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Guide to the Major Amendments in BS 5950-1-2000

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178 просмотров96 страницGuide to the Major Amendments in BS 5950-1-2000

© All Rights Reserved

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in BS 5950-1:2000

M Heywood

Published by:

The Steel Construction Institute

Silwood Park

Ascot

Berkshire SL5 7QN

Tel:

Fax:

01344 623345

01344 622944

Apart from any fair dealing for the purposes of research or private study or criticism or review, as

permitted under the Copyright Designs and Patents Act, 1988, this publication may not be

reproduced, stored or transmitted, in any form or by any means, without the prior permission in

writing of the publishers, or in the case of reprographic reproduction only in accordance with the

terms of the licences issued by the UK Copyright Licensing Agency, or in accordance with the

terms of licences issued by the appropriate Reproduction Rights Organisation outside the UK.

Enquiries concerning reproduction outside the terms stated here should be sent to the publishers,

The Steel Construction Institute, at the address given on the title page.

Although care has been taken to ensure, to the best of our knowledge, that all data and

information contained herein are accurate to the extent that they relate to either matters of fact

or accepted practice or matters of opinion at the time of publication, The Steel Construction

Institute, the authors and the reviewers assume no responsibility for any errors in or

misinterpretations of such data and/or information or any loss or damage arising from or related

to their use.

Publications supplied to the Members of the Institute at a discount are not for resale by them.

Publication Number: SCI P304

ISBN 1 85942 131 8

British Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data.

A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library.

ii

FOREWORD

The design Standard for structural steelwork, BS 5950-1, is used in the design

calculations for the majority of constructional steelwork in the United Kingdom.

Structural engineers are very familiar with the 1990 issue of this Code and have used it

routinely to design safe and efficient structures in a fast and cost-effective manner.

BS 5950-1 has been amended recently and there has been genuine concern within the

industry that unfamiliarity with the revised code could result in poor productivity,

increased costs and design errors, seriously damaging the competitiveness of the

construction industry. BS 5950-1:2000, as the revised code is known, came into effect

on 15 August 2001.

The purpose of this publication is to ease the transition from BS 5950-1:1990 to

BS 5950-1:2000, by highlighting Clauses that have undergone significant technical

changes and explaining how these changes will affect the design of steel building

structures. This should enable designers to adopt the new Code quickly and with the

minimum of disruption, thereby minimising the potential cost to the industry resulting

from reduced productivity. This guide is not intended as an in-depth commentary to

BS 5950-1, as it deals only with the major changes, however it does cover all the

changes with important safety implications, allowing structural engineers to continue to

use BS 5950-1 with confidence.

This publication was written by Dr Martin Heywood of The Steel Construction Institute,

with contributions to the worked examples from the late Mr Paul Salter,

Mr Abdul Malik, Mr David Brown and Mr Charles King.

Funding for the preparation of this guide was gratefully received from the Department of

the Environment, Transport and the Regions (DETR) and Corus.

amendments in BS 5950-1:2000. Available on CD, the guide contains a Clause-byClause comparison of the 1990 and 2000 editions, a description of all changes,

interactive design paths, worked examples, a keyword search facility, and the

facility to print a paper copy of the Standard.

iii

iv

Contents

Page No.

FOREWORD

iii

SUMMARY

vii

INTRODUCTION

1.1

Background

1.2

Scope of this publication

1.3

Summary of the changes

1

1

1

1

LIMIT

2.1

2.2

2.3

2.4

4

4

4

7

8

3.1

Grades of steel

3.2

Section classification

3.3

Effective plastic modulus

3.4

Slender cross sections

10

10

10

11

11

4.1

Members subject to bending

4.2

Lateral-torsional buckling

4.3

Plate girder webs

4.4

Design of stiffeners

4.5

Tension members

4.6

Compression members

4.7

Combined moment and axial force

4.8

Column bases

13

13

15

20

24

27

28

30

32

CONTINUOUS STRUCTURES

5.1

Column bases

5.2

Frame stability

5.3

Portal frames

5.4

Multi-storey frames

35

35

35

37

39

CONNECTIONS

6.1

Bolted connections

6.2

Pin connections

6.3

Welded connections

42

42

47

48

REFERENCES

51

STATES DESIGN

Load factors

Stability

Brittle fracture

Structural integrity

WORKED EXAMPLES

Sway stability

Choosing a steel sub-grade

Restrained beam

Unrestrained beam

Plate grider

Web bearing and buckling

Compression member

Axial load and bending

Baseplate

53

55

57

59

63

67

71

75

77

83

vi

SUMMARY

BS 5950 Structural use of steelwork in building, Part 1: Code of practice for design Rolled and welded sections has undergone major amendment. Almost every Clause of

this widely used Standard has changed in some way; some of the changes are technical in

nature, others are editorial and do not alter the recommendations for building design.

The revised Standard, referred to as BS 5950-1:2000, became effective on 15 August

2001.

The aim of this publication is to ease the transition to BS 5950-1:2000 by guiding

designers through the major technical amendments to the Standard. A short description

of each important change is provided, and simple worked examples illustrate the revised

design procedures.

The major amendments to BS 5950-1 include revised rules for checking the stability of

frames, changes to the method for selecting an appropriate steel sub-grade and the

introduction of the effective-area method for class 4 slender sections. On the subject of

member design, the greatest change relates to lateral-torsional buckling, where the

n-factor method has been removed. Changes have also been made to the Clauses on

shear buckling, stiffener design, tension members, compression members, combined axial

load and bending, and the design of column bases. Elsewhere, important changes have

been made to the rules relating to the in-plane stability of portal frames, prying forces

and the transverse strength of fillet welds.

Recueil des principales modifications la norme BS 5950-1

Rsum

La norme BS 5950 Usage structural des constructions en acier dans les btiments,

Partie 1: Code de pratique pour le dimensionnement - Sections lamines et soudes, a

subi dimportantes modifications. Pratiquement tous les articles de cette norme, fort

utilise en pratique, ont subi des modifications; certaines ont un simple caractre

ditorial mais dautres, par contre, apportent des modifications techniques importantes.

La norme rvise, rfrence BS 5950-1:2000, est devenue dapplication le 15 aot 2001.

Le but de cette publication est de faciliter la transition vers la nouvelle norme en guidant

les utilisateurs travers les modifications majeures. Une courte description de chaque

changement important est donne; des exemples simples illustrent les procdures de

dimensionnement rvises.

Les modifications majeures incluent la vrification de la stabilit des portiques, la

mthode de slection des nuances dacier appropries et lintroduction dune mthode

daire effective pour les sections de classe 4. Concernant le dimensionnement des

lments, la modification la plus importante a trait au dversement, o la mthode du

coefficient n a t supprime. Des modifications sont aussi apportes aux articles traitant

du voilement par cisaillement, du dimensionnement des raidisseurs, des lments en

traction, en compression et en combinaison charge axiale-flexion ainsi que du

dimensionnement des pieds de poteaux.

Dautre part, des modifications ont aussi t apportes aux rgles relatives la stabilit

dans leur plan des portiques, aux forces de levier et la rsistance transversale des

soudures dangles.

vii

Zusammenfassung

BS 5950 Stahlbauten, Teil 1: Vorschrift zur Berechnung - Gewalzte und geschweite

Querschnitte hat sich wichtigen nderungen unterzogen. Fast jeder Satz dieser allgemein

verwendeten Vorschrift hat sich in gewisser Weise gendert; manche nderungen sind

technischer Art, andere sind redaktioneller Art und ndern die Empfehlungen fr die

Berechnung nicht. Die berarbeitete Norm, jetzt mit BS 5950-1:2000 bezeichnet, ist seit

15 August 2001 gltig.

Das Ziel dieser Publikation ist es, den bergang zu BS 5950-1:2000 zu erleichtern,

indem der Ingenieur durch die wichtigsten nderungen gefhrt wird. Eine kurze

Beschreibung jeder wichtigen nderung ist enthalten, und einfache Berechnungsbeispiele

illustrieren die berarbeiteten Berechnungsverfahren.

Die wichtigen nderungen in BS 5950-1 beinhalten berarbeitete Regeln zur Prfung der

Stabilitt von Tragwerken, nderungen zur Auswahl einer geeigneten Stahlgte und die

Einfhrung der Methode der wirksamen Flche bei schlanken Querschnitten der Klasse 4.

Bezglich der Bauteilberechnung ergibt sich die grte nderung beim Biegedrillknicken,

hier wurde die n-Faktor Methode gestrichen. nderungen gibt es auch bei folgenden

Themen: Schubbeulen, Berechnung von Steifen, Zug- und Druckglieder, Normalkraft und

Biegung, Sttzenfe. An anderer Stelle wurden wichtige nderungen vorgenommen beim

Stabilittsverhalten in Tragwerksebene von Portalrahmen, bei Sttzkrften und bei der

Festigkeit von Kehlnhten in Querrichtung.

Guida alle principali modifiche della BS 5950-1

Sommario

La norma BS 5950 Carpenteria strutturale negli edifici, Parte 1: regole progettuali Sezione laminate e saldate ha subito un importante aggiornamento. Quasi ogni punto di

questa norma, ampiamente diffusa ed utilizzata, stato in qualche modo variato. Alcune

di queste modifiche sono di natura tecnica, altre editoriale e non alterano le

raccomandazioni relative al progetto degli edifici. La norma revisionata, denominata

BS 5950-1:2000, entrata in vigore il 15 Agosto 2001.

Scopo di questa pubblicazione facilitare il passaggio alla nuova BS 5950-1:2000,

guidando i progettisti attraverso le principali modifiche tecniche che sono state effettuate.

Viene fornita una breve descrizione di ogni variazione rilevante, e semplici esempi

applicativi illustrano le procedure di progettazione aggiornate.

I principali emendamenti alla BS 5950-1 includono una revisione delle regole di verifica

della stabilit dei telai, del metodo di selezione dellidonea classe di acciaio e

lintroduzione del metodo dellarea efficace per le sezioni snelle della classe 4. Per

quanto concerne la progettazione degli elementi, le maggiori variazioni si riferiscono

instabilit flesso-torsionale, ove stato eliminato il metodo del fattore-n. Sono state

apportate modifiche anche ai punti relativi allimbozzamento da taglio, alla progettazione

degli irrigidimenti, agli elementi tesi ed a quelli compressi, alla combinazione di azione

assiale e flettente e al progetto delle basi delle colonne. In altre parti, sostanziali

modifiche sono state effettuate alle regole riguardanti la stabilit nel piano dei portali, le

forze di contatto e la resistenza trasversale delle saldature a cordone dangolo.

viii

Resumen

La norma BS5950 Uso de acero estructural en edificios, Parte 1: Reglas de buena prctica

para el proyecto Perfiles Laminares y soldados ha sufrido importantes correcciones. Casi

cada Clusula de esta popular Norma ha cambiado de algn modo en el aspecto tcnico

aunque tambin hay cambios en el aspecto editorial que no afecta las recomendaciones de

proyecto. La Norma Revisada, titulada BS 5950-1:2000, se hizo efectiva el 15 de agosto

de 2001.

El propsito de esta publicacin es facilitar la transicin guiando a los proyectistas a

travs de las correcciones ms importantes de la Norma. Se da una breve descripcin de

cada cambio importante y los procedimientos revisados de proyecto se ilustran

desarrollando ejemplos sencillos.

Las correcciones a la BS 5950-1 incluyen reglas de comprobacin de la estabilidad de

prticos, cambios al mtodo de seleccin de una subclase de acero adecuada al problema y

la introduccin del mtodo del rea efectiva para las secciones esbeltas de clase 4. Sobre

el tema de proyecto de piezas el cambio mayor se refiere al pandeo lateral y de torsin

donde se ha eliminado el mtodo del factor n. Tambin se han hecho cambios en las

clusulas sobre la abolladura por cortante, proyecto de rigidizadores, piezas a traccin y a

compresin, flexin combinada con axil y proyecto de basas de columnas. Adems se han

llevado a cabo importantes cambios en las reglas relativas al pandeo en su plano de

prticos fuerzas de retraccin y resistencia transversal de cordones de soldadura.

ix

INTRODUCTION

1.1

Background

has gradually (although not completely) replaced BS 449 in the design office

and is now the established Standard for the design of steel-framed buildings in

the UK and several other countries. Part 1 of BS 5950 (referred to here as

BS 5950-1) is the Code of practice for design using rolled and welded sections.

It gives recommendations for the safe design of general building structures,

including the specification of the appropriate steel sub-grade, the classification

of sections, design for stability, the design of members subject to bending,

tension and compression, stiffener design and the design of column bases and

connections.

BS 5950-1 has undergone a major amendment, affecting the majority of the

Clauses to some extent. The revised Standard, BS 5950-1:2000[1], became

effective on 15 August 2001. Because this Standard is so widely used for the

design of structural steelwork, it is hardly surprising that news of this

amendment was greeted with some trepidation among designers, many of whom

are very familiar with the recommendations of its predecessor BS 5950-1:

1990[2]. The Steel Construction Institute recognised that some guidance was

required during the period of transition, as designers familiarise themselves with

the content and layout of the amended Standard. This publication provides a

concise guide to the changes, together with advice on the implementation of the

revised Clauses.

1.2

The purpose of this publication is to guide designers through the major technical

amendments to BS 5950-1, by means of a short description of each important

change and simple worked examples. It is not a commentary to BS 5950-1:

2000 and does not, therefore, attempt to give the theoretical background to the

Clauses or any justification for the amendments. This publication is limited to

those Clauses from Sections 2 to 6 of BS 5950-1:2000 that have undergone a

major or significant technical amendment. Section 7 (which deals with testing)

and the Annexes are beyond the scope of this publication, as are the numerous

minor changes. For convenience, guidance on the modified Clauses has been

grouped together into five sections, with numbered headings matching those

used in BS 5950-1:2000. The numbered sub-sections do not correspond to the

Sub-sections in BS 5950-1:2000, but Clause numbers are stated in all cases.

1.3

The 2000 amendment to BS 5950-1 has affected almost every Clause in the

Standard to some extent, even though many of the changes are only editorial in

nature (i.e. the technical recommendations are unchanged).

Users of

BS 5950-1:2000 will notice immediately that the familiar two-column format has

been replaced with full-width pages, giving the impression that this is a

completely new document. This impression is reinforced by the renumbering of

many of the Clauses and the extensive re-drafting of much of the text.

1

are completely unchanged. Even where changes have been made to the values

and equations in the Standard, the majority of design procedures are the same as

in BS 5950-1:1990. However, there have also been a number of significant

technical changes and designers will need to familiarise themselves with several

new methods of design.

One of the most important changes is the extension of the scope of BS 5950-1 to

include cold formed structural hollow sections. The Steel Construction Institute

first recommended that BS 5950-1 could be used for design using cold formed

structural hollow sections in Advisory Desk article AD185[3] and offered advice

on how such sections could be designed using a Standard written principally for

hot rolled steel. These recommendations have now been incorporated into

BS 5950-1. However, designers must note that the inclusion of cold formed

structural hollow sections in BS 5950-1 does not mean that they can be used in

direct substitution for a similar-sized hot finished member, because there are

important differences between the two types of section in terms of section

properties and residual stresses. Designers wishing to substitute cold formed for

hot finished structural hollow sections must redesign the members using the

appropriate strut curves, d/t limits (for section classification) and section

properties. Other types of cold formed section should still be designed

according to BS 5950-5[4].

Within Section 2, important changes have been made to the rules for checking

the stability of all types of framed structure, including braced frames. All of

the stability rules, apart from those for portal frames, can now be found in

Clause 2.4.2, reducing the risk of the common misconception that only

continuous frames need be checked. In fact, most of the changes to this Clause

have been made to clarify the intent of the Standard and the technical

recommendations are largely unchanged. The rules for brittle fracture have also

been amended, resulting in a revised method for calculating the maximum

allowable thickness of steel. Compared with BS 59501:1990, the new

Standard includes a greater variety of details and temperatures (down to 45C).

Other changes to Section 2 include a few new load factors and changes to the

rules for structural integrity and disproportionate collapse.

In Section 3, numerous minor changes have been made to the limiting width-tothickness ratios used in the classification of cross sections, although the general

principle remains unchanged. By far the greatest change to Section 3 of

BS 5950-1 relates to the treatment of class 4 slender sections. BS 5950-1:2000

recommends the use of the effective-area method, in which the reduction in

capacity due to local buckling is allowed for by the use of effective section

properties, as an alternative to the conservative approach of reducing the

assumed design strength. Section 3 of BS 5950-1:2000 also introduces the

effective plastic modulus, Seff, which may be used instead of Z for class 3 semicompact sections (the use of Z is over-conservative in many cases).

Section 4, which deals with the design of structural members, has undergone

many significant changes, particularly in relation to members subject to

bending. The rules governing the design of both restrained and unrestrained

beams have been modified, although most of the changes will only affect the

design of class 3 semi-compact and class 4 slender beams. The only significant

change relevant to the design of Universal Beams under pure bending (which

are usually class 1 plastic or class 2 compact) is the removal of the n-factor

2

INTRODUCTION

1.1

Background

has gradually (although not completely) replaced BS 449 in the design office

and is now the established Standard for the design of steel-framed buildings in

the UK and several other countries. Part 1 of BS 5950 (referred to here as

BS 5950-1) is the Code of practice for design using rolled and welded sections.

It gives recommendations for the safe design of general building structures,

including the specification of the appropriate steel sub-grade, the classification

of sections, design for stability, the design of members subject to bending,

tension and compression, stiffener design and the design of column bases and

connections.

BS 5950-1 has undergone a major amendment, affecting the majority of the

Clauses to some extent. The revised Standard, BS 5950-1:2000[1], became

effective on 15 August 2001. Because this Standard is so widely used for the

design of structural steelwork, it is hardly surprising that news of this

amendment was greeted with some trepidation among designers, many of whom

are very familiar with the recommendations of its predecessor BS 5950-1:

1990[2]. The Steel Construction Institute recognised that some guidance was

required during the period of transition, as designers familiarise themselves with

the content and layout of the amended Standard. This publication provides a

concise guide to the changes, together with advice on the implementation of the

revised Clauses.

1.2

The purpose of this publication is to guide designers through the major technical

amendments to BS 5950-1, by means of a short description of each important

change and simple worked examples. It is not a commentary to BS 5950-1:

2000 and does not, therefore, attempt to give the theoretical background to the

Clauses or any justification for the amendments. This publication is limited to

those Clauses from Sections 2 to 6 of BS 5950-1:2000 that have undergone a

major or significant technical amendment. Section 7 (which deals with testing)

and the Annexes are beyond the scope of this publication, as are the numerous

minor changes. For convenience, guidance on the modified Clauses has been

grouped together into five sections, with numbered headings matching those

used in BS 5950-1:2000. The numbered sub-sections do not correspond to the

Sub-sections in BS 5950-1:2000, but Clause numbers are stated in all cases.

1.3

The 2000 amendment to BS 5950-1 has affected almost every Clause in the

Standard to some extent, even though many of the changes are only editorial in

nature (i.e. the technical recommendations are unchanged).

Users of

BS 5950-1:2000 will notice immediately that the familiar two-column format has

been replaced with full-width pages, giving the impression that this is a

completely new document. This impression is reinforced by the renumbering of

many of the Clauses and the extensive re-drafting of much of the text.

1

2.1

Load factors

Clause 2.4.1

BS 5950-1:2000 contains load factors for several new load combinations.

Values of f are now given for storage tanks (full and empty), earth and

groundwater loads, exceptional snow loads and various combinations of dead,

imposed, wind and crane loads. A new case of dead load whenever it

counteracts the effects of other loads has also been added, with f = 1.0, to

take account of the fact that in some cases the dead loads are actually beneficial

(similar to, but more general than, dead load when restraining sliding,

overturning or uplift in BS 5950-1:1990).

In addition, the load combinations that the designer must consider are now given

explicitly in the Code. Previously, these combinations were listed in Table 2

along with their f values, but there was no compulsion to consider any or all of

them (although it was assumed that competent designers would know that they

had to consider all load combinations to determine the worst case for their

buildings).

According to BS 5950-1:2000, the following principal load combinations need

to be considered:

For buildings without cranes:

Crane combination 1 dead load, imposed load and vertical crane loads

Crane combination 2 dead load, imposed load and horizontal crane loads

Crane combination 3 dead load, imposed load, vertical crane loads and

horizontal crane loads.

are not in operation is now obtained from BS 6399-2 instead of CP3. For all

cranes under working conditions, reference should be made to BS 2573-1.

2.2

Stability

Clause 2.4.2

The requirements for stability, which were previously contained in several

Clauses in different Sections of the Code, have been brought together into

Clause 2.4.2 in BS 5950-1:2000. The basic requirements have not changed, but

the entire Clause has been rewritten to clarify which checks are required and to

distinguish between the various modes of failure that are covered by the term

stability limit state. There have also been several technical changes to the

methods of analysis.

BS 5950-1:2000 recommends that structures be checked for the following:

Static equilibrium

Sway stiffness.

simply that the most unfavourable realistic combination of the factored loads

should not cause the structure, or any part of it, to slide, overturn or lift off its

seating. This is similar to the recommendation in Sub-clause 2.4.2.2 in

BS 5950-1:1990, except that the emphasis used to be on overturning, with no

mention of sliding.

Sub-clause 2.4.2.3 outlines the requirements for providing resistance to

horizontal forces. The purpose of this Sub-clause is to ensure that designers

consider the possibility of incidental horizontal loads acting on the structure and

provide a practical level of robustness against their effects. This is particularly

important in cases where the structural actions are dominated by gravity loads

and there is a risk that the need to resist horizontal loading will be overlooked,

leaving the structure vulnerable to horizontal impact or other accidental loading.

In load combination 1, the gravity loads should be accompanied by the notional

horizontal forces (see Sub-clause 2.4.2.4) to allow for imperfections in the

structure. In load combinations 2 and 3, the structure should be designed to

withstand the horizontal wind loading, as in BS 5950-1:1990. However, in

BS 5950-1:2000, there is now a minimum wind load of 1% of the factored dead

load, to ensure that a minimum horizontal resistance is provided, even in cases

where the wind load is very small or non-existent. The important difference

between this minimum wind load and the notional horizontal force of 1% of the

factored dead load in BS 5950-1:1990 is that the notional horizontal forces are

not taken to contribute to the net reactions at the foundations, whereas the wind

loads are. In BS 5950-1:1990, it was possible to design a structure with no

allowance for horizontal foundation loads. In BS 5950-1:2000, this is no longer

possible, because the 1% of the dead load considered in load combinations 2

and 3 is carried through to the foundations.

The notional horizontal forces are not externally applied loads in the way that

the dead, imposed and wind loads are, but are a convenient means of taking into

account the effects of imperfections, such as columns being out of plumb, on

the performance of a structure. In reality, such imperfections exist in all

structures, causing lateral forces to be induced in the structure under the action

of gravity loads. For this reason, the notional horizontal forces must always be

applied simultaneously with the gravity loads. In BS 5950-1:1990, the notional

horizontal forces are taken as the greater of either 1% of the factored dead load

or 0.5% of the dead plus imposed vertical loads. In BS 5950-1:2000, the 1%

of factored dead load has been removed (except as a minimum wind load, see

above) and the notional horizontal force is always 0.5% of the dead plus

imposed vertical loads.

The final check in this Clause relates to the sway stiffness of the structure and

in particular whether it is safe for the second-order (P-delta) effects to be

5

neglected.

One significant change to this subject is that all of the

recommendations have now been placed together in this one Clause (in Subclauses 2.4.2.5 to 2.4.2.8). In BS 5950-1:1990, sway stiffness was only

referred to very briefly in Section 2, while the majority of the recommendations

was in Section 5, along with the rules for continuous construction. This gave

the impression that sway stiffness was only important in continuous structures

while, in reality, it is something for which all structures should be checked.

The degree of sway stiffness is obtained by applying the notional horizontal

forces at the floor or roof level under consideration and calculating the

deflection at this level relative to the storey below by elastic analysis. An

approximation to the sway mode elastic critical load factor of the frame cr is

then determined from

cr =

h

200

For clad structures in which the stiffening effect of the cladding has been

neglected in the analysis, if cr 10, it is safe to assume that the second-order

effects are small enough to be ignored and the frame may be classed as nonsway.

If cr<10, the frame is classed as sway sensitive and the second-order effects

should be taken into account. Provided that cr 4, this may be achieved by

multiplying the sway effects by the amplification factor kamp, given by

kamp =

cr

1.15 cr 1.5

but

kamp

1.0

Unclad frames, or clad frames where the stiffening effect of the cladding is

taken into account, are always classed as sway sensitive, irrespective of the

value of cr. For these structures, the amplification factor kamp is given by

kamp =

cr

cr 1

If cr < 4, for either type of frame, the P-delta effects cannot be allowed for

adequately by the use of the amplification factor kamp and a second-order

analysis should be carried out. This rule is new to BS 5950-1:2000.

Note: 1. Where the resistance to horizontal forces is provided by momentresisting joints or by cantilever columns, an alternative procedure may

be used in which the sway mode in-plane effective lengths are used for

the columns (see Annex E) and the beams are designed to remain elastic

under factored loads.

2. The method described in this Clause should not be used for portal

frames (see Sub-section 5.5 of BS 5950-1:2000 for the appropriate

method for this case).

The procedure for analysing the stability of multi-storey frames is illustrated by

Worked Example 1 of this publication.

2.3

Brittle fracture

Clause 2.4.4

The method used to select the sub-grade of steel in order to avoid brittle

fracture has changed. This is a major technical change.

To prevent the sudden catastrophic collapse of a building without warning, it is

necessary to ensure that structural steelwork is resistant to brittle fracture.

Resistance to brittle fracture depends not only on the toughness of the steel

(expressed as a Charpy impact value at a specific test temperature), but also on

the actual temperature of the steel, the level of stress in it, the type of detail, the

rate of loading and the thickness of the element. BS 5950-1 expresses the

requirement for resistance to brittle fracture by giving a limiting thickness

(maximum) dependent on the material toughness and the service conditions.

This approach is essentially unchanged in BS 5950-1:2000, but the method by

which the maximum thickness is calculated has been modified.

In BS 5950-1:1990, for steel subjected to the normal UK minimum temperatures

of 5C and 15C for internal and external steelwork respectively, the

maximum thickness could be obtained directly from Table 4, for all of the

commonly used grades of structural steel. The effects of tensile stress and the

type of detail were taken into account by the use of the factor K, obtained from

Table 3. Alternatively, designers could use the empirical equation in Sub-clause

2.4.4.3 to calculate the required Charpy impact value at the minimum service

temperature for a particular thickness, yield strength and value of K.

Although the use of Table 4 in BS 5950-1:1990 had the advantage of being very

simple, it was limited to a minimum temperature of 15C and to the two

values of K given in Table 3. The method in Sub-clause 2.4.4.3 could be used

for any temperature (because it simply involved specifying a Charpy value at the

required temperature), but was still limited to the values of K in Table 3.

In BS 5950-1:2000, Table 4 has been extended to include lower temperatures of

25C, 35C and 45C, in addition to the usual internal and external

conditions. The steel grades have also been amended to bring the table into line

with the current product standards (e.g. S275JR and S275J0 to BS EN 10025).

Note that Table 4 only applies to plates, flats and rolled sections. For structural

hollow sections, reference should be made to Table 5.

Table 3 has also been expanded and now accommodates seven types of detail

and three levels of tensile stress. The result is a wide variety of K values,

compared with the two values in BS 5950-1:1990.

Such an expansion in the range of temperatures and K values would have

resulted in a very large, complicated Table 4, if the method had remained

unchanged. Consequently, in BS 5950-1:2000, Table 4 only gives maximum

thicknesses corresponding to K = 1 (denoted t1) and the maximum thickness for

any other value of K is given by

t

Kt1

this Clause. The temperature T27J referred to in these equations is the test

temperature for which a minimum Charpy impact value of 27 Joules is specified

in the appropriate product standard, or the equivalent value given in Table 7.

7

component should not exceed t2, as given in Table 6. This is the maximum

thickness at which the full Charpy impact value given in the product standard

applies.

The procedure for choosing a suitable steel sub-grade is illustrated by Worked

Example 2 of this publication.

2.4

Structural integrity

Clause 2.4.5

Clause 2.4.5, which deals with structural integrity and the avoidance of

disproportionate collapse, has been revised in line with the current Building

Regulations Approved Document A[5]. The principal changes are described

below.

In BS 5950-1:1990, it was stated that ties should be capable of carrying a

factored tensile load of not less than 75 kN at floor levels and 40 kN at roof

level. In BS 5950-1:2000, this requirement has been generally amended to

75 kN at all levels. However, there is no need to provide horizontal ties at roof

level if the steelwork carries only imposed roof loads, wind loads and cladding

that weighs not more than 0.7 kN/m2.

With regard to the avoidance of disproportionate collapse, the requirements of

the Building Regulations may be assumed to be satisfied if the five conditions

given in Sub-clause 2.4.5.3 are met. There have been two significant changes

to these conditions.

Firstly, there has been a relaxation in the tying force to be resisted when the tie

is a primary beam. The two equations for the tying force presented in

BS 5950-1:1990 (for internal and edge ties) are unchanged in BS 5950-1:2000,

but there is now an additional sentence which states that, in the absence of other

loading, the General tying condition may be assumed to be satisfied if the

member and its end connections are capable of resisting a tensile force equal to

its end reaction under factored loads (but not less than 75 kN). In the case of a

primary beam supporting secondary beams, the end reactions of the primary

beam under factored loads could be as little as half the tying force given by the

equation for internal ties.

The second change relates to column splices. According to BS 5950-1:1990,

column splices should be capable of resisting a tensile force of not less than

two-thirds of the factored vertical load applied to the column from the floor

level immediately below the splice. In BS 5950-1:2000, splices should be

designed for a tensile force equal to the largest factored vertical dead and

imposed load reaction, applied to the column at a single floor level, located

between the column splice under consideration and the next column splice

down.

In BS 5950-1:1990, where any of the five conditions was not met, the building

had to be checked at each storey to see whether any individual column, or beam

carrying a column, could be removed without causing collapse of more than a

limited proportion of the building. If it was found that the removal of a

designed as a key element.

In BS 5950-1:2000, the test of removing one column at a time has been

restricted to cases where one or more of the first three conditions is not met

(those relating to tying of columns and continuity of columns). If condition d,

resistance to horizontal forces, is not met, disproportionate collapse should be

checked by removing each element of the bracing system in turn. In both cases,

disproportionate collapse is defined as the collapse of a portion of the building

exceeding 15% of the floor or roof area or 70 m2, whichever is less, at the

relevant level and at one level immediately above or below. As in BS 5950-1:

1990, if the removal of any member results in disproportionate collapse, that

member should be designed as a key element. In BS 5950-1:2000, all key

elements should be designed to withstand the accidental loading specified in

BS 6399-1.

SECTION PROPERTIES

3.1

Grades of steel

Clause 3.1.1

BS 5950-1 has been amended to take account of the introduction of the new

European product standards. Under these standards, all grades of structural

steel referred to in BS 5950-1:2000 conform to a common system of designation

as illustrated by the example:

BS EN 10025 S275

In this example, the first term is the product standard, the S stands for

structural and 275 means a minimum yield strength of 275 N/mm2 (for thickness

not exceeding 16 mm).

As a result of this change, reference is made to steel grades S275, S355 and

S460 throughout BS 5950-1:2000, in place of the old BS 4360 grades 43, 50

and 55.

As before, the design strength py depends not only on the grade of steel but also

on the thickness. Values of py are given in Table 9 (formerly Table 6) for three

common grades of structural steel and a range of thicknesses. This Table has

been expanded and now includes design strengths for 150 mm thick S275 and

S355 steel and two new thicknesses of S460 steel.

3.2

Section classification

Clause 3.5.2

The rules for section classification have undergone several technical changes,

although the general approach of using limiting width-to-thickness ratios is

unchanged.

In BS 5950-1:2000, the limiting width-to-thickness ratios used for section

classification are given in Table 11 for sections other than circular hollow

sections and rectangular hollow sections and Table 12 for circular hollow

sections and rectangular hollow sections. Although these tables are similar to

Table 7 in BS 5950-1:1990, several important changes have been made and

designers need to familiarise themselves with the revised layout of the tables.

Many of the limits have changed and several new categories of section type

have been introduced.

In BS 5950-1:2000, the classification of the web of an I, H or box section in

Table 11 or rectangular hollow sections in Table 12 depends on the level of

axial load in the member. This is achieved by the use of the stress ratios r1 and

r2 in determining the limiting d/t value. Formulae for r1 and r2 are given in

Clause 3.5.5 for three types of section.

10

It is important to recognise that this dependence on the level of axial load might

result in a section changing its classification as the axial load changes. For

example, consider the web of an I section with d/t = 79. When there is no

axial compression, the web is class 1 plastic (d/t < 80), but if there is a

compressive force equal to 20% of the squash load of the web (i.e. r1 = 0.2),

the section becomes class 3 semi-compact. For this reason, it is essential to

reclassify the web whenever there is a change to the axial load.

As a conservative alternative to the use of these ratios, the limit of 40, for

I sections, H sections, hot rolled rectangular hollow sections and box sections,

or 35, for cold formed rectangular hollow sections, may be used.

3.3

Clause 3.5.6

Clause 3.5.6 presents equations for calculating the effective plastic modulus,

Seff, which may be used as an alternative to the elastic section modulus Z for

class 3 semi-compact sections.

Unlike plastic or compact sections, semi-compact sections are not able to

develop their full plastic capacity because of local buckling. In BS 5950-1:

1990, this is allowed for by limiting the moment capacity to pyZ. However, in

many cases, this approach is conservative, because the moment capacity of a

semi-compact section can be anywhere between pyZ and pyS (i.e. above the

moment at first yield but below the fully plastic moment). In BS 5950-1:2000,

the moment capacity may be taken either conservatively as pyZ or more

accurately as pySeff. This new approach gives a less conservative result by

utilising the additional capacity beyond first yield, but it does involve

significantly more computational effort.

This Clause contains equations for Seff for I or H sections with equal flanges,

rectangular hollow sections and circular hollow sections. Two values of Seff are

given for each case. The first applies when the web is the critical element (i.e.

more slender) and the second applies when the flange is critical. Designers

wishing to use the new approach for I or H sections with unequal flanges,

subject to bending in the plane of the web, should refer to Annex H.3.

3.4

The rules for slender cross sections have been changed to allow the use of

effective areas, as an alternative to the old approach of reducing the assumed

design strength. This is a major technical change with considerable implications

for designers.

A slender section is one in which the stress at the extreme compression fibre

cannot reach the design strength due to local buckling. Consequently, whenever

such sections are subjected to axial compression, bending or a combination of

the two, the effect of local buckling on the capacity of the section needs to be

taken into account.

11

limiting the yield stress assumed in the design to such a level that the elements

of the cross section would not buckle. This approach is over-conservative,

especially for the case of Universal Beams used as columns, as the reduced

strength is applied to the whole cross section, even though it is often only the

web that is slender.

In BS 5950-1:2000, a new method is presented in which the reduction in

capacity due to local buckling is allowed for by using an effective area equal to

the semi-compact limit. This approach is valid for I sections, rectangular

hollow sections, angles, channels etc. but account must be taken of the shift in

the centroid where appropriate. Designers using this new approach will find

that, in many cases, the calculated section resistance is noticeably different from

that determined using the old design rules, often leading to greater economy.

However, designers are under no obligation to use this new method and, if they

prefer, may still use the reduced design strength, as described in Clause 3.6.5.

The analysis of doubly symmetric cross sections with class 4 slender elements is

considered in Clause 3.6.2. The effective area, Aeff, of such sections should be

determined from the effective cross sections shown in Figure 8a. The effective

section modulus, Zeff, should be obtained from Figure 8b, for sections whose

webs are not slender under pure bending (i.e. only the flanges are slender), and

from Figure 9, if the web is slender under pure bending.

The effective widths obtained from Clause 3.6.2 may also be used for class 4

slender singly symmetric and asymmetric cross sections, provided that account

is taken of the additional moments induced in the member due to the shift in the

centroid of the effective cross section compared with that of the gross cross

section. A method for calculating these moments is described in Clause 3.6.3.

Hot rolled equal-leg angles may be treated as asymmetric sections and analysed

using the method presented in Clause 3.6.3 or, alternatively, their effective

section properties Aeff and Zeff may be obtained from the simple but conservative

formulae given in Clause 3.6.4.

Formulae for the effective section properties of circular hollow sections are

given in Clause 3.6.6.

12

4.1

Clause 4.2.2

BS 5950-1:1990 stated that there is no need to consider the lateral-torsional

buckling of a member when full lateral restraint is provided. In BS 5950-1:

2000, resistance to lateral-torsional buckling can only be deemed adequate if, in

addition to full lateral restraint, there is also nominal torsional restraint at the

supports. Such restraint may be provided by web cleats, partial depth end

plates, fin plates or, in continuous beams, by the continuity with the next span.

Because all of these methods of restraint are common details in typical building

structures, designers should have no difficulty in complying with the amended

Clause. Nevertheless, this is a significant amendment.

Clause 4.2.5

Clauses 4.2.5 and 4.2.6 of BS 5950-1:1990, which deal with moment capacity

for the low shear and high shear cases respectively, have been merged so that

all of the expressions for moment capacity are now contained in a single Clause.

Several significant changes have been made and two new Sub-clauses have been

added covering notched ends and bolt holes.

In BS 5950-1:1990, the moment capacity for class 1 plastic or class 2 compact

sections with low shear (i.e. Fv 0.6Pv) was given by

Mc =

pyS

but

1.2pyZ

The limit of 1.2 pyZ at ultimate limit state corresponds to approximately 80% of

the elastic capacity of the section (i.e. 0.8 pyZ) at serviceability state and

ensures that the section remains elastic at the working loads, allowing for

residual stresses. If S $ 1.2Z, the 1.2 constant could be replaced by the ratio of

the factored load to the unfactored load.

In BS 5950-1:2000, the moment capacity of a class 1 or class 2 section with low

shear is still given by

Mc =

pyS

but Mc is now limited to 1.5pyZ generally and to 1.2pyZ for simply supported

beams and cantilevers.

In BS 5950-1:1990, the moment capacity of class 3 semi-compact sections with

low shear was given by

Mc =

pyZ

carried above the point of first yield, despite the fact that some class 3 sections

have a significantly higher moment capacity. To allow this additional capacity

to be utilised, BS 5950-1:2000 includes the following alternative equation:

Mc =

pySeff

13

the original method, because of the need to calculate Seff, but the reward for this

additional effort is a more efficient design, which utilises the sections elasticplastic capacity beyond the point of first yield, i.e. up to the limit dictated by

local buckling. Of course, designers may still wish to use the conservative

capacity based on the elastic modulus Z.

The moment capacity of class 4 slender sections with low shear was given in

BS 5950-1:1990 by

Mc =

pyZ

where py is the reduced design strength obtained using the appropriate reduction

factor from Table 8.

In BS 5950-1:2000, class 4 slender sections are designed using effective section

properties instead of reduced design strengths (see Sub-section 3.6) and,

consequently, the moment capacity of a class 4 section is now given by

Mc =

pyZeff

where Zeff is the effective section modulus as defined in Clause 3.6.2 and py is

the design strength. This change should result in an increase in the moment

capacity of slender sections, because the previous method of reducing the design

strength was over-conservative.

The high shear case (i.e. Fv > 0.6Pv) has also been revised. In BS 5950-1:

1990, the moment capacity was given as follows:

For plastic and compact sections:

Mc =

where 1

py(S Sv1)

=

but

1.2pyZ

2.5 Fv

1.5

Pv

For sections with equal flanges, Sv is the plastic modulus of the shear area Av.

For sections with unequal flanges, Sv is the plastic modulus of the gross section

less the plastic modulus of that part of the section remaining after the deduction

of the shear area.

For semi-compact and slender cross sections, the moment capacity was the same

as in the low shear case, i.e.

Mc =

pyZ

using a reduced py for slender sections. This was clearly wrong, as it neglected

the effects of high shear completely for class 3 and class 4 sections.

In BS 5950-1:2000, this error has been corrected and the new equations are as

follows:

For class 1 plastic or class 2 compact sections:

Mc =

py(S Sv)

Mc =

py(Z Sv / 1.5)

or

14

Mc =

py(Seff Sv)

Mc =

py(Zeff Sv / 1.5)

Note: Although the moment capacity equation for class 1 plastic and class 2

compact sections is unchanged, the expression for is different in BS 5950-1:

2000.

The design of restrained beams is illustrated by Worked Example 3 of this

publication.

4.2

Lateral-torsional buckling

Clause 4.3.5

Clauses 4.3.5 and 4.3.6 of BS 5950-1:1990 have been merged to form

Clause 4.3.5 of BS 5950-1:2000. This new Clause covers the effective lengths

of both simple beams and cantilevers for lateral-torsional buckling. A number

of important changes have been made and a new Sub-clause on double curvature

bending has been added.

Clause 4.3.5 of BS 5950-1:1990 dealt specifically with the effective lengths of

simple beams. Most of these requirements are unchanged, although the text has

been completely rewritten. However, there have been amendments to the

effective length values given in Table 13 (formerly Table 9).

Firstly, a new symbol LLT, standing for segment length, has been introduced to

distinguish this dimension from the member length L. The segment length is

the length between restraints, whether these are intermediate restraints or

supports.

Secondly, several new restraint conditions have been added to the Table,

allowing designers to model their structures more accurately. These are

compression flange fully restrained against rotation on plan and compression

flange partially restrained against rotation on plan. Note that the effective

lengths of a beam with lateral and torsional restraint at one end and both flanges

partially restrained against rotation on plan at the other end have been reduced

to 0.8LLT and 0.95LLT for the normal and destabilising loading conditions

respectively.

Clause 4.3.6 of BS 5950-1:1990 considers the effective lengths of cantilevers.

The content of this Clause has undergone several significant changes, with

important implications for the design of these members.

The first change relates to cantilevers with intermediate lateral restraints. In

BS 5950-1:1990, the lengths between restraints were treated as beams and their

effective lengths obtained accordingly using the provisions of Clause 4.3.5. In

BS 5950-1:2000, provided that the cantilever is restrained laterally and

torsionally at both ends (i.e. cases c4 and d4 in Table 14), an effective length of

1.0L is given for the normal loading condition, where L is the length of the

relevant segment between adjacent lateral restraints.

However, for the

15

Table 14. In this case, L is taken as the length of the cantilever, unless the

there are intermediate lateral restraints to the top flange.

Secondly, the rules for determining the effective length of cantilevers without

intermediate restraints are unchanged (i.e. LE obtained from Table 14), apart

from the case where the cantilever has a moment applied to its tip. BS 5950-1:

1990 deals with such moments by treating the cantilever as a beam, as for

cantilevers with intermediate restraints. In BS 5950-1:2000, the effective length

is obtained from Table 14 then increased by either 30% or 0.3L, whichever is

greater. The effective length values in Table 14 of BS 5950-1:2000 are

unchanged from those given in Table 10 of BS 5950-1:1990, except that a new

category of restraint has been added.

Finally, the new Clause 4.3.5 contains a new Sub-clause on the subject of

beams with double curvature bending. This Sub-clause has been added to

emphasise that special consideration needs to be given to beams that have both

hogging and sagging regions.

Design rules are given for beams with

intermediate lateral restraints to each flange, beams with intermediate lateral

restraints to the compression flange in the sagging region only and beams

directly supporting a concrete or composite floor or roof slab.

Clause 4.3.6

Clause 4.3.6 contains the design rules, tables and equations needed to calculate

the buckling resistance moment Mb of unrestrained beams susceptible to lateraltorsional buckling. Although the general method is unchanged from that in

BS 5950-1:1990, there have been a number of significant changes to the

individual steps in the procedure. Overall, this Clause has undergone a major

technical amendment.

The Clause begins by listing the situations in which there is no need to check

for lateral-torsional buckling. These are:

square solid bars

rectangular hollow sections when LE/ry does not exceed the limiting value

from Table 15

L0.

The first of these cases was not listed explicitly in BS 5950-1:1990, but this is

not a technical change, because lateral-torsional buckling occurs about the minor

axis as a result of major axis bending. The second and third cases were noted

in BS 5950-1:1990, but the table of limiting slenderness values for rectangular

hollow sections has been extended to include 12 values of D/B, compared with

the four values given in Table 38 in Appendix B.2.6 of BS 5950-1:1990. In the

final case, L0 is the limiting slenderness obtained from the last row of Table 16

or Table 17. The inclusion of the L0 values in these tables is new to

BS 5950-1:2000, although a formula for L0 was included in Appendix B.2.5 of

BS 5950-1:1990.

16

Mx, should satisfy the following conditions:

Mx

Mb / mLT

and

Mx

Mcx

where:

Mcx

Mb

mLT

which takes account of the fact that the theory from which Mb is

obtained assumes a uniform moment throughout the segment.

been rewritten and there is no longer any reference to the equivalent uniform

moment M .

Except for hot rolled angles, which are considered in Clause 4.3.8, the buckling

resistance moment Mb may be obtained either using the conservative method

described in Clause 4.3.7 or from the expressions below.

For class 1 plastic or class 2 compact cross sections:

Mb =

pb Sx

Mb =

pb Zx

or

Mb =

pb Sx,eff

Mb =

pb Zx,eff

cross section. This was based on the false assumption that lateral-torsional

buckling and local buckling do not interact.

The term pb in these equations is the bending strength and is obtained from

Table 16 for rolled sections and Table 17 for welded sections, for given values

of design strength py and equivalent slenderness LT. These tables are equivalent

to Table 11 and Table 12 in BS 5950-1:1990 and have been amended to include

new columns corresponding to different values of py and a new row containing

values of the limiting slenderness L0. In all other respects, these tables are

unchanged.

Designers familiar with BS 5950-1:1990 will recall that there used to be two

approaches to analysing lateral-torsional buckling, one using the slenderness

correction factor n (for loading between lateral restraints), the other using the

equivalent uniform moment factor m (for cases with end moments only). In

BS 5950-1:2000, there is a major change in that the n factor method has been

removed from this Clause, leaving the latter method to be used for all cases (n

17

the equation for LT has changed.

In BS 59501:1990, LT was given by

LT =

nuv

where:

is a buckling parameter

is a slenderness factor.

LT =

uv W

For class 1 plastic or class 2 compact sections:

w =

1.0

w =

Zx / Sx

or w =

Sx,eff / Sx

w =

Zx,eff / Sx

The slenderness ratio, v, for sections with two plain flanges, may be obtained

from Table 19 for various values of /x and where x is the torsional index of

the section and is given by

I yc

I yc + I yt

where Iyc and Iyt are the minor axis second moments of area of the compression

flange and tension flange respectively.

The only difference between Table 19 in BS 5950-1:2000 and its equivalent in

BS 5950-1:1990, is that the two columns at either end of the range, i.e. those

corresponding to = 1.0 and = 0.0 (T sections), have been deleted. In

BS 5950-1:2000, designers wishing to use T sections must instead refer to

Annex B.2.8.

As an alternative to Table 19, the slenderness ratio v may be obtained from the

equations in Sub-clause 4.3.6.7. In BS 5950-1:1990, similar expressions could

be found in Appendix B.2.5.

The buckling parameter u and torsional index x may be obtained from the

formulae in Annex B.2.3 (B.2.5 in BS 5950-1:1990) or from published tables of

section properties. Alternatively, for rolled I and H sections with equal flanges,

the following conservative approximations may be used:

u

0.9

and

=

18

D/T

Sub-clause 4.3.6.8 has not been affected by the recent amendments, other than

the change in Sub-clause number.

As noted above, the two approaches to analysing lateral-torsional buckling in

BS 5950-1:1990 have been replaced by a single method using the equivalent

uniform moment factor mLT. Previously, for the normal loading condition, if a

member was loaded between adjacent lateral restraints, m was taken as 1.0 and

the appropriate value of n was obtained from Table 15 or Table 16. If the

member was not loaded between its restraints, n was taken as 1.0 and m was

obtained from Table 18. Thus, the allowance for the shape of the bending

moment was made using either the n factor or the m factor, depending on the

location of the loading, but never both. The change in BS 5950-1:2000 to the

use of mLT for all cases has necessitated a substantial extension to Table 18.

In BS 5950-1:1990, m values were provided for segments with end moments

only, i.e. only linear variations in bending moment were considered. In

BS 5950-1:2000, values are also given for four specific cases with transverse

loads applied between restraints and a general formula is provided from which

mLT may be obtained for more complex bending moment diagrams.

Note:

1. Slight changes have been made to the values of mLT for segments with

end moments only, compared with those in BS 5950-1:1990.

2. BS 5950-1:2000 distinguishes between mLT, the equivalent uniform

moment factor for lateral-torsional buckling, and mx, my, myx, the

equivalent uniform moment factors for flexural buckling. Values of mLT

are obtained from Table 18, while values of mx, my, myx are given in

Table 26.

The design of unrestrained beams is illustrated by Worked Example 4 in this

publication.

Clause 4.3.7

Clause 4.3.7 gives a simple but conservative alternative approach to the method

presented in Clause 4.3.6 for determining the buckling resistance moment of a

plain rolled I, H or channel section with equal flanges. There have been two

changes to this method compared with BS 5950-1:1990.

Firstly, in BS 5950-1:1990, Mb was taken as pbSx irrespective of the

classification of the cross section. This was based on the false assumption that

lateral-torsional buckling and local buckling do not interact. This has been

corrected in BS 5950-1:2000, in which Mb is only taken as pbSx if the section is

class 1 plastic or class 2 compact and is taken as pbZx for class 3 semi-compact

sections.

The second change relates to the table of pb values (Table 20 in BS 5950-1:

2000 and Table 19 in BS 5950-1:1990). In BS 5950-1:1990, pb was given as a

function of x (= D/T) and the slenderness (= LE/ry), whereas in BS 5950-1:

2000, pb is given in terms of D/T and w L E / ry . However, the numbers in

Table 20 are unchanged, so for all class 1 and class 2 sections, for which

w = 1, there will be no change at all to pb, or indeed Mb.

19

Clause 4.3.8

Clause 4.3.8, which deals with the buckling resistance moment for single

angles, has been revised resulting in a new basic method and a significant

change to the existing simplified method.

In BS 5950-1:1990, the calculation of the buckling resistance moment for single

angles was very straightforward, as it simply involved one of the following

equations:

Mb =

Mb =

Mb =

where:

rvv

This simple approach has been shown to be non-conservative for some cases

(for low L / rvv) and has been replaced in BS 5950-1:2000 by two alternative

methods.

The first method, known as the basic method in BS 5950-1:2000, is

applicable to equal and unequal angles and involves resolving the applied

moments into their components about the principal axes u-u and v-v. The

buckling resistance moment should then be obtained using an equivalent

slenderness LT obtained from Annex B.2.9.

The second method, referred to as the simplified method, provides a simple

alternative to the basic method, but it is only applicable to equal angles with

b / t 15. In this case, the buckling resistance moment is given by

Mb =

0.8pyZx

Mb =

1350 L E rv

pyZx

but

1625

0.8pyZx

4.3

Clause 4.4.4

If the web of a plate girder is susceptible to shear buckling (i.e. d / t > 62),

the moment capacity of the cross section should be obtained using one of the

methods given in Sub-clause 4.4.4.2.

BS 5950-1:1990 presented three alternative methods of analysis. The first

option was to assume that the moment and axial load are resisted by the flanges

alone, leaving the web to resist only the shear force. In the second method, the

moment and axial load are assumed to be resisted by the whole section and the

web is designed for shear and longitudinal stresses, using the method in H.3.

The third method was a combination of the first two.

20

The methods presented in BS 5950-1:2000 are similar, except that there is now

an additional option for low shear. Where the applied shear is no greater than

60% of the simple shear buckling resistance obtained from Sub-clause 4.4.5.2,

it is acceptable to obtain the moment capacity using the rules given in

Clause 4.2.5. Where the applied shear exceeds 60% of the simple shear

buckling resistance, the moment capacity should be obtained either by assuming

that all of the moment is resisted by the flanges or by using the rules in H.3 to

design the web for the applied shear plus any moment beyond the flanges

only moment capacity. These two high shear methods are essentially the same

as methods a and c in BS 5950-1:1990.

BS 5950-1:2000 also contains a new Sub-clause relating to axial loads. This

states that where a member is subject to an axial load combined with a moment,

reference should be made to the design rules in Clauses 4.8.1 to 4.8.3. In this

case, when using the flanges only method, it should be assumed that the

moment and the axial force are both resisted by the flanges alone, with each

flange subject to a uniform stress not exceeding pyf.

Clause 4.4.5

Clause 4.4.5, which considers the shear buckling of plate girder webs, has been

rewritten for clarity and replaces the over-conservative simple method with the

one used in BS 449. This is a major technical change.

Clause 4.2.3 of BS 5950-1:1990 states that if the d / t ratio of a web exceeds

63, the shear buckling resistance of the web should be checked in accordance

with Clause 4.4.5. In BS 5950-1:2000, this limit has been replaced by two new

limits: 62 for a welded section and 70 for a rolled section.

BS 5950-1:1990 and BS 5950-1:2000 both present two alternative methods for

calculating the shear buckling resistance of a web. The first method, known in

BS 5950-1:2000 as the simplified method, does not allow for the beneficial

effects of tension field action and may be used for webs with or without

intermediate stiffeners. The second method, referred to as the more exact

method in BS 5950-1:2000, does make use of tension field action and its use is

restricted to webs with intermediate transverse stiffeners. For webs with

longitudinal stiffeners, or as an alternative for webs with intermediate transverse

stiffeners, reference should be made to BS 5400-3[6].

The simplified method in BS 5950-1:2000 is very similar to the Design

without using tension field action in BS 5950-1:1990, although the two

methods give slightly different results.

In BS 5950-1:1990, the shear buckling resistance, Vcr, of a stiffened or

unstiffened panel is given by:

Vcr =

qcr dt

where:

d

21

simple shear buckling resistance Vw given by:

Vw =

dtqw

where:

d

While these two methods may appear to be identical, apart from the choice of

symbols, they give different results because the values of qw in Table 21 of

BS 5950-1:2000 are not the same as the values of qcr in Table 21 of BS 5950-1:

1990.

In the more exact method, the difference between the two versions of

BS 5950-1 is more apparent.

In BS 5950-1:2000, if the flanges are fully stressed, the shear buckling

resistance, Vb, equals the simple shear buckling resistance, Vw, given by:

Vw =

dtqw

If the flanges are not fully stressed, Vb is taken as the sum of the simple shear

buckling resistance, Vw, and the flange-dependent shear buckling resistance, Vf,

i.e.

Vb

Vw + Vf

where Vf is given by

Vf

Pv d / a

1 f / p

f

yf

1 + 0.15 ( M pw / M pf )

where:

ff

and/or axial force

Mpf is the plastic moment capacity of the smaller flange about its own

equal area axis perpendicular to the plane of the web

Mpw is the plastic moment capacity of the web about its own equal area axis

perpendicular to the plane of the web

Pv

pyw is the design strength of the web.

By comparison, in BS 5950-1:1990, the shear buckling resistance of a stiffened

panel is given by:

Generally:

Vb

qb dt

22

Vb

( qb + qf

K f dt

but 0.6pydt

where:

qb

qf

Kf

is a factor given by

Kf

M pf

1 f

4 M pw

p yf

Note that the basic shear strength qb used in the design of stiffened panels, using

tension field action, is higher than the critical shear strength qcr used when

designing panels without tension field action, giving a higher value of Vb, even

when the flanges are fully stressed. By contrast, in BS 5950-1:2000, both

methods use qw and therefore yield exactly the same result in the case of fully

stressed flanges.

The tension field action induced in the plate girder web produces a horizontal

anchor force, Hq, at the end of the girder, as shown in Figure 4.1.

Hq

Figure 4.1

force, however BS 5950-1:2000 gives the following two cases when an end

anchorage is not necessary:

1. If the shear capacity, rather than the shear buckling resistance, is the

governing design criterion, i.e. Vw = Pv.

2. If sufficient shear buckling resistance is available without forming a

tension field. The existence of this condition is indicated by:

Fv

Vcr

where Vcr is the critical shear buckling resistance and Fv is the maximum

shear force. Vcr may be obtained from Annex H.2 or using the formulae in

this Clause.

These exemptions are new to BS 5950-1:2000.

23

Note that the provisions dealing with the design of the end anchorage, which

used to be in Clause 4.4.5, have been moved to Annex H.4 in BS 5950-1:2000.

The design of plate girders is illustrated by Worked Example 5 in this

publication.

4.4

Design of stiffeners

Clause 4.5.1

Clause 4.5.1 considers the design of web bearing and buckling stiffeners. Subclause 4.5.1.3, which deals with the stiff bearing length, has been amended and

Sub-clause 4.5.1.5, on the subject of hollow sections, has moved to this Clause

from Clause 4.5.12. In other respects, the technical content of this Clause is

unchanged.

In BS 5950-1:1990, the stiff bearing length b1 (i.e. the length that cannot

deform appreciably in bending) was calculated by taking the angle of load

dispersion through the steel to be 45 (see Figure 8 of BS 5950-1:1990).

BS 5950-1:2000 also assumes a load dispersion of 45, but there is no longer a

need to analyse the geometry of the section, because b1 may be obtained directly

from the formulae given in Figure 13.

Clause 4.5.12 of BS 5950-1:1990 is now Sub-clause 4.5.1.5 in BS 5950-1:

2000. There is an additional sentence referring designers to a design procedure

given in Steelwork Design Guide to BS 5950-1:2000, Volume 1: Section

Properties and Member Capacities[7] but the general requirements for the design

of hollow sections subject to concentrated loads are unchanged.

Clause 4.5.2

The provisions in BS 5950-1 relating to the bearing capacity of an unstiffened

web have been revised.

In BS 5950-1:1990, the bearing capacity of an unstiffened web was given by

(b1 + n2)tpyw

where:

b1

n2

web connection at a slope of 1 in 2.5

In BS 5950-1:2000, the bearing capacity of an unstiffened web is given by

Pbw =

(b1 + nk)tpyw

n

n

2 + 0.6 be / k, but n

24

where be is the distance to the end of the member from the end of the stiff

bearing.

k is given by:

k

T+r

k

T.

depends on the proximity of the end of the stiff bearing to the end of the

member, whereas in BS 5950-1:1990, the bearing capacity was always

determined assuming a dispersion of 1:2.5 across the flange thickness.

Where the applied load or reaction exceeds the bearing capacity of the

unstiffened web, bearing stiffeners should be provided. These should be

designed to carry the applied force minus the bearing capacity of the unstiffened

web. This requirement is unchanged from BS 5950-1:1990.

The bearing capacity of a web is considered in Worked Example 6 of this

publication.

Clause 4.5.3

The provisions in BS 5950-1 relating to the buckling resistance of an unstiffened

web and the design of load-carrying stiffeners have been revised.

In BS 5950-1:1990, the buckling resistance of an unstiffened web was given by

Pw =

(b1 + n1)tpc

where:

b1

n1

section

pc

from the bearing capacity, Pbw, and the geometry of the section. There is no

longer a need to refer to the strut curve (i.e. Table 24c) in BS 5950-1:2000.

Three equations are presented for Px, depending on the restraint of the flange

and the location of the applied load relative to the end of the member.

If the loaded flange is effectively restrained against rotation relative to the web

and against lateral movement relative to the other flange, Px, is given by:

When ae 0.7d:

Px

25t

(b1 + nk ) d

Pbw

25

Px

a e + 0.7 d

1.4d

25t

(b1 + nk ) d

Pbw

where:

ae

is the distance from the applied load or reaction to the end of the

member

Clause 4.5.2

n

is taken as follows:

k

T+r

k

If one or both of the restraint conditions given above is not met, a reduced

buckling resistance must be used given by

Pxy =

0.7 d

Px

LE

Px

As pc

where:

As

and an effective width of web on each side of the centreline of the

stiffeners

pc

Table 24c in BS 5950-1:2000.

each side of the stiffener was taken as 20t, whereas in BS 5950-1:2000 it is

limited to 15t. In other respects, the buckling check for a load-carrying

stiffener is unchanged.

Perhaps more importantly, BS 5950-1:1990 also included a bearing check for

load-carrying stiffeners (Sub-clause 4.5.4.2). This stated that load-carrying

stiffeners should be designed to resist 80% of the total applied force,

irrespective of the capacity of the unstiffened web, i.e.

A>

0.8 Fx

p ys

26

where:

A

Fx

As a result of the reduction in the effective width of the web from 20t to 15t,

this bearing check has been removed from BS 5950-1:2000. This is a key

change because, in most practical cases, the size of the stiffeners was governed

by this rule. There is still a requirement to check the bearing capacity, as

BS 5950-1:2000 states that load-carrying stiffeners should also be checked as

bearing stiffeners. However, this requirement is not as onerous as the previous

80% rule, because bearing stiffeners are only designed to carry the external load

minus the bearing capacity of the unstiffened web, not the full external load.

The buckling resistance of a web is considered in Worked Example 6 in this

publication.

Clause 4.5.4

Clause 4.5.4 (formerly Clause 4.5.7) has been expanded to provide greater

detail on the design of tension stiffeners. Two cases are presented for which

tension stiffeners are provided and a separate method of design is given for each

case.

If the applied load or reaction exceeds the tension capacity of the unstiffened

web at its connection to the flange, the tension stiffener should be designed to

carry that portion of the load which exceeds the tension capacity of the

unstiffened web. If, on the other hand, tension stiffeners are needed because

the applied load or reaction exceeds the tension capacity of the unstiffened

flange, the proportion of the load assumed to be carried by the stiffener should

be consistent with the design of the flange. This latter case was not considered

in BS 5950-1:1990.

4.5

Tension members

Clause 4.6.3

New formulae have been introduced for calculating the tension capacity of a

simple tie consisting of an angle connected through one leg only, a channel

connected only through the web, or a T section connected only through the

flange.

In BS 5950-1:1990, the tension capacity of a single angle, a single channel or a

T section was calculated using an affective area equal to the net area of the

connected leg plus the area of the outstanding leg multiplied by

3a1

3a1 + a 2

where a1 is the net cross-sectional area of the connected leg and a2 is the crosssectional area of the unconnected leg.

In BS 5950-1:2000, the tension capacity, Pt, for single angles, channels or T

sections with bolted connections is given by

27

Pt

py(Ae 0.5a2)

Pt

py(Ag 0.3a2)

in which Ae is the sum of the effective net areas ae (see Clause 3.4.3), Ag is the

gross area of the cross section and

a2

Ag a1

The reason for this change is that the formulation in BS 5950-1:1990 is nonconservative for grade S460 steel. The 3a1 / (3a1 + a2) factor was derived from

tests on mild steel and allows for the effects of eccentricity and strain

hardening, assuming Us / Ys to be the same for all grades of steel. In

BS 5950-1: 2000, eccentricity and strain hardening are considered separately, by

first calculating the effective area in Clause 3.4.3 (multiplying the net area by

Ke) then using the formulae in this Clause to allow for eccentricity.

Consequently, compared with BS 5950-1:1990, there has been an increase in

capacity for S275, a small decrease for S355 and a significant decrease for

S460. For welded angles, there is a very small decrease in capacity for all

grades of steel.

Similarly, there are two new formulae for double angle, channel and T section

members, where the components are connected to both sides of a gusset plate

and are interconnected by bolts or welds. In this case, the tension capacity for

bolted connections is given by

Pt

py(Ae 0.25a2)

Pt

py(Ag 0.15a2)

Note: If the components of the tie are both connected to the same side of the

gusset plate or are not interconnected as described above, the member should be

treated as if it were a single angle, channel or T section.

4.6

Compression members

Clause 4.7.1

An additional paragraph has been added to Clause 4.7.1 giving the design

loading for bracing systems. As with the intermediate restraints for lateraltorsional buckling (see Clause 4.3.2), bracing systems that supply positional

restraint to more than one member must be designed to resist the sum of all of

the individual restraint forces from each member reduced by the factor kr, given

by

kr

(0.2 + 1 / Nr)0.5

Clause 4.7.2

Sub-clause 4.7.3.2 of BS 5950-1:1990 gave maximum slenderness values for

different types of member. These have now been removed as it was felt that

the limits presented in the Code were not universally applicable and in many

28

members. However, it is important for designers to recognise that there may

still be practical limits on the slenderness of a member, for example to limit sag

due to self-weight, and these must be considered carefully.

One additional requirement is that it is now necessary to increase by 20% the

slenderness of single-angle struts that have lateral restraints to their two legs

alternately.

Clause 4.7.4

The means by which the compression resistance of members with slender cross

sections is calculated have changed, resulting in the removal of the anomalies

leading to the over-conservative design of slender cross sections, such as

Universal Beams used as columns.

In BS 5950-1:1990, the compression resistance Pc of a member with a slender

cross section was given by

Pc

Ag pcs

where:

Ag

pcs is the reduced compressive strength based on the slenderness and the

reduced design strength pyr.

In BS 5950-1:2000, the recommended method for slender cross sections uses

effective areas equal to the semi-compact limits, instead of a reduced design

strength (see Sub-section 3.6 for details). Consequently, the compression

resistance Pc of a member with a slender cross section is now given by

Pc

Aeff pcs

where Aeff is the effective area obtained from Sub-section 3.6 and pcs is the

compressive strength based on the design strength py and a reduced slenderness

of

A

eff

Ag

0.5

publication.

Clause 4.7.5

Changes have been made to Table 23 (formerly Table 25) regarding the choice

of strut curve for different types of section and to Table 24 (formerly Table 27)

from which the compressive strength pc is obtained.

The most significant change to this Clause is the inclusion of cold formed

structural hollow sections in BS 5950-1:2000, for which Table 24c should be

used for buckling about both axes. In addition, changes have been made to the

choice of strut curve for rolled I sections. In BS 5950-1:1990, the compressive

strength pc of all rolled I sections about the major and minor buckling axes was

obtained from Table 24a and Table 24b respectively. In BS 5950-1:2000, the

29

use of Table 24a and Table 24b is limited to sections with a maximum thickness

not exceeding 40 mm. Table 24b and Table 24c should be used for rolled I

sections with a maximum thickness greater than 40 mm. This change also

applies to rolled I sections with welded flange cover plates within the range

0.25 < U / B < 0.8 (see Figure 14 of BS 5950-1:2000).

The strut curves themselves are unchanged, although the range of design

strengths in Table 24 has been amended. Compressive strengths pc for py values

of 225 N/mm2, 305 N/mm2, 320 N/mm2, 340 N/mm2, 395 N/mm2, 415 N/mm2

and 450 N/mm2 have been deleted and replaced by values corresponding to

design strengths of 235 N/mm2, 315 N/mm2, 345 N/mm2, 400 N/mm2,

440 N/mm2 and 460 N/mm2. In addition, a few of the other pc values have

been revised slightly, although the majority is unchanged.

No technical changes have been made to the text of this Clause, but much of it

has been rewritten, with Figure 14 in BS 5950-1:2000 replacing Table 26 in

BS 5950-1:1990.

4.7

Clause 4.8.3

Clause 4.8.3 deals with members that are subject to combined compression and

bending. It has undergone a major technical change.

The capacity of a member subject to combined compression and bending is

dependent on the local cross-section capacity and the overall buckling resistance

of the member. This Clause contains checks for both of these modes of failure.

Although both checks have been amended, only the overall buckling check has

undergone a major change.

BS 5950-1:1990 presented two alternative methods for checking buckling

resistance. In the simplified method, the following relationship had to be

satisfied:

mM y

mM x

F

+

+

1

Ag p c

Mb

py Z y

where:

F

Ag

pc

Mx is the applied moment about the major axis

My is the applied moment about the minor axis

py

Zy

30

Alternatively, designers could opt for the more exact method by satisfying the

following relationship:

mM x mM y

+

1

M ax

M ay

in which Max and May are the maximum buckling moments about the major and

minor axes respectively in the presence of axial load.

BS 5950-1:2000 also presents designers with the option of using either a

simplified or a more exact approach. In the case of the simplified approach, the

single equation in BS 5950-1:1990 has been replaced by the following two

expressions:

Fc m x M x m y M y

+

+

1

Pc

py Z x

py Z y

my My

Fc

m M

+ LT LT +

1

Pcy

Mb

py Z y

In applying these equations, the following points need to be noted.

1. In the first term of the first equation, Pc is the smaller of the

compression resistance for buckling about the major axis Pcx and the

compression resistance for buckling about the minor axis Pcy. However, in

the second equation, Pcy is always used, whether it is smaller than Pcx or

not.

2. In the second term of the second equation, MLT is used in place of Mx.

MLT is the maximum major axis moment in the segment length between

restraints against lateral-torsional buckling.

3. The equivalent uniform moment factor m used in BS 5950-1:1990 has

been replaced by mx, my and mLT. mLT is the equivalent uniform moment

factor for lateral-torsional buckling for the pattern of major axis moments

over the segment length LLT. It is obtained from Table 18. mx and my are

the equivalent uniform moment factors for flexural buckling about the

major and minor axis respectively. Both are new and are obtained from

Table 26 using the appropriate moment pattern between the relevant

flexural buckling restraints.

4. For cantilever columns and members in sway sensitive frames,

BS 5950-1:2000 includes the following special requirements:

a. If sway mode in-plane effective lengths are used, mx and my

should not be less than 0.85.

b. If amplified-sway moments are used, only the non-sway moment

should be multiplied by mx or my, compared with the total (sway +

non-sway) moment in BS 5950-1:1990.

The more exact approach has undergone an even more radical change, with the

original single equation being replaced by sixteen new ones, seven for I and H

sections, nine for circular hollow sections, rectangular hollow sections and box

sections. Separate equations are given for members with moments about the

major axis only, members with moments about the minor axis only and

31

members with moments about both axes. There are typically two or three

equations for each type of loading. For example, an I section member with

moments about both axes should be checked for major axis buckling, lateraltorsional buckling and interactive buckling.

Note: In BS 5950-1:1990, the more exact method could, in theory, be used for

any type of section, whereas in BS 5950-1:2000, this method is clearly limited

to circular hollow sections, rectangular hollow sections, I sections, H sections

and box sections with equal flanges.

In addition to the major amendments to the buckling resistance checks described

above, a minor change has also been made to the cross-section capacity check,

to take account of the new method for dealing with class 4 slender sections. In

BS 5950-1:2000, the following two equations are given for checking the crosssection capacity:

(a) For class 1 plastic, class 2 compact and class 3 semi-compact cross sections

My

Fc

M

+ x +

1

Ag p y M cx M cy

(b) For class 4 slender cross sections

My

Fc

M

+ x +

1

Aeff p y M cx M cy

where Aeff is the effective area obtained from 3.6.

In BS 5950-1:1990, only the first of these two equations was given and the

reduced capacity of slender sections was taken into account by the use of a

reduced py.

As before, BS 5950-1:2000 presents an alternative method for class 1 plastic

and class 2 compact sections, based on the reduced moment capacities Mrx and

Mry. This method is unchanged from BS 5950-1:1990.

Note: Designers of members with combined compression and bending should

also refer to Annex I. This new Annex contains an alternative method for

stocky members (I.1), formulae for Mrx and Mry (I.2), alternative interaction

expressions for asymmetric members (I.3), design methods for single angles

(I.4) and a method for evaluating internal second-order moments (I.5).

The design of members subject to combined compression and bending is

considered in Worked Example 8 in this publication.

4.8

Column bases

Clause 4.13.2

The empirical method for determining the size of baseplates in BS 5950-1:1990

has been replaced by the effective-area method in BS 5950-1:2000.

32

baseplate, for a concentrically loaded column, was taken as the greater of the

flange thickness of the column and the result of the following empirical formula:

t

2.5

w a 2 0.3b 2

p

yp

0.5

where:

a

distribution ( 0.4 fcu)

Since the publication of BS 5950-1:1990, doubt has been raised as to the

validity of this method, especially for columns with a large depth / width ratio.

In fact, The Steel Construction Institute has advised designers that this empirical

method should not be used for bases to Universal Beams.

The effective-area method is an alternative general design method for use in

designing baseplates subject to concentric loads. This method was first

introduced in Joints in Simple Construction Volume 1: Design Methods and

has since become the standard method of baseplate design in the UK. The

effective-area method has now been adopted by BS 5950-1:2000, but other

rational approaches are also permitted.

In the effective-area method, it is assumed that the applied load is uniformly

distributed over part of the baseplate, with the remainder of the area being

considered ineffective. The extent of the projection of the plate, beyond the

edge of the column, is based on the area required to keep the bearing pressure

below the limiting bearing strength of 0.6fcu, where fcu is the weaker of the

concrete cube strength and that of the bedding material. Effective areas for

typical columns are shown in Figure 4.2.

2c + T

2c + T

Figure 4.2

2c + T

Effective portion

33

Stiffener

The shaded areas in the figure represent the minimum size of the plate required

to keep the bearing pressure within the necessary limit. In practice, the overall

size of the plate can be made larger, for instance to utilise rounded dimensions

or to accommodate holding down bolts.

Limiting the moment in the baseplate to the elastic moment capacity, the

thickness of the plate is obtained using

tp

c(3w / pyp)0.5

where c is the largest perpendicular distance from the edge of the effective

portion of the baseplate to the face of the column.

This method is based on the assumption that the load is applied to the baseplate

from a concentric column. If this is not the case, the moment resulting from

the eccentricity of the axial load should be calculated and must not exceed pypZp,

where Zp is the elastic section modulus of the baseplate. This is a change from

BS 5950-1:1990, in which the maximum allowable moment in the baseplate was

1.2 pypZp.

There are three further technical changes relating to the design of baseplates.

Firstly, the bearing strength of the concrete is taken as 0.6fcu in BS 5950-1:

2000, instead of 0.4fcu in BS 5950-1:1990. This change has been made in the

light of new research and brings BS 5950-1 into line with the recommendations

in Joints in Simple Construction Volume 1: Design Methods[8].

Secondly, the rule limiting the design strength of the plate pyp to 270 N/mm2 has

been removed, allowing designers to take advantage of the stronger grades of

steel, such as S355, if they wish. Finally, in BS 5950-1:1990, the thickness of

the baseplate could not be less than the thickness of the column flange. This

limit has been removed from BS 5950-1:2000.

In addition to the changes described above, three new Sub-clauses have been

added to this Clause. Sub-clause 4.13.2.3 deals with applied moments and

states that if moments are applied to the baseplate by the column, the moments

in the baseplate should be calculated assuming a uniform pressure not exceeding

0.6fcu under the effective portion of the compression zone. This moment should

not exceed pypSp, where Sp is the plastic modulus of the baseplate.

Sub-clause 4.13.2.4 reminds designers that, where moments are applied to the

base of the column, holding down bolts need to be checked for tension.

Finally, Sub-clause 4.13.2.5 gives guidance on the design of stiffened

baseplates.

The design of column baseplates is illustrated by Worked Example 9 in this

publication.

34

CONTINUOUS STRUCTURES

5.1

Column bases

Clause 5.1.3

Clause 5.1.3, which considers the stiffness of column bases, has been expanded

with a few technical changes.

In both versions of BS 5950-1, where the column has a nominally rigid base,

the base stiffness is assumed to equal the column stiffness for the purposes of

elastic analysis. However, BS 5950-1:2000 states that the base may be treated

as rigid, when determining the deflections at the serviceability limit state.

BS 5950-1:2000 also considers plastic global analysis, stating that the base

moment capacity may be taken as any value between zero and the moment

capacity of the column, provided that the foundation is designed to resist a

moment equal to this assumed moment capacity. This new requirement

recognises the fact that in rigid-plastic analysis it is the capacity, not the

stiffness, that governs the design.

For elastic-plastic analysis, the assumed base stiffness should be consistent with

the assumed moment capacity, but should not exceed the stiffness of the

column.

According to BS 5950-1:1990, the base stiffness of a column with a nominally

pinned base is assumed to be equal to 10% of the column stiffness. In

BS 5950-1:2000, this value of 10% is still correct when checking frame stability

and determining in-plane effective lengths, but an increased value of 20% of the

column stiffness may now be used when calculating deflections. While this is

new to BS 5950-1:2000, it has been common practice in industry for a number

of years, following the publication of SCI Advisory Desk article AD 090[9].

BS 5950-1:2000 also considers semi-rigid bases, stating that a base stiffness of

up to 20% of the column stiffness may be assumed provided that the capacity of

the foundation is adequate. As before, the stiffness of a base with an actual pin

or a rocker should be taken as zero.

5.2

Frame stability

Clause 5.2.3

Clause 5.2.3 has been extended to include several new requirements relating to

plastic analysis. In addition, the entire Clause has been rewritten with a few

minor technical changes. The most important additions and changes are

summarised below.

BS 5950-1:2000 states that the in-plane stability of the members of a frame

designed using plastic analysis should be established by checking the stability of

the frame as a whole. For single-bay portal frames, there is no need to perform

a separate check on the in-plane stability of the individual members. This has

always been the case, but was not made clear in BS 5950-1:1990. However, a

35

separate member stability check is required for the internal columns of multibay portals and the rafters of tied portals.

Sub-clause 5.2.3.5 (formerly Clause 5.3.4) has been extended significantly to

include guidance on members with non-uniform cross sections. It is now stated

that the compression flange adjacent to a plastic hinge location should be class 1

plastic for a distance along the member of at least twice the depth of the web or

the distance to the point at which the bending moment has fallen to 80% of the

plastic moment capacity, whichever is greater. It is also stated that the web

thickness adjacent to a plastic hinge location is not reduced for a distance of at

least twice the depth of the web at the plastic hinge location.

Two new Sub-clauses have been added: Sub-clause 5.2.3.6 limits the area of

bolt holes at or adjacent to a plastic hinge location; Sub-clause 5.2.3.8 simply

states that haunches should be proportioned to avoid plastic hinges forming

within their length.

Clause 5.3.1

Clause 5.3.5 of BS 5950-1:1990, which deals with the out-of-plane stability of

continuous frames, has been divided into Clauses 5.3.1, 5.3.2 and 5.3.3 in

BS 5950-1:2000. Clause 5.3.1 provides a general introduction to out-of-plane

stability.

The most significant change to this Clause is that designers are now permitted to

check the resistance of a member or segment to out-of-plane buckling using the

forces and moments corresponding to the required load factor r, instead of the

plastic load factor p, whenever p is greater than r. This may be achieved

either by multiplying the moments and forces from plastic analysis by the ratio

r / p or by determining the forces and moments at r directly using elasticplastic analysis. Previously, some designers had used the reduced loads, while

others had argued that the collapse loads had to be used. BS 5950-1:2000 has

now clarified this matter.

Clause 5.3.3

Clause 5.3.3 considers the length of a segment adjacent to a plastic hinge and

has been extended to include a modification to the existing method to allow for

the moment gradient.

In BS 5950-1:1990, the distance from the restraint at a hinge to an adjacent

restraint was limited to the value given by:

Lm =

38ry

f

c

130

py x 2

+

36

275

0.5

where fc is the average compressive stress due to the axial load, py is the design

strength, ry is the radius of gyration about the minor axis and x is the torsional

index.

In BS 5950-1:2000, this approach is still valid. However, the designer now has

the option of making an approximate allowance for the moment gradient by

multiplying the limiting length by the factor .

36

Note: This new method should only be used for uniform I section members with

equal flanges and D/B 1.2, in S275 or S355 steel where fc does not exceed

80 N/mm2.

5.3

Portal frames

Clause 5.5.2

Clause 5.5.2 has been expanded to give greater guidance on the elastic design of

portal frames, something that was lacking in BS 5950-1:1990.

Unless the frame is independently braced, the in-plane stability should be

verified by checking the cross-section capacity and out-of-plane buckling

resistance of the members using amplified moments and forces, taken as the

values given by linear elastic analysis multiplied by the required load factor r.

Note the use of r in BS 5950-1:2000. In plastic design, r is the required value

of the plastic collapse factor p, while in elastic design it is a factor by which

the first-order forces and moments are multiplied to allow for second-order

effects. Where second-order effects are negligible, r will usually be equal to 1.

However, where second-order effects are significant, r will be greater than 1.

For portal frames, r is obtained from Clause 5.5.4.

Clause 5.5.4

Clause 5.5.4, which considers the in-plane stability of portal frames, has

undergone several major technical changes.

The first major change to this Clause relates to the sway-check method in

Sub-clause 5.5.4.2. Research conducted during the drafting of BS 5950-1:2000

demonstrated that this method is only valid when the frame geometry lies within

certain limits. Consequently, in BS 5950-1:2000, the use of the sway-check

method is restricted to frames that satisfy the following conditions:

1.

The span L does not exceed 5 times the mean height of the columns.

2. The height hr of the apex above the tops of the columns does not

exceed 0.25L.

3. If the rafter is asymmetric, hr satisfies (hr / sa)2 + (hr / sb)2

Figure 18 in BS 5950-1:2000).

0.5 (see

The sway-check method involves calculating the horizontal deflection at the top

of each column, i, due to the application of the notional horizontal forces. In

the gravity load case, it can be assumed that it is safe to neglect the P-delta

effects altogether and take r equal to 1, so long as i does not exceed hi / 1000,

where hi is the height of that column. This is unchanged from BS 5950-1:1990.

However, BS 5950-1:2000 states that the use of the stiffening effects of the

cladding should be ignored when calculating the notional horizontal deflections

i for the gravity load case.

As an alternative to calculating the sway deflections, the stiffness of the frame

may be assessed using the formula given in Sub-clause 5.5.4.2.2. This formula

was derived for regular frames with columns at every valley and with the roof

37

load as the only imposed load. Thus, the application of this method is restricted

to frames that are not subject to loads from valley beams, crane gantries or

other concentrated loads (other than the standard purlin loads). This method, as

presented in BS 5950-1:2000, is almost identical to that in BS 5950-1:1990,

except that the formula for the effective span of the bay Lb has changed.

One major addition to this Clause is the extension of the sway-check method to

consider load cases including horizontal loading, separate from the gravity load

case. The P-delta effects can never be neglected under horizontal loading and

must always be taken into account when designing portal frames for load

combinations 2 and 3. Provided that the frame has satisfied the sway check for

the gravity load case, r for the horizontal loading is given by:

r

sc

( sc 1)

sc is an approximation to the elastic critical buckling factor for the sway mode

and is obtained from

sc =

hi

200 i

where hi is the storey height and i is the horizontal deflection at the top of each

column due to the application of the appropriate notional horizontal forces for

the load case under consideration.

As in the gravity case, provided that the frame is not subject to loads from

valley beams, crane gantries or other concentrated loads larger than the purlin

loads, there is a formula that may be used as an alternative to calculating i. In

this case, the formula allows the direct calculation of sc without the need to

perform an elastic analysis of the frame under the notional horizontal forces.

Note:

1. When calculating the deflections for the horizontal load cases, the sway

stiffness of the plan bracing and roof sheeting may be included.

However, it should be remembered that certain sheeting types offer very

little shear stiffness and the original sheeting may be replaced during the

life of the structure.

2. The sway-check method is not applicable when sc < 5.0.

cases, second-order analysis must be used.

In such

The method for checking the snap-through stability of portal frame rafters is

almost unchanged from BS 5950-1:1990, but designers should note that there has

been a minor, yet important, change to the formula as shown below.

1990:

22( 4 + L / h

Lb

I c 275

1

+

tan 2 r

D

I r p yr

( 1)

2000:

22( 4 + L / h

Lb

1 + I c

D

Ir

4 ( 1)

38

275

tan 2 r

pyr

Where the geometrical limitations for the sway-check method are not satisfied,

BS 5950-1:2000 provides an alternative means of allowing for the P-delta

effects, known as the amplified-moments method. This method, which is

applicable to all portal frames, requires the accurate calculation of the elastic

critical load factor cr (the approximate formula given in Clause 2.4.2 must not

be used for this purpose). In this case, cr should be taken as the lowest elastic

critical load factor for the bare frame, without any allowance for the stiffening

effects of the cladding, because the 0.9 factor (see below) already allows for

cladding stiffness and strain hardening.

Once the lowest value of cr has been obtained for the load case under

consideration, r is determined as follows:

if cr 10:

r = 1.0

if 10 > cr 4.6:

r =

0.9 cr

cr 1

This method is new to portal frame design in BS 5950-1:2000, but the same

method did exist in BS 5950-1:1990 for plastic design of multi-storey frames.

If cr < 4.6, the amplified-moments method must not be used and the in-plane

stability of the frame should be checked by second-order analysis. It is

recommended that such analysis be performed by computer software, but where

such software is not available, hand calculation is possible and advice is given

in In-plane stability of portal frames to BS 5950-1:2000[10]. Where second-order

analysis is used, r should be taken as 1.0. It is expected that second-order

analysis will usually be more economical than the amplified-moments method

and will often allow design of more slender frames than the sway-check method.

Tied portals cannot be treated in the same way as normal portal frames, because

they tend to have very high axial forces in their rafters. This is recognised in

BS 5950-1:2000 by the introduction of a new Sub-clause specifically for this

type of frame. This Sub-clause simply states that the in-plane stability of tied

portals should be checked by second-order analysis with r taken as 1.0.

5.4

Multi-storey frames

Clause 5.6.4

Clause 5.6.4, which considers the elastic design of sway-sensitive multi-storey

frames, has been amended in line with the changes to Clause 2.4.2 regarding

stability. These are significant technical changes.

Sway-sensitive frames should initially be designed to resist gravity loads, as for

independently braced frames, without taking account of sway. For this purpose,

pattern loading must be considered. A separate check should then be carried

out in the sway mode, by applying the notional horizontal forces, together with

the gravity loads. In this case, pattern loading is not required. Sway sensitive

frames should also be checked in the sway mode for load combinations 2 and 3.

As in BS 5950-1:1990, the effects of sway may be allowed for either by the

effective-length method (Annex E) or the amplified-sway method, but with

several differences as outlined below.

39

When the effective-length method is used, BS 5950-1:2000 states that the beams

should be designed to remain elastic, which is a slightly different limit to 90%

of its reduced moment capacity in Appendix E of BS 5950-1:1990.

If the elastic critical load factor cr is less than 10, the frame is classed as

sway-sensitive (see Clause 2.4.2) and the second-order sway effects should

either be determined directly by second-order analysis or taken into account by

modifying the first-order effects.

In BS 5950-1:1990, the amplified-sway method involved the multiplication of

the sway effects by an amplification factor given by

cr

cr 1

BS 5950-1:2000 contains a similar method, but there have been three significant

changes.

Firstly, there are now two alternative expressions for the amplification factor:

1. For clad structures where the stiffening effect of the cladding is not

taken into account:

kamp =

cr

1.15 cr 1.5

but

kamp 1.0

2. For unclad frames or clad frames where the stiffening effect of the

cladding is taken into account:

kamp =

cr

cr 1

method of cr = 4. If cr < 4, the amplification of the first-order results is not

an acceptable means of dealing with the P-delta effects and a second-order

analysis should be carried out. No such limit was placed on the amplified-sway

method in BS 5950-1:1990.

Finally, in BS 5950-1:1990, when the amplified-sway method was used, the

effective length of the columns in the plane of the frame was taken as 1.0L.

BS 5950-1:2000 recommends the use of the non-sway mode in-plane effective

lengths obtained from Annex E. This approach gives effective lengths that are

less than 1.0L.

Clause 5.7.3

Clause 5.7.3 presents a simple check for the stability of plastically designed

multi-storey frames that may be used as an alternative to the elastic methods

described in Sub-section 5.6 or second-order elastic-plastic analysis. This check

is identical to the method given in BS 5950-1:1990, but the following three

additional conditions have been placed on its use:

40

mechanisms can form at a lower load factor than the overall frame

mechanism.

The storey height of the frame should nowhere exceed the mean spacing of

its columns in that storey.

If cr < 4.6 for clad structures in which the effect of the cladding is not taken

into account, or cr < 5.75 for unclad frames or clad structures in which the

effect of the cladding is taken into account, the simplified method cannot be

used and the frame stability must be checked either by elastic analysis or

second-order elastic-plastic analysis.

BS 5950-1:2000 does not propose the use of concrete casing of the steel frame

to increase the value of cr.

41

CONNECTIONS

6.1

Bolted connections

Clause 6.2.4

Clause 6.2.4 introduces the concept of block shear failure and provides a simple

method for ensuring that this failure mode is avoided.

Several examples of block shear failure are shown in Figure 6.1.

Fr

Fr

Lv

Lv

Lt

Lv

Lt

Lt

Lv

Fr

Lt

Fr

Figure 6.1

Block shear

In each case, failure occurs in shear along the line of bolts parallel to the

applied force and, simultaneously, in tension along a perpendicular face. This

mode of failure results in a block of material, represented by the shaded area in

each example above, being torn out by the applied shear force, hence the name

block shear failure.

To avoid block shear failure, BS 5950-1:2000 states that it should be checked

that the reaction force Fr does not exceed the block shear capacity Pr given by

Pr

where Dt is the hole size for the tension face, t is the thickness, the dimensions

Lt and Lv are as shown in Figure 6.1 and k has the following values:

For a single line of bolts parallel to the applied shear, k = 0.5

For two lines of bolts parallel to the applied shear, k = 2.5.

Clause 6.3.2

Clause 6.3.2 has undergone three significant changes: new values for the shear

strength of bolts, a new Sub-clause on packing and a new Sub-clause on kidneyshaped slots.

In BS 5950-1:1990, Table 32 gave the shear strength, bearing strength and

tension strength of grade 4.6 and grade 8.8 bolts and formulae for the strength

of other grades. In BS 5950-1:2000, this Table has been replaced by three new

42

Tables: Table 30 for shear strength, Table 31 for bearing strength and Table 34

for tension strength.

Table 30 in BS 5950-1:2000 contains several new shear strength values for

grade 10.9 and HSFG bolts that were not previously considered explicitly. In

addition, the formula for other grades has changed from 0.48Uf, but no

greater than 0.69Yf, in BS 5950-1:1990 (where Uf and Yf are the specified

minimum ultimate tensile strength and the specified minimum yield strength

respectively) to 0.4Ub in BS 5950-1:2000 (where Ub is the specified minimum

tensile strength of the bolt). Note that Ub is limited to 1000 N/mm2 in

BS 5950-1:2000.

A new Sub-clause, 6.3.2.2, has been added on the subject of steel packing.

This states that the total thickness of the packing tpa at a shear plane should not

exceed 4d / 3, where d is the nominal diameter of the bolts. In addition, the

number of plies should preferably not exceed four. For cases where the total

packing thickness exceeds d / 3, the full shear capacity (Ps = ps As) cannot be

used and a reduced shear capacity should be calculated using

Ps

9d

As

8d + 3t pa

The second new Sub-clause, 6.3.2.4, deals with kidney-shaped slots. It states

that where a connection has two bolts, one in a standard clearance hole and one

in a kidney-shaped slot, the shear capacity of each bolt should be taken as

0.8Ps, i.e. 80% of the shear capacity for a standard clearance hole.

Clause 6.3.3

Clause 6.3.3 has been expanded to give improved guidance on the bearing

capacity of connections using non-preloaded bolts. In assessing the bearing

capacity of a connection, it is necessary to consider the bearing capacity of the

bolt and the bearing capacity of the connected parts. Both are considered in this

Clause, but only the latter has undergone a significant change.

In BS 5950-1:1990, the bearing capacity of a connected ply was taken as

Pbs =

dtpbs

0.5etpbs

where:

d

pbs is the bearing strength of the connected ply, from Table 33.

In BS 5950-1:2000, this formula has been modified by the introduction of a new

coefficient, kbs, which takes into account the shape of the bolt holes. The

bearing capacity of the connected part is now given by

Pbs =

Pbs

0.5kbsetp pbs

Provided that the size of the holes does not exceed the dimensions given in

Table 33, the following values of kbs should be used:

43

kbs = 1.0

kbs = 0.7

kbs = 0.7

kbs = 0.5

kbs = 0.5.

Where standard clearance holes are used, this change has no effect whatsoever

on the bearing capacity of the connected parts. However, for all other types of

holes, the bearing capacity has been reduced greatly compared with BS 5950-1:

1990 (a 30% reduction for oversized holes and short slotted holes and a 50%

reduction for long slotted holes and kidney-shaped slots). This is a very

significant change.

Note:

1. Some of the values of pbs given in Table 32 have been amended slightly

(although not for steel grades S275 and S355).

2. BS 5950-1:2000 gives standard hole dimensions for non-preloaded bolts

(Table 33) and preloaded bolts (Table 36). Previously, values were

only given for preloaded bolts (Table 35 in BS 5950-1:1990).

The bearing capacity of the bolt, Pbb, is unchanged from BS 5950-1:1990 and is

given by

Pbb =

dtp pbb

where pbb is the bearing strength of the bolt obtained from Table 31.

Although the formula is unchanged, the range of pbb values has been expanded

and now includes grade 10.9 and HSFG bolts, in addition to the usual

grades 4.6 and 8.8. There have also been a few minor changes to some of the

pbb values. Note that Ub is limited to 1000 N/mm2 in BS 5950-1:2000.

Clause 6.3.4

Clause 6.3.4 has been amended to allow the full tensile strength of the bolts to

be used in cases where prying is either avoided or allowed for explicitly in the

analysis. This is a major technical change.

In BS 5950-1:1990, there was no need to consider explicitly the effects of

prying, so long as the tension strengths given in Table 32 were used. This was

possible because these strengths had already been reduced to take account of

prying. While this approach was very straightforward, it could also be

conservative, because the same strengths had to be used for every case,

irrespective of whether the connection was subject to significant prying or not.

In BS 5950-1:2000, designers have the choice either to continue with the

previous method and use reduced bolt strengths, or to use an alternative method

in which the prying forces are calculated and allowed for explicitly in the

analysis. If the latter option is chosen, designers may use the full tension

strengths of the bolts as given in Table 34 of BS 5950-1:2000. Both methods

are outlined below.

44

Consider the two situations shown in Figure 6.2.

2Ft

Ft

2Ft

Ft + Q

Ft

M1

M1

Figure 6.2

Ft + Q

M1

M1

M2

M2

In the first example, the connection is subject to single curvature bending and

there is no prying force. In this case, each bolt is designed for a tension force

equal to Ft, using a bolt tension capacity based on the tension strength pt from

Table 34. The method in BS 5950-1:1990 was clearly conservative in this case,

as it made an allowance for prying even though there was none. The new

approach is less conservative, because it allows the use of the full tension

strengths from Table 34, instead of the reduced tension strengths in Table 32 of

BS 5950-1:1990.

In the second example, the connection is subject to double curvature bending

and the applied tension 2Ft induces a prying force Q at either end of the plate or

flange as it bends under the applied load. Consequently, the total tension in

each bolt is Ft + Q, denoted in BS 5950-1:2000 by Ftot.

Designers wishing to take advantage of the full tension capacity of the bolts

must calculate Q and design each bolt for the total tension Ftot. In this case,

although the tension capacity is greater than before, the tension in each bolt has

also increased. The overall effect will depend on the magnitude of the prying

force relative to the applied tension.

Simple method

In the simple method, the prying force is neglected and the bolt force is simply

taken as equal to Ft. However, in this case, the full tension capacity of the

bolts cannot be used and, instead, the connection must be designed so that Ft

does not exceed the nominal tension capacity of the bolt given by

Pnom = 0.8ptAt

There are two conditions on the use of the simplified method.

Firstly, this method should only be used if the cross-centre spacing of the bolt

holes, s, does not exceed 55% of the width of the flange or end-plate, as shown

in Figure 6.3.

45

s 0.55B

s

B

Figure 6.3

This is to ensure that the prying force is kept within the limits allowed for by the

use of 0.8pt in the calculation of the nominal tension capacity. A cross-centre

spacing greater than 0.55B may result in a prying force in excess of that allowed

for in the simplified method, making this method unsafe. In such circumstances,

the prying forces must be taken into account explicitly by using the more exact

method.

Secondly, where the connected part is designed assuming double curvature

bending, the moment capacity of the connected part per unit width should be

based on the elastic capacity rather than the plastic capacity (i.e. the moment

capacity per unit width should be taken as pytp2/6, where tp is the thickness of the

connected part and py is its design strength).

Note that Ub is limited to 1000 N/mm2 in BS 5950-1:2000 (Table 34).

Clause 6.4.3

BS 5950-1:1990 recommended that the slip factor should either be obtained

from tests as specified in BS 4604 or, in the case of general grade fasteners in

connections with untreated surfaces, could be taken as 0.45. This placed

designers in the awkward situation of not being able to calculate the slip

resistance in their connections without first conducting tests.

In BS 5950-1:2000, this situation has been rectified by the inclusion of

Table 35, which contains a range of values for different surface conditions.

Alternatively, may still be obtained from tests as specified in BS 4604.

Clause 6.4.5

In BS 5950-1:1990, it was stated that all preloaded bolts subject to combined

shear and tension should satisfy the following relationship:

Fs

F

+ 0.8 t

PsL

Pt

where:

Fs

Ft

46

Pt

For connections designed to be non-slip in service:

Fs

Ftot

+

PsL

1.1Po

Fs

Ftot

+

PsL

0.9 Po

where:

Ftot is the total applied tension in the bolt, including the prying force

Po

Note that the tension force in these new expressions is Ftot, the total tension in

the bolt, not Ft, the applied tension. The difference is that Ftot includes the

effects of prying, which may be allowed for explicitly in BS 5950-1:2000 (see

Clause 6.3.4). By contrast, BS 5950-1:1990 allowed for prying implicitly, by

reducing the tension capacity of the bolts.

6.2

Pin connections

Clause 6.5.3

Changes have been made to the methods of calculating the shear capacity,

bearing capacity and moment capacity of pins. In each case, the single

expression in BS 5950-1:1990 has been replaced by two expressions in

BS 5950-1:2000. The choice of expression depends on whether the pin is

required to rotate and whether it needs to be removable.

In BS 5950-1:1990, the shear capacity of a pin was given as 0.6pypA, where pyp

is the design strength of the pin and A is its cross-sectional area. In BS 5950-1:

2000, the shear capacity remains as 0.6pypA if rotation is not required and the

pin is not intended to be removable. However, if rotation is required or if the

pin is intended to be removable, a new lower value of 0.5pypA should be used.

The bearing capacity of a pin was given in BS 5950-1:1990 as 1.2pydt, where d

is the diameter of the pin, t is the thickness of the connected part and py is the

lower of the design strengths of the pin and the connected part. In BS 5950-1:

2000, the bearing capacity of a pin that is neither required to rotate nor to be

removable has increased to 1.5pydt. However, if the pin is required to rotate or

is intended to be removable, a lower value of 0.8pydt must be used.

A similar change has been made to the moment capacity, which used to be

taken as 1.2pypZ, where Z is the elastic modulus of the pin. In BS 5950-1:

2000, the moment capacity may now be taken as 1.5 pypZ if rotation is not

required and if the pin is not intended to be removable, but should be taken as

1.0 pypZ if rotation or the removal of the pin is required. This effectively

allows the plastic moment capacity of a pin to be developed if the pin does not

47

rotate, but restricts bending to first yield if the pin does rotate or is intended to

be removable.

In addition, there has been a change relating to the assumptions on which the

bending calculations are based. According to BS 5950-1:2000, the moments on

the pin should be calculated on the basis that the connected parts form simple

supports. It should also be assumed that the reactions between the pin and the

connected parts are distributed uniformly along the length in contact on each

part. However, as an alternative, if the thickness of one or more of the

connected parts exceeds that needed to provide sufficient bearing capacity, it

may be assumed that the reactions are distributed over reduced contact lengths

adjacent to the interfaces, based upon the minimum thickness needed to provide

sufficient bearing capacity. This alternative did not exist in BS 5950-1:1990.

6.3

Welded connections

Clause 6.8.5

BS 5950-1:1990 stated that where a member is connected to a plate by a

symmetrical fillet weld, the strength of the weld can be taken as equal to the

strength of the parent metal, if the following conditions are satisfied:

1. The weld is made with a suitable electrode that will produce all weld

tensile specimens as specified in BS 709, having both a minimum yield

strength and a minimum tensile strength not less than those specified for the

parent material.

2. The sum of the throat sizes is not less than the connected plate

thickness.

3. The weld is principally subject to direct compression or tension.

In BS 5950-1:2000, this rule has been deleted, leaving designers to use the

design strengths given in Table 37. These values are significantly lower than

the design strengths of the parent material (pw = 220 N/mm2 for S275 and

pw = 250 N/mm2 for S355).

This reduction in capacity has been partly offset by the allowance in BS 5950-1:

2000 for the higher transverse strength of fillet welds (see Clause 6.8.7). For

the case of two plates connected at right angles by symmetrical fillet welds,

= 45 and K = 1.25, resulting in the following transverse strengths:

S275: 1.25 220 = 275 N/mm2

S355: 1.25 250 = 312.5 N/mm2

Clearly, where S275 steel is used, the transverse strength is still equal to that of

the parent metal, but for S355 the strength is significantly lower.

Note that the design strengths given in Table 37 of BS 5950-1:2000 have been

amended slightly, compared with Table 36 of BS 5950-1:1990.

Clause 6.8.7

Clause 6.8.7 has undergone a major amendment, resulting in a new method for

calculating the capacity of fillet welds subject to transverse forces.

48

It has long been understood that the transverse strength of fillet welds is greater

than the longitudinal strength and this has been recognised in other codes, such

as BS 5400. However, this higher strength was not taken into account in

BS 5950-1:1990, in which the capacity of a fillet weld was simply taken to be

the product of the design strength pw and the throat size a, irrespective of the

direction of loading.

BS 5950-1:2000 presents two alternative methods for calculating the capacity of

fillet welds. In the simple method, the capacity should be taken as sufficient

if the vector sum of the design stresses, due to the forces and moments

transmitted by the weld, does not exceed the design strength of the weld pw at

any point along the weld. This method is the same as in BS 5950-1:1990.

Alternatively, designers may choose to use the directional method, in which

the design forces transmitted by the weld are resolved into their longitudinal and

transverse components, designated FL and FT respectively, as shown in

Figure 6.7.

2F T

FL

FT

FT

FL

FT

FT

FT

Throat of

the weld

Figure 6.4

In the longitudinal direction, the capacity PL per unit length of the weld is given

by

PL =

pwa

PT =

KPL

where the coefficient K depends on the angle between the weld throat and the

direction of the transverse force that is transmitted by the weld. For the special

49

case of two mutually perpendicular members, connected by two equal leg fillet

welds, with the applied force parallel to one leg, = 45 and K = 1.25, giving

a 25% enhancement in strength.

To take account of the interaction between longitudinal and transverse forces,

the following relationship should be satisfied throughout the length of the weld:

(FL / PL)2 + (FT / PT)2 1

50

REFERENCES

1.

BS 5950 Structural use of steelwork in building

BS 5950-1:2000 Code of Practice for design - Rolled and welded sections

BSI, 2000

2.

BS 5950 Structural use of steelwork in building

BS 5950-1:1990 Code of Practice for design of simple and continuous

structures hot rolled sections

BSI, 1990, amended 1992

3.

Cold-formed structural hollow sections: interim guidance

New Steel Construction, June/July 1996, p. 30

4.

BS 5950 Structural use of steelwork in building

BS 5950-5:1998 Code of Practice for design of cold formed thin gauge

sections

BSI, 1998

5.

Part A: Structure

The Stationery Office, 1992

6.

BS 5400 Steel, concrete and composite bridges

BS 5400-3:2000 Code of practice for design of steel bridges

BSI, 2000

7.

and member capacities, 6th edition (SCI P202)

The Steel Construction Institute, in association with The British

Constructional Steelwork Association and Corus, 2001

8.

Joints in simple construction Volume 1: Design methods (2nd edition)

(SCI P205)

The Steel Construction Institute and The British Constructional Steelwork

Association, 1993

9.

Deflection limits portal frames

Steel Construction Today, Vol. 5, No. 4, July 1991, p. 203

10. KING, C.

In-plane stability of portal frames to BS 5950-1:2000 (SCI P292)

The Steel Construction Institute, 2001

51

52

WORKED EXAMPLES

1. Sway stability

55

57

3. Restrained beam

59

4. Unrestrained beam

63

5. Plate girder

67

71

7. Compression member

75

77

9. Baseplate

83

53

54

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Job No.

CDS 138

Job Title

Example no. 1

Subject

Sway stability

Client

CALCULATION SHEET

SCI

Sheet

Made by

DGB

Date

Aug. 2001

Checked by

MDH

Date

Oct. 2001

of

Rev

Introduction

Consider the braced frame shown below. An elastic analysis has been carried out

on the bare frame under a set of unit point loads and the resulting deflections are

shown in the figure below. Note that the building will be clad, although the stiffness

of the cladding was not taken into account in the elastic analysis of the frame.

Determine whether the frame is non-sway or sway-sensitive. If it is swaysensitive, what value of the amplification factor, kamp, must be applied to the

bracing forces to allow for second-order effects?

7.5 m

7.5 m

7.5 m

1 kN

3.5 m

0.65 mm

0.48 mm

3.8 m

1 kN

3.5 m

1 kN

0.84 mm

3.5 m

1 kN

1.07 mm

Loading

Every beam is subjected to an unfactored uniformly distributed load consisting of:

Dead load:

21 kN/m

Imposed load:

30 kN/m

Solution

Calculate the notional horizontal forces

For the gravity load case (load combination 1), the design load is given by

Factored load

77.4 kN/m

77.4 7.5 3

1741.5 kN

0.005 1741.5 =

8.7 kN

Note that the notional horizontal force is based on the factored load acting on the

whole floor and not just on one beam length

55

2.4.2.4

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Job No.

CDS 138

Job Title

Example no. 1

Subject

Sway stability

Client

CALCULATION SHEET

SCI

Sheet

Made by

DGB

Date

Aug. 2001

Checked by

MDH

Date

Oct. 2001

of

Rev

Multiplying the set of unit load deflections by the notional horizontal force per floor

gives the following deflections at each floor level:

8.7 kN

3.5 m

0.65 x 8.7

=5.65 mm

0.48 x 8.7

= 4.2 mm

3.8 m

8.7 kN

3.5 m

8.7 kN

0.84 x 8.7

=7.3 mm

3.5 m

8.7 kN

1.07 x 8.7

=9.3 mm

The lateral drift is the relative deflection between two adjacent storeys. By

inspection, the ground to first floor column is critical, with a lateral drift, , of

4.2 mm

Determine cr

The lowest value of cr is that for the lowest storey and is given by

cr =

h

200

3800

200 4.2

4.52

2.4.2.6

Because cr < 10, the frame is sway-sensitive, but as cr > 4, the second-order

effects may be allowed for by amplification of the first-order sway effects (i.e. there

is no need for a second-order analysis)

Calculate kamp

The frame is a clad frame in which the stiffness of the cladding was neglected.

Therefore, kamp is given by

k amp =

cr

4.52

=

= 1.22

1.15 cr 1.5

(1.15 4.52) 1.5

56

2.4.2.7

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Job No.

CDS 138

Job Title

Example no. 2

Subject

Client

CALCULATION SHEET

SCI

Sheet

of

Rev

Made by

MDH

Date

Aug. 2001

Checked by

TCC

Date

Sept. 2001

Introduction

An exposed steel structure is proposed. The steel is BS EN 10025 S355 and the

thickest element is 30 mm. The beams are welded to the column flanges and the

maximum tensile stress is 200 N/mm2. Choose an appropriate steel grade to avoid

brittle fracture

Solution

The basic requirement is that, throughout the component, the thickness should satisfy

the relationship:

2.4.4

t Kt1

Because the maximum thickness = 30 mm, the steel grade should be chosen such

that

t1 30 / K

The nominal yield strength Ynom = 355 N/mm2

The maximum tensile stress in the component = 200 N/mm2

Therefore stress > 0.3Ynom

For welded connections to unstiffened flanges with stress > 0.3Ynom

Table 3

K = 0.5

The requirement for t1 is therefore

t1 60 mm

For external conditions (15C), the only suitable grade of steel is

BS EN 10025 S355 K2 (t1 = 66 mm)

Table 4

Finally, check that the maximum thickness in the component does not exceed the

limits for which the full Charpy impact value applies, as given in Table 6

For all sections of grade S355 to BS EN 10025, t2 = 100 mm

t2 > 30 mm

Therefore BS EN 10025 S355 K2 is suitable

57

Table 6

58

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Job No.

CDS 138

Job Title

Example no. 3

Subject

Restrained beam

Client

CALCULATION SHEET

SCI

Sheet

Made by

MDH

Date

Sept. 2001

Checked by

TCC

Date

Oct. 2001

Introduction

A 533 210 101 UB in grade S355 steel is simply supported as shown below

and fully restrained along its length by a concrete floor slab. Check that the shear

capacity and the moment capacity are adequate for the factored loading shown,

which includes self-weight

225 kN

W = 25 kN/m

5m

5m

Solution

Calculate the maximum moment and shear

The maximum shear occurs at A and C

Fv

25 10 225

+

2

2

238 kN

Mx =

25 10 2 225 10

=

+

8

4

The shear at B

225

2

875 kNm

113 kN

From section property tables:

Flange thickness T

17.4 mm

Flange b/T

6.03

Web d/t

44.1

59

of

Rev

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Job No.

CDS 138

Job Title

Example no. 3

Subject

Restrained beam

Client

CALCULATION SHEET

Grade of steel

SCI

Sheet

Made by

MDH

Date

Aug. 2001

Checked by

TCC

Date

Sept. 2001

S355

275

py

Rev

3.1.1

Table 9

T > 16 mm

Therefore py =

of

345 N/mm2

275

345

Table 11

0.89

3.5.2

Table 11

b/T =

Table 11

9 =

8.01

=

Limit for web with the neutral axis at mid depth for a class 1 section:

d/t =

80

71.2

3.5.2

Table 11

Both the flange and web are class 1, therefore the cross section is class 1

Check the shear capacity

Pv

0.6 pyAv

py

345 N/mm2

Av

tD

10.8 mm

536.7 mm

Pv

From above, Fv

4.2.3

238 kN

Fvmax < Pv

Therefore the section is adequate in shear

60

1200 kN

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Job No.

CDS 138

Job Title

Example no. 3

Subject

Restrained beam

Client

CALCULATION SHEET

SCI

Sheet

Made by

TCC

Date

Aug. 2001

Checked by

MDH

Date

Sept. 2001

of

Rev

Check whether the shear is high, i.e. Fv > 0.6 Pv, or low,

4.2.5

The shear at B

0.6 Pv

113 kN

0.6 1200 =

720 kN

Therefore the shear is low

For low shear, the moment capacity for a class 1 section is given by

Mcx =

py Sx

Sx

Mcx =

4.2.5.2

901 kNm

Check limit to avoid irreversible deformation under serviceability limit state loads

For a simply supported beam Mcx 1.2 pyZx

Zx

4.2.5.1

1.2pyZx =

Therefore Mcx

901 kNm

From above, Mx =

875 kNm

949 kNm

Mx < Mcx

Therefore the section is adequate in bending

61

62

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Job No.

CDS 138

Job Title

Example no. 4

Subject

Unrestrained beam

Client

CALCULATION SHEET

SCI

Sheet

Made by

MDH

Date

Aug. 2001

Checked by

TCC

Date

Sept. 2001

Introduction

Consider the beam from Example 1 during construction, before the concrete floor

slab has been constructed. In this case, the beam is unrestrained except at the

location of the point load (B). Check the adequacy of the unrestrained beam

between A and B for the factored loading shown

225 kN

5m

5m

Solution

Calculate the maximum moment and shear

The maximum shear occurs at A and C

Fv

225

+

2

2

Mx =

225 10

+ Moment due to self weight

4

The shear at B

225

2

113 kN

From section property tables:

Flange thickness T

17.4 mm

Flange b/T

6.03

Web d/t

44.1

63

= 580 kNm

of

Rev

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Job No.

CDS 138

Job Title

Example no. 4

Subject

Unrestrained beam

Client

CALCULATION SHEET

SCI

Sheet

Made by

MDH

Date

Aug. 2001

Checked by

TCC

Date

Sept. 2001

Rev

345 N/mm2

Therefore py =

275

py

3.1.1

Table 9

T > 16 mm

of

275

345

Table 11

0.89

3.5.2

Table 11

b/T =

Table 11

9 =

8.01

3.5.2

Table 11

Limit for web with the neutral axis at mid depth for a class 1 section

d/t =

80 =

71.2

=

Both the flange and web are class 1, therefore the cross section is class 1

Check the shear capacity

From example 3, Pv

Fv

1200 kN

4.2.3

113 kN

Fv < Pv

Therefore the section is adequate in shear

1.1.4

Mx =

901 kNm

4.2.5

575 kNm

Mx < Mcx

Therefore the section is adequate in bending

64

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Job No.

CDS 138

Job Title

Example no. 4

Subject

Unrestrained beam

Client

SCI

CALCULATION SHEET

Sheet

Made by

MDH

Date

Aug. 2001

Checked by

TCC

Date

Sept. 2001

Rev

4.3.6

(i) Conservatively assume an effective length LE of 1.0L

of

5m

From section property tables, ry = 45.7 mm

LE/ry

5000

45.7

109

/x =

109

33.2

3.3

v

4.3.6.7

Table 19

0.90

4.3.6.9

Therefore, LT

(vi) For py =

pb

uv

345 N/mm2

and LT =

86

Mb =

pb Sx

Sx

Mb =

4.3.6.5

Table 16

170 N/mm2

4.3.6.7

4.3.6.4

444 kNm

Between A and B, the bending moment diagram is as follows:

M A= 0

MB = 580

Therefore, =

0,

mLT =

4.3.6.6

Table 18

0.6

65

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Job No.

CDS 138

Job Title

Example no. 4

Subject

Unrestrained beam

Client

CALCULATION SHEET

SCI

Sheet

Made by

MDH

Date

Aug. 2001

Checked by

TCC

Date

Sept. 2001

of

Rev

Mb / mLT =

Mx =

444 / 0.6

740 kNm

580 kNm

4.3.6.2

Therefore Mx Mb / mLT

The beam does therefore have adequate resistance to lateral-torsional buckling when

unrestrained

66

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Job No.

CDS 138

Job Title

Example no. 5

Subject

Plate girder

Client

SCI

CALCULATION SHEET

Sheet

Made by

MDH

Date

Aug. 2001

Checked by

TCC

Date

Sept. 2001

of

Rev

Introduction

A plate girder consists of two 500 30 mm flange plates and a 1200 12 mm web

plate, both in S275 steel

1. Find the moment capacity, assuming that the moment is carried by the flanges

alone, and compare with the moment capacity based on the full section

2. Find the shear buckling resistance by the simplified method, assuming a

stiffener spacing of 1.5 m

3. Find the shear buckling resistance by the more exact method, assuming

ff = 0.1pyf

For this example, assume that the end post and stiffeners all have adequate capacity

Solution

Classify the cross section

3.1.1

Table 9

T > 16 mm

Therefore py = 265 N/mm2

3.1.1

Table 9

t < 16 mm

Therefore py = 275 N/mm2

Flange b/T

275

py

=

275

265

1.02

500 12

/ 30 =

2

8.13

From Table 11, the limit for a class 2 flange is 9. Therefore the flange is class 2

Web d/t =

1200

12

3.5.2

Table 11

100

From Table 11, the limit for a class 3 web subject to bending only (i.e. neutral axis

at mid depth) is 120. Therefore, the web is class 3

Therefore the cross section is class 3

67

3.5.2

Table 11

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Job No.

CDS 138

Job Title

Example no. 5

Subject

Plate girder

Client

SCI

CALCULATION SHEET

Sheet

Made by

MDH

Date

Aug. 2001

Checked by

TCC

Date

Sept. 2001

of

Rev

4.4.4.2

The web depth-to-thickness ratio d/t > 62, so the web must be assumed to be

susceptible to shear buckling. Consequently, the interaction of shear and moment

must be taken into account when calculating the moment capacity of the cross section

Because the flanges are not slender, the flanges only method may be used to obtain

a conservative value of the moment capacity

Mc =

4.4.4.2b

pyf Af hs

where pyf is the design strength of the flanges, Af is the area of one flange and hs is

the distance between the centre of the flanges

Mc =

4890 kNm

Assuming that this was the maximum shear on the section at the end of the girder

and that, near the centre, the shear is reduced to less than 0.6 of this value, the

moment capacity can be recalculated based on the full section. As the web is

class 3, the elastic modulus is used to calculate

Mc =

pyf Zx

Ix

500 30 3

12 1200 3

+ 500 30 615 2 +

2

12

12

20794 cm3

Mc =

5510 kNm

Zx

4.4.4.2

Calculate the shear buckling resistance using the simplified method

Using the simplified method, the shear buckling resistance is given by

Vb

Vw =

d t qw

a/d =

1500

1200

d/t =

100

py

275 N/mm2

4.4.5.2

1.25

68

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Job No.

CDS 138

Job Title

Example no. 5

Subject

Plate girder

Client

SCI

CALCULATION SHEET

Sheet

Made by

MDH

Date

Aug. 2001

Checked by

TCC

Date

Sept. 2001

of

139 N/mm2

Vb

Vw =

Rev

4.4.5.2

Table 21

qw =

2000 kN

Calculate the shear buckling resistance using the more exact method

The more exact method permits the shear buckling resistance of the web to be

increased above that given by the simplified method, for cases where the moment is

low, i.e. towards the end of the girder

Assume that in the end panel, the moment is not greater than 10% of the moment

capacity and that ff / pyf = 0.1

Using the more exact method, the shear buckling resistance is given by

Vb

Vw + Vf

but

Vb Pv

The first step is to calculate the plastic moment capacity of the (smaller) flange about

its own equal area axis perpendicular to the plane of the web

Spf =

=

Mpf =

4.4.5.3

BT 2 / 4

500 30 2

pyf Spf

29.8 kNm

Spw =

td 2 / 4

12 1200 2

=

4

Mpw =

pyf Spw

1190 kNm

Pv

0.6 pydt =

2380 kN

4.2.3

69

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Job No.

CDS 138

Job Title

Example no. 5

Subject

Plate girder

Client

CALCULATION SHEET

SCI

Sheet

Made by

MDH

Date

Aug. 2001

Checked by

TCC

Date

Sept. 2001

Vf =

P v d / a 1 f f / p yf

[ 1 + 0.15 ( M

pw

/ M pf

)]

[ 1 + 0.15 (1190

/ 29.8 )

Vb

Vw + Vf

Vb

2000 + 270 =

2270 kN, Pv

70

270 kN

of

Rev

4.4.5.3

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Job No.

CDS 138

Job Title

Example no. 6

Subject

Client

CALCULATION SHEET

SCI

Sheet

of

Rev

Made by

MDH

Date

Aug. 2001

Checked by

TCC

Date

Sept. 2001

Introduction

The same 533 210 101 UB used in Examples 3 and 4 is subjected to an applied

point load, as shown below. Check that the bearing capacity and buckling resistance

of the web are adequate at the location of the applied load and at the support

225 kN

152 x 152 x 23 UC

152.2

17.4

12.7

be

b1

238 kN

ae

be

50 mm

b1

100 mm

Solution

At the location of the point load

(i) Bearing capacity of the unstiffened web

Pbw = (b1 + nk) t pyw

n

(b1 + nk)

302.7 mm

4.5.2.1

71

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Job No.

CDS 138

Job Title

Example no. 6

Subject

Client

SCI

CALCULATION SHEET

Pbw =

Pbw =

1130 kN

Fx

225 kN

Sheet

of

Rev

Made by

MDH

Date

Aug. 2001

Checked by

TCC

Date

Sept. 2001

Fx < Pbw

Therefore the bearing resistance of the web is adequate without the need for a

bearing stiffener

(ii) Buckling resistance of the unstiffened web

Px

Px

25t

(b1 + nk ) d

275

py

4.5.3.1

Pbw

275

=

345

25 0.89 10.8

(302.7 ) 476.5

0.89

1130

= 714 kN

Fx < Px

Therefore the buckling resistance of the web is adequate without the need for a

buckling stiffener

At the support

(i) Bearing capacity of the unstiffened web

Pbw =

2 + 0.6 be / k

be

50 mm

T+r

2 +

(b1 + nk)

but 5

17.4 + 12.7 =

0.6 50

30.1

=

4.5.2.1

30.1 mm

3.0

190.3 mm

72

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Job No.

CDS 138

Job Title

Example no. 6

Subject

Client

SCI

CALCULATION SHEET

Pbw =

Fx =

238 kN

Sheet

of

Rev

Made by

MDH

Date

Aug. 2001

Checked by

TCC

Date

Sept. 2001

709 kN

Fx < Pbw

Therefore the bearing resistance of the web at the support is adequate

(ii) Buckling resistance of the unstiffened web

4.5.3.1

ae =

50 + 50

0.7d

100 mm

0.7 476.5 =

333.6 mm

Px

a e + 0.7 d

1.4 d

100 + 333.6

25 0.89 10.8

P

1.4 476.5

(190.3) 476.5 bw

0.519 709

25t

(b1 + nk ) d

Pbw

= 368 kN

Fx < Px

Therefore the buckling resistance of the web at the support is adequate

73

74

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Job No.

CDS 138

Job Title

Example no. 7

Subject

Compression member

Client

CALCULATION SHEET

SCI

Sheet

Made by

MDH

Date

Aug. 2001

Checked by

TCC

Date

Sept. 2001

of

Rev

Introduction

A 356 368 129 UC in grade S275 steel is pin-ended about the x-x and y-y axes

as shown below. Check that the compression resistance is adequate for the factored

loading shown, which includes self-weight. The cross section is classified as not

slender

2500 kN

6m

Solution

From section tables:

T

17.5 mm

Ag =

164 cm2

rx

15.6 cm

ry

9.43 cm

Grade of steel

S275

3.1.1

Table 9

T > 16 mm

Therefore py =

265 N/mm2

Pc

4.7.4

Ag pc

75

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Job No.

CDS 138

Job Title

Example no. 7

Subject

Compression member

Client

SCI

CALCULATION SHEET

Sheet

Made by

MDH

Date

Aug. 2001

Checked by

TCC

Date

Sept. 2001

of

Rev

Table 23

Table 23

Slenderness x

L EX

rx

6000

15.6 10

38.5

L EY

ry

6000

9.43 10

63.6

243 N/mm2

Table 24b

188 N/mm2

Table 24c

Pc

188 N/mm2

3080 kN

Fc < Pc

Therefore the compression resistance is adequate

76

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Job No.

CDS 138

Job Title

Example no. 8

Subject

Client

CALCULATION SHEET

SCI

Sheet

Made by

MDH

Date

Aug. 2001

Checked by

TCC

Date

Sept. 2001

of

Introduction

The top chord of a lattice girder supports purlins at A, B and C, as shown below,

resulting in a factored point load of 11.2 kN at each location. The member is a

150 150 5 rectangular hollow section in S275 steel and is continuous at A, B

and C. Check the adequacy of the top chord by considering its section capacity and

buckling resistance, according to the requirements in Clause 4.8.3

1.8 m

1.8 m

11.2 kN

11.2 kN

11.2 kN

Loading

The factored axial load in ABC =

598 kN

5.04

B

A

5.04

C

5.04

Solution

Classify the section

From section tables:

b

5 mm

d/t =

135 mm

27.0

Grade of steel

S275

t < 16 mm

77

Factored

loads

Rev

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Job No.

CDS 138

Job Title

Example no. 8

Subject

Client

SCI

CALCULATION SHEET

Therefore py =

275

py

Sheet

Made by

MDH

Date

Aug. 2001

Checked by

TCC

Date

Sept. 2001

275 N/mm2

135 / 5.0

27.0

'Web'

Fc

1

2d t p y

r1

Limit

28

r1

64

1 + 0.6r1

Rev

1.0

Flange b/t

'Flange'

3.1.1

Table 9

275

=

275

of

3.5.2

Table 12

64

1 + 0.6 r1

598 10 3

2 135 5 275

=

3.5.2

Table 12

1.6

1.0

64 1

1 + 0.6 1.0

40

Both the flange and the web are class 1, therefore the cross section is class 1

Check axial compression

The first step is to evaluate the in-plane slenderness of the member given by

x

L Ex

rx

In the plane of the girder, there is no restraint at B and the effective length is given

by

LEx =

0.85L

LEx =

0.85 3.6

5.9 cm

3.06 m

78

4.7.3

Table 22

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Job No.

CDS 138

Job Title

Example no. 8

Subject

Client

CALCULATION SHEET

x =

SCI

Sheet

Made by

MDH

Date

Aug. 2001

Checked by

TCC

Date

Sept. 2001

of

Rev

3.06 10 3

= 51.9

5.9 10

y

L Ey

ry

Out of plane, the purlin at B provides restraint to the top chord and the effective

length is given by

LEy =

1.0L

LEy =

1.0 1.8

1.8 m

y =

1.8 10 3

5.9 10

30.5

4.7.3

Table 22

For x = 51.9 and py = 275 N/mm2, pcx =

Pcx =

Ag pcx

Pcy =

Ag pcy

249 N/mm2

=

266 N/mm2

598 kN

715 kN

763 kN

4.7.5

Table 24a

4.7.5

Table 24a

715 kN

Fc < Pc

Therefore the member is adequate in axial compression

Check the shear capacity

The maximum shear force Fv

11.2 kN

A

4.2.3

28.7 cm2

4.2.3

79

Telephone: (01344) 623345

Fax: (01344) 622944

Job No.

CDS 138

Job Title

Example no. 8

Subject

Client

SCI

CALCULATION SHEET

Av

AD

D + B

28.7 10 2 150

150 + 150

Pv

0.6 pyAv

237 kN

Sheet

Made by

MDH

Date

Aug. 2001

Checked by

TCC

Date

Sept. 2001

of

Rev

1435 mm2

Fv < Pv

Therefore the cross section is adequate in shear

Check the moment capacity

Check whether the shear is high, i.e. Fv > 0.6 Pv, or low, i.e. Fv < 0.6 Pv, at

the point of maximum moment

0.6 Pv

0.6 237

4.2.5

142 kN

For low shear, the moment capacity for a class 1 section is given by

Mc =

pySx

Mc =

42.9 kNm

Z

4.2.5

1.5 pyZ =

Therefore Mcx

4.2.5

55.3 kNm

42.9 kNm

Mx < Mcx

Therefore the cross section is adequate in bending

80

Telephone: (01344) 623345

Fax: (01344) 622944

Job No.

CDS 138

Job Title

Example no. 8

Subject

Client

SCI

CALCULATION SHEET

Sheet

Made by

MDH

Date

Aug. 2001

Checked by

TCC

Date

Sept. 2001

of

Rev

(i) Section capacity

The following relationship must be satisfied:

4.8.3.2

My

Fc

Mx

+

+

1

Ag p y

M cx

M cy

598 10 3

28.7 10 2 275

5.04

0

+

=

42.9

M cy

0.76 + 0.117 + 0

0.88, < 1

(ii) Buckling resistance

In the simplified method, the following relationships must be satisfied:

my My

Fc

m M

+ x x +

1 and

Pc

py z x

py z y

my My

Fc

m M

+ LT LT +

1

Pcy

Mb

py z y

mx is determined between restraints on the x axis, i.e. A and C according to the

shape of the bending moment diagram

5.04

M1

0

M2

0

M4

5.04

M5

5.04

M3

mx =

0.2 +

M max

0.8

For square rectangular hollow sections, such as the member in this example, there is

no need to consider lateral-torsional buckling and Mb is given by

Mb =

81

5.04 kNm

4.8.3

Table 26

4.3.6.1

Telephone: (01344) 623345

Fax: (01344) 622944

Job No.

CDS 138

Job Title

Example no. 8

Subject

Client

CALCULATION SHEET

SCI

Sheet

Made by

MDH

Date

Aug. 2001

Checked by

TCC

Date

Sept. 2001

of

mLT is determined between restraints on the y-y axis, i.e. A and B (or B and C)

M

5.04,

M =

5.04,

therefore

-1

and mLT =

Rev

4.3.6.6

Table 18

0.44

my My

Fc

m M

+ x x +

Pc

py z x

py z y

0.8 5.04 10 6

598

0

+

+

3

715

py z

275 134 10

my My

Fc

m M

+ LT LT +

Pcy

Mb

py z y

598

0.44 5.04

0

+

+

763

42.9

py z y

0.95, < 1

0.84, < 1

In both cases, the values are less than 1, indicating that the top chord is adequate

under these loading conditions, according to the simplified method

82

4.8.3.3.1

Telephone: (01344) 623345

Fax: (01344) 622944

Job No.

CDS 138

Job Title

Example no. 9

Subject

Baseplate

Client

SCI

CALCULATION SHEET

Sheet

Made by

MDH

Date

Aug. 2001

Checked by

TCC

Date

Sept. 2001

of

Rev

Introduction

A 254 254 73 Universal Column carries a factored axial load of 1500 kN. The

proposed baseplate is 500 500 mm in S275 steel, on C30 concrete with stronger

bedding material. Determine the thickness of the baseplate

Solution

4.13.2.1

The dimensions of the column are:

D

254 mm

254 mm

14.2 mm

9290 mm2

1480 mm

Area required

applied fo rce

0.6 f cu

1500000

0.6 30

83300 mm2

The effective area of the baseplate can be approximated to the following quadratic

equation:

Area

where c is the distance from the column to the edge of the effective area, as shown

below

2c + T

4c2 + 1480c + 9290 =

83300

44.6 mm

83

Telephone: (01344) 623345

Fax: (01344) 622944

Job No.

CDS 138

Job Title

Example no. 9

Subject

Baseplate

Client

CALCULATION SHEET

SCI

Sheet

Made by

MDH

Date

Aug. 2001

Checked by

TCC

Date

Sept. 2001

of

Rev

Check that there is no overlap between the effective areas associated with the two

flanges

Gap

D 2T 2c =

136 mm

Finally, the overall size of the effective area is checked to ensure that it fits on the

base

254 + (2 44.6)

343 mm

This is less than the baseplate size of 500 mm and is therefore acceptable

4.13.2.2

The minimum thickness of the baseplate is given by

tp

3 0.6 f cu

c

p yp

0.5

3 0.6 30

44.6

275

0.5

Recalculating,

tp

3 0.6 30

44.6

265

0.5

20.1 mm

84

19.8 mm

85

Typeset and page make-up by The Steel Construction Institute, Ascot SL5 7QN

Printed in Europe by the Alden Group, Oxford

1500 12/01 CDS138

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