pitches are the

nearest to each-other.

nr =n,f4

(19)

discussion, depending also on practical feasibility of

the related rotor designs. The solution +4 gives a

better result, in practice, as shown in the followings.

Let us observe that the situation is here different

from the case of an induction motor, for which a

choice of an odd n, value is often a simple and

effective solution.

From above a criterion has been established for

choosing the nr value. However, it represents only a

first-step to minimization of torque-ripple. In fact, the

choice of n, mainly affects the so-called zig-zag

flux. However, the flow-through flux strongly depends

on the design of the inner rotor. Thus, other rotor

harmonics can be produced, which can interact

with stator ones, particularly with those of belt type,

up to now disregarded.

As discussed above, the rotor reaction Tr (g, 6) is a

staircase function of t,, also modulated by 6, in

general. However, since our aim is defining an inner

rotor shape, we must refer to an average situation:

this is done by considering the rotor reaction Zr (5) to

a sinusoidal q-axis excitation as produced by a

slotless stator, as shown in Figs. 1+3.The attention is

here focused to [f(Q-r(c:)] shape, that is the shape of

airgap flux-density which flows into the inner rotor.

Let us firstly consider the case of an unrealistic

machine without iron ribs connecting the various

rotor segments. Moreover, let us refer to a complete

and positive machine, with the previously defined

meaning. In Fig. 5 the shape of sin 6 and f(5) is

reported for such a machine and for 0 5 n/2, in

the case of nr = 14, ,accordingly with (19) when

n, = 18. The shape of r(6) is qualitative.

l1;

I Yrl

4

0

a vector [fk] having three fk components: thus, this is

a third-order rotor. Whlile the fk are immediately

calculated, the effective magnetic potentials rk can

be derived, approximately, from solution of an

equivalent circuit such that shown in Fig. 6 , for the

rotor of Fig. 5. Since this machine is complete, the

permeances pgk are equal to each other (pg).

r.I

r,L

r,J

289

permeances P k is not constant, for incomplete

machines. With reference to a general equivalent

circuit of k-th order, the correct [pk] vector is

obtained by firstly imposing [rk] = m[fk], with m e l .

Then, a linear algebraic system is obtained which

can be solved for [pk]. The coefficient m is defined

when applying the physical constraint to pk values.

In conclusion, the barrier permeances are designed

so as the Tr(5) reaction is the nearest to first harmonic

of q-axis excitation, with the constraint of a

predetermined position of the separation points at

the airgap.

the permeances of the three flux barriers, because

they depend on the shape of such barriers. Their

design is mainly devoted to torque maximization, of

course, as described in [9. 151. However, the relative

values of Pk influence the r(5) shape and,

consequently, the torque-ripple content.

Owing to the nr choice (19), the hn,+l rotor

harmonics have been already taken into account.

Thus, the designer's point of view is avoiding

introduction of other spurious harmonics, not

inherently connected to rotor discretization, which

can interact with residual belt harmonics of the

stator. This can be easily done, for a complete

machine, by imposing that r(5) has the same shape

of f(Q, which inherently contains only hn,+l

harmonics. From Fig. 6 it is evident that this

condition leads to a constant Pk condition.

The situation is different when an incomplete

machine is considered. Since it becomes a

necessity when the n, value is increased, let us

consider the case n, = 22, accordingly with (19) for

n, = 18. A complete rotor of this kind would be of

fifth order. However, if the barrier nearest to q-axis is

drop out, a fourth order incomplete rotor is found. Its

[fk] behavior is shown in Fig. 7, together with the

shape of lO[f(\)-r(\)] (shaded line), when the barrier

permeance is supposed to be constant.

Id

sin 5

d2

concentrated in the proximity of q-axis. However, in

this case, a reduction to -80% of the permeance of

the fourth barrier still allows obtaining the same

shape of f(5).

In general, it is always possible, for an incomplete

machine, to obtain a flux-density shape like that of

f(5). Of course, this shape contains a limited quantity

of spurious harmonics, in addition to hnr*l ones.

However, this still represents the best choice. Any

further attempt to eliminate the spurious harmonics

would be or unfeasible or leading to a lower

anisotropy.

As

ribs are provided, to connect the rotor segments to

each other. Of course, they must comply with

mechanical exigencies. However, once saturated by

stator m.m.f., they will conduct some magnetic flux,

thus influencing the shape of airgap flux-density.

Let us refer, for example, to the complete third-order

machine of Fig. 5. In the simplest case of equalwidth ribs, if we suppose for simplicity that they are

all saturated at the same flux-density level, the

related equivalent circuit is obtained from that of

Fig. 6, by simply adding one flux generator, as

shown in Fig. 8. In fact, in this simple case, the rib

flux enters the rotor from the q-axis segment and

goes on flowing through the series-connected ribs. If

the barriers are designed in order to have constant P k

permeances, the airgap flux-density assumes the

shape shown in Fig. 8 by shaded line. Of course, this

shape represents an example, because it depends

on rib width which, in turn, depends on maximum

speed.

As can be seen from the figure, the effect of equalwidth rotor ribs is similar to that of dropping-out the

last barrier: in both cases the flow-through flux is

concentrated in the proximity of q-axis. Thus, it is

evident that the shown rib-effect can be

compensated in the same way as before, that is by

finding a proper [Pk] vector which makes [rk]

proportional to [fk].

However, a compensation of rib flux by means of

barrier flux can be obtained only for a definite

working condition, e.g. the rated q-axis current.

When this current is varied, e.g. reduced, the barrier

flux is reduced proportionally while the rib flux is

not, because of iron saturation.

A design approach is then preferable which tends to

a separate shaping of barrier flux and rib flux, in

order they both assume the quasi-sinusoidal shape of

f(Q. Regarding rib flux, this result can be obtained

by designing ribs whose width decreases, going from

d-axis towards q-axis. This is feasible because the

related mechanical strength also decreases in the

290

freedom is allowed, because additional ribs can be

provided in the inner rotor, typically along the qaxis. They behave magnetically in the same way as

tangential ribs, however their mechanical load can

be larger, because it is radially directed.

In conclusion, following the design procedure above

described, a shape like that qualitatively shown in

Fig. 9 is obtained, for a four-pole machine with 36

stator slots (n, = 18). The chosen n, number is, in this

case, n, =14.

r1

sin 5

F=+==-7

I A----

d2

Fig. 8 - Complete positive rotor (n, = 14), with ribs and constant

permeance.

additional ribs on the q-axis, for the two inner

barriers. The shown rib width are qualitative and

larger than practical ones. The barriers are shaped

course, to find an exact shape, F.E.M. calculations

are opportune. They are also needed to design the

widths of the various ribs, once the maximum shaft

speed is defined.

VI. EXPERIMENTAL

RESULTS

At the aim of verifyiing the above reported design

strategy, also based on qualitative considerations,

some experimental results are here shown. Three

different rotors have been built. They have been put

into the same stator structure. In addition, two

different windings have been provided, to point-out

the effect of belt harmonics.

The stator lamination has 36 slots. The two windings

are three-phase four-pole: thus there are 3 slots per

pole.phase (n, = 18). One winding is full-pitched,

while the other one is made by three equal sections,

shifted by one tooth-pitch. Thus, the conductor

distribution of one phase belt is 1:2:3:2:1, covering

five slots. By this second winding, called distributed

in the followings, the belt-harmonic contents has

been definitely reduced.

The three rotors are four-pole, with a different n,

number: 18, 14 , 22. Thus, the case n, = n, and the

two ones of condition (19) are covered. These rotors

are of the transverse-laminated type, with ribs

disposed on the rotor surface only. The rib width is

constant and the rib flux is not compensated by

barrier permeances. Moreover, while the nr=l4 rotor

is complete, both nr=18 and n,=22 rotors are

incomplete: the barrier permeances have been

designed accordingly. The outer stator diameter is

119 mm, while the stack length is = 60 mm. Thus,

the obtained motors are quite small and short. Their

rated torque is, approximately, 3+4 Nm without

forced cooling, as usual for servomotors. All the

rotors are skewed by one stator pitch: thus, the

obtained ripple valules are fairly small in every

situation. The showin differences must then be

attributed to the different rotor and winding designs.

The torque-ripple has been measured by a proper

test bench. The testeld motor is supplied by current

vector control and id, i, currents are set, in order to

obtain a torque which is nearly three-times the

rated one (= 9 Nm). The angle of the current vector

is close to 60. The tested motor is connected,

through a torque-meter, to the low-speed output of a

1:120 gear. The high-speed shaft of this gear is

driven by a speed-controlled brushless drive. In this

way, the speed is imposed by this drive through the

one-way gear, Thus, the tested motor sees a virtually

infinite inertia and the speed is completely

decoupled from torque-ripple of tested motor.

The obtained results are shown in Figs. 1 0 4 4 . They

show, together with the measured torque-ripple, a

phase current signal of unity amplitude, to give

evidence to the harmonic orders in the ripple signal.

filtered-out, from both signals.

Fig. 10 refers to a 18/18 motor, with distributed

windings. The main harmonic order of torque-ripple

is 18th and its peak amplitude ripple is &6.2%, with

29 1

can be considered as a reference case, which the

other situations can be referred to.

I1

T ["I

12th, 0.4% 18th, 0.07% 24th, giving only lower-order

harmonics.

I ,

11

10

10

9

I

9

I

8

7

0.83 rpm

6

5

T ["I

6-

4R=ra=a

5

3

2

4

31

--

A , 0

e [rad].

2n

a full-pitched winding, the Fig. 14 result is obtained.

The harmonic content is now: 0.43% 6th, 0.43%

12th, 0.37% 18th, 0.17% 24th. As can be seen, the

total ripple is still lower than I%,

even if the winding

is full-pitched. This is probably due to the fact that

the nr&l rotor harmonics are now of larger order (21,

23) than in Fig. 12 case. Also, the rotor-produced

spurious harmonics have a low effect, because the

missed barrier has been compensated by the

permeances of the other barriers and the rib flux,

although non compensated, has a little effect since

the motor is overloaded.

5

T ["I

31

21

1

0

I

I

10

292

11

[lo] Boldea I., Fu Z.X., Nasar S.A.: "Performance evaluation of axially laminated

anisotro ic ALA) rotor reluctance synlchronous motors", IEEE-IAS'Q, Houston

(USA), 8ctober 1992, vol. I, pp. 212-2W.

[l 11 Matsuo T., Lip0 T.A.: 'Rotor design optimization of synchronous reluctance

machine", IEEE Powe! En Socie Summer Meeting, July 1993.

[12] Staton D.A., Millerf.J.E., i o o d S.E.: Maxtmizing the saliency ratio of the

synchronous reluctance motor", IEE Proceedings-6, vol. 140, n. 4, July 1993, pp.

249-259.

1131 Balbo N, DAndrea R., Malesani L., Tomasin P.: "Synchronous reluctance

motors for low-cost, medium perfomancel drives", EPE93, Brighton, Sept. 1993, vol.

6 Drives II, pp. 77-81.

[14] Fratta A., Troglia G.P., Va ati A , Villata F.: 'Evaluation of Torque Ripple in

High Performance Synchronous !leluc$nce Machines", IEEE-IAS Annual Meeting

1993, Toronto (Canada), October 1993, vol. I, pp. 163-170.

[15] Vagati A.: "Synchronous Reluctance Drives", Tutorial IEEE-IAS Annual

Meetin Denver (USA), October 1994, Section 3.

(161

alesani L.: "Synchronous Reluctance Drives", Tutorial IEEE-IAS Annual

Meeting, Denver (USA), October 1994, Section 7.

[17] Vagati A.: "Synchronous Reluctance Electrical Motor having a Low TorqueRipple Design", U.S.A. patent applicatilon 08/671/653-06/28/96.

T I"[

10

a

7

6

5

4

&

n:

2n:

VII. CONCLUSIONS

A design approach specifically oriented to torqueripple minimization for synchronous reluctance

motors has been presented and confirmed by

experiment. It has been shown that a rotor of the

transverse laminated type is fully compatible with

realization of a low-torque-ripple machine.

The obtained ripple values are equivalent to or

lower than those of usually adopted brushless

(S.M.P.M.) servomotors. In addition, very good

results can be obtained, even in the case of fullpitched windings. This makes this type of machine

suitable to be wound automatically, even if highperformance are required.

On the other hand, when a !%IO% ripple is tolerated

by the application, this result can be achieved

without rotor skewing, which represents an additional

saving in motor cost, particularly in case of massproduction.

REFERENCES

111 Fratta A., Vagati A.: "+ly

laminated reluctance motor: an analytical

approach to the magnetic behaviour", ICEM'88, Pisa (Italy), 12-14 Sept. 1988, vol.

Ill., pp.1-6.

[2]

Miller T.J.E., Debebe K.: "Design of a synchronous reluctance motor",

PCIM-MOTORCON Conf. Proc., Munich (Germany), June 1989, pp. 6-8.

(31 Miller T.J.E., Cossar C., Hutton A.J.: "Design of a synchronous reluctance

motor drive", IEEE-lAS'89, San Diego (USA), Oct. 1989, pp., 122-127.

[4] Platt D.: "Reluctance motor with strong rotor anisotropy", IEENAS'90,

Seattle (Usa), 7-12 Oct. 1990, pp. 225-229.

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293

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