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SCI PUBLICATION P304

Guide to the Major Amendments


in BS 5950-1:2000

M Heywood

MEng PhD CEng MICE

Published by:
The Steel Construction Institute
Silwood Park
Ascot
Berkshire SL5 7QN
Tel:
Fax:

01344 623345
01344 622944

2001 The Steel Construction Institute


Apart from any fair dealing for the purposes of research or private study or criticism or review, as
permitted under the Copyright Designs and Patents Act, 1988, this publication may not be
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The Steel Construction Institute, at the address given on the title page.
Although care has been taken to ensure, to the best of our knowledge, that all data and
information contained herein are accurate to the extent that they relate to either matters of fact
or accepted practice or matters of opinion at the time of publication, The Steel Construction
Institute, the authors and the reviewers assume no responsibility for any errors in or
misinterpretations of such data and/or information or any loss or damage arising from or related
to their use.
Publications supplied to the Members of the Institute at a discount are not for resale by them.
Publication Number: SCI P304
ISBN 1 85942 131 8
British Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data.
A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library.

ii

FOREWORD
The design Standard for structural steelwork, BS 5950-1, is used in the design
calculations for the majority of constructional steelwork in the United Kingdom.
Structural engineers are very familiar with the 1990 issue of this Code and have used it
routinely to design safe and efficient structures in a fast and cost-effective manner.
BS 5950-1 has been amended recently and there has been genuine concern within the
industry that unfamiliarity with the revised code could result in poor productivity,
increased costs and design errors, seriously damaging the competitiveness of the
construction industry. BS 5950-1:2000, as the revised code is known, came into effect
on 15 August 2001.
The purpose of this publication is to ease the transition from BS 5950-1:1990 to
BS 5950-1:2000, by highlighting Clauses that have undergone significant technical
changes and explaining how these changes will affect the design of steel building
structures. This should enable designers to adopt the new Code quickly and with the
minimum of disruption, thereby minimising the potential cost to the industry resulting
from reduced productivity. This guide is not intended as an in-depth commentary to
BS 5950-1, as it deals only with the major changes, however it does cover all the
changes with important safety implications, allowing structural engineers to continue to
use BS 5950-1 with confidence.
This publication was written by Dr Martin Heywood of The Steel Construction Institute,
with contributions to the worked examples from the late Mr Paul Salter,
Mr Abdul Malik, Mr David Brown and Mr Charles King.
Funding for the preparation of this guide was gratefully received from the Department of
the Environment, Transport and the Regions (DETR) and Corus.

The Steel Construction Institute has produced a comprehensive guide to the


amendments in BS 5950-1:2000. Available on CD, the guide contains a Clause-byClause comparison of the 1990 and 2000 editions, a description of all changes,
interactive design paths, worked examples, a keyword search facility, and the
facility to print a paper copy of the Standard.

iii

iv

Contents
Page No.
FOREWORD

iii

SUMMARY

vii

INTRODUCTION
1.1
Background
1.2
Scope of this publication
1.3
Summary of the changes

1
1
1
1

LIMIT
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4

4
4
4
7
8

PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS AND SECTION PROPERTIES


3.1
Grades of steel
3.2
Section classification
3.3
Effective plastic modulus
3.4
Slender cross sections

10
10
10
11
11

DESIGN OF STRUCTURAL MEMBERS


4.1
Members subject to bending
4.2
Lateral-torsional buckling
4.3
Plate girder webs
4.4
Design of stiffeners
4.5
Tension members
4.6
Compression members
4.7
Combined moment and axial force
4.8
Column bases

13
13
15
20
24
27
28
30
32

CONTINUOUS STRUCTURES
5.1
Column bases
5.2
Frame stability
5.3
Portal frames
5.4
Multi-storey frames

35
35
35
37
39

CONNECTIONS
6.1
Bolted connections
6.2
Pin connections
6.3
Welded connections

42
42
47
48

REFERENCES

51

STATES DESIGN
Load factors
Stability
Brittle fracture
Structural integrity

WORKED EXAMPLES
Sway stability
Choosing a steel sub-grade
Restrained beam
Unrestrained beam
Plate grider
Web bearing and buckling
Compression member
Axial load and bending
Baseplate

53
55
57
59
63
67
71
75
77
83

vi

SUMMARY
BS 5950 Structural use of steelwork in building, Part 1: Code of practice for design Rolled and welded sections has undergone major amendment. Almost every Clause of
this widely used Standard has changed in some way; some of the changes are technical in
nature, others are editorial and do not alter the recommendations for building design.
The revised Standard, referred to as BS 5950-1:2000, became effective on 15 August
2001.
The aim of this publication is to ease the transition to BS 5950-1:2000 by guiding
designers through the major technical amendments to the Standard. A short description
of each important change is provided, and simple worked examples illustrate the revised
design procedures.
The major amendments to BS 5950-1 include revised rules for checking the stability of
frames, changes to the method for selecting an appropriate steel sub-grade and the
introduction of the effective-area method for class 4 slender sections. On the subject of
member design, the greatest change relates to lateral-torsional buckling, where the
n-factor method has been removed. Changes have also been made to the Clauses on
shear buckling, stiffener design, tension members, compression members, combined axial
load and bending, and the design of column bases. Elsewhere, important changes have
been made to the rules relating to the in-plane stability of portal frames, prying forces
and the transverse strength of fillet welds.
Recueil des principales modifications la norme BS 5950-1
Rsum
La norme BS 5950 Usage structural des constructions en acier dans les btiments,
Partie 1: Code de pratique pour le dimensionnement - Sections lamines et soudes, a
subi dimportantes modifications. Pratiquement tous les articles de cette norme, fort
utilise en pratique, ont subi des modifications; certaines ont un simple caractre
ditorial mais dautres, par contre, apportent des modifications techniques importantes.
La norme rvise, rfrence BS 5950-1:2000, est devenue dapplication le 15 aot 2001.
Le but de cette publication est de faciliter la transition vers la nouvelle norme en guidant
les utilisateurs travers les modifications majeures. Une courte description de chaque
changement important est donne; des exemples simples illustrent les procdures de
dimensionnement rvises.
Les modifications majeures incluent la vrification de la stabilit des portiques, la
mthode de slection des nuances dacier appropries et lintroduction dune mthode
daire effective pour les sections de classe 4. Concernant le dimensionnement des
lments, la modification la plus importante a trait au dversement, o la mthode du
coefficient n a t supprime. Des modifications sont aussi apportes aux articles traitant
du voilement par cisaillement, du dimensionnement des raidisseurs, des lments en
traction, en compression et en combinaison charge axiale-flexion ainsi que du
dimensionnement des pieds de poteaux.
Dautre part, des modifications ont aussi t apportes aux rgles relatives la stabilit
dans leur plan des portiques, aux forces de levier et la rsistance transversale des
soudures dangles.

vii

Leitfaden fr die wichtigsten nderungen in BS 5950-1


Zusammenfassung
BS 5950 Stahlbauten, Teil 1: Vorschrift zur Berechnung - Gewalzte und geschweite
Querschnitte hat sich wichtigen nderungen unterzogen. Fast jeder Satz dieser allgemein
verwendeten Vorschrift hat sich in gewisser Weise gendert; manche nderungen sind
technischer Art, andere sind redaktioneller Art und ndern die Empfehlungen fr die
Berechnung nicht. Die berarbeitete Norm, jetzt mit BS 5950-1:2000 bezeichnet, ist seit
15 August 2001 gltig.
Das Ziel dieser Publikation ist es, den bergang zu BS 5950-1:2000 zu erleichtern,
indem der Ingenieur durch die wichtigsten nderungen gefhrt wird. Eine kurze
Beschreibung jeder wichtigen nderung ist enthalten, und einfache Berechnungsbeispiele
illustrieren die berarbeiteten Berechnungsverfahren.
Die wichtigen nderungen in BS 5950-1 beinhalten berarbeitete Regeln zur Prfung der
Stabilitt von Tragwerken, nderungen zur Auswahl einer geeigneten Stahlgte und die
Einfhrung der Methode der wirksamen Flche bei schlanken Querschnitten der Klasse 4.
Bezglich der Bauteilberechnung ergibt sich die grte nderung beim Biegedrillknicken,
hier wurde die n-Faktor Methode gestrichen. nderungen gibt es auch bei folgenden
Themen: Schubbeulen, Berechnung von Steifen, Zug- und Druckglieder, Normalkraft und
Biegung, Sttzenfe. An anderer Stelle wurden wichtige nderungen vorgenommen beim
Stabilittsverhalten in Tragwerksebene von Portalrahmen, bei Sttzkrften und bei der
Festigkeit von Kehlnhten in Querrichtung.
Guida alle principali modifiche della BS 5950-1
Sommario
La norma BS 5950 Carpenteria strutturale negli edifici, Parte 1: regole progettuali Sezione laminate e saldate ha subito un importante aggiornamento. Quasi ogni punto di
questa norma, ampiamente diffusa ed utilizzata, stato in qualche modo variato. Alcune
di queste modifiche sono di natura tecnica, altre editoriale e non alterano le
raccomandazioni relative al progetto degli edifici. La norma revisionata, denominata
BS 5950-1:2000, entrata in vigore il 15 Agosto 2001.
Scopo di questa pubblicazione facilitare il passaggio alla nuova BS 5950-1:2000,
guidando i progettisti attraverso le principali modifiche tecniche che sono state effettuate.
Viene fornita una breve descrizione di ogni variazione rilevante, e semplici esempi
applicativi illustrano le procedure di progettazione aggiornate.
I principali emendamenti alla BS 5950-1 includono una revisione delle regole di verifica
della stabilit dei telai, del metodo di selezione dellidonea classe di acciaio e
lintroduzione del metodo dellarea efficace per le sezioni snelle della classe 4. Per
quanto concerne la progettazione degli elementi, le maggiori variazioni si riferiscono
instabilit flesso-torsionale, ove stato eliminato il metodo del fattore-n. Sono state
apportate modifiche anche ai punti relativi allimbozzamento da taglio, alla progettazione
degli irrigidimenti, agli elementi tesi ed a quelli compressi, alla combinazione di azione
assiale e flettente e al progetto delle basi delle colonne. In altre parti, sostanziali
modifiche sono state effettuate alle regole riguardanti la stabilit nel piano dei portali, le
forze di contatto e la resistenza trasversale delle saldature a cordone dangolo.

viii

Guia de correcciones mas importantes a la BS 5950-1


Resumen
La norma BS5950 Uso de acero estructural en edificios, Parte 1: Reglas de buena prctica
para el proyecto Perfiles Laminares y soldados ha sufrido importantes correcciones. Casi
cada Clusula de esta popular Norma ha cambiado de algn modo en el aspecto tcnico
aunque tambin hay cambios en el aspecto editorial que no afecta las recomendaciones de
proyecto. La Norma Revisada, titulada BS 5950-1:2000, se hizo efectiva el 15 de agosto
de 2001.
El propsito de esta publicacin es facilitar la transicin guiando a los proyectistas a
travs de las correcciones ms importantes de la Norma. Se da una breve descripcin de
cada cambio importante y los procedimientos revisados de proyecto se ilustran
desarrollando ejemplos sencillos.
Las correcciones a la BS 5950-1 incluyen reglas de comprobacin de la estabilidad de
prticos, cambios al mtodo de seleccin de una subclase de acero adecuada al problema y
la introduccin del mtodo del rea efectiva para las secciones esbeltas de clase 4. Sobre
el tema de proyecto de piezas el cambio mayor se refiere al pandeo lateral y de torsin
donde se ha eliminado el mtodo del factor n. Tambin se han hecho cambios en las
clusulas sobre la abolladura por cortante, proyecto de rigidizadores, piezas a traccin y a
compresin, flexin combinada con axil y proyecto de basas de columnas. Adems se han
llevado a cabo importantes cambios en las reglas relativas al pandeo en su plano de
prticos fuerzas de retraccin y resistencia transversal de cordones de soldadura.

ix

INTRODUCTION

1.1

Background

Since its introduction in 1985, BS 5950 Structural use of steelwork in building,


has gradually (although not completely) replaced BS 449 in the design office
and is now the established Standard for the design of steel-framed buildings in
the UK and several other countries. Part 1 of BS 5950 (referred to here as
BS 5950-1) is the Code of practice for design using rolled and welded sections.
It gives recommendations for the safe design of general building structures,
including the specification of the appropriate steel sub-grade, the classification
of sections, design for stability, the design of members subject to bending,
tension and compression, stiffener design and the design of column bases and
connections.
BS 5950-1 has undergone a major amendment, affecting the majority of the
Clauses to some extent. The revised Standard, BS 5950-1:2000[1], became
effective on 15 August 2001. Because this Standard is so widely used for the
design of structural steelwork, it is hardly surprising that news of this
amendment was greeted with some trepidation among designers, many of whom
are very familiar with the recommendations of its predecessor BS 5950-1:
1990[2]. The Steel Construction Institute recognised that some guidance was
required during the period of transition, as designers familiarise themselves with
the content and layout of the amended Standard. This publication provides a
concise guide to the changes, together with advice on the implementation of the
revised Clauses.

1.2

Scope of this publication

The purpose of this publication is to guide designers through the major technical
amendments to BS 5950-1, by means of a short description of each important
change and simple worked examples. It is not a commentary to BS 5950-1:
2000 and does not, therefore, attempt to give the theoretical background to the
Clauses or any justification for the amendments. This publication is limited to
those Clauses from Sections 2 to 6 of BS 5950-1:2000 that have undergone a
major or significant technical amendment. Section 7 (which deals with testing)
and the Annexes are beyond the scope of this publication, as are the numerous
minor changes. For convenience, guidance on the modified Clauses has been
grouped together into five sections, with numbered headings matching those
used in BS 5950-1:2000. The numbered sub-sections do not correspond to the
Sub-sections in BS 5950-1:2000, but Clause numbers are stated in all cases.

1.3

Summary of the changes

The 2000 amendment to BS 5950-1 has affected almost every Clause in the
Standard to some extent, even though many of the changes are only editorial in
nature (i.e. the technical recommendations are unchanged).
Users of
BS 5950-1:2000 will notice immediately that the familiar two-column format has
been replaced with full-width pages, giving the impression that this is a
completely new document. This impression is reinforced by the renumbering of
many of the Clauses and the extensive re-drafting of much of the text.
1

Fortunately, this impression is deceptive and many of the technical requirements


are completely unchanged. Even where changes have been made to the values
and equations in the Standard, the majority of design procedures are the same as
in BS 5950-1:1990. However, there have also been a number of significant
technical changes and designers will need to familiarise themselves with several
new methods of design.
One of the most important changes is the extension of the scope of BS 5950-1 to
include cold formed structural hollow sections. The Steel Construction Institute
first recommended that BS 5950-1 could be used for design using cold formed
structural hollow sections in Advisory Desk article AD185[3] and offered advice
on how such sections could be designed using a Standard written principally for
hot rolled steel. These recommendations have now been incorporated into
BS 5950-1. However, designers must note that the inclusion of cold formed
structural hollow sections in BS 5950-1 does not mean that they can be used in
direct substitution for a similar-sized hot finished member, because there are
important differences between the two types of section in terms of section
properties and residual stresses. Designers wishing to substitute cold formed for
hot finished structural hollow sections must redesign the members using the
appropriate strut curves, d/t limits (for section classification) and section
properties. Other types of cold formed section should still be designed
according to BS 5950-5[4].
Within Section 2, important changes have been made to the rules for checking
the stability of all types of framed structure, including braced frames. All of
the stability rules, apart from those for portal frames, can now be found in
Clause 2.4.2, reducing the risk of the common misconception that only
continuous frames need be checked. In fact, most of the changes to this Clause
have been made to clarify the intent of the Standard and the technical
recommendations are largely unchanged. The rules for brittle fracture have also
been amended, resulting in a revised method for calculating the maximum
allowable thickness of steel. Compared with BS 59501:1990, the new
Standard includes a greater variety of details and temperatures (down to 45C).
Other changes to Section 2 include a few new load factors and changes to the
rules for structural integrity and disproportionate collapse.
In Section 3, numerous minor changes have been made to the limiting width-tothickness ratios used in the classification of cross sections, although the general
principle remains unchanged. By far the greatest change to Section 3 of
BS 5950-1 relates to the treatment of class 4 slender sections. BS 5950-1:2000
recommends the use of the effective-area method, in which the reduction in
capacity due to local buckling is allowed for by the use of effective section
properties, as an alternative to the conservative approach of reducing the
assumed design strength. Section 3 of BS 5950-1:2000 also introduces the
effective plastic modulus, Seff, which may be used instead of Z for class 3 semicompact sections (the use of Z is over-conservative in many cases).
Section 4, which deals with the design of structural members, has undergone
many significant changes, particularly in relation to members subject to
bending. The rules governing the design of both restrained and unrestrained
beams have been modified, although most of the changes will only affect the
design of class 3 semi-compact and class 4 slender beams. The only significant
change relevant to the design of Universal Beams under pure bending (which
are usually class 1 plastic or class 2 compact) is the removal of the n-factor
2

INTRODUCTION

1.1

Background

Since its introduction in 1985, BS 5950 Structural use of steelwork in building,


has gradually (although not completely) replaced BS 449 in the design office
and is now the established Standard for the design of steel-framed buildings in
the UK and several other countries. Part 1 of BS 5950 (referred to here as
BS 5950-1) is the Code of practice for design using rolled and welded sections.
It gives recommendations for the safe design of general building structures,
including the specification of the appropriate steel sub-grade, the classification
of sections, design for stability, the design of members subject to bending,
tension and compression, stiffener design and the design of column bases and
connections.
BS 5950-1 has undergone a major amendment, affecting the majority of the
Clauses to some extent. The revised Standard, BS 5950-1:2000[1], became
effective on 15 August 2001. Because this Standard is so widely used for the
design of structural steelwork, it is hardly surprising that news of this
amendment was greeted with some trepidation among designers, many of whom
are very familiar with the recommendations of its predecessor BS 5950-1:
1990[2]. The Steel Construction Institute recognised that some guidance was
required during the period of transition, as designers familiarise themselves with
the content and layout of the amended Standard. This publication provides a
concise guide to the changes, together with advice on the implementation of the
revised Clauses.

1.2

Scope of this publication

The purpose of this publication is to guide designers through the major technical
amendments to BS 5950-1, by means of a short description of each important
change and simple worked examples. It is not a commentary to BS 5950-1:
2000 and does not, therefore, attempt to give the theoretical background to the
Clauses or any justification for the amendments. This publication is limited to
those Clauses from Sections 2 to 6 of BS 5950-1:2000 that have undergone a
major or significant technical amendment. Section 7 (which deals with testing)
and the Annexes are beyond the scope of this publication, as are the numerous
minor changes. For convenience, guidance on the modified Clauses has been
grouped together into five sections, with numbered headings matching those
used in BS 5950-1:2000. The numbered sub-sections do not correspond to the
Sub-sections in BS 5950-1:2000, but Clause numbers are stated in all cases.

1.3

Summary of the changes

The 2000 amendment to BS 5950-1 has affected almost every Clause in the
Standard to some extent, even though many of the changes are only editorial in
nature (i.e. the technical recommendations are unchanged).
Users of
BS 5950-1:2000 will notice immediately that the familiar two-column format has
been replaced with full-width pages, giving the impression that this is a
completely new document. This impression is reinforced by the renumbering of
many of the Clauses and the extensive re-drafting of much of the text.
1

LIMIT STATES DESIGN

2.1

Load factors

Clause 2.4.1
BS 5950-1:2000 contains load factors for several new load combinations.
Values of f are now given for storage tanks (full and empty), earth and
groundwater loads, exceptional snow loads and various combinations of dead,
imposed, wind and crane loads. A new case of dead load whenever it
counteracts the effects of other loads has also been added, with f = 1.0, to
take account of the fact that in some cases the dead loads are actually beneficial
(similar to, but more general than, dead load when restraining sliding,
overturning or uplift in BS 5950-1:1990).
In addition, the load combinations that the designer must consider are now given
explicitly in the Code. Previously, these combinations were listed in Table 2
along with their f values, but there was no compulsion to consider any or all of
them (although it was assumed that competent designers would know that they
had to consider all load combinations to determine the worst case for their
buildings).
According to BS 5950-1:2000, the following principal load combinations need
to be considered:
For buildings without cranes:

Load combination 1 dead load and imposed load (gravity loads)

Load combination 2 dead load and wind load

Load combination 3 dead load, imposed load and wind load.

For buildings with overhead travelling cranes:

Crane combination 1 dead load, imposed load and vertical crane loads

Crane combination 2 dead load, imposed load and horizontal crane loads

Crane combination 3 dead load, imposed load, vertical crane loads and
horizontal crane loads.

In BS 5950-1:2000, the wind loading on outdoor overhead travelling cranes that


are not in operation is now obtained from BS 6399-2 instead of CP3. For all
cranes under working conditions, reference should be made to BS 2573-1.

2.2

Stability

Clause 2.4.2
The requirements for stability, which were previously contained in several
Clauses in different Sections of the Code, have been brought together into
Clause 2.4.2 in BS 5950-1:2000. The basic requirements have not changed, but
the entire Clause has been rewritten to clarify which checks are required and to
distinguish between the various modes of failure that are covered by the term

stability limit state. There have also been several technical changes to the
methods of analysis.
BS 5950-1:2000 recommends that structures be checked for the following:

Static equilibrium

Resistance to horizontal forces

Sway stiffness.

The requirement for static equilibrium, as set out in Sub-clause 2.4.2.2, is


simply that the most unfavourable realistic combination of the factored loads
should not cause the structure, or any part of it, to slide, overturn or lift off its
seating. This is similar to the recommendation in Sub-clause 2.4.2.2 in
BS 5950-1:1990, except that the emphasis used to be on overturning, with no
mention of sliding.
Sub-clause 2.4.2.3 outlines the requirements for providing resistance to
horizontal forces. The purpose of this Sub-clause is to ensure that designers
consider the possibility of incidental horizontal loads acting on the structure and
provide a practical level of robustness against their effects. This is particularly
important in cases where the structural actions are dominated by gravity loads
and there is a risk that the need to resist horizontal loading will be overlooked,
leaving the structure vulnerable to horizontal impact or other accidental loading.
In load combination 1, the gravity loads should be accompanied by the notional
horizontal forces (see Sub-clause 2.4.2.4) to allow for imperfections in the
structure. In load combinations 2 and 3, the structure should be designed to
withstand the horizontal wind loading, as in BS 5950-1:1990. However, in
BS 5950-1:2000, there is now a minimum wind load of 1% of the factored dead
load, to ensure that a minimum horizontal resistance is provided, even in cases
where the wind load is very small or non-existent. The important difference
between this minimum wind load and the notional horizontal force of 1% of the
factored dead load in BS 5950-1:1990 is that the notional horizontal forces are
not taken to contribute to the net reactions at the foundations, whereas the wind
loads are. In BS 5950-1:1990, it was possible to design a structure with no
allowance for horizontal foundation loads. In BS 5950-1:2000, this is no longer
possible, because the 1% of the dead load considered in load combinations 2
and 3 is carried through to the foundations.
The notional horizontal forces are not externally applied loads in the way that
the dead, imposed and wind loads are, but are a convenient means of taking into
account the effects of imperfections, such as columns being out of plumb, on
the performance of a structure. In reality, such imperfections exist in all
structures, causing lateral forces to be induced in the structure under the action
of gravity loads. For this reason, the notional horizontal forces must always be
applied simultaneously with the gravity loads. In BS 5950-1:1990, the notional
horizontal forces are taken as the greater of either 1% of the factored dead load
or 0.5% of the dead plus imposed vertical loads. In BS 5950-1:2000, the 1%
of factored dead load has been removed (except as a minimum wind load, see
above) and the notional horizontal force is always 0.5% of the dead plus
imposed vertical loads.
The final check in this Clause relates to the sway stiffness of the structure and
in particular whether it is safe for the second-order (P-delta) effects to be
5

neglected.
One significant change to this subject is that all of the
recommendations have now been placed together in this one Clause (in Subclauses 2.4.2.5 to 2.4.2.8). In BS 5950-1:1990, sway stiffness was only
referred to very briefly in Section 2, while the majority of the recommendations
was in Section 5, along with the rules for continuous construction. This gave
the impression that sway stiffness was only important in continuous structures
while, in reality, it is something for which all structures should be checked.
The degree of sway stiffness is obtained by applying the notional horizontal
forces at the floor or roof level under consideration and calculating the
deflection at this level relative to the storey below by elastic analysis. An
approximation to the sway mode elastic critical load factor of the frame cr is
then determined from
cr =

h
200

where h is the storey height.


For clad structures in which the stiffening effect of the cladding has been
neglected in the analysis, if cr 10, it is safe to assume that the second-order
effects are small enough to be ignored and the frame may be classed as nonsway.
If cr<10, the frame is classed as sway sensitive and the second-order effects
should be taken into account. Provided that cr 4, this may be achieved by
multiplying the sway effects by the amplification factor kamp, given by
kamp =

cr
1.15 cr 1.5

but

kamp

1.0

Unclad frames, or clad frames where the stiffening effect of the cladding is
taken into account, are always classed as sway sensitive, irrespective of the
value of cr. For these structures, the amplification factor kamp is given by
kamp =

cr
cr 1

If cr < 4, for either type of frame, the P-delta effects cannot be allowed for
adequately by the use of the amplification factor kamp and a second-order
analysis should be carried out. This rule is new to BS 5950-1:2000.
Note: 1. Where the resistance to horizontal forces is provided by momentresisting joints or by cantilever columns, an alternative procedure may
be used in which the sway mode in-plane effective lengths are used for
the columns (see Annex E) and the beams are designed to remain elastic
under factored loads.
2. The method described in this Clause should not be used for portal
frames (see Sub-section 5.5 of BS 5950-1:2000 for the appropriate
method for this case).
The procedure for analysing the stability of multi-storey frames is illustrated by
Worked Example 1 of this publication.

2.3

Brittle fracture

Clause 2.4.4
The method used to select the sub-grade of steel in order to avoid brittle
fracture has changed. This is a major technical change.
To prevent the sudden catastrophic collapse of a building without warning, it is
necessary to ensure that structural steelwork is resistant to brittle fracture.
Resistance to brittle fracture depends not only on the toughness of the steel
(expressed as a Charpy impact value at a specific test temperature), but also on
the actual temperature of the steel, the level of stress in it, the type of detail, the
rate of loading and the thickness of the element. BS 5950-1 expresses the
requirement for resistance to brittle fracture by giving a limiting thickness
(maximum) dependent on the material toughness and the service conditions.
This approach is essentially unchanged in BS 5950-1:2000, but the method by
which the maximum thickness is calculated has been modified.
In BS 5950-1:1990, for steel subjected to the normal UK minimum temperatures
of 5C and 15C for internal and external steelwork respectively, the
maximum thickness could be obtained directly from Table 4, for all of the
commonly used grades of structural steel. The effects of tensile stress and the
type of detail were taken into account by the use of the factor K, obtained from
Table 3. Alternatively, designers could use the empirical equation in Sub-clause
2.4.4.3 to calculate the required Charpy impact value at the minimum service
temperature for a particular thickness, yield strength and value of K.
Although the use of Table 4 in BS 5950-1:1990 had the advantage of being very
simple, it was limited to a minimum temperature of 15C and to the two
values of K given in Table 3. The method in Sub-clause 2.4.4.3 could be used
for any temperature (because it simply involved specifying a Charpy value at the
required temperature), but was still limited to the values of K in Table 3.
In BS 5950-1:2000, Table 4 has been extended to include lower temperatures of
25C, 35C and 45C, in addition to the usual internal and external
conditions. The steel grades have also been amended to bring the table into line
with the current product standards (e.g. S275JR and S275J0 to BS EN 10025).
Note that Table 4 only applies to plates, flats and rolled sections. For structural
hollow sections, reference should be made to Table 5.
Table 3 has also been expanded and now accommodates seven types of detail
and three levels of tensile stress. The result is a wide variety of K values,
compared with the two values in BS 5950-1:1990.
Such an expansion in the range of temperatures and K values would have
resulted in a very large, complicated Table 4, if the method had remained
unchanged. Consequently, in BS 5950-1:2000, Table 4 only gives maximum
thicknesses corresponding to K = 1 (denoted t1) and the maximum thickness for
any other value of K is given by
t

Kt1

Alternatively, t1 may be obtained from one of two empirical equations given in


this Clause. The temperature T27J referred to in these equations is the test
temperature for which a minimum Charpy impact value of 27 Joules is specified
in the appropriate product standard, or the equivalent value given in Table 7.
7

An additional limitation in BS 5950-1:2000 is that the maximum thickness of the


component should not exceed t2, as given in Table 6. This is the maximum
thickness at which the full Charpy impact value given in the product standard
applies.
The procedure for choosing a suitable steel sub-grade is illustrated by Worked
Example 2 of this publication.

2.4

Structural integrity

Clause 2.4.5
Clause 2.4.5, which deals with structural integrity and the avoidance of
disproportionate collapse, has been revised in line with the current Building
Regulations Approved Document A[5]. The principal changes are described
below.
In BS 5950-1:1990, it was stated that ties should be capable of carrying a
factored tensile load of not less than 75 kN at floor levels and 40 kN at roof
level. In BS 5950-1:2000, this requirement has been generally amended to
75 kN at all levels. However, there is no need to provide horizontal ties at roof
level if the steelwork carries only imposed roof loads, wind loads and cladding
that weighs not more than 0.7 kN/m2.
With regard to the avoidance of disproportionate collapse, the requirements of
the Building Regulations may be assumed to be satisfied if the five conditions
given in Sub-clause 2.4.5.3 are met. There have been two significant changes
to these conditions.
Firstly, there has been a relaxation in the tying force to be resisted when the tie
is a primary beam. The two equations for the tying force presented in
BS 5950-1:1990 (for internal and edge ties) are unchanged in BS 5950-1:2000,
but there is now an additional sentence which states that, in the absence of other
loading, the General tying condition may be assumed to be satisfied if the
member and its end connections are capable of resisting a tensile force equal to
its end reaction under factored loads (but not less than 75 kN). In the case of a
primary beam supporting secondary beams, the end reactions of the primary
beam under factored loads could be as little as half the tying force given by the
equation for internal ties.
The second change relates to column splices. According to BS 5950-1:1990,
column splices should be capable of resisting a tensile force of not less than
two-thirds of the factored vertical load applied to the column from the floor
level immediately below the splice. In BS 5950-1:2000, splices should be
designed for a tensile force equal to the largest factored vertical dead and
imposed load reaction, applied to the column at a single floor level, located
between the column splice under consideration and the next column splice
down.
In BS 5950-1:1990, where any of the five conditions was not met, the building
had to be checked at each storey to see whether any individual column, or beam
carrying a column, could be removed without causing collapse of more than a
limited proportion of the building. If it was found that the removal of a

member would result in disproportionate collapse, that member had to be


designed as a key element.
In BS 5950-1:2000, the test of removing one column at a time has been
restricted to cases where one or more of the first three conditions is not met
(those relating to tying of columns and continuity of columns). If condition d,
resistance to horizontal forces, is not met, disproportionate collapse should be
checked by removing each element of the bracing system in turn. In both cases,
disproportionate collapse is defined as the collapse of a portion of the building
exceeding 15% of the floor or roof area or 70 m2, whichever is less, at the
relevant level and at one level immediately above or below. As in BS 5950-1:
1990, if the removal of any member results in disproportionate collapse, that
member should be designed as a key element. In BS 5950-1:2000, all key
elements should be designed to withstand the accidental loading specified in
BS 6399-1.

PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS AND


SECTION PROPERTIES

3.1

Grades of steel

Clause 3.1.1
BS 5950-1 has been amended to take account of the introduction of the new
European product standards. Under these standards, all grades of structural
steel referred to in BS 5950-1:2000 conform to a common system of designation
as illustrated by the example:
BS EN 10025 S275
In this example, the first term is the product standard, the S stands for
structural and 275 means a minimum yield strength of 275 N/mm2 (for thickness
not exceeding 16 mm).
As a result of this change, reference is made to steel grades S275, S355 and
S460 throughout BS 5950-1:2000, in place of the old BS 4360 grades 43, 50
and 55.
As before, the design strength py depends not only on the grade of steel but also
on the thickness. Values of py are given in Table 9 (formerly Table 6) for three
common grades of structural steel and a range of thicknesses. This Table has
been expanded and now includes design strengths for 150 mm thick S275 and
S355 steel and two new thicknesses of S460 steel.

3.2

Section classification

Clause 3.5.2
The rules for section classification have undergone several technical changes,
although the general approach of using limiting width-to-thickness ratios is
unchanged.
In BS 5950-1:2000, the limiting width-to-thickness ratios used for section
classification are given in Table 11 for sections other than circular hollow
sections and rectangular hollow sections and Table 12 for circular hollow
sections and rectangular hollow sections. Although these tables are similar to
Table 7 in BS 5950-1:1990, several important changes have been made and
designers need to familiarise themselves with the revised layout of the tables.
Many of the limits have changed and several new categories of section type
have been introduced.
In BS 5950-1:2000, the classification of the web of an I, H or box section in
Table 11 or rectangular hollow sections in Table 12 depends on the level of
axial load in the member. This is achieved by the use of the stress ratios r1 and
r2 in determining the limiting d/t value. Formulae for r1 and r2 are given in
Clause 3.5.5 for three types of section.

10

It is important to recognise that this dependence on the level of axial load might
result in a section changing its classification as the axial load changes. For
example, consider the web of an I section with d/t = 79. When there is no
axial compression, the web is class 1 plastic (d/t < 80), but if there is a
compressive force equal to 20% of the squash load of the web (i.e. r1 = 0.2),
the section becomes class 3 semi-compact. For this reason, it is essential to
reclassify the web whenever there is a change to the axial load.
As a conservative alternative to the use of these ratios, the limit of 40, for
I sections, H sections, hot rolled rectangular hollow sections and box sections,
or 35, for cold formed rectangular hollow sections, may be used.

3.3

Effective plastic modulus

Clause 3.5.6
Clause 3.5.6 presents equations for calculating the effective plastic modulus,
Seff, which may be used as an alternative to the elastic section modulus Z for
class 3 semi-compact sections.
Unlike plastic or compact sections, semi-compact sections are not able to
develop their full plastic capacity because of local buckling. In BS 5950-1:
1990, this is allowed for by limiting the moment capacity to pyZ. However, in
many cases, this approach is conservative, because the moment capacity of a
semi-compact section can be anywhere between pyZ and pyS (i.e. above the
moment at first yield but below the fully plastic moment). In BS 5950-1:2000,
the moment capacity may be taken either conservatively as pyZ or more
accurately as pySeff. This new approach gives a less conservative result by
utilising the additional capacity beyond first yield, but it does involve
significantly more computational effort.
This Clause contains equations for Seff for I or H sections with equal flanges,
rectangular hollow sections and circular hollow sections. Two values of Seff are
given for each case. The first applies when the web is the critical element (i.e.
more slender) and the second applies when the flange is critical. Designers
wishing to use the new approach for I or H sections with unequal flanges,
subject to bending in the plane of the web, should refer to Annex H.3.

3.4

Slender cross sections

Clauses 3.6.1 to 3.6.6


The rules for slender cross sections have been changed to allow the use of
effective areas, as an alternative to the old approach of reducing the assumed
design strength. This is a major technical change with considerable implications
for designers.
A slender section is one in which the stress at the extreme compression fibre
cannot reach the design strength due to local buckling. Consequently, whenever
such sections are subjected to axial compression, bending or a combination of
the two, the effect of local buckling on the capacity of the section needs to be
taken into account.

11

In BS 5950-1:1990, the local buckling of slender sections was allowed for by


limiting the yield stress assumed in the design to such a level that the elements
of the cross section would not buckle. This approach is over-conservative,
especially for the case of Universal Beams used as columns, as the reduced
strength is applied to the whole cross section, even though it is often only the
web that is slender.
In BS 5950-1:2000, a new method is presented in which the reduction in
capacity due to local buckling is allowed for by using an effective area equal to
the semi-compact limit. This approach is valid for I sections, rectangular
hollow sections, angles, channels etc. but account must be taken of the shift in
the centroid where appropriate. Designers using this new approach will find
that, in many cases, the calculated section resistance is noticeably different from
that determined using the old design rules, often leading to greater economy.
However, designers are under no obligation to use this new method and, if they
prefer, may still use the reduced design strength, as described in Clause 3.6.5.
The analysis of doubly symmetric cross sections with class 4 slender elements is
considered in Clause 3.6.2. The effective area, Aeff, of such sections should be
determined from the effective cross sections shown in Figure 8a. The effective
section modulus, Zeff, should be obtained from Figure 8b, for sections whose
webs are not slender under pure bending (i.e. only the flanges are slender), and
from Figure 9, if the web is slender under pure bending.
The effective widths obtained from Clause 3.6.2 may also be used for class 4
slender singly symmetric and asymmetric cross sections, provided that account
is taken of the additional moments induced in the member due to the shift in the
centroid of the effective cross section compared with that of the gross cross
section. A method for calculating these moments is described in Clause 3.6.3.
Hot rolled equal-leg angles may be treated as asymmetric sections and analysed
using the method presented in Clause 3.6.3 or, alternatively, their effective
section properties Aeff and Zeff may be obtained from the simple but conservative
formulae given in Clause 3.6.4.
Formulae for the effective section properties of circular hollow sections are
given in Clause 3.6.6.

12

DESIGN OF STRUCTURAL MEMBERS

4.1

Members subject to bending

Clause 4.2.2
BS 5950-1:1990 stated that there is no need to consider the lateral-torsional
buckling of a member when full lateral restraint is provided. In BS 5950-1:
2000, resistance to lateral-torsional buckling can only be deemed adequate if, in
addition to full lateral restraint, there is also nominal torsional restraint at the
supports. Such restraint may be provided by web cleats, partial depth end
plates, fin plates or, in continuous beams, by the continuity with the next span.
Because all of these methods of restraint are common details in typical building
structures, designers should have no difficulty in complying with the amended
Clause. Nevertheless, this is a significant amendment.
Clause 4.2.5
Clauses 4.2.5 and 4.2.6 of BS 5950-1:1990, which deal with moment capacity
for the low shear and high shear cases respectively, have been merged so that
all of the expressions for moment capacity are now contained in a single Clause.
Several significant changes have been made and two new Sub-clauses have been
added covering notched ends and bolt holes.
In BS 5950-1:1990, the moment capacity for class 1 plastic or class 2 compact
sections with low shear (i.e. Fv 0.6Pv) was given by
Mc =

pyS

but

1.2pyZ

The limit of 1.2 pyZ at ultimate limit state corresponds to approximately 80% of
the elastic capacity of the section (i.e. 0.8 pyZ) at serviceability state and
ensures that the section remains elastic at the working loads, allowing for
residual stresses. If S $ 1.2Z, the 1.2 constant could be replaced by the ratio of
the factored load to the unfactored load.
In BS 5950-1:2000, the moment capacity of a class 1 or class 2 section with low
shear is still given by
Mc =

pyS

but Mc is now limited to 1.5pyZ generally and to 1.2pyZ for simply supported
beams and cantilevers.
In BS 5950-1:1990, the moment capacity of class 3 semi-compact sections with
low shear was given by
Mc =

pyZ

This equation is conservative, as it prevents any additional moment from being


carried above the point of first yield, despite the fact that some class 3 sections
have a significantly higher moment capacity. To allow this additional capacity
to be utilised, BS 5950-1:2000 includes the following alternative equation:
Mc =

pySeff

in which Seff is the effective plastic modulus, as defined in Clause 3.5.6.

13

This alternative approach requires greater computational effort compared with


the original method, because of the need to calculate Seff, but the reward for this
additional effort is a more efficient design, which utilises the sections elasticplastic capacity beyond the point of first yield, i.e. up to the limit dictated by
local buckling. Of course, designers may still wish to use the conservative
capacity based on the elastic modulus Z.
The moment capacity of class 4 slender sections with low shear was given in
BS 5950-1:1990 by
Mc =

pyZ

where py is the reduced design strength obtained using the appropriate reduction
factor from Table 8.
In BS 5950-1:2000, class 4 slender sections are designed using effective section
properties instead of reduced design strengths (see Sub-section 3.6) and,
consequently, the moment capacity of a class 4 section is now given by
Mc =

pyZeff

where Zeff is the effective section modulus as defined in Clause 3.6.2 and py is
the design strength. This change should result in an increase in the moment
capacity of slender sections, because the previous method of reducing the design
strength was over-conservative.
The high shear case (i.e. Fv > 0.6Pv) has also been revised. In BS 5950-1:
1990, the moment capacity was given as follows:
For plastic and compact sections:
Mc =
where 1

py(S Sv1)
=

but

1.2pyZ

2.5 Fv
1.5
Pv

For sections with equal flanges, Sv is the plastic modulus of the shear area Av.
For sections with unequal flanges, Sv is the plastic modulus of the gross section
less the plastic modulus of that part of the section remaining after the deduction
of the shear area.
For semi-compact and slender cross sections, the moment capacity was the same
as in the low shear case, i.e.
Mc =

pyZ

using a reduced py for slender sections. This was clearly wrong, as it neglected
the effects of high shear completely for class 3 and class 4 sections.
In BS 5950-1:2000, this error has been corrected and the new equations are as
follows:
For class 1 plastic or class 2 compact sections:
Mc =

py(S Sv)

For class 3 semi-compact sections:


Mc =

py(Z Sv / 1.5)

or

14

Mc =

py(Seff Sv)

For class 4 slender sections:


Mc =

py(Zeff Sv / 1.5)

In all three equations:

[2 (Fv / Pv) 1]2

Note: Although the moment capacity equation for class 1 plastic and class 2
compact sections is unchanged, the expression for is different in BS 5950-1:
2000.
The design of restrained beams is illustrated by Worked Example 3 of this
publication.

4.2

Lateral-torsional buckling

Clause 4.3.5
Clauses 4.3.5 and 4.3.6 of BS 5950-1:1990 have been merged to form
Clause 4.3.5 of BS 5950-1:2000. This new Clause covers the effective lengths
of both simple beams and cantilevers for lateral-torsional buckling. A number
of important changes have been made and a new Sub-clause on double curvature
bending has been added.
Clause 4.3.5 of BS 5950-1:1990 dealt specifically with the effective lengths of
simple beams. Most of these requirements are unchanged, although the text has
been completely rewritten. However, there have been amendments to the
effective length values given in Table 13 (formerly Table 9).
Firstly, a new symbol LLT, standing for segment length, has been introduced to
distinguish this dimension from the member length L. The segment length is
the length between restraints, whether these are intermediate restraints or
supports.
Secondly, several new restraint conditions have been added to the Table,
allowing designers to model their structures more accurately. These are
compression flange fully restrained against rotation on plan and compression
flange partially restrained against rotation on plan. Note that the effective
lengths of a beam with lateral and torsional restraint at one end and both flanges
partially restrained against rotation on plan at the other end have been reduced
to 0.8LLT and 0.95LLT for the normal and destabilising loading conditions
respectively.
Clause 4.3.6 of BS 5950-1:1990 considers the effective lengths of cantilevers.
The content of this Clause has undergone several significant changes, with
important implications for the design of these members.
The first change relates to cantilevers with intermediate lateral restraints. In
BS 5950-1:1990, the lengths between restraints were treated as beams and their
effective lengths obtained accordingly using the provisions of Clause 4.3.5. In
BS 5950-1:2000, provided that the cantilever is restrained laterally and
torsionally at both ends (i.e. cases c4 and d4 in Table 14), an effective length of
1.0L is given for the normal loading condition, where L is the length of the
relevant segment between adjacent lateral restraints.
However, for the
15

destabilising loading condition, the effective length should be obtained from


Table 14. In this case, L is taken as the length of the cantilever, unless the
there are intermediate lateral restraints to the top flange.
Secondly, the rules for determining the effective length of cantilevers without
intermediate restraints are unchanged (i.e. LE obtained from Table 14), apart
from the case where the cantilever has a moment applied to its tip. BS 5950-1:
1990 deals with such moments by treating the cantilever as a beam, as for
cantilevers with intermediate restraints. In BS 5950-1:2000, the effective length
is obtained from Table 14 then increased by either 30% or 0.3L, whichever is
greater. The effective length values in Table 14 of BS 5950-1:2000 are
unchanged from those given in Table 10 of BS 5950-1:1990, except that a new
category of restraint has been added.
Finally, the new Clause 4.3.5 contains a new Sub-clause on the subject of
beams with double curvature bending. This Sub-clause has been added to
emphasise that special consideration needs to be given to beams that have both
hogging and sagging regions.
Design rules are given for beams with
intermediate lateral restraints to each flange, beams with intermediate lateral
restraints to the compression flange in the sagging region only and beams
directly supporting a concrete or composite floor or roof slab.
Clause 4.3.6
Clause 4.3.6 contains the design rules, tables and equations needed to calculate
the buckling resistance moment Mb of unrestrained beams susceptible to lateraltorsional buckling. Although the general method is unchanged from that in
BS 5950-1:1990, there have been a number of significant changes to the
individual steps in the procedure. Overall, this Clause has undergone a major
technical amendment.
The Clause begins by listing the situations in which there is no need to check
for lateral-torsional buckling. These are:

bending about the minor axis

circular hollow sections, square rectangular hollow sections or circular or


square solid bars

rectangular hollow sections when LE/ry does not exceed the limiting value
from Table 15

I, H, channel or box sections when LT

L0.

The first of these cases was not listed explicitly in BS 5950-1:1990, but this is
not a technical change, because lateral-torsional buckling occurs about the minor
axis as a result of major axis bending. The second and third cases were noted
in BS 5950-1:1990, but the table of limiting slenderness values for rectangular
hollow sections has been extended to include 12 values of D/B, compared with
the four values given in Table 38 in Appendix B.2.6 of BS 5950-1:1990. In the
final case, L0 is the limiting slenderness obtained from the last row of Table 16
or Table 17. The inclusion of the L0 values in these tables is new to
BS 5950-1:2000, although a formula for L0 was included in Appendix B.2.5 of
BS 5950-1:1990.

16

Every segment length of an unrestrained beam, subject to a major axis moment


Mx, should satisfy the following conditions:
Mx

Mb / mLT

and
Mx

Mcx

where:
Mcx

is the moment capacity of the section from Clause 4.2.5

Mb

is the buckling resistance moment

mLT

is the equivalent uniform moment factor for lateral-torsional buckling,


which takes account of the fact that the theory from which Mb is
obtained assumes a uniform moment throughout the segment.

These requirements are unchanged from BS 5950-1:1990, although they have


been rewritten and there is no longer any reference to the equivalent uniform
moment M .
Except for hot rolled angles, which are considered in Clause 4.3.8, the buckling
resistance moment Mb may be obtained either using the conservative method
described in Clause 4.3.7 or from the expressions below.
For class 1 plastic or class 2 compact cross sections:
Mb =

pb Sx

For class 3 semi-compact cross sections:


Mb =

pb Zx

or

Mb =

pb Sx,eff

For class 4 slender cross sections:


Mb =

pb Zx,eff

In BS 5950-1:1990, Mb was taken as pbSx irrespective of the classification of the


cross section. This was based on the false assumption that lateral-torsional
buckling and local buckling do not interact.
The term pb in these equations is the bending strength and is obtained from
Table 16 for rolled sections and Table 17 for welded sections, for given values
of design strength py and equivalent slenderness LT. These tables are equivalent
to Table 11 and Table 12 in BS 5950-1:1990 and have been amended to include
new columns corresponding to different values of py and a new row containing
values of the limiting slenderness L0. In all other respects, these tables are
unchanged.
Designers familiar with BS 5950-1:1990 will recall that there used to be two
approaches to analysing lateral-torsional buckling, one using the slenderness
correction factor n (for loading between lateral restraints), the other using the
equivalent uniform moment factor m (for cases with end moments only). In
BS 5950-1:2000, there is a major change in that the n factor method has been
removed from this Clause, leaving the latter method to be used for all cases (n

17

is still used for tapered or haunched members in Annex B.2.5). Consequently,


the equation for LT has changed.
In BS 59501:1990, LT was given by
LT =

nuv

where:

is the minor axis slenderness LE / ry

is a buckling parameter

is a slenderness factor.

In BS 5950-1:2000, LT is now given by


LT =

uv W

where W is the ratio of section moduli, as described below.


For class 1 plastic or class 2 compact sections:
w =

1.0

For class 3 semi-compact cross sections:


w =

Zx / Sx

or w =

Sx,eff / Sx

For class 4 slender sections:


w =

Zx,eff / Sx

The slenderness ratio, v, for sections with two plain flanges, may be obtained
from Table 19 for various values of /x and where x is the torsional index of
the section and is given by

I yc

I yc + I yt
where Iyc and Iyt are the minor axis second moments of area of the compression
flange and tension flange respectively.
The only difference between Table 19 in BS 5950-1:2000 and its equivalent in
BS 5950-1:1990, is that the two columns at either end of the range, i.e. those
corresponding to = 1.0 and = 0.0 (T sections), have been deleted. In
BS 5950-1:2000, designers wishing to use T sections must instead refer to
Annex B.2.8.
As an alternative to Table 19, the slenderness ratio v may be obtained from the
equations in Sub-clause 4.3.6.7. In BS 5950-1:1990, similar expressions could
be found in Appendix B.2.5.
The buckling parameter u and torsional index x may be obtained from the
formulae in Annex B.2.3 (B.2.5 in BS 5950-1:1990) or from published tables of
section properties. Alternatively, for rolled I and H sections with equal flanges,
the following conservative approximations may be used:
u

0.9

and

=
18

D/T

Sub-clause 4.3.6.8 has not been affected by the recent amendments, other than
the change in Sub-clause number.
As noted above, the two approaches to analysing lateral-torsional buckling in
BS 5950-1:1990 have been replaced by a single method using the equivalent
uniform moment factor mLT. Previously, for the normal loading condition, if a
member was loaded between adjacent lateral restraints, m was taken as 1.0 and
the appropriate value of n was obtained from Table 15 or Table 16. If the
member was not loaded between its restraints, n was taken as 1.0 and m was
obtained from Table 18. Thus, the allowance for the shape of the bending
moment was made using either the n factor or the m factor, depending on the
location of the loading, but never both. The change in BS 5950-1:2000 to the
use of mLT for all cases has necessitated a substantial extension to Table 18.
In BS 5950-1:1990, m values were provided for segments with end moments
only, i.e. only linear variations in bending moment were considered. In
BS 5950-1:2000, values are also given for four specific cases with transverse
loads applied between restraints and a general formula is provided from which
mLT may be obtained for more complex bending moment diagrams.
Note:
1. Slight changes have been made to the values of mLT for segments with
end moments only, compared with those in BS 5950-1:1990.
2. BS 5950-1:2000 distinguishes between mLT, the equivalent uniform
moment factor for lateral-torsional buckling, and mx, my, myx, the
equivalent uniform moment factors for flexural buckling. Values of mLT
are obtained from Table 18, while values of mx, my, myx are given in
Table 26.
The design of unrestrained beams is illustrated by Worked Example 4 in this
publication.
Clause 4.3.7
Clause 4.3.7 gives a simple but conservative alternative approach to the method
presented in Clause 4.3.6 for determining the buckling resistance moment of a
plain rolled I, H or channel section with equal flanges. There have been two
changes to this method compared with BS 5950-1:1990.
Firstly, in BS 5950-1:1990, Mb was taken as pbSx irrespective of the
classification of the cross section. This was based on the false assumption that
lateral-torsional buckling and local buckling do not interact. This has been
corrected in BS 5950-1:2000, in which Mb is only taken as pbSx if the section is
class 1 plastic or class 2 compact and is taken as pbZx for class 3 semi-compact
sections.
The second change relates to the table of pb values (Table 20 in BS 5950-1:
2000 and Table 19 in BS 5950-1:1990). In BS 5950-1:1990, pb was given as a
function of x (= D/T) and the slenderness (= LE/ry), whereas in BS 5950-1:
2000, pb is given in terms of D/T and w L E / ry . However, the numbers in
Table 20 are unchanged, so for all class 1 and class 2 sections, for which
w = 1, there will be no change at all to pb, or indeed Mb.

19

Clause 4.3.8
Clause 4.3.8, which deals with the buckling resistance moment for single
angles, has been revised resulting in a new basic method and a significant
change to the existing simplified method.
In BS 5950-1:1990, the calculation of the buckling resistance moment for single
angles was very straightforward, as it simply involved one of the following
equations:
Mb =

0.8pyZ for L / rvv 100

Mb =

0.7pyZ for L / rvv 180

Mb =

0.6pyZ for L / rvv 300

where:
rvv

is the radius of gyration about the v-v axis

is the unrestrained length.

This simple approach has been shown to be non-conservative for some cases
(for low L / rvv) and has been replaced in BS 5950-1:2000 by two alternative
methods.
The first method, known as the basic method in BS 5950-1:2000, is
applicable to equal and unequal angles and involves resolving the applied
moments into their components about the principal axes u-u and v-v. The
buckling resistance moment should then be obtained using an equivalent
slenderness LT obtained from Annex B.2.9.
The second method, referred to as the simplified method, provides a simple
alternative to the basic method, but it is only applicable to equal angles with
b / t 15. In this case, the buckling resistance moment is given by
Mb =

0.8pyZx

when the heel of the angle is in compression or


Mb =

1350 L E rv
pyZx
but
1625

0.8pyZx

when the heel of the angle is in tension.

4.3

Plate girder webs

Clause 4.4.4
If the web of a plate girder is susceptible to shear buckling (i.e. d / t > 62),
the moment capacity of the cross section should be obtained using one of the
methods given in Sub-clause 4.4.4.2.
BS 5950-1:1990 presented three alternative methods of analysis. The first
option was to assume that the moment and axial load are resisted by the flanges
alone, leaving the web to resist only the shear force. In the second method, the
moment and axial load are assumed to be resisted by the whole section and the
web is designed for shear and longitudinal stresses, using the method in H.3.
The third method was a combination of the first two.
20

The methods presented in BS 5950-1:2000 are similar, except that there is now
an additional option for low shear. Where the applied shear is no greater than
60% of the simple shear buckling resistance obtained from Sub-clause 4.4.5.2,
it is acceptable to obtain the moment capacity using the rules given in
Clause 4.2.5. Where the applied shear exceeds 60% of the simple shear
buckling resistance, the moment capacity should be obtained either by assuming
that all of the moment is resisted by the flanges or by using the rules in H.3 to
design the web for the applied shear plus any moment beyond the flanges
only moment capacity. These two high shear methods are essentially the same
as methods a and c in BS 5950-1:1990.
BS 5950-1:2000 also contains a new Sub-clause relating to axial loads. This
states that where a member is subject to an axial load combined with a moment,
reference should be made to the design rules in Clauses 4.8.1 to 4.8.3. In this
case, when using the flanges only method, it should be assumed that the
moment and the axial force are both resisted by the flanges alone, with each
flange subject to a uniform stress not exceeding pyf.
Clause 4.4.5
Clause 4.4.5, which considers the shear buckling of plate girder webs, has been
rewritten for clarity and replaces the over-conservative simple method with the
one used in BS 449. This is a major technical change.
Clause 4.2.3 of BS 5950-1:1990 states that if the d / t ratio of a web exceeds
63, the shear buckling resistance of the web should be checked in accordance
with Clause 4.4.5. In BS 5950-1:2000, this limit has been replaced by two new
limits: 62 for a welded section and 70 for a rolled section.
BS 5950-1:1990 and BS 5950-1:2000 both present two alternative methods for
calculating the shear buckling resistance of a web. The first method, known in
BS 5950-1:2000 as the simplified method, does not allow for the beneficial
effects of tension field action and may be used for webs with or without
intermediate stiffeners. The second method, referred to as the more exact
method in BS 5950-1:2000, does make use of tension field action and its use is
restricted to webs with intermediate transverse stiffeners. For webs with
longitudinal stiffeners, or as an alternative for webs with intermediate transverse
stiffeners, reference should be made to BS 5400-3[6].
The simplified method in BS 5950-1:2000 is very similar to the Design
without using tension field action in BS 5950-1:1990, although the two
methods give slightly different results.
In BS 5950-1:1990, the shear buckling resistance, Vcr, of a stiffened or
unstiffened panel is given by:
Vcr =

qcr dt

where:
d

is the depth of the web

is the web thickness

qcr is the critical shear strength from Table 21.

21

In BS 5950-1:2000, the shear buckling resistance Vb of a web is taken as the


simple shear buckling resistance Vw given by:
Vw =

dtqw

where:
d

is the depth of the web

is the web thickness

qw is the shear buckling strength of the web from Table 21.


While these two methods may appear to be identical, apart from the choice of
symbols, they give different results because the values of qw in Table 21 of
BS 5950-1:2000 are not the same as the values of qcr in Table 21 of BS 5950-1:
1990.
In the more exact method, the difference between the two versions of
BS 5950-1 is more apparent.
In BS 5950-1:2000, if the flanges are fully stressed, the shear buckling
resistance, Vb, equals the simple shear buckling resistance, Vw, given by:
Vw =

dtqw

If the flanges are not fully stressed, Vb is taken as the sum of the simple shear
buckling resistance, Vw, and the flange-dependent shear buckling resistance, Vf,
i.e.
Vb

Vw + Vf

where Vf is given by
Vf

Pv d / a

1 f / p
f
yf

1 + 0.15 ( M pw / M pf )

where:
ff

is the mean longitudinal stress in the smaller flange due to moment


and/or axial force

Mpf is the plastic moment capacity of the smaller flange about its own
equal area axis perpendicular to the plane of the web
Mpw is the plastic moment capacity of the web about its own equal area axis
perpendicular to the plane of the web
Pv

is the shear capacity from Clause 4.2.3

pyf is the design strength of the flange


pyw is the design strength of the web.
By comparison, in BS 5950-1:1990, the shear buckling resistance of a stiffened
panel is given by:
Generally:
Vb

qb dt

22

If the flanges are not fully stressed:


Vb

( qb + qf

K f dt

but 0.6pydt

where:
qb

is the basic shear strength obtained from Table 22

qf

is the flange-dependent shear strength factor from Table 23

Kf

is a factor given by
Kf

M pf
1 f
4 M pw
p yf

(The f term here has the same meaning as ff defined above.)


Note that the basic shear strength qb used in the design of stiffened panels, using
tension field action, is higher than the critical shear strength qcr used when
designing panels without tension field action, giving a higher value of Vb, even
when the flanges are fully stressed. By contrast, in BS 5950-1:2000, both
methods use qw and therefore yield exactly the same result in the case of fully
stressed flanges.
The tension field action induced in the plate girder web produces a horizontal
anchor force, Hq, at the end of the girder, as shown in Figure 4.1.

Hq

Figure 4.1

Tension field action in a plate girder

It is generally necessary to provide an end anchorage to resist this horizontal


force, however BS 5950-1:2000 gives the following two cases when an end
anchorage is not necessary:
1. If the shear capacity, rather than the shear buckling resistance, is the
governing design criterion, i.e. Vw = Pv.
2. If sufficient shear buckling resistance is available without forming a
tension field. The existence of this condition is indicated by:
Fv

Vcr

where Vcr is the critical shear buckling resistance and Fv is the maximum
shear force. Vcr may be obtained from Annex H.2 or using the formulae in
this Clause.
These exemptions are new to BS 5950-1:2000.

23

Note that the provisions dealing with the design of the end anchorage, which
used to be in Clause 4.4.5, have been moved to Annex H.4 in BS 5950-1:2000.
The design of plate girders is illustrated by Worked Example 5 in this
publication.

4.4

Design of stiffeners

Clause 4.5.1
Clause 4.5.1 considers the design of web bearing and buckling stiffeners. Subclause 4.5.1.3, which deals with the stiff bearing length, has been amended and
Sub-clause 4.5.1.5, on the subject of hollow sections, has moved to this Clause
from Clause 4.5.12. In other respects, the technical content of this Clause is
unchanged.
In BS 5950-1:1990, the stiff bearing length b1 (i.e. the length that cannot
deform appreciably in bending) was calculated by taking the angle of load
dispersion through the steel to be 45 (see Figure 8 of BS 5950-1:1990).
BS 5950-1:2000 also assumes a load dispersion of 45, but there is no longer a
need to analyse the geometry of the section, because b1 may be obtained directly
from the formulae given in Figure 13.
Clause 4.5.12 of BS 5950-1:1990 is now Sub-clause 4.5.1.5 in BS 5950-1:
2000. There is an additional sentence referring designers to a design procedure
given in Steelwork Design Guide to BS 5950-1:2000, Volume 1: Section
Properties and Member Capacities[7] but the general requirements for the design
of hollow sections subject to concentrated loads are unchanged.
Clause 4.5.2
The provisions in BS 5950-1 relating to the bearing capacity of an unstiffened
web have been revised.
In BS 5950-1:1990, the bearing capacity of an unstiffened web was given by
(b1 + n2)tpyw
where:
b1

is the stiff bearing length (see Clause 4.5.1)

n2

is the length obtained by dispersion through the flange to the flange/


web connection at a slope of 1 in 2.5

is the web thickness

pyw is the design strength of the web.


In BS 5950-1:2000, the bearing capacity of an unstiffened web is given by
Pbw =

(b1 + nk)tpyw

where n is taken as follows:

except at the end of the member:


n

at the end of the member:


n

2 + 0.6 be / k, but n
24

where be is the distance to the end of the member from the end of the stiff
bearing.
k is given by:

for a rolled I or H section:


k

T+r

for a welded I or H section:


k

T.

Therefore, in BS 5950-1:2000, the bearing capacity of an unstiffened web


depends on the proximity of the end of the stiff bearing to the end of the
member, whereas in BS 5950-1:1990, the bearing capacity was always
determined assuming a dispersion of 1:2.5 across the flange thickness.
Where the applied load or reaction exceeds the bearing capacity of the
unstiffened web, bearing stiffeners should be provided. These should be
designed to carry the applied force minus the bearing capacity of the unstiffened
web. This requirement is unchanged from BS 5950-1:1990.
The bearing capacity of a web is considered in Worked Example 6 of this
publication.
Clause 4.5.3
The provisions in BS 5950-1 relating to the buckling resistance of an unstiffened
web and the design of load-carrying stiffeners have been revised.
In BS 5950-1:1990, the buckling resistance of an unstiffened web was given by
Pw =

(b1 + n1)tpc

where:
b1

is the stiff bearing length

n1

is the length obtained by 45 dispersion through half the depth of the


section

is the web thickness

pc

is the compressive strength obtained from Table 27c.

In BS 5950-1:2000, the buckling resistance of the web, Px, is obtained directly


from the bearing capacity, Pbw, and the geometry of the section. There is no
longer a need to refer to the strut curve (i.e. Table 24c) in BS 5950-1:2000.
Three equations are presented for Px, depending on the restraint of the flange
and the location of the applied load relative to the end of the member.
If the loaded flange is effectively restrained against rotation relative to the web
and against lateral movement relative to the other flange, Px, is given by:
When ae 0.7d:
Px

25t

(b1 + nk ) d

Pbw

25

When ae < 0.7d:


Px

a e + 0.7 d
1.4d

25t

(b1 + nk ) d

Pbw

where:
ae

is the distance from the applied load or reaction to the end of the
member

is the depth of the web

Pbw is the bearing capacity of the unstiffened web obtained from


Clause 4.5.2
n

is a dispersion factor obtained from Clause 4.5.2

is taken as follows:

for a rolled I or H section:


k

T+r

for a welded I or H section:


k

If one or both of the restraint conditions given above is not met, a reduced
buckling resistance must be used given by
Pxy =

0.7 d
Px
LE

In BS 5950-1:1990 and BS 5950-1:2000, the buckling resistance of a loadcarrying stiffener is given by


Px

As pc

where:
As

is the effective area of a cruciform section, consisting of the stiffeners


and an effective width of web on each side of the centreline of the
stiffeners

pc

is the compressive strength from Table 27c in BS 5950-1:1990 or


Table 24c in BS 5950-1:2000.

The important change here is that in BS 5950-1:1990 the effective width on


each side of the stiffener was taken as 20t, whereas in BS 5950-1:2000 it is
limited to 15t. In other respects, the buckling check for a load-carrying
stiffener is unchanged.
Perhaps more importantly, BS 5950-1:1990 also included a bearing check for
load-carrying stiffeners (Sub-clause 4.5.4.2). This stated that load-carrying
stiffeners should be designed to resist 80% of the total applied force,
irrespective of the capacity of the unstiffened web, i.e.
A>

0.8 Fx
p ys

26

where:
A

is the area of the stiffener in contact with the flange

Fx

is the applied load

pys is the design strength of the stiffener.


As a result of the reduction in the effective width of the web from 20t to 15t,
this bearing check has been removed from BS 5950-1:2000. This is a key
change because, in most practical cases, the size of the stiffeners was governed
by this rule. There is still a requirement to check the bearing capacity, as
BS 5950-1:2000 states that load-carrying stiffeners should also be checked as
bearing stiffeners. However, this requirement is not as onerous as the previous
80% rule, because bearing stiffeners are only designed to carry the external load
minus the bearing capacity of the unstiffened web, not the full external load.
The buckling resistance of a web is considered in Worked Example 6 in this
publication.
Clause 4.5.4
Clause 4.5.4 (formerly Clause 4.5.7) has been expanded to provide greater
detail on the design of tension stiffeners. Two cases are presented for which
tension stiffeners are provided and a separate method of design is given for each
case.
If the applied load or reaction exceeds the tension capacity of the unstiffened
web at its connection to the flange, the tension stiffener should be designed to
carry that portion of the load which exceeds the tension capacity of the
unstiffened web. If, on the other hand, tension stiffeners are needed because
the applied load or reaction exceeds the tension capacity of the unstiffened
flange, the proportion of the load assumed to be carried by the stiffener should
be consistent with the design of the flange. This latter case was not considered
in BS 5950-1:1990.

4.5

Tension members

Clause 4.6.3
New formulae have been introduced for calculating the tension capacity of a
simple tie consisting of an angle connected through one leg only, a channel
connected only through the web, or a T section connected only through the
flange.
In BS 5950-1:1990, the tension capacity of a single angle, a single channel or a
T section was calculated using an affective area equal to the net area of the
connected leg plus the area of the outstanding leg multiplied by
3a1
3a1 + a 2

where a1 is the net cross-sectional area of the connected leg and a2 is the crosssectional area of the unconnected leg.
In BS 5950-1:2000, the tension capacity, Pt, for single angles, channels or T
sections with bolted connections is given by
27

Pt

py(Ae 0.5a2)

and for welded connections by


Pt

py(Ag 0.3a2)

in which Ae is the sum of the effective net areas ae (see Clause 3.4.3), Ag is the
gross area of the cross section and
a2

Ag a1

where a1 is the gross area of the connected element.


The reason for this change is that the formulation in BS 5950-1:1990 is nonconservative for grade S460 steel. The 3a1 / (3a1 + a2) factor was derived from
tests on mild steel and allows for the effects of eccentricity and strain
hardening, assuming Us / Ys to be the same for all grades of steel. In
BS 5950-1: 2000, eccentricity and strain hardening are considered separately, by
first calculating the effective area in Clause 3.4.3 (multiplying the net area by
Ke) then using the formulae in this Clause to allow for eccentricity.
Consequently, compared with BS 5950-1:1990, there has been an increase in
capacity for S275, a small decrease for S355 and a significant decrease for
S460. For welded angles, there is a very small decrease in capacity for all
grades of steel.
Similarly, there are two new formulae for double angle, channel and T section
members, where the components are connected to both sides of a gusset plate
and are interconnected by bolts or welds. In this case, the tension capacity for
bolted connections is given by
Pt

py(Ae 0.25a2)

and for welded connections by


Pt

py(Ag 0.15a2)

Note: If the components of the tie are both connected to the same side of the
gusset plate or are not interconnected as described above, the member should be
treated as if it were a single angle, channel or T section.

4.6

Compression members

Clause 4.7.1
An additional paragraph has been added to Clause 4.7.1 giving the design
loading for bracing systems. As with the intermediate restraints for lateraltorsional buckling (see Clause 4.3.2), bracing systems that supply positional
restraint to more than one member must be designed to resist the sum of all of
the individual restraint forces from each member reduced by the factor kr, given
by
kr

(0.2 + 1 / Nr)0.5

where Nr is the number of parallel members restrained.


Clause 4.7.2
Sub-clause 4.7.3.2 of BS 5950-1:1990 gave maximum slenderness values for
different types of member. These have now been removed as it was felt that
the limits presented in the Code were not universally applicable and in many
28

cases were inappropriate, leading to the rejection of perfectly acceptable


members. However, it is important for designers to recognise that there may
still be practical limits on the slenderness of a member, for example to limit sag
due to self-weight, and these must be considered carefully.
One additional requirement is that it is now necessary to increase by 20% the
slenderness of single-angle struts that have lateral restraints to their two legs
alternately.
Clause 4.7.4
The means by which the compression resistance of members with slender cross
sections is calculated have changed, resulting in the removal of the anomalies
leading to the over-conservative design of slender cross sections, such as
Universal Beams used as columns.
In BS 5950-1:1990, the compression resistance Pc of a member with a slender
cross section was given by
Pc

Ag pcs

where:
Ag

is the gross cross-sectional area of the section

pcs is the reduced compressive strength based on the slenderness and the
reduced design strength pyr.
In BS 5950-1:2000, the recommended method for slender cross sections uses
effective areas equal to the semi-compact limits, instead of a reduced design
strength (see Sub-section 3.6 for details). Consequently, the compression
resistance Pc of a member with a slender cross section is now given by
Pc

Aeff pcs

where Aeff is the effective area obtained from Sub-section 3.6 and pcs is the
compressive strength based on the design strength py and a reduced slenderness
of
A
eff
Ag

0.5

The design of compression members is illustrated by Worked Example 7 in this


publication.
Clause 4.7.5
Changes have been made to Table 23 (formerly Table 25) regarding the choice
of strut curve for different types of section and to Table 24 (formerly Table 27)
from which the compressive strength pc is obtained.
The most significant change to this Clause is the inclusion of cold formed
structural hollow sections in BS 5950-1:2000, for which Table 24c should be
used for buckling about both axes. In addition, changes have been made to the
choice of strut curve for rolled I sections. In BS 5950-1:1990, the compressive
strength pc of all rolled I sections about the major and minor buckling axes was
obtained from Table 24a and Table 24b respectively. In BS 5950-1:2000, the

29

use of Table 24a and Table 24b is limited to sections with a maximum thickness
not exceeding 40 mm. Table 24b and Table 24c should be used for rolled I
sections with a maximum thickness greater than 40 mm. This change also
applies to rolled I sections with welded flange cover plates within the range
0.25 < U / B < 0.8 (see Figure 14 of BS 5950-1:2000).
The strut curves themselves are unchanged, although the range of design
strengths in Table 24 has been amended. Compressive strengths pc for py values
of 225 N/mm2, 305 N/mm2, 320 N/mm2, 340 N/mm2, 395 N/mm2, 415 N/mm2
and 450 N/mm2 have been deleted and replaced by values corresponding to
design strengths of 235 N/mm2, 315 N/mm2, 345 N/mm2, 400 N/mm2,
440 N/mm2 and 460 N/mm2. In addition, a few of the other pc values have
been revised slightly, although the majority is unchanged.
No technical changes have been made to the text of this Clause, but much of it
has been rewritten, with Figure 14 in BS 5950-1:2000 replacing Table 26 in
BS 5950-1:1990.

4.7

Combined moment and axial force

Clause 4.8.3
Clause 4.8.3 deals with members that are subject to combined compression and
bending. It has undergone a major technical change.
The capacity of a member subject to combined compression and bending is
dependent on the local cross-section capacity and the overall buckling resistance
of the member. This Clause contains checks for both of these modes of failure.
Although both checks have been amended, only the overall buckling check has
undergone a major change.
BS 5950-1:1990 presented two alternative methods for checking buckling
resistance. In the simplified method, the following relationship had to be
satisfied:
mM y
mM x
F
+
+
1
Ag p c
Mb
py Z y
where:
F

is the applied axial force

Ag

is the gross cross-sectional area

pc

is the compressive strength

is the equivalent uniform moment factor

Mb is the buckling resistance moment


Mx is the applied moment about the major axis
My is the applied moment about the minor axis
py

is the design strength

Zy

is the elastic section modulus about the minor axis.

30

Alternatively, designers could opt for the more exact method by satisfying the
following relationship:
mM x mM y
+
1
M ax
M ay
in which Max and May are the maximum buckling moments about the major and
minor axes respectively in the presence of axial load.
BS 5950-1:2000 also presents designers with the option of using either a
simplified or a more exact approach. In the case of the simplified approach, the
single equation in BS 5950-1:1990 has been replaced by the following two
expressions:
Fc m x M x m y M y
+
+
1
Pc
py Z x
py Z y
my My
Fc
m M
+ LT LT +
1
Pcy
Mb
py Z y
In applying these equations, the following points need to be noted.
1. In the first term of the first equation, Pc is the smaller of the
compression resistance for buckling about the major axis Pcx and the
compression resistance for buckling about the minor axis Pcy. However, in
the second equation, Pcy is always used, whether it is smaller than Pcx or
not.
2. In the second term of the second equation, MLT is used in place of Mx.
MLT is the maximum major axis moment in the segment length between
restraints against lateral-torsional buckling.
3. The equivalent uniform moment factor m used in BS 5950-1:1990 has
been replaced by mx, my and mLT. mLT is the equivalent uniform moment
factor for lateral-torsional buckling for the pattern of major axis moments
over the segment length LLT. It is obtained from Table 18. mx and my are
the equivalent uniform moment factors for flexural buckling about the
major and minor axis respectively. Both are new and are obtained from
Table 26 using the appropriate moment pattern between the relevant
flexural buckling restraints.
4. For cantilever columns and members in sway sensitive frames,
BS 5950-1:2000 includes the following special requirements:
a. If sway mode in-plane effective lengths are used, mx and my
should not be less than 0.85.
b. If amplified-sway moments are used, only the non-sway moment
should be multiplied by mx or my, compared with the total (sway +
non-sway) moment in BS 5950-1:1990.
The more exact approach has undergone an even more radical change, with the
original single equation being replaced by sixteen new ones, seven for I and H
sections, nine for circular hollow sections, rectangular hollow sections and box
sections. Separate equations are given for members with moments about the
major axis only, members with moments about the minor axis only and
31

members with moments about both axes. There are typically two or three
equations for each type of loading. For example, an I section member with
moments about both axes should be checked for major axis buckling, lateraltorsional buckling and interactive buckling.
Note: In BS 5950-1:1990, the more exact method could, in theory, be used for
any type of section, whereas in BS 5950-1:2000, this method is clearly limited
to circular hollow sections, rectangular hollow sections, I sections, H sections
and box sections with equal flanges.
In addition to the major amendments to the buckling resistance checks described
above, a minor change has also been made to the cross-section capacity check,
to take account of the new method for dealing with class 4 slender sections. In
BS 5950-1:2000, the following two equations are given for checking the crosssection capacity:
(a) For class 1 plastic, class 2 compact and class 3 semi-compact cross sections
My
Fc
M
+ x +
1
Ag p y M cx M cy
(b) For class 4 slender cross sections
My
Fc
M
+ x +
1
Aeff p y M cx M cy
where Aeff is the effective area obtained from 3.6.
In BS 5950-1:1990, only the first of these two equations was given and the
reduced capacity of slender sections was taken into account by the use of a
reduced py.
As before, BS 5950-1:2000 presents an alternative method for class 1 plastic
and class 2 compact sections, based on the reduced moment capacities Mrx and
Mry. This method is unchanged from BS 5950-1:1990.
Note: Designers of members with combined compression and bending should
also refer to Annex I. This new Annex contains an alternative method for
stocky members (I.1), formulae for Mrx and Mry (I.2), alternative interaction
expressions for asymmetric members (I.3), design methods for single angles
(I.4) and a method for evaluating internal second-order moments (I.5).
The design of members subject to combined compression and bending is
considered in Worked Example 8 in this publication.

4.8

Column bases

Clause 4.13.2
The empirical method for determining the size of baseplates in BS 5950-1:1990
has been replaced by the effective-area method in BS 5950-1:2000.

32

In BS 5950-1:1990, the minimum thickness of a symmetrical rectangular


baseplate, for a concentrically loaded column, was taken as the greater of the
flange thickness of the column and the result of the following empirical formula:
t

2.5
w a 2 0.3b 2

p
yp

0.5

where:
a

is the greater projection of the plate beyond the column

is the lesser projection of the plate beyond the column

is the pressure on the underside of the plate based on a uniform


distribution ( 0.4 fcu)

pyp is the design strength of the plate (but 270 N/mm2).


Since the publication of BS 5950-1:1990, doubt has been raised as to the
validity of this method, especially for columns with a large depth / width ratio.
In fact, The Steel Construction Institute has advised designers that this empirical
method should not be used for bases to Universal Beams.
The effective-area method is an alternative general design method for use in
designing baseplates subject to concentric loads. This method was first
introduced in Joints in Simple Construction Volume 1: Design Methods and
has since become the standard method of baseplate design in the UK. The
effective-area method has now been adopted by BS 5950-1:2000, but other
rational approaches are also permitted.
In the effective-area method, it is assumed that the applied load is uniformly
distributed over part of the baseplate, with the remainder of the area being
considered ineffective. The extent of the projection of the plate, beyond the
edge of the column, is based on the area required to keep the bearing pressure
below the limiting bearing strength of 0.6fcu, where fcu is the weaker of the
concrete cube strength and that of the bedding material. Effective areas for
typical columns are shown in Figure 4.2.

2c + T
2c + T

Figure 4.2

2c + T
Effective portion

Effective area of a baseplate

33

Stiffener

The shaded areas in the figure represent the minimum size of the plate required
to keep the bearing pressure within the necessary limit. In practice, the overall
size of the plate can be made larger, for instance to utilise rounded dimensions
or to accommodate holding down bolts.
Limiting the moment in the baseplate to the elastic moment capacity, the
thickness of the plate is obtained using
tp

c(3w / pyp)0.5

where c is the largest perpendicular distance from the edge of the effective
portion of the baseplate to the face of the column.
This method is based on the assumption that the load is applied to the baseplate
from a concentric column. If this is not the case, the moment resulting from
the eccentricity of the axial load should be calculated and must not exceed pypZp,
where Zp is the elastic section modulus of the baseplate. This is a change from
BS 5950-1:1990, in which the maximum allowable moment in the baseplate was
1.2 pypZp.
There are three further technical changes relating to the design of baseplates.
Firstly, the bearing strength of the concrete is taken as 0.6fcu in BS 5950-1:
2000, instead of 0.4fcu in BS 5950-1:1990. This change has been made in the
light of new research and brings BS 5950-1 into line with the recommendations
in Joints in Simple Construction Volume 1: Design Methods[8].
Secondly, the rule limiting the design strength of the plate pyp to 270 N/mm2 has
been removed, allowing designers to take advantage of the stronger grades of
steel, such as S355, if they wish. Finally, in BS 5950-1:1990, the thickness of
the baseplate could not be less than the thickness of the column flange. This
limit has been removed from BS 5950-1:2000.
In addition to the changes described above, three new Sub-clauses have been
added to this Clause. Sub-clause 4.13.2.3 deals with applied moments and
states that if moments are applied to the baseplate by the column, the moments
in the baseplate should be calculated assuming a uniform pressure not exceeding
0.6fcu under the effective portion of the compression zone. This moment should
not exceed pypSp, where Sp is the plastic modulus of the baseplate.
Sub-clause 4.13.2.4 reminds designers that, where moments are applied to the
base of the column, holding down bolts need to be checked for tension.
Finally, Sub-clause 4.13.2.5 gives guidance on the design of stiffened
baseplates.
The design of column baseplates is illustrated by Worked Example 9 in this
publication.

34

CONTINUOUS STRUCTURES

5.1

Column bases

Clause 5.1.3
Clause 5.1.3, which considers the stiffness of column bases, has been expanded
with a few technical changes.
In both versions of BS 5950-1, where the column has a nominally rigid base,
the base stiffness is assumed to equal the column stiffness for the purposes of
elastic analysis. However, BS 5950-1:2000 states that the base may be treated
as rigid, when determining the deflections at the serviceability limit state.
BS 5950-1:2000 also considers plastic global analysis, stating that the base
moment capacity may be taken as any value between zero and the moment
capacity of the column, provided that the foundation is designed to resist a
moment equal to this assumed moment capacity. This new requirement
recognises the fact that in rigid-plastic analysis it is the capacity, not the
stiffness, that governs the design.
For elastic-plastic analysis, the assumed base stiffness should be consistent with
the assumed moment capacity, but should not exceed the stiffness of the
column.
According to BS 5950-1:1990, the base stiffness of a column with a nominally
pinned base is assumed to be equal to 10% of the column stiffness. In
BS 5950-1:2000, this value of 10% is still correct when checking frame stability
and determining in-plane effective lengths, but an increased value of 20% of the
column stiffness may now be used when calculating deflections. While this is
new to BS 5950-1:2000, it has been common practice in industry for a number
of years, following the publication of SCI Advisory Desk article AD 090[9].
BS 5950-1:2000 also considers semi-rigid bases, stating that a base stiffness of
up to 20% of the column stiffness may be assumed provided that the capacity of
the foundation is adequate. As before, the stiffness of a base with an actual pin
or a rocker should be taken as zero.

5.2

Frame stability

Clause 5.2.3
Clause 5.2.3 has been extended to include several new requirements relating to
plastic analysis. In addition, the entire Clause has been rewritten with a few
minor technical changes. The most important additions and changes are
summarised below.
BS 5950-1:2000 states that the in-plane stability of the members of a frame
designed using plastic analysis should be established by checking the stability of
the frame as a whole. For single-bay portal frames, there is no need to perform
a separate check on the in-plane stability of the individual members. This has
always been the case, but was not made clear in BS 5950-1:1990. However, a

35

separate member stability check is required for the internal columns of multibay portals and the rafters of tied portals.
Sub-clause 5.2.3.5 (formerly Clause 5.3.4) has been extended significantly to
include guidance on members with non-uniform cross sections. It is now stated
that the compression flange adjacent to a plastic hinge location should be class 1
plastic for a distance along the member of at least twice the depth of the web or
the distance to the point at which the bending moment has fallen to 80% of the
plastic moment capacity, whichever is greater. It is also stated that the web
thickness adjacent to a plastic hinge location is not reduced for a distance of at
least twice the depth of the web at the plastic hinge location.
Two new Sub-clauses have been added: Sub-clause 5.2.3.6 limits the area of
bolt holes at or adjacent to a plastic hinge location; Sub-clause 5.2.3.8 simply
states that haunches should be proportioned to avoid plastic hinges forming
within their length.
Clause 5.3.1
Clause 5.3.5 of BS 5950-1:1990, which deals with the out-of-plane stability of
continuous frames, has been divided into Clauses 5.3.1, 5.3.2 and 5.3.3 in
BS 5950-1:2000. Clause 5.3.1 provides a general introduction to out-of-plane
stability.
The most significant change to this Clause is that designers are now permitted to
check the resistance of a member or segment to out-of-plane buckling using the
forces and moments corresponding to the required load factor r, instead of the
plastic load factor p, whenever p is greater than r. This may be achieved
either by multiplying the moments and forces from plastic analysis by the ratio
r / p or by determining the forces and moments at r directly using elasticplastic analysis. Previously, some designers had used the reduced loads, while
others had argued that the collapse loads had to be used. BS 5950-1:2000 has
now clarified this matter.
Clause 5.3.3
Clause 5.3.3 considers the length of a segment adjacent to a plastic hinge and
has been extended to include a modification to the existing method to allow for
the moment gradient.
In BS 5950-1:1990, the distance from the restraint at a hinge to an adjacent
restraint was limited to the value given by:
Lm =

38ry
f
c
130

py x 2

+
36
275

0.5

where fc is the average compressive stress due to the axial load, py is the design
strength, ry is the radius of gyration about the minor axis and x is the torsional
index.
In BS 5950-1:2000, this approach is still valid. However, the designer now has
the option of making an approximate allowance for the moment gradient by
multiplying the limiting length by the factor .
36

Note: This new method should only be used for uniform I section members with
equal flanges and D/B 1.2, in S275 or S355 steel where fc does not exceed
80 N/mm2.

5.3

Portal frames

Clause 5.5.2
Clause 5.5.2 has been expanded to give greater guidance on the elastic design of
portal frames, something that was lacking in BS 5950-1:1990.
Unless the frame is independently braced, the in-plane stability should be
verified by checking the cross-section capacity and out-of-plane buckling
resistance of the members using amplified moments and forces, taken as the
values given by linear elastic analysis multiplied by the required load factor r.
Note the use of r in BS 5950-1:2000. In plastic design, r is the required value
of the plastic collapse factor p, while in elastic design it is a factor by which
the first-order forces and moments are multiplied to allow for second-order
effects. Where second-order effects are negligible, r will usually be equal to 1.
However, where second-order effects are significant, r will be greater than 1.
For portal frames, r is obtained from Clause 5.5.4.
Clause 5.5.4
Clause 5.5.4, which considers the in-plane stability of portal frames, has
undergone several major technical changes.
The first major change to this Clause relates to the sway-check method in
Sub-clause 5.5.4.2. Research conducted during the drafting of BS 5950-1:2000
demonstrated that this method is only valid when the frame geometry lies within
certain limits. Consequently, in BS 5950-1:2000, the use of the sway-check
method is restricted to frames that satisfy the following conditions:
1.

The span L does not exceed 5 times the mean height of the columns.

2. The height hr of the apex above the tops of the columns does not
exceed 0.25L.
3. If the rafter is asymmetric, hr satisfies (hr / sa)2 + (hr / sb)2
Figure 18 in BS 5950-1:2000).

0.5 (see

There were no such limitations on the use of this method in BS 5950-1:1990.


The sway-check method involves calculating the horizontal deflection at the top
of each column, i, due to the application of the notional horizontal forces. In
the gravity load case, it can be assumed that it is safe to neglect the P-delta
effects altogether and take r equal to 1, so long as i does not exceed hi / 1000,
where hi is the height of that column. This is unchanged from BS 5950-1:1990.
However, BS 5950-1:2000 states that the use of the stiffening effects of the
cladding should be ignored when calculating the notional horizontal deflections
i for the gravity load case.
As an alternative to calculating the sway deflections, the stiffness of the frame
may be assessed using the formula given in Sub-clause 5.5.4.2.2. This formula
was derived for regular frames with columns at every valley and with the roof
37

load as the only imposed load. Thus, the application of this method is restricted
to frames that are not subject to loads from valley beams, crane gantries or
other concentrated loads (other than the standard purlin loads). This method, as
presented in BS 5950-1:2000, is almost identical to that in BS 5950-1:1990,
except that the formula for the effective span of the bay Lb has changed.
One major addition to this Clause is the extension of the sway-check method to
consider load cases including horizontal loading, separate from the gravity load
case. The P-delta effects can never be neglected under horizontal loading and
must always be taken into account when designing portal frames for load
combinations 2 and 3. Provided that the frame has satisfied the sway check for
the gravity load case, r for the horizontal loading is given by:
r

sc
( sc 1)

sc is an approximation to the elastic critical buckling factor for the sway mode
and is obtained from
sc =

hi
200 i

where hi is the storey height and i is the horizontal deflection at the top of each
column due to the application of the appropriate notional horizontal forces for
the load case under consideration.
As in the gravity case, provided that the frame is not subject to loads from
valley beams, crane gantries or other concentrated loads larger than the purlin
loads, there is a formula that may be used as an alternative to calculating i. In
this case, the formula allows the direct calculation of sc without the need to
perform an elastic analysis of the frame under the notional horizontal forces.
Note:
1. When calculating the deflections for the horizontal load cases, the sway
stiffness of the plan bracing and roof sheeting may be included.
However, it should be remembered that certain sheeting types offer very
little shear stiffness and the original sheeting may be replaced during the
life of the structure.
2. The sway-check method is not applicable when sc < 5.0.
cases, second-order analysis must be used.

In such

The method for checking the snap-through stability of portal frame rafters is
almost unchanged from BS 5950-1:1990, but designers should note that there has
been a minor, yet important, change to the formula as shown below.
1990:

22( 4 + L / h
Lb
I c 275


1
+
tan 2 r

D
I r p yr
( 1)

2000:

22( 4 + L / h
Lb
1 + I c

D
Ir
4 ( 1)

38

275

tan 2 r
pyr

Where the geometrical limitations for the sway-check method are not satisfied,
BS 5950-1:2000 provides an alternative means of allowing for the P-delta
effects, known as the amplified-moments method. This method, which is
applicable to all portal frames, requires the accurate calculation of the elastic
critical load factor cr (the approximate formula given in Clause 2.4.2 must not
be used for this purpose). In this case, cr should be taken as the lowest elastic
critical load factor for the bare frame, without any allowance for the stiffening
effects of the cladding, because the 0.9 factor (see below) already allows for
cladding stiffness and strain hardening.
Once the lowest value of cr has been obtained for the load case under
consideration, r is determined as follows:
if cr 10:

r = 1.0

if 10 > cr 4.6:

r =

0.9 cr
cr 1

This method is new to portal frame design in BS 5950-1:2000, but the same
method did exist in BS 5950-1:1990 for plastic design of multi-storey frames.
If cr < 4.6, the amplified-moments method must not be used and the in-plane
stability of the frame should be checked by second-order analysis. It is
recommended that such analysis be performed by computer software, but where
such software is not available, hand calculation is possible and advice is given
in In-plane stability of portal frames to BS 5950-1:2000[10]. Where second-order
analysis is used, r should be taken as 1.0. It is expected that second-order
analysis will usually be more economical than the amplified-moments method
and will often allow design of more slender frames than the sway-check method.
Tied portals cannot be treated in the same way as normal portal frames, because
they tend to have very high axial forces in their rafters. This is recognised in
BS 5950-1:2000 by the introduction of a new Sub-clause specifically for this
type of frame. This Sub-clause simply states that the in-plane stability of tied
portals should be checked by second-order analysis with r taken as 1.0.

5.4

Multi-storey frames

Clause 5.6.4
Clause 5.6.4, which considers the elastic design of sway-sensitive multi-storey
frames, has been amended in line with the changes to Clause 2.4.2 regarding
stability. These are significant technical changes.
Sway-sensitive frames should initially be designed to resist gravity loads, as for
independently braced frames, without taking account of sway. For this purpose,
pattern loading must be considered. A separate check should then be carried
out in the sway mode, by applying the notional horizontal forces, together with
the gravity loads. In this case, pattern loading is not required. Sway sensitive
frames should also be checked in the sway mode for load combinations 2 and 3.
As in BS 5950-1:1990, the effects of sway may be allowed for either by the
effective-length method (Annex E) or the amplified-sway method, but with
several differences as outlined below.

39

When the effective-length method is used, BS 5950-1:2000 states that the beams
should be designed to remain elastic, which is a slightly different limit to 90%
of its reduced moment capacity in Appendix E of BS 5950-1:1990.
If the elastic critical load factor cr is less than 10, the frame is classed as
sway-sensitive (see Clause 2.4.2) and the second-order sway effects should
either be determined directly by second-order analysis or taken into account by
modifying the first-order effects.
In BS 5950-1:1990, the amplified-sway method involved the multiplication of
the sway effects by an amplification factor given by
cr
cr 1

BS 5950-1:2000 contains a similar method, but there have been three significant
changes.
Firstly, there are now two alternative expressions for the amplification factor:
1. For clad structures where the stiffening effect of the cladding is not
taken into account:
kamp =

cr
1.15 cr 1.5

but

kamp 1.0

2. For unclad frames or clad frames where the stiffening effect of the
cladding is taken into account:
kamp =

cr
cr 1

Secondly, BS 5950-1:2000 places a lower limit on the use of the amplified-sway


method of cr = 4. If cr < 4, the amplification of the first-order results is not
an acceptable means of dealing with the P-delta effects and a second-order
analysis should be carried out. No such limit was placed on the amplified-sway
method in BS 5950-1:1990.
Finally, in BS 5950-1:1990, when the amplified-sway method was used, the
effective length of the columns in the plane of the frame was taken as 1.0L.
BS 5950-1:2000 recommends the use of the non-sway mode in-plane effective
lengths obtained from Annex E. This approach gives effective lengths that are
less than 1.0L.
Clause 5.7.3
Clause 5.7.3 presents a simple check for the stability of plastically designed
multi-storey frames that may be used as an alternative to the elastic methods
described in Sub-section 5.6 or second-order elastic-plastic analysis. This check
is identical to the method given in BS 5950-1:1990, but the following three
additional conditions have been placed on its use:

40

The bases of the columns should be fixed.

It should be ensured that no localised beam or storey-height plastic hinge


mechanisms can form at a lower load factor than the overall frame
mechanism.

The storey height of the frame should nowhere exceed the mean spacing of
its columns in that storey.

If cr < 4.6 for clad structures in which the effect of the cladding is not taken
into account, or cr < 5.75 for unclad frames or clad structures in which the
effect of the cladding is taken into account, the simplified method cannot be
used and the frame stability must be checked either by elastic analysis or
second-order elastic-plastic analysis.
BS 5950-1:2000 does not propose the use of concrete casing of the steel frame
to increase the value of cr.

41

CONNECTIONS

6.1

Bolted connections

Clause 6.2.4
Clause 6.2.4 introduces the concept of block shear failure and provides a simple
method for ensuring that this failure mode is avoided.
Several examples of block shear failure are shown in Figure 6.1.

Fr

Fr
Lv

Lv

Lt
Lv

Lt

Lt
Lv

Fr

Lt
Fr

Figure 6.1

Block shear

In each case, failure occurs in shear along the line of bolts parallel to the
applied force and, simultaneously, in tension along a perpendicular face. This
mode of failure results in a block of material, represented by the shaded area in
each example above, being torn out by the applied shear force, hence the name
block shear failure.
To avoid block shear failure, BS 5950-1:2000 states that it should be checked
that the reaction force Fr does not exceed the block shear capacity Pr given by
Pr

0.6pyt [Lv + Ke(Lt kDt)]

where Dt is the hole size for the tension face, t is the thickness, the dimensions
Lt and Lv are as shown in Figure 6.1 and k has the following values:
For a single line of bolts parallel to the applied shear, k = 0.5
For two lines of bolts parallel to the applied shear, k = 2.5.
Clause 6.3.2
Clause 6.3.2 has undergone three significant changes: new values for the shear
strength of bolts, a new Sub-clause on packing and a new Sub-clause on kidneyshaped slots.
In BS 5950-1:1990, Table 32 gave the shear strength, bearing strength and
tension strength of grade 4.6 and grade 8.8 bolts and formulae for the strength
of other grades. In BS 5950-1:2000, this Table has been replaced by three new
42

Tables: Table 30 for shear strength, Table 31 for bearing strength and Table 34
for tension strength.
Table 30 in BS 5950-1:2000 contains several new shear strength values for
grade 10.9 and HSFG bolts that were not previously considered explicitly. In
addition, the formula for other grades has changed from 0.48Uf, but no
greater than 0.69Yf, in BS 5950-1:1990 (where Uf and Yf are the specified
minimum ultimate tensile strength and the specified minimum yield strength
respectively) to 0.4Ub in BS 5950-1:2000 (where Ub is the specified minimum
tensile strength of the bolt). Note that Ub is limited to 1000 N/mm2 in
BS 5950-1:2000.
A new Sub-clause, 6.3.2.2, has been added on the subject of steel packing.
This states that the total thickness of the packing tpa at a shear plane should not
exceed 4d / 3, where d is the nominal diameter of the bolts. In addition, the
number of plies should preferably not exceed four. For cases where the total
packing thickness exceeds d / 3, the full shear capacity (Ps = ps As) cannot be
used and a reduced shear capacity should be calculated using
Ps

9d
As
8d + 3t pa

The second new Sub-clause, 6.3.2.4, deals with kidney-shaped slots. It states
that where a connection has two bolts, one in a standard clearance hole and one
in a kidney-shaped slot, the shear capacity of each bolt should be taken as
0.8Ps, i.e. 80% of the shear capacity for a standard clearance hole.
Clause 6.3.3
Clause 6.3.3 has been expanded to give improved guidance on the bearing
capacity of connections using non-preloaded bolts. In assessing the bearing
capacity of a connection, it is necessary to consider the bearing capacity of the
bolt and the bearing capacity of the connected parts. Both are considered in this
Clause, but only the latter has undergone a significant change.
In BS 5950-1:1990, the bearing capacity of a connected ply was taken as
Pbs =

dtpbs

0.5etpbs

where:
d

is the nominal diameter of the bolt

is the end distance

is the thickness of the connected ply

pbs is the bearing strength of the connected ply, from Table 33.
In BS 5950-1:2000, this formula has been modified by the introduction of a new
coefficient, kbs, which takes into account the shape of the bolt holes. The
bearing capacity of the connected part is now given by
Pbs =

kbsdtp pbs but

Pbs

0.5kbsetp pbs

where pbs is obtained from Table 32.


Provided that the size of the holes does not exceed the dimensions given in
Table 33, the following values of kbs should be used:
43

for standard clearance holes:

kbs = 1.0

for oversized holes:

kbs = 0.7

for short slotted holes:

kbs = 0.7

for long slotted holes:

kbs = 0.5

for kidney-shaped slots:

kbs = 0.5.

Where standard clearance holes are used, this change has no effect whatsoever
on the bearing capacity of the connected parts. However, for all other types of
holes, the bearing capacity has been reduced greatly compared with BS 5950-1:
1990 (a 30% reduction for oversized holes and short slotted holes and a 50%
reduction for long slotted holes and kidney-shaped slots). This is a very
significant change.
Note:
1. Some of the values of pbs given in Table 32 have been amended slightly
(although not for steel grades S275 and S355).
2. BS 5950-1:2000 gives standard hole dimensions for non-preloaded bolts
(Table 33) and preloaded bolts (Table 36). Previously, values were
only given for preloaded bolts (Table 35 in BS 5950-1:1990).
The bearing capacity of the bolt, Pbb, is unchanged from BS 5950-1:1990 and is
given by
Pbb =

dtp pbb

where pbb is the bearing strength of the bolt obtained from Table 31.
Although the formula is unchanged, the range of pbb values has been expanded
and now includes grade 10.9 and HSFG bolts, in addition to the usual
grades 4.6 and 8.8. There have also been a few minor changes to some of the
pbb values. Note that Ub is limited to 1000 N/mm2 in BS 5950-1:2000.
Clause 6.3.4
Clause 6.3.4 has been amended to allow the full tensile strength of the bolts to
be used in cases where prying is either avoided or allowed for explicitly in the
analysis. This is a major technical change.
In BS 5950-1:1990, there was no need to consider explicitly the effects of
prying, so long as the tension strengths given in Table 32 were used. This was
possible because these strengths had already been reduced to take account of
prying. While this approach was very straightforward, it could also be
conservative, because the same strengths had to be used for every case,
irrespective of whether the connection was subject to significant prying or not.
In BS 5950-1:2000, designers have the choice either to continue with the
previous method and use reduced bolt strengths, or to use an alternative method
in which the prying forces are calculated and allowed for explicitly in the
analysis. If the latter option is chosen, designers may use the full tension
strengths of the bolts as given in Table 34 of BS 5950-1:2000. Both methods
are outlined below.

44

More exact method


Consider the two situations shown in Figure 6.2.
2Ft

Ft

2Ft

Ft + Q

Ft

M1

M1

a) Single curvature bending

Figure 6.2

Ft + Q

M1

M1

M2

M2

b) Double curvature bending

Prying in bolted connections

In the first example, the connection is subject to single curvature bending and
there is no prying force. In this case, each bolt is designed for a tension force
equal to Ft, using a bolt tension capacity based on the tension strength pt from
Table 34. The method in BS 5950-1:1990 was clearly conservative in this case,
as it made an allowance for prying even though there was none. The new
approach is less conservative, because it allows the use of the full tension
strengths from Table 34, instead of the reduced tension strengths in Table 32 of
BS 5950-1:1990.
In the second example, the connection is subject to double curvature bending
and the applied tension 2Ft induces a prying force Q at either end of the plate or
flange as it bends under the applied load. Consequently, the total tension in
each bolt is Ft + Q, denoted in BS 5950-1:2000 by Ftot.
Designers wishing to take advantage of the full tension capacity of the bolts
must calculate Q and design each bolt for the total tension Ftot. In this case,
although the tension capacity is greater than before, the tension in each bolt has
also increased. The overall effect will depend on the magnitude of the prying
force relative to the applied tension.
Simple method
In the simple method, the prying force is neglected and the bolt force is simply
taken as equal to Ft. However, in this case, the full tension capacity of the
bolts cannot be used and, instead, the connection must be designed so that Ft
does not exceed the nominal tension capacity of the bolt given by
Pnom = 0.8ptAt
There are two conditions on the use of the simplified method.
Firstly, this method should only be used if the cross-centre spacing of the bolt
holes, s, does not exceed 55% of the width of the flange or end-plate, as shown
in Figure 6.3.

45

s 0.55B

s
B

Figure 6.3

Maximum cross-centres of bolt lines for the simple method

This is to ensure that the prying force is kept within the limits allowed for by the
use of 0.8pt in the calculation of the nominal tension capacity. A cross-centre
spacing greater than 0.55B may result in a prying force in excess of that allowed
for in the simplified method, making this method unsafe. In such circumstances,
the prying forces must be taken into account explicitly by using the more exact
method.
Secondly, where the connected part is designed assuming double curvature
bending, the moment capacity of the connected part per unit width should be
based on the elastic capacity rather than the plastic capacity (i.e. the moment
capacity per unit width should be taken as pytp2/6, where tp is the thickness of the
connected part and py is its design strength).
Note that Ub is limited to 1000 N/mm2 in BS 5950-1:2000 (Table 34).
Clause 6.4.3
BS 5950-1:1990 recommended that the slip factor should either be obtained
from tests as specified in BS 4604 or, in the case of general grade fasteners in
connections with untreated surfaces, could be taken as 0.45. This placed
designers in the awkward situation of not being able to calculate the slip
resistance in their connections without first conducting tests.
In BS 5950-1:2000, this situation has been rectified by the inclusion of
Table 35, which contains a range of values for different surface conditions.
Alternatively, may still be obtained from tests as specified in BS 4604.
Clause 6.4.5
In BS 5950-1:1990, it was stated that all preloaded bolts subject to combined
shear and tension should satisfy the following relationship:
Fs
F
+ 0.8 t
PsL
Pt

where:
Fs

is the applied shear

Ft

is the external applied tension

46

PsL is the slip resistance


Pt

is the tension capacity.

In BS 5950-1:2000, this relationship has been replaced by two new expressions.


For connections designed to be non-slip in service:
Fs
Ftot
+
PsL
1.1Po

and for connections designed to be non-slip under factored loads:


Fs
Ftot
+
PsL
0.9 Po

where:
Ftot is the total applied tension in the bolt, including the prying force
Po

is the specified minimum preload.

Note that the tension force in these new expressions is Ftot, the total tension in
the bolt, not Ft, the applied tension. The difference is that Ftot includes the
effects of prying, which may be allowed for explicitly in BS 5950-1:2000 (see
Clause 6.3.4). By contrast, BS 5950-1:1990 allowed for prying implicitly, by
reducing the tension capacity of the bolts.

6.2

Pin connections

Clause 6.5.3
Changes have been made to the methods of calculating the shear capacity,
bearing capacity and moment capacity of pins. In each case, the single
expression in BS 5950-1:1990 has been replaced by two expressions in
BS 5950-1:2000. The choice of expression depends on whether the pin is
required to rotate and whether it needs to be removable.
In BS 5950-1:1990, the shear capacity of a pin was given as 0.6pypA, where pyp
is the design strength of the pin and A is its cross-sectional area. In BS 5950-1:
2000, the shear capacity remains as 0.6pypA if rotation is not required and the
pin is not intended to be removable. However, if rotation is required or if the
pin is intended to be removable, a new lower value of 0.5pypA should be used.
The bearing capacity of a pin was given in BS 5950-1:1990 as 1.2pydt, where d
is the diameter of the pin, t is the thickness of the connected part and py is the
lower of the design strengths of the pin and the connected part. In BS 5950-1:
2000, the bearing capacity of a pin that is neither required to rotate nor to be
removable has increased to 1.5pydt. However, if the pin is required to rotate or
is intended to be removable, a lower value of 0.8pydt must be used.
A similar change has been made to the moment capacity, which used to be
taken as 1.2pypZ, where Z is the elastic modulus of the pin. In BS 5950-1:
2000, the moment capacity may now be taken as 1.5 pypZ if rotation is not
required and if the pin is not intended to be removable, but should be taken as
1.0 pypZ if rotation or the removal of the pin is required. This effectively
allows the plastic moment capacity of a pin to be developed if the pin does not
47

rotate, but restricts bending to first yield if the pin does rotate or is intended to
be removable.
In addition, there has been a change relating to the assumptions on which the
bending calculations are based. According to BS 5950-1:2000, the moments on
the pin should be calculated on the basis that the connected parts form simple
supports. It should also be assumed that the reactions between the pin and the
connected parts are distributed uniformly along the length in contact on each
part. However, as an alternative, if the thickness of one or more of the
connected parts exceeds that needed to provide sufficient bearing capacity, it
may be assumed that the reactions are distributed over reduced contact lengths
adjacent to the interfaces, based upon the minimum thickness needed to provide
sufficient bearing capacity. This alternative did not exist in BS 5950-1:1990.

6.3

Welded connections

Clause 6.8.5
BS 5950-1:1990 stated that where a member is connected to a plate by a
symmetrical fillet weld, the strength of the weld can be taken as equal to the
strength of the parent metal, if the following conditions are satisfied:
1. The weld is made with a suitable electrode that will produce all weld
tensile specimens as specified in BS 709, having both a minimum yield
strength and a minimum tensile strength not less than those specified for the
parent material.
2. The sum of the throat sizes is not less than the connected plate
thickness.
3. The weld is principally subject to direct compression or tension.
In BS 5950-1:2000, this rule has been deleted, leaving designers to use the
design strengths given in Table 37. These values are significantly lower than
the design strengths of the parent material (pw = 220 N/mm2 for S275 and
pw = 250 N/mm2 for S355).
This reduction in capacity has been partly offset by the allowance in BS 5950-1:
2000 for the higher transverse strength of fillet welds (see Clause 6.8.7). For
the case of two plates connected at right angles by symmetrical fillet welds,
= 45 and K = 1.25, resulting in the following transverse strengths:
S275: 1.25 220 = 275 N/mm2
S355: 1.25 250 = 312.5 N/mm2
Clearly, where S275 steel is used, the transverse strength is still equal to that of
the parent metal, but for S355 the strength is significantly lower.
Note that the design strengths given in Table 37 of BS 5950-1:2000 have been
amended slightly, compared with Table 36 of BS 5950-1:1990.
Clause 6.8.7
Clause 6.8.7 has undergone a major amendment, resulting in a new method for
calculating the capacity of fillet welds subject to transverse forces.

48

It has long been understood that the transverse strength of fillet welds is greater
than the longitudinal strength and this has been recognised in other codes, such
as BS 5400. However, this higher strength was not taken into account in
BS 5950-1:1990, in which the capacity of a fillet weld was simply taken to be
the product of the design strength pw and the throat size a, irrespective of the
direction of loading.
BS 5950-1:2000 presents two alternative methods for calculating the capacity of
fillet welds. In the simple method, the capacity should be taken as sufficient
if the vector sum of the design stresses, due to the forces and moments
transmitted by the weld, does not exceed the design strength of the weld pw at
any point along the weld. This method is the same as in BS 5950-1:1990.
Alternatively, designers may choose to use the directional method, in which
the design forces transmitted by the weld are resolved into their longitudinal and
transverse components, designated FL and FT respectively, as shown in
Figure 6.7.
2F T

FL
FT

FT

FL
FT

a) Welds subject to longitudinal shear


FT

FT

b) Welds subject to transverse forces

Throat of
the weld

c) Resultant transverse force on weld

Figure 6.4

The directional method for fillet welds

In the longitudinal direction, the capacity PL per unit length of the weld is given
by
PL =

pwa

The transverse capacity of the weld per unit length is given by


PT =

KPL

where the coefficient K depends on the angle between the weld throat and the
direction of the transverse force that is transmitted by the weld. For the special
49

case of two mutually perpendicular members, connected by two equal leg fillet
welds, with the applied force parallel to one leg, = 45 and K = 1.25, giving
a 25% enhancement in strength.
To take account of the interaction between longitudinal and transverse forces,
the following relationship should be satisfied throughout the length of the weld:
(FL / PL)2 + (FT / PT)2 1

50

REFERENCES

1.

BRITISH STANDARDS INSTITUTION


BS 5950 Structural use of steelwork in building
BS 5950-1:2000 Code of Practice for design - Rolled and welded sections
BSI, 2000

2.

BRITISH STANDARDS INSTITUTION


BS 5950 Structural use of steelwork in building
BS 5950-1:1990 Code of Practice for design of simple and continuous
structures hot rolled sections
BSI, 1990, amended 1992

3.

Advice Note 185


Cold-formed structural hollow sections: interim guidance
New Steel Construction, June/July 1996, p. 30

4.

BRITISH STANDARDS INSTITUTION


BS 5950 Structural use of steelwork in building
BS 5950-5:1998 Code of Practice for design of cold formed thin gauge
sections
BSI, 1998

5.

Building Regulations Approved Document A


Part A: Structure
The Stationery Office, 1992

6.

BRITISH STANDARDS INSTITUTION


BS 5400 Steel, concrete and composite bridges
BS 5400-3:2000 Code of practice for design of steel bridges
BSI, 2000

7.

Steelwork design guide to BS 5950-1:2000, Volume 1: Section properties


and member capacities, 6th edition (SCI P202)
The Steel Construction Institute, in association with The British
Constructional Steelwork Association and Corus, 2001

8.

M. HORDYK and A.S. MALIK (Editors)


Joints in simple construction Volume 1: Design methods (2nd edition)
(SCI P205)
The Steel Construction Institute and The British Constructional Steelwork
Association, 1993

9.

Advice Note 090


Deflection limits portal frames
Steel Construction Today, Vol. 5, No. 4, July 1991, p. 203

10. KING, C.
In-plane stability of portal frames to BS 5950-1:2000 (SCI P292)
The Steel Construction Institute, 2001

51

52

WORKED EXAMPLES
1. Sway stability

55

2. Choosing a steel sub-grade

57

3. Restrained beam

59

4. Unrestrained beam

63

5. Plate girder

67

6. Web bearing and buckling

71

7. Compression member

75

8. Axial load and bending

77

9. Baseplate

83

53

54

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Job No.

CDS 138

Job Title

Example no. 1

Subject

Sway stability

Client

CALCULATION SHEET

SCI

Sheet

Made by

DGB

Date

Aug. 2001

Checked by

MDH

Date

Oct. 2001

of

Rev

Introduction
Consider the braced frame shown below. An elastic analysis has been carried out
on the bare frame under a set of unit point loads and the resulting deflections are
shown in the figure below. Note that the building will be clad, although the stiffness
of the cladding was not taken into account in the elastic analysis of the frame.
Determine whether the frame is non-sway or sway-sensitive. If it is swaysensitive, what value of the amplification factor, kamp, must be applied to the
bracing forces to allow for second-order effects?
7.5 m

7.5 m

7.5 m

1 kN
3.5 m

0.65 mm

0.48 mm
3.8 m

1 kN

3.5 m

1 kN

0.84 mm

3.5 m

1 kN

1.07 mm

Loading
Every beam is subjected to an unfactored uniformly distributed load consisting of:
Dead load:

21 kN/m

Imposed load:

30 kN/m

Solution
Calculate the notional horizontal forces
For the gravity load case (load combination 1), the design load is given by
Factored load

(1.4 21) + (1.6 30) =

77.4 kN/m

Load per floor

77.4 7.5 3

1741.5 kN

Notional horizontal force

0.005 1741.5 =

8.7 kN

Note that the notional horizontal force is based on the factored load acting on the
whole floor and not just on one beam length

55

2.4.2.4

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Job No.

CDS 138

Job Title

Example no. 1

Subject

Sway stability

Client

CALCULATION SHEET

SCI

Sheet

Made by

DGB

Date

Aug. 2001

Checked by

MDH

Date

Oct. 2001

of

Rev

Calculate the lateral drift


Multiplying the set of unit load deflections by the notional horizontal force per floor
gives the following deflections at each floor level:
8.7 kN
3.5 m

0.65 x 8.7
=5.65 mm
0.48 x 8.7
= 4.2 mm

3.8 m

8.7 kN

3.5 m

8.7 kN

0.84 x 8.7
=7.3 mm

3.5 m

8.7 kN

1.07 x 8.7
=9.3 mm

The lateral drift is the relative deflection between two adjacent storeys. By
inspection, the ground to first floor column is critical, with a lateral drift, , of
4.2 mm
Determine cr
The lowest value of cr is that for the lowest storey and is given by
cr =

h
200

3800
200 4.2

4.52

2.4.2.6

Because cr < 10, the frame is sway-sensitive, but as cr > 4, the second-order
effects may be allowed for by amplification of the first-order sway effects (i.e. there
is no need for a second-order analysis)
Calculate kamp
The frame is a clad frame in which the stiffness of the cladding was neglected.
Therefore, kamp is given by
k amp =

cr
4.52
=
= 1.22
1.15 cr 1.5
(1.15 4.52) 1.5

56

2.4.2.7

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Job No.

CDS 138

Job Title

Example no. 2

Subject

Choosing a steel sub-grade

Client

CALCULATION SHEET

SCI

Sheet

of

Rev

Made by

MDH

Date

Aug. 2001

Checked by

TCC

Date

Sept. 2001

Introduction
An exposed steel structure is proposed. The steel is BS EN 10025 S355 and the
thickest element is 30 mm. The beams are welded to the column flanges and the
maximum tensile stress is 200 N/mm2. Choose an appropriate steel grade to avoid
brittle fracture
Solution
The basic requirement is that, throughout the component, the thickness should satisfy
the relationship:

2.4.4

t Kt1
Because the maximum thickness = 30 mm, the steel grade should be chosen such
that
t1 30 / K
The nominal yield strength Ynom = 355 N/mm2
The maximum tensile stress in the component = 200 N/mm2
Therefore stress > 0.3Ynom
For welded connections to unstiffened flanges with stress > 0.3Ynom
Table 3

K = 0.5
The requirement for t1 is therefore
t1 60 mm
For external conditions (15C), the only suitable grade of steel is
BS EN 10025 S355 K2 (t1 = 66 mm)

Table 4

Finally, check that the maximum thickness in the component does not exceed the
limits for which the full Charpy impact value applies, as given in Table 6
For all sections of grade S355 to BS EN 10025, t2 = 100 mm
t2 > 30 mm
Therefore BS EN 10025 S355 K2 is suitable

57

Table 6

58

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Job No.

CDS 138

Job Title

Example no. 3

Subject

Restrained beam

Client

CALCULATION SHEET

SCI

Sheet

Made by

MDH

Date

Sept. 2001

Checked by

TCC

Date

Oct. 2001

Introduction
A 533 210 101 UB in grade S355 steel is simply supported as shown below
and fully restrained along its length by a concrete floor slab. Check that the shear
capacity and the moment capacity are adequate for the factored loading shown,
which includes self-weight
225 kN

W = 25 kN/m

533 x 210 x 101 UB Grade S355

5m

5m

Solution
Calculate the maximum moment and shear
The maximum shear occurs at A and C
Fv

25 10 225
+
2
2

The moment at A and C

238 kN

The maximum moment occurs at B


Mx =

25 10 2 225 10
=
+
8
4

The shear at B

225
2

875 kNm

113 kN

Classify the cross section


From section property tables:
Flange thickness T

17.4 mm

Flange b/T

6.03

Web d/t

44.1

59

of

Rev

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Job No.

CDS 138

Job Title

Example no. 3

Subject

Restrained beam

Client

CALCULATION SHEET

Grade of steel

SCI

Sheet

Made by

MDH

Date

Aug. 2001

Checked by

TCC

Date

Sept. 2001

S355

275
py

Rev

3.1.1
Table 9

T > 16 mm
Therefore py =

of

345 N/mm2
275
345

Table 11

0.89

Limit for outstand element of compression flange for a class 1 section

3.5.2
Table 11

b/T =

Table 11

9 =

The actual b/T

8.01
=

6.03, < 8.01

Therefore Flange is class 1


Limit for web with the neutral axis at mid depth for a class 1 section:
d/t =

80

71.2

The actual d/t =

3.5.2
Table 11

44.1, < 71.2

Therefore Web is class 1


Both the flange and web are class 1, therefore the cross section is class 1
Check the shear capacity
Pv

0.6 pyAv

py

345 N/mm2

Av

tD

10.8 mm

536.7 mm

Pv

0.6 345 10.8 536.7 10-3 =

From above, Fv

4.2.3

238 kN

Fvmax < Pv
Therefore the section is adequate in shear

60

1200 kN

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Job No.

CDS 138

Job Title

Example no. 3

Subject

Restrained beam

Client

CALCULATION SHEET

SCI

Sheet

Made by

TCC

Date

Aug. 2001

Checked by

MDH

Date

Sept. 2001

of

Rev

Check the moment capacity

Check whether the shear is high, i.e. Fv > 0.6 Pv, or low,

4.2.5

i.e. Fv < 0.6 Pv, at the point of maximum moment


The shear at B
0.6 Pv

113 kN

0.6 1200 =

720 kN

113 < 720


Therefore the shear is low
For low shear, the moment capacity for a class 1 section is given by
Mcx =

py Sx

Sx

2612 cm3 (from section property tables)

Mcx =

4.2.5.2

345 2612 10-3

901 kNm

Check limit to avoid irreversible deformation under serviceability limit state loads
For a simply supported beam Mcx 1.2 pyZx
Zx

4.2.5.1

2292 cm3 (from section property tables)

1.2pyZx =

1.2 345 2292 10-3 =

Therefore Mcx

901 kNm

From above, Mx =

875 kNm

949 kNm

Mx < Mcx
Therefore the section is adequate in bending

61

62

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Telephone: (01344) 623345
Fax: (01344) 622944

Job No.

CDS 138

Job Title

Example no. 4

Subject

Unrestrained beam

Client

CALCULATION SHEET

SCI

Sheet

Made by

MDH

Date

Aug. 2001

Checked by

TCC

Date

Sept. 2001

Introduction
Consider the beam from Example 1 during construction, before the concrete floor
slab has been constructed. In this case, the beam is unrestrained except at the
location of the point load (B). Check the adequacy of the unrestrained beam
between A and B for the factored loading shown
225 kN

533 x 210 x 101 UB Grade S355

5m

5m

Solution
Calculate the maximum moment and shear
The maximum shear occurs at A and C
Fv

1.4 self weight


225
+
2
2

112.5 + 7.1 = 120 kN

The maximum moment occurs at B


Mx =

225 10
+ Moment due to self weight
4

The shear at B

225
2

113 kN

Classify the section


From section property tables:
Flange thickness T

17.4 mm

Flange b/T

6.03

Web d/t

44.1

63

= 580 kNm

of

Rev

Silwood Park, Ascot, Berks SL5 7QN


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Fax: (01344) 622944

Job No.

CDS 138

Job Title

Example no. 4

Subject

Unrestrained beam

Client

CALCULATION SHEET

SCI

Sheet

Made by

MDH

Date

Aug. 2001

Checked by

TCC

Date

Sept. 2001

Grade of steel = S355

Rev

345 N/mm2

Therefore py =
275
py

3.1.1
Table 9

T > 16 mm

of

275
345

Table 11

0.89

Limit for outstand element of compression flange for a class 1 section

3.5.2
Table 11

b/T =

Table 11

9 =

8.01

The actual b/T = 6.03 < 8.01

3.5.2
Table 11

Therefore Flange is class 1


Limit for web with the neutral axis at mid depth for a class 1 section
d/t =

80 =

The actual d/t

71.2
=

44.1, < 71.2

Therefore Web is class 1


Both the flange and web are class 1, therefore the cross section is class 1
Check the shear capacity
From example 3, Pv
Fv

1200 kN

4.2.3

113 kN

Fv < Pv
Therefore the section is adequate in shear
1.1.4

Check the moment capacity

From Example 3, Mcx =


Mx =

901 kNm

4.2.5

575 kNm

Mx < Mcx
Therefore the section is adequate in bending
64

Silwood Park, Ascot, Berks SL5 7QN


Telephone: (01344) 623345
Fax: (01344) 622944

Job No.

CDS 138

Job Title

Example no. 4

Subject

Unrestrained beam

Client

SCI

CALCULATION SHEET

Sheet

Made by

MDH

Date

Aug. 2001

Checked by

TCC

Date

Sept. 2001

Rev

4.3.6

Calculate the lateral-torsional buckling resistance Mb


(i) Conservatively assume an effective length LE of 1.0L

of

5m

(ii) The slenderness is given by


From section property tables, ry = 45.7 mm

LE/ry

5000
45.7

109

(iii) From section property tables, x = 33.2 and u = 0.873


/x =

109
33.2

3.3

(iv) The slenderness factor v is obtained from Table 19


v

4.3.6.7
Table 19

0.90

4.3.6.9

(v) For a class 1 section, W = 1.0


Therefore, LT
(vi) For py =
pb

uv

345 N/mm2

0.873 0.90 109 =

and LT =

86

86, Table 16 gives

Mb =

pb Sx

Sx

2612 cm3 (from section property tables)

Mb =

4.3.6.5
Table 16

170 N/mm2

(vii) For a class 1 section, the buckling resistance moment Mb is given by

4.3.6.7

170 2612 103 /106 =

4.3.6.4

444 kNm

Calculate the equivalent uniform moment factor mLT


Between A and B, the bending moment diagram is as follows:
M A= 0
MB = 580

Therefore, =

0,

mLT =

4.3.6.6
Table 18

0.6

65

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Job No.

CDS 138

Job Title

Example no. 4

Subject

Unrestrained beam

Client

CALCULATION SHEET

SCI

Sheet

Made by

MDH

Date

Aug. 2001

Checked by

TCC

Date

Sept. 2001

of

Rev

Check that the resistance is adequate


Mb / mLT =
Mx =

444 / 0.6

740 kNm

580 kNm

4.3.6.2

Therefore Mx Mb / mLT
The beam does therefore have adequate resistance to lateral-torsional buckling when
unrestrained

66

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Job No.

CDS 138

Job Title

Example no. 5

Subject

Plate girder

Client

SCI

CALCULATION SHEET

Sheet

Made by

MDH

Date

Aug. 2001

Checked by

TCC

Date

Sept. 2001

of

Rev

Introduction
A plate girder consists of two 500 30 mm flange plates and a 1200 12 mm web
plate, both in S275 steel
1. Find the moment capacity, assuming that the moment is carried by the flanges
alone, and compare with the moment capacity based on the full section
2. Find the shear buckling resistance by the simplified method, assuming a
stiffener spacing of 1.5 m
3. Find the shear buckling resistance by the more exact method, assuming
ff = 0.1pyf
For this example, assume that the end post and stiffeners all have adequate capacity
Solution
Classify the cross section
3.1.1
Table 9

For the flange, grade of steel = S275


T > 16 mm
Therefore py = 265 N/mm2

3.1.1
Table 9

For the web, grade of steel = S275


t < 16 mm
Therefore py = 275 N/mm2

Flange b/T

275
py
=

275
265

1.02

500 12

/ 30 =
2

8.13

From Table 11, the limit for a class 2 flange is 9. Therefore the flange is class 2
Web d/t =

1200
12

3.5.2
Table 11

100

From Table 11, the limit for a class 3 web subject to bending only (i.e. neutral axis
at mid depth) is 120. Therefore, the web is class 3
Therefore the cross section is class 3
67

3.5.2
Table 11

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Job No.

CDS 138

Job Title

Example no. 5

Subject

Plate girder

Client

SCI

CALCULATION SHEET

Sheet

Made by

MDH

Date

Aug. 2001

Checked by

TCC

Date

Sept. 2001

of

Calculate the moment capacity

Rev

4.4.4.2

The web depth-to-thickness ratio d/t > 62, so the web must be assumed to be
susceptible to shear buckling. Consequently, the interaction of shear and moment
must be taken into account when calculating the moment capacity of the cross section
Because the flanges are not slender, the flanges only method may be used to obtain
a conservative value of the moment capacity
Mc =

4.4.4.2b

pyf Af hs

where pyf is the design strength of the flanges, Af is the area of one flange and hs is
the distance between the centre of the flanges
Mc =

265 500 30 1230 / 106

4890 kNm

Assuming that this was the maximum shear on the section at the end of the girder
and that, near the centre, the shear is reduced to less than 0.6 of this value, the
moment capacity can be recalculated based on the full section. As the web is
class 3, the elastic modulus is used to calculate
Mc =

pyf Zx

Ix

500 30 3

12 1200 3
+ 500 30 615 2 +
2

12
12

1.31 1010 mm4

(Ix / 630) 10-3 =

20794 cm3

Mc =

265 20794 / 103 =

5510 kNm

Zx

4.4.4.2

(c.f. 4890 kNm obtained by using the flanges alone)


Calculate the shear buckling resistance using the simplified method
Using the simplified method, the shear buckling resistance is given by
Vb

Vw =

d t qw

a/d =

1500
1200

d/t =

100

py

275 N/mm2

4.4.5.2

1.25

68

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Job No.

CDS 138

Job Title

Example no. 5

Subject

Plate girder

Client

SCI

CALCULATION SHEET

Sheet

Made by

MDH

Date

Aug. 2001

Checked by

TCC

Date

Sept. 2001

of

139 N/mm2

Vb

Vw =

1200 12 139 / 103 =

Rev

4.4.5.2
Table 21

For these values of a/d, d/t and py, Table 21 gives


qw =

2000 kN

Calculate the shear buckling resistance using the more exact method
The more exact method permits the shear buckling resistance of the web to be
increased above that given by the simplified method, for cases where the moment is
low, i.e. towards the end of the girder
Assume that in the end panel, the moment is not greater than 10% of the moment
capacity and that ff / pyf = 0.1
Using the more exact method, the shear buckling resistance is given by
Vb

Vw + Vf

but

Vb Pv

The first step is to calculate the plastic moment capacity of the (smaller) flange about
its own equal area axis perpendicular to the plane of the web
Spf =
=
Mpf =

4.4.5.3

BT 2 / 4
500 30 2

pyf Spf

112.5 103 mm3

265 112.5 103 / 106

29.8 kNm

The plastic moment capacity of the web is then calculated


Spw =

td 2 / 4

12 1200 2
=
4

Mpw =

pyf Spw

275 4320 / 103 =

4320 103 mm3


1190 kNm

The shear capacity is given by


Pv

0.6 pydt =

2380 kN

4.2.3

0.6 275 1200 12 / 103

69

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Job No.

CDS 138

Job Title

Example no. 5

Subject

Plate girder

Client

CALCULATION SHEET

SCI

Sheet

Made by

MDH

Date

Aug. 2001

Checked by

TCC

Date

Sept. 2001

The flange-dependent shear buckling resistance is then calculated using

Vf =

P v d / a 1 f f / p yf

[ 1 + 0.15 ( M

pw

/ M pf

)]

2380 (1.2 / 1.5 ) 1 ( 0.1 ) 2

[ 1 + 0.15 (1190

/ 29.8 )

and the total shear buckling resistance is given by


Vb

Vw + Vf

Vb

2000 + 270 =

2270 kN, Pv

70

270 kN

of

Rev

4.4.5.3

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Fax: (01344) 622944

Job No.

CDS 138

Job Title

Example no. 6

Subject

Web bearing and buckling

Client

CALCULATION SHEET

SCI

Sheet

of

Rev

Made by

MDH

Date

Aug. 2001

Checked by

TCC

Date

Sept. 2001

Introduction
The same 533 210 101 UB used in Examples 3 and 4 is subjected to an applied
point load, as shown below. Check that the bearing capacity and buckling resistance
of the web are adequate at the location of the applied load and at the support
225 kN
152 x 152 x 23 UC
152.2

17.4

12.7

533 x 210 x 101 UB Grade S355

be

b1

238 kN

ae

be

50 mm

b1

100 mm

Solution
At the location of the point load
(i) Bearing capacity of the unstiffened web
Pbw = (b1 + nk) t pyw
n

= 5.0 (not at the end of the member)

= T + r for a rolled section

(b1 + nk)

152.2 + 5.0 (17.4 + 12.7)

302.7 mm

4.5.2.1

71

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Fax: (01344) 622944

Job No.

CDS 138

Job Title

Example no. 6

Subject

Web bearing and buckling

Client

SCI

CALCULATION SHEET

Pbw =

302.7 10.8 345 10-3

Pbw =

1130 kN

Fx

225 kN

Sheet

of

Rev

Made by

MDH

Date

Aug. 2001

Checked by

TCC

Date

Sept. 2001

Fx < Pbw
Therefore the bearing resistance of the web is adequate without the need for a
bearing stiffener
(ii) Buckling resistance of the unstiffened web
Px

Px

25t

(b1 + nk ) d
275
py

4.5.3.1

Pbw
275
=
345

25 0.89 10.8

(302.7 ) 476.5

0.89

1130

= 714 kN
Fx < Px
Therefore the buckling resistance of the web is adequate without the need for a
buckling stiffener
At the support
(i) Bearing capacity of the unstiffened web
Pbw =

(b1 + nk) t pyw

2 + 0.6 be / k

be

50 mm

T+r

2 +

(b1 + nk)

but 5

17.4 + 12.7 =

0.6 50
30.1
=

4.5.2.1

30.1 mm

3.0

100 + (3.0 30.1)

190.3 mm
72

Silwood Park, Ascot, Berks SL5 7QN


Telephone: (01344) 623345
Fax: (01344) 622944

Job No.

CDS 138

Job Title

Example no. 6

Subject

Web bearing and buckling

Client

SCI

CALCULATION SHEET

Pbw =

190.3 10.8 345 10-3 =

Fx =

238 kN

Sheet

of

Rev

Made by

MDH

Date

Aug. 2001

Checked by

TCC

Date

Sept. 2001

709 kN

Fx < Pbw
Therefore the bearing resistance of the web at the support is adequate
(ii) Buckling resistance of the unstiffened web

4.5.3.1

Check whether ae < 0.7 d


ae =

50 + 50

0.7d

100 mm

0.7 476.5 =

333.6 mm

Since ae < 0.7d, the buckling resistance Px is given by


Px

a e + 0.7 d
1.4 d

100 + 333.6
25 0.89 10.8

P
1.4 476.5
(190.3) 476.5 bw

0.650 0.798 Pbw

0.519 709

25t

(b1 + nk ) d

Pbw

= 368 kN

Fx < Px
Therefore the buckling resistance of the web at the support is adequate

73

74

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Telephone: (01344) 623345
Fax: (01344) 622944

Job No.

CDS 138

Job Title

Example no. 7

Subject

Compression member

Client

CALCULATION SHEET

SCI

Sheet

Made by

MDH

Date

Aug. 2001

Checked by

TCC

Date

Sept. 2001

of

Rev

Introduction
A 356 368 129 UC in grade S275 steel is pin-ended about the x-x and y-y axes
as shown below. Check that the compression resistance is adequate for the factored
loading shown, which includes self-weight. The cross section is classified as not
slender

356 x 368 x 129 UC

2500 kN

6m

Solution
From section tables:
T

17.5 mm

Ag =

164 cm2

rx

15.6 cm

ry

9.43 cm

Grade of steel

S275
3.1.1
Table 9

T > 16 mm
Therefore py =

265 N/mm2

The cross section is NOT slender therefore


Pc

4.7.4

Ag pc

75

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Telephone: (01344) 623345
Fax: (01344) 622944

Job No.

CDS 138

Job Title

Example no. 7

Subject

Compression member

Client

SCI

CALCULATION SHEET

Sheet

Made by

MDH

Date

Aug. 2001

Checked by

TCC

Date

Sept. 2001

of

Rev

For buckling about the x-x axis, use strut curve b

Table 23

For buckling about the y-y axis, use strut curve c

Table 23

Slenderness x

L EX
rx

6000
15.6 10

38.5

L EY
ry

6000
9.43 10

63.6

For x = 38.5 and py = 265 N/mm2, pcx =

243 N/mm2

Table 24b

For y = 63.6 and py = 265 N/mm2, pcy =

188 N/mm2

Table 24c

pc is the lesser value of pcx or pcy


Pc

164 102 188 / 103 =

188 N/mm2

3080 kN

Fc < Pc
Therefore the compression resistance is adequate

76

Silwood Park, Ascot, Berks SL5 7QN


Telephone: (01344) 623345
Fax: (01344) 622944

Job No.

CDS 138

Job Title

Example no. 8

Subject

Axial load and bending

Client

CALCULATION SHEET

SCI

Sheet

Made by

MDH

Date

Aug. 2001

Checked by

TCC

Date

Sept. 2001

of

Introduction
The top chord of a lattice girder supports purlins at A, B and C, as shown below,
resulting in a factored point load of 11.2 kN at each location. The member is a
150 150 5 rectangular hollow section in S275 steel and is continuous at A, B
and C. Check the adequacy of the top chord by considering its section capacity and
buckling resistance, according to the requirements in Clause 4.8.3
1.8 m

1.8 m

11.2 kN

11.2 kN

11.2 kN

Loading
The factored axial load in ABC =

598 kN

The factored bending moment diagram is


5.04

B
A

5.04
C

5.04

Solution
Classify the section
From section tables:
b

5 mm

d/t =

135 mm

27.0

Grade of steel

S275

t < 16 mm

77

Factored
loads

Rev

Silwood Park, Ascot, Berks SL5 7QN


Telephone: (01344) 623345
Fax: (01344) 622944

Job No.

CDS 138

Job Title

Example no. 8

Subject

Axial load and bending

Client

SCI

CALCULATION SHEET

Therefore py =

275
py

Sheet

Made by

MDH

Date

Aug. 2001

Checked by

TCC

Date

Sept. 2001

275 N/mm2

135 / 5.0

27.0

The limitation for a class 1 flange


'Web'

Fc
1
2d t p y

r1

But 1.0 < r1 1.0, therefore r1


Limit

28

The flange is therefore class 1

The limitation for a class 1 web =

r1

64
1 + 0.6r1

Rev

1.0

Flange b/t

'Flange'

3.1.1
Table 9

275
=
275

of

3.5.2
Table 12

64
1 + 0.6 r1

598 10 3
2 135 5 275
=

3.5.2
Table 12

1.6

1.0

64 1
1 + 0.6 1.0

40

Therefore the web is class 1


Both the flange and the web are class 1, therefore the cross section is class 1
Check axial compression
The first step is to evaluate the in-plane slenderness of the member given by
x

L Ex
rx

In the plane of the girder, there is no restraint at B and the effective length is given
by
LEx =

0.85L

LEx =

0.85 3.6

5.9 cm

3.06 m

78

4.7.3
Table 22

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Telephone: (01344) 623345
Fax: (01344) 622944

Job No.

CDS 138

Job Title

Example no. 8

Subject

Axial load and bending

Client

CALCULATION SHEET

x =

SCI

Sheet

Made by

MDH

Date

Aug. 2001

Checked by

TCC

Date

Sept. 2001

of

Rev

3.06 10 3
= 51.9
5.9 10

Similarly, the effective length of the member out of plane is given by


y

L Ey
ry

Out of plane, the purlin at B provides restraint to the top chord and the effective
length is given by
LEy =

1.0L

LEy =

1.0 1.8

1.8 m

y =

1.8 10 3
5.9 10

30.5

4.7.3
Table 22

The next step is to calculate Pcx and Pcy


For x = 51.9 and py = 275 N/mm2, pcx =
Pcx =

Ag pcx

28.7 102 249 10-3

For y = 30.5 and py = 275 N/mm2, pcy =


Pcy =

Ag pcy

249 N/mm2
=

266 N/mm2

28.7 102 266 10-3

Pc is the lesser of Pcx and Pcy

The applied axial load Fc

598 kN

715 kN

763 kN

4.7.5
Table 24a
4.7.5
Table 24a

715 kN

Fc < Pc
Therefore the member is adequate in axial compression
Check the shear capacity
The maximum shear force Fv

11.2 kN

Shear capacity Pv = 0.6 pyAv


A

4.2.3

28.7 cm2

4.2.3

79

Silwood Park, Ascot, Berks SL5 7QN


Telephone: (01344) 623345
Fax: (01344) 622944

Job No.

CDS 138

Job Title

Example no. 8

Subject

Axial load and bending

Client

SCI

CALCULATION SHEET

Av

AD

D + B

28.7 10 2 150
150 + 150

Pv

0.6 pyAv

0.6 275 1435 / 103

237 kN

Sheet

Made by

MDH

Date

Aug. 2001

Checked by

TCC

Date

Sept. 2001

of

Rev

1435 mm2

Fv < Pv
Therefore the cross section is adequate in shear
Check the moment capacity
Check whether the shear is high, i.e. Fv > 0.6 Pv, or low, i.e. Fv < 0.6 Pv, at
the point of maximum moment
0.6 Pv

0.6 237

4.2.5

142 kN

Fv < 0.6Pv, therefore the shear is low


For low shear, the moment capacity for a class 1 section is given by
Mc =

pySx

156 cm3 (from section property tables)

Mc =

275 156 / 103

42.9 kNm

Also check Mc 1.5 pZ


Z

4.2.5

134 cm3 (from section property tables)

1.5 pyZ =

1.5 275 134 / 103 =

Therefore Mcx

4.2.5

55.3 kNm

42.9 kNm

Mx < Mcx
Therefore the cross section is adequate in bending

80

Silwood Park, Ascot, Berks SL5 7QN


Telephone: (01344) 623345
Fax: (01344) 622944

Job No.

CDS 138

Job Title

Example no. 8

Subject

Axial load and bending

Client

SCI

CALCULATION SHEET

Sheet

Made by

MDH

Date

Aug. 2001

Checked by

TCC

Date

Sept. 2001

of

Rev

Check interaction between axial load and bending


(i) Section capacity
The following relationship must be satisfied:
4.8.3.2

My
Fc
Mx
+
+
1
Ag p y
M cx
M cy
598 10 3
28.7 10 2 275

5.04
0
+
=
42.9
M cy

0.76 + 0.117 + 0

0.88, < 1

Therefore the section capacity is adequate


(ii) Buckling resistance
In the simplified method, the following relationships must be satisfied:
my My
Fc
m M
+ x x +
1 and
Pc
py z x
py z y
my My
Fc
m M
+ LT LT +
1
Pcy
Mb
py z y
mx is determined between restraints on the x axis, i.e. A and C according to the
shape of the bending moment diagram

5.04
M1

0
M2

0
M4

5.04
M5

5.04
M3

mx =

0.2 +

0.1 M 2 + 0.6 M 3 + 0.1 M 4


M max

0.8

For square rectangular hollow sections, such as the member in this example, there is
no need to consider lateral-torsional buckling and Mb is given by
Mb =

pySx = 42.9 kNm

MLT is the maximum moment in the segment =


81

5.04 kNm

4.8.3
Table 26
4.3.6.1

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Telephone: (01344) 623345
Fax: (01344) 622944

Job No.

CDS 138

Job Title

Example no. 8

Subject

Axial load and bending

Client

CALCULATION SHEET

SCI

Sheet

Made by

MDH

Date

Aug. 2001

Checked by

TCC

Date

Sept. 2001

of

mLT is determined between restraints on the y-y axis, i.e. A and B (or B and C)
M

5.04,

M =

5.04,

therefore

-1

and mLT =

Rev

4.3.6.6
Table 18

0.44

Finally, the two interaction relationships for buckling are evaluated


my My
Fc
m M
+ x x +
Pc
py z x
py z y

0.8 5.04 10 6
598
0
+
+
3
715
py z
275 134 10

my My
Fc
m M
+ LT LT +
Pcy
Mb
py z y

598
0.44 5.04
0
+
+
763
42.9
py z y

0.95, < 1

0.84, < 1

In both cases, the values are less than 1, indicating that the top chord is adequate
under these loading conditions, according to the simplified method

82

4.8.3.3.1

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Telephone: (01344) 623345
Fax: (01344) 622944

Job No.

CDS 138

Job Title

Example no. 9

Subject

Baseplate

Client

SCI

CALCULATION SHEET

Sheet

Made by

MDH

Date

Aug. 2001

Checked by

TCC

Date

Sept. 2001

of

Rev

Introduction
A 254 254 73 Universal Column carries a factored axial load of 1500 kN. The
proposed baseplate is 500 500 mm in S275 steel, on C30 concrete with stronger
bedding material. Determine the thickness of the baseplate
Solution
4.13.2.1

Determine the size of the effective area


The dimensions of the column are:
D

254 mm

254 mm

14.2 mm

The cross-sectional area

9290 mm2

and the perimeter =

1480 mm

Calculate the area required to carry the load in the column


Area required

applied fo rce
0.6 f cu

1500000
0.6 30

83300 mm2

The effective area of the baseplate can be approximated to the following quadratic
equation:
Area

4c2 + (column perimeter) c + column area

where c is the distance from the column to the edge of the effective area, as shown
below

2c + T

Equating the effective area to the required area gives


4c2 + 1480c + 9290 =

83300

Solving this equation, c

44.6 mm

83

Silwood Park, Ascot, Berks SL5 7QN


Telephone: (01344) 623345
Fax: (01344) 622944

Job No.

CDS 138

Job Title

Example no. 9

Subject

Baseplate

Client

CALCULATION SHEET

SCI

Sheet

Made by

MDH

Date

Aug. 2001

Checked by

TCC

Date

Sept. 2001

of

Rev

Check that there is no overlap between the effective areas associated with the two
flanges
Gap

D 2T 2c =

254 (2 14.2) (2 44.6) =

136 mm

The gap is positive, indicating that there is no overlap


Finally, the overall size of the effective area is checked to ensure that it fits on the
base
254 + (2 44.6)

343 mm

This is less than the baseplate size of 500 mm and is therefore acceptable
4.13.2.2

Determine the minimum required thickness of the baseplate


The minimum thickness of the baseplate is given by
tp

3 0.6 f cu
c

p yp

0.5

3 0.6 30
44.6

275

0.5

However, because tp > 16 mm, pyp must be reduced to 265 N/mm2


Recalculating,
tp

3 0.6 30
44.6

265

0.5

20.1 mm

84

19.8 mm

85

Typeset and page make-up by The Steel Construction Institute, Ascot SL5 7QN
Printed in Europe by the Alden Group, Oxford
1500 12/01 CDS138