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THE CORRELATION BETWEEN POROSITY, SATURATION,

PERMEABILITY AND ACID SOLUTIBILITY ON CORE SAMPLES


OF LIMESTONE ROCKS IN THE KEMADANG AREA
Korea National Oil Team
Abstract
Petrophysics is the study of rock properties and their
interactions with fluids (gases, liquid hydrocarbons, and aqueous
solutions). The geologic material forming a reservoir for the
accumulation of hydrocarbons in the subsurface must contain a
three-dimensional network of interconnected pores in order to
store the fluids and allow for their movement within the reservoir.
Thus the porosity of the reservoir rocks and their permeability
are the most fundamental physical properties with respect to the
storage and transmission of fluids
Rock core analysis in the laboratory is used to determine
the petrophysical properties of rocks. Rock core analysis
procedure basically consists of two parts, they are routine rock
core analysis and special rock core analysis. Routine rock core
analysis porosity in general is about porosity measurement,
absolute permeability measurement and fluid saturation
measurement. Whereas special rock core analysis can be
grouped into two, they are the measurements in static condition
and measurements in dynamic conditions. Measurements in
static conditions including capillary pressure, electrical properties
and the speed of sound propagation, grain density, wettability,
rock compressibility, permeability and porosity function of
pressure (net over burden) and petrographic studies. And the
measurements on dynamic conditions include: the relative
permeability, thermal recovery, residual gas, water flood
evaluations, liquid permeability (completion evaluation, workover and the injection fluid includes surfactant and polymer).
From the laboratory experiments that we did, there is the
some results. The are measurements of porosity, permeability,
saturation, acid solutibility of formation samples. Core that we
used for research was limestone because limestone is a
carbonate rock that will react with acid, and it is also porous rock
according to the physical properties of reservoir rocks in the field.

We took that core in the Wonosari area, because Wonosari is an


area of limestone mountains.
Keywords : Porosity, Saturation, Permeability, Acidizing.
1. PREFACE
of Sample Solution Formation
1.1. Background Issues
in Acid Solution, determine the
Rock core analysis
concentration of acid-soluble
is the analysis steps after
formations in solution, in order
core sampel of formation
to
obtain
important
in
the
subsurface,
information
prior
to
obtained in which the
stimulation.
purpose of the rock core
analysis is to determine
1.2. Methodology
directly the information of
The method used to
the physical properties of
determine the porosity is
rocks to be carried out
Mercury
Method
Injection
exploration. Core analysis
Pump, with materials used Hg
is
divided
into
two
or mercury as a guide. It is
activities, The are Routine
also used weighing method.
Core Anaysis and Special
But we only use the weighing
Core Analysis. Routine
method. The method used for
Core Analysis include the
the
measurement
of
measurement of porosity,
saturation is a method of
saturation
and
distillation and retort method.
permeability.
But this time only just
Porosity
introduced distillation method.
measurements
or
To determine the permeability
samples of reservoir rocks
of a reservoir rock that is
is to know the size of the
supported by a tool consisting
cavity in the rock by rock
of a liquid permeameter
bulk volume and pore
permeameter
and
gas
volume of the rock.
permeameter. This tool can
Measurement of Fluid
only identify a single fluid, the
Saturation
aim
to
rest of this tool can not be
determine the pore space
read.
of
reservoir
rocks
For
samples
soluble
containing fluid especially
levels,
we
calculate
the
oil.
Permeability
solubility as% by weight and
measurements
to
material dissolved in 5N HCl.
determine the ability of a
In experiments sieve analysis,
fluid
reservoir
rocks
we determined the type of
passed without damaging
screen or filter to be used to
the structure of the
fix the sand problem.
constituent
rocks.
Determination of Levels
2. THEORETICAL

2.1. Porosity
Discussed from the
point
of
reservoir
engineering,
porosity
divided into two, namely:
Absolute porosity, defined
as the ratio between the
whole pore volume to the
total volume of rock, or
can be written:
abs=Vp/Vbx100%..........
.............. (1)
abs = (Vb-Vg)/Vb x 100
% .......... (2)
Vp = volume of rock
pores, cm3
Vb = the total rock
volume, cm3
Vg = volume of grain,
cm3
Effective porosity, defined
as the ratio of the pore
volume is related to the
total volume of rock or
written:
eff = (Vp related)/Vb x
100 % .... (3)
Therefore, the oil
can only flow through
interconnected pores. So
that is important in the
petroleum industry and
that we measured in this
experiment
is
the
effective
porosity.
In
general, the amount of
porosity ranging between
5-30%. Theoretically, the
magnitude of the porosity

of not more than 48%. On the


field, we can get an estimate
visually,
which
is
semiquantitative
determination
and is used as the following
scale:
0% - 5% very bad porosity
(can be ignored)
5% - 10% bad porosity
10% - 15% sufficent porosity
15% - 20% well porosity
> 25%
excellent
porosity
2.2. Saturation
Reservoir
fluid
saturation is defined as the
ratio between the volume of a
particular fluid (water, oil, or
gas) to total pore volume.
Generally, the formation of the
water content in the oil zone is
called interstitial formation
water or connate water. Water
saturation is defined as:
water filled pore volume

total pore volume


...(4)
Sw=

Oil saturation is defined as:


oilfilled pore volume
.........
total pore volume
.............(5)
So=

Gas saturation is defined as:


gasfilled pore volume
total pore volume
.....(6)
Sg=

......

Sw + So + Sg = 1 .................
(7)

2.3. Permeability
Basis
for
determining
the
permeability of the rock is
from trials conducted by
Darcy. In the experiments,
Henry
Darcy
using
sandstone that is not
compact by flowing water.
The porous sandstone
saturated with 100% fluid
viscosity, cross-sectional
area A, length L. Then, by
applying
pressure
P1
entrance at one end, then
the flow occurs at a rate
of q, while the external
pressure
P2.
In
this
experiment it can be
shown that q is constant
and will be equal to the
price
of
the
rock
permeability
is
independent of the fluid,
the pressure difference
and the dimensions of the
rock used.
Because Henry is
considered
a
pioneer
darcy
permeabilitys
investigation
then
is
Darcy permeability for the
unit. Permeability itself is
divided into two, namely:
1. Absolut Permeability is
the permeability where
fluid flow in porous media
consists of only one
phase, ex: only gas, oil, or
water.
2. Effective Permeability
is a permeability where
fluid is flowing through a
porous medium is more

than one phase, ex: oil and


water, oil and gas, water and
gas, or all three.
3. Relative Permeability is the
ratio between the effective
permeability
to
absolute
permeability.
Definition API to 1 Darcy
is a porous medium having a
permeability of 1 Darcy if
single
phase
fluid
with
viscosity 1 cp, flowing with a
speed of 1 cm / sec, through
the cross-sectional area of 1
cm at a hydraulic gradient of 1
atm (76.00 mmHg) per cm
and the liquid fills
the
medium. Mathematically it can
be written as follows:
K

Q x x L
A (P1 P2 )

Wherein:
K
=
q
=

=
A
=
cm
L
=
P1P2 =
atm

................. (8)

permeability, Darcy
flow rate, cc/sec
Viscosity, cp
cross-sectional area,
length, cm
pressure difference,

In Darcy's law itself


there are assumptions that are
used, as follows:
a) linear flow.
b) in compressible fluid (can
not breath / full because if
crowded / full it does not
cause the volume decreases.
c) steady flow conditions (no
change in the P and T).
d) homogeneous and isotropic
porous media.

In units of the field K is


expressed in miliDarcy. In
the field estimate can
also be made semicumulative giving to the
permeability (K scale),
they are:
1.Tight
: < 5 md
2.Fair
: 5 10
md
3.Good
: 10 100
md
4.Very good
: 100
1000 md
2.4. Acid solutibility
Acidizing is the way
to stimulate the reservoir
consisting of limestone or
dolomite reservoir rocks
and acid dissolvable rock.
This is done by injecting
acid into the reservoir to
get the price of the
permeability and porosity
of the larger or more
commercial in an oil field.
The acid used is
15% of the acid chloride
reacts with carbonate
rocks according to the
equation:
CaCO3
+
2
CaCl2 + H2O + CO2

HCl

Prior to stimulation
with acidizing must be
planned
precisely
laboratory data obtained
from
samples
of
formation fluid and the
fluid reservoir stimulation
so that the information
obtained
from
the
laboratory can be used to

plan operations with proper


stimulation. And, in turn,
increase the productivity of
the formation can be obtained
as expected. One of the
required information is the
solubility of the acid rock
samples (acid solubility). This
method uses a gravimetric
technique for determining the
reactivity
of
the
acid
formation.
Acidification
method
(Acidizing) can be divided into
two kinds:
1. Matrix Acidizing, in this
method, the acidic solution is
pumped or injected in order to
dissolve
the
rock
and
sediment formations around
the wellbore. The pressure
used is smaller than the
fracturing pressure of the
formation. Thus, the acid can
react with the walls of the
pores
of
the
rock
and
eventually will enlarge pores.
The
maximum
radial
penetration and acid solution
is dependent on the speed of
the acid in the pores.
Some of the assumptions used
in the implementation of this
method are as follows:
a. Homogeneous formation
b. Uniform pore size
c. Penetration of acid solution
uniformly and radially
d. Reaction speed decreases
uniformly with decreasing acid
concentration
e. The weight of limestone is
dissolved on any additional

distance
decreases
uniformly until all the acid
used.
Based on the above
assumptions, the radial
distance of the acid
solution will penetrate the
formation before the acid
solution used up entirely,
can be formulated by the
following equation:
Injected acid volume = volume
of pores invaded :
qi . t = . h . (ra2
rw2)...........(9)
qi.t
.h

ra =
+ rw2 .....
(10)
If qi is expressed in barrels / min
and t in seconds, then the
equation can:
ra =
(11)

5615qi.t
60..h

+ rw2...

where:
ra = radial distance of acid
penetration, ft.
= porosity, fraction.
qi = acid injection rate, bbl /
min.
rw = radius of wellbore, ft.
h = thickness of the formation.
In the above equation,
the unknown factor is spending
time, which must be specified in
laboratory.spending
time
depends on the ratio of the rock
with an acid solution, which is
called the surface area.
For specific matrix acidizing the
area are:

S f = 102 x 102

1
2. F . K

..(12)

where:
K = permeability (darcy)
Sf = specific surface (cm2 / cm3)
F = factor formation custody
To get the fluid penetration and
good acid, necessary reduction
reaction rate and raise the rate of
injection of acid solution into the
formation. Spending time acid
depends also on the pressure,
temperature, speed and acid in
retarding from the additives of the
rock.
3. EXPERIMENT PROCEDURE
3.1. Porosity
Porosity measurements by
weighing method. Started by weighing
the dry cores in a bowl, for example,
the dry core weight = W1 grams. The
second take a core that has been
saturated in kerosene kerosene then
weigh them, eg severity = W2 grams.
Taking the third core (which is still
saturated with kerosene), then
weighed in air, such as severity = W3
grams. The latter calculate Vb, Vg,
Vp.
3.2. Saturation
Saturation measurements by
the method of distillation. First of all
take a fresh core or that has been
saturated with water and oil. The
second considers the core, for example
weighs a gram. The third insert the
core into the Dean & Stark flask filled
with toluene. Then we fill with water
trap and a reflux condenser. The fourth
heat for approximately 30 minutes

until the water is no longer


visible. Cool it and read the fifth
volume of water being stored in
the water trap, the trap eg cc = b
= b g. Drying sixth sample in the
oven for 15 minutes, then cool it
in exicator. Then weigh the dry
cores, eg = c g. The seventh
Then we can calculate the
weight of the oil to the equation
"a - (b + c) g = d g". Next
calculate the volume of oil. And
lastly calculate oil saturation and
water saturation.
3.3. Permeability
To
measure
liquid
permeability, using a liquid
permeameter. First insert the
core into the core holder. The
second filling burette with water
(test liquid). The third open
valve core holder and burette
filled. The fourth shut off valve.
The fifth set the desired pressure
on the pressure gauge to set the
pressure regulator. Next restore
the fill valve discharge to
discharge. The latter recorded
the time required to drain fluid
from the upper limit to the lower
limit burette, and calculate
permeability.
To
calculate
the
gas
permeability, we use gas
permeameter. First of all make
sure regulating valve closed,
connect the gas line to the gas
entering inlet. Both cores on the
core holder. The third play
flowmeter selector valve on the
"large". The fourth open the
regulating valve, rotate until the
pressure gauge shows the
number of 0.25 atm. The fifth
pick in the reader flowmeter

range between 20-140 division. Next


if under 20, turn the selector valve to
the "medium" and raise the pressure to
0.5 atm. If the reader on the flowmeter
under 20, turning the selector valve to
the "small" and raise the pressure to
1.0 atm. If the flowmeter remains up
from number 20, stop the experiment
and check cores in core holder. If the
flowmeter shows a number above 140
in the "large" cane, the permeability of
the core is too large. Experiments we
stop or try raising long cores or
reducing the cross sectional area of the
core. Then record the temperature,
pressure and flowmeter readings. Do
not forget to change the pressure to
0.25 atm with regulators. The latter
experiment repeated 3 times.
3.4.
Determination
of
formation
samples
dissolved in acid solution
The first thing to do is
prepare the carbonate rock
samples that have been dried
and weighed.The second is to
prepare a solution of 5N HCl
acid for the carbonate rocks.
The third, insert the carbonate
rocks into HCl solution for 10
minutes. Next , insert the
stone into the oven for 20
minutes to dry. And than,
weigh the carbonat rock.
Calculated the solubility as
weight% and the solubility of
the material dissolved in 5N
HCl
4. DISCUSSION
Porosity measurements
or samples of reservoir rocks
is to know the size of the
cavity in the rock by rock bulk
volume and pore volume of

the rock. In the process of


exploitation, rock porosity
criteria
that
will
be
produced
is
effective
porosity rocks or in other
words the ratio of the
pore volume that related
to the total volume of
rock. In this experiment a
reservoir rock porosity
measurements,
carried
out in two ways: with
mercury injection and by
weighing. But we only use
the
weighing
method
only, due to damage of
mercury
injection
apparatus. Where in this
experiment the number of
porosity obtained from
experiments
with
the
weighing
method
obtained
at
18.375%
effective porosity, thus
belonging to the good
porosity.
Measurement
of
Fluid
Saturation
its
purpose to determine the
pore space of reservoir
rocks
containing
fluid
especially oil. The pores
of the reservoir rock
containing fluid usually
consists of oil, water and
gas. This is related to the
estimated size of the
reserve reservoir. In this
experiment,
fluid
saturation measurements
performed by the method
of distillation. From the
experiment, obtained oil
saturation (So) of 0.8824,
water saturation (Sw) of

0.1176, and gas saturation


(Sg) of 0. This indicates that
the core sample saturated by
two kinds of fluids, oil and
water. Where there is no gas
saturation, so that the gas
saturation is 0.
Permeability
measurements are used to
determine the ability of a fluid
reservoir rocks passed without
damaging the structure of the
constituent
rocks.
With
permeability
measurements
we can determine the fluid
flow rate. In experiments using
the
absolute
permeability
permeameter measurements
were performed with two
methods: liquid permeameter
and gas permeameter which
each method performed 3
times in order to get the price
of permeability K1, K2 and K3.
Getting
a
number
of
permeability
with
Liquid
permeameter
method
as
follows K = 0.0236 darcy.
Whereas the gas permeameter
method obtained price =
0.01235 darcy permeability
K1, K2 and K3 = 0.01395 =
0.0125 darcy darcy. Where K is
the value of K that has not
been corrected by the effect
Klikenberg. When the amount
of permeability is inserted into
the table K vs. 1 / P then
expressed in the graph. From
the graph obtained linear
equation y = 0,0004x +
0.0126. The equation used to
find the factors Klikenberg
permeability (K *). K *
generated at 0.1329.

Determination
of
formation
samples
dissolved in acid solution,
determine the levels of
soluble formation in acid
solution, in order to
obtain
important
information
prior
to
stimulation.
In
this
experiment the aim to
clean up or dissolve
impurities reservoir rocks
with an acid solution, can
also increase the average
rate
of
production.
Acidification is done in
this experiment using 5 N
HCL with concretration
due to the nature of HCL
that
reacted
with
carbonate.
From
this
experiment price percent
solubility obtained was
15.78% or mean pore
blockage in the core of
15.7% acid.
5. CONCLUTION
Of all the experiments
that have been carried
out in general it can be
concluded that:
1. Analysis of the core is
an attempt to get
information about the
physical properties of
rocks. In its application is
very useful for a lot of
help in the withdrawal of
oil and gas, particularly in
deciding how best to do
the production.

2. Porosity shows the amount


of pores in the rock cavities
that can be occupied by the
fluid. The surface obtained is
effective porosity. In
experiments obtained
18.375% porosity
sandstone with the
weighing method. Some
factors affecting the porosity
is: quantity or temperature
which is composed of rock,
grain uniformity, shape and
structure of the rock,
cementation, compaction,
angularity, packing, fracture
due to secondary processes.
3. Definition of fluid
saturation, fluid saturation is
the ratio of the pore volume
occupied by a
particular
fluid with the rock pore
volume. Saturation is
composed of water saturation
(Sw), oil saturation (So), gas
saturation (Sg). From the
obtained trial So = 0.1176; Sw
= 0.8824; Sg = 0.
4. The larger permeability of
the reservoir rock, the less
time needed to fluid through
the pores rock which are
interconnected, so that the
production
rate
will
be
expand. In the experiment get
permeability (K) in the gas
permeameter tool that is: P
= 0.25 atm to K = 0.01235; P
= 0.5 atm K = 0.01395 Darcy,;
P = 1 atm K = 0.0125 Darcy.
In liquid permeameter, P = 1
atm obtained K = 0.0236

Darcy. Permeability is
closely related to the
porosity, so it can be
concluded that permeable
rock
shaft
but
not
necessarily always the
opposite. Several factors
influence permeability
5. The solubility degree of
the
sample
in
acid
solution is 15,78%. So, if
we do the acidizing using
HCl,
most
of
the
depositions will be soluble
in acid solution. It is
proper to do the acidizing
using
HCl.storage
by
reinjection into reservoir
formations.
Above
measuring petrophysics,
we can indicates that
limestone which we take
is bad to be a reservoir
rock
6. The rock samples have
high porosity values and
permeability values are
low because of the rock
sample is included in the
classification of clastic
limestone
carbonates
where porosity is usually
obtained
intergranuler
porosity type, which is
sometimes also enlarged

by the dissolution. Porosity


can reach as high as 18,375
%, but only has K = 0.0236
darcy permeability.
Reference
1. Buku Petunjuk Praktikum
Analisa
Inti
Batuan,
Laboratorium
Fakultas
Teknologi
Mineral,
Jurusan
Teknik
Perminyakan,
Universitas
Pembangunan Nasional
Veteran
Yogyakarta.2013.
2. Tiab , Djebbar and
Donaldson
Erle
C.
Petrophysics : theory
and
practice
of
measuring reservoir rock
and
fluid
transport
properties. United States
of America, 2004.

Appendix

Rocks in the field (Kemadang area) and core samples

Korea National Oil Team in Kemadang area

Kemadang Village Map


Laboratory tools

Porosimeter, analog scale, and digital scale

Dean & Stark aparatus, gas permeameter, liquid


permeameter, and oven.

Graphic 1/P vs K