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A Wavelet-Based Algorithm for Power Quality detection in

Electric Arc Furnace


M. R. Cndido, L. C. Zanetta Jr., Senior member, IEEE

Abstract--During a fusion process, the electric arc furnaces


present high consumption of electric power, unbalanced current
signal waveform, with distortion due to harmonics distortion and
the flicker effects; as well as sags and swells in the voltage signals.
For the analysis of the power quality problems caused by arc
furnaces, it is usually necessary to detect and classify them. With
this purpose the technique of the Wavelet Transform will be used
to non-stationary signals of an industrial plant with three arc
furnaces. The papers presented so far deal exclusively with
theoretical signals, containing only one kind of disturbance. This
paper presents an alternative to the analysis of signals with
multiple disturbances, often found in industrial electrical systems
with electric arc furnaces.
Keywords: Wavelets, harmonics, power quality, electric arc
furnances (EAF).

I.

NOMENCLATURE

ZEQ Equivalent impedance


RARC Equivalent resistance of the electric arc
IOP Operating current
EAF Electric arc furnace
LAF Laddle arc furnace

The

II. INTRODUCTION

metallurgy industry supplies intermediate goods


to most part of the economical sectors. Among
several equipment installed in these sites, the arc furnaces
stand out for presenting concentrated and high consumption
of electric power. In the process of fusion, these devices use
the electric arc, with complex control systems, showing as the
main characteristic multiple disturbances, that happens
simultaneously. Therefore there will be load fluctuations,
unbalances and harmonics with high intensity in the voltage
and current waveform.
The power quality is affected by disturbances such as sags,
swells, flickers, etc. When these disturbances happen in a
short variation of time (milliseconds), they are difficult to be
detected, classified, and corrected through traditional
techniques, such as the Fourier Transform. The Wavelet
Transform has a characteristic of a small wave with timeconcentrated power, serving as a tool to analyse transients,
non-stationary or time-varying phenomenas, which are also
typical of electric arc furnaces.
M. R. Cndido and L. C. Zanetta Jr, are with the School of Electrical
Engineering, University of So Paulo, SP, 05508-900, Brazil (e-mail:
marrog@uol.com.br, lzanetta@pea.usp.br, respectively).
Presented at the Transmission and Distribution Conference and
Exposition. Chicago, USA on April 21-24, 2008.

978-1-4244-1904-3/08/$25.00 2008 IEEE

There are many Wavelet analysis, that deals with the power
quality problems [7-9]. Therefore, the authors usually treat
the events with only one kind of disturbance, contained in a
certain theoretical signal. This paper presents a new technique
to the detection, classification, and correction of signals with
multiple disturbances, typical in the operation of electric arc
furnaces. This new method can be used in industrial power
systems, with many disturbance as impulse transient, RMS
variation, capacitor switching, that can happen at the same
time.
III. INDUSTRIAL ELECTRICAL SYSTEM UNDER
ANALYSIS AND THE ARC FURNACE MODEL
The Fig. 1 shows the electric diagram of three arc furnaces
from a metallurgic plant located in Brazil. The system is made
up by two furnaces: EAF1 and EAF2, used for the fusion
process and a laddle furnace: LAF for the steel smelter phase.
EAF1 will be used in order to analyze the best point of
operation and the effects over the power quality, from where
the signals were measured in the Electric Signal Analyser.
Good operation of electric furnances not involves the
production of a high-quality steel but also the manipulation of
the furnance controls in a manner to obtain maximum
continuous production, with high power quality and minimum
power cost.
Utility
138kV
S2

S1
T-044

T-045

S3
T-046

23kV
S4

S5

T-047

T-048

S6
T-049

Electric
Signal
Analyser
EAF1
36MVA

LAF
30MVA

EAF2
36MVA

Fig. 1. Industrial electric system with arc furnaces.

The database extracted from arc furnance measurements


was used in the computer analysis. Some power expressions
definition with statistical treatment will be used [1]-[4], to
find out the best point of operation for EAF1, which takes part
in the industrial electric system under analysis.

The Fig. 2 shows the arc furnace model for the EAF1 [23]-[11]. The EAF1 is supplied by transformer T047, with 4
taps, where the tap of 580 V (UA) was used for this analysis.
The total equivalent impedance (ZEQ = R + j X), represents
the EAF1 circuit from the supply circuit of 138 kV to the
furnace electrode. In Fig. 2, we have R = 0.0033082 m and
X = 6.4583737 m.
PCC

AF

voltage phase a

A. Electric arc furnance model

IOP

Time(ms)

ZEQ=R+jX

Fig. 3. Voltage waveform of EAF1.


RARC

UA

IV. WAVELET THEORY


Expressions (1) and (2) represent the formulation of the
Continuous Wavelet Transform, where x(t) represents the
signal to be decomposed [5].

Fig. 2. Equivalent EAF1 circuit.

Using the furnace EAF1 as a model, the load curves can be


calculated and plotted, to find the point of operation (PO)
with rapid melting and efficient furnance operation and also
aids in the installation, alteration, and maintenance of electric
furnances with lowest power consumption. This point occurs
for the operating current (IOP) of 36.2 kA.
For the same tap position the active, reactive, apparent
power and the current and voltage signals were measured with
an Electrical Signal Analyzer (ESA). The summary of the
minimum, average, and maximum values obtained through
measurements for the currents around 36.2 kA, are illustrated
in TABLE I.

Quantity

TABLE I
POWER VALUES FOR EAF1
Measured Values
Minimum

Average

CWT x (a, b) = W x (a, b) =

24.717

28.64

32.741

25.86

Q (MVAr)

11.915

14.69

23.078

25.34

S (MVA)

31.712

37.047

49.601

36.20

During the melting process the waveform of voltage and


current is constantly varying. Figure 3 shows the voltage
signal traced in of one of the phases of EAF1, obtained from
ESA.

x(t ). a*,b (t ).dt

(1)

where

a ,b (t ) =| a |

12

t b

(2)

The base function or mother Wavelet is given by (t ) ,


where the asterisk denotes the complex conjugate, and a and b
R, with a 0, are the dilatation and translation parameters,
respectively.
The Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) is given by (3)
and (4), the signal to be analyzed is decomposed in several
levels of resolution or sub-bands, by using the technique of
the digital filter banks [5]- [9].

m
2

PO

P (MW)

m,n (t ) =a 0

Maximum

t nb 0 a 0m
(
)
a0m

(3)

DWT x(m, n) = x(t ) *m, n (t )dt

(4)

The base function of mother Wavelet is given by

m, n

(t ) .

On the other hand the Parseval theorem (5) relates the


signal power g(t) to the power in each of the components and
its Wavelet coefficients [18].
2

g (t ) dt =

c(l ) +

l =

j =0

k =

d j (k )

(5)

The power of the disturbed signal will be divided in


different levels of resolution and in different manners
depending on the problem of power quality to be analyzed.

V. ANALYSIS OF MULTIPLE DISTURBANCES


The traditional treatment for identification of temporary
disturbances, is based on the point-to-point comparison of
adjacent cycles. The drawback to this technique is related to
the impossibility of detecting multiple disturbances which
occur at the same time in certain loads, for example, in the
voltage and current waveforms of electric arc furnaces.
References [5-6]-[9] present techniques for visual location
for certain disturbances. References [7-8]-[12] complement
this technique, by using the identification of the disturbance
through the difference of the level in the energy module,
between the disturbance and the ideal signal. In reference [10]
the analysis comes through the difference of the signal,
making the identification easy in disturbances which generate
drop or increase in its energy level.
In all references listed a single disturbance is used,
generated from an ideal signal waveform. In the industrial
electric systems with electric arc furnaces since there are
several superimposed failures in the voltage and current
waveform, their perfect identification and classification can
not be obtained by using the techniques presented in [5-6]-[78] and [12-15]. This way, the works listed, showed not to be
efficient for simultaneous detection of several disturbances,
thus motivating the development of a new technique for
analysis of these phenomena.
VI. DEVELOPMENT OF THE CLASSIFICATION
ALGORITHM
A. New technique for multiple disturbances.
To solve the identification and classification problem of
multiple disturbances, a new technique was implemented
through an algorithm for automatic analysis of these events,
using the software MATLAB[16]. Figure 5 shows the
complete flowchart of the algorithm for detection of multiple
disturbances, developed by using the Wavelet Transform.
Signal to be analyzed

Calculate Wavelet coefficients


to the real signal

Identify failure instantes


through first Wavelet level
coefficient energy

Generate a waveform from the


signal to be analyzed

Split each failure and classify


them by using the correlations
of Wavelet resolution levels.

End

Fig. 5. Algorithm for identification of multiple disturbances, using the


Wavelet Transform.

Each type of disturbance has a certain characteristic, which


permit create a pattern that can be identified according to its
energy curve and the level of Wavelet resolution. The whole
analysis made through the Wavelet theory is based on the
difference of the square of its coefficients [7], between the
real and ideal signals waveform. Thus, it is necessary to
generate the ideal reference waveforms.
From tabulated levels shown in Table II, it is possible to
verify the relation between several disturbances and their
respective resolution levels, used in the development of the
multiple event theory. For each disturbance, we also see the
necessity of evaluating the energy percent variation values
(E%), for perfect characterization and classification of the
event.
TABLE II
RESOLUTION WAVELET LEVEL FOR CLASSIFICATION OF
MULTIPLE DISTURBANCES
Disturbance
Resolution Wavelet Level
1

Sag

Swell

Spike

Notching

Pure Signal

The correct identification of the several disturbances,


requires the creation of standards classification through
computer simulations, in order to characterize the percent
variation of the energy levels, for each level detail. The ideal
reference of the signal under analysis is also automatically
determined by the technique developed.
B. Analysis of multiple disturbance in an ideal system.
The technique developed was validated by using a
theoretical signal containing several disturbances such as
sags, swells, spikes, etc. The Fig. 6 shows the exactly instant
that each failure happened, through the analysis of the first
order of Wavelet coefficient.

It is noted that the algorithm developed managed to detect


and classify automatically all the multiple disturbances
contained in the signal under analysis shown in Fig. 7.
C. Analysis of multiple disturbance in a real system
The analysis with real signals collected in arc furnace
EAF1 will be analyzed by applying the algorithm developed in
the technique of multiple disturbances.
Figure 8 shows the voltage waveform, obtained through
measurement in the T047 secondary, and the ideal reference
signal automatically generated.

Fig. 6. (a) Pure signal and with multiple disturbances. (b) Location of the
instants when disturbances occurred: 1) t = 9.63ms, 2) t = 17.7ms, 3) between t
= 37.24ms and t = 54.17ms, 4) between t = 66.41ms and t = 74.74ms, 6)
between t = 103.39ms and t = 120.31ms.

The Fig. 7 shows the power distribution in the several


levels of the Wavelet Transform, for all disturbances
identified. Based on the simulation criteria, the classification
can be completed by the number of the failure corresponding
to the ascending order of the identification in all the instants
shown in Fig. 6.

Fig. 8. Record of a voltage signal obtained from EAF1 and the ideal
reference signal.

To apply the technique developed in the real signal


collected in EAF1, part of the voltage record was used. The
Fig. 9 illustrates instants of the detection for all the multiple
disturbances, occurred in the voltage waveform under
analysis. It is also noted that for every change in the behavior
of the real signal there is an automatic identification through
first Wavelet coefficient.

.
Fig 7. Identification of several failures through correlations among the power
levels: a) spike; b) swell; c) notching; d) sag.

Fig. 9. Identification of time failures for the voltage signal of an arc electric
furnace of the first-order Wavelet Coefficients. Location of the instants that the
disturbances occurred, in the real voltage signal: 1) between t = 9.1ms (tail), 2) t
= 11.7ms, 3) t = 37.24ms and t = 54.17ms, 4) t = 66.41ms and t = 74.74ms, 5) t
= 103.39ms and t = 120.31ms.

VIII. REFERENCES
Periodicals:
[1]

Hsun-Tsu and Wu Chi-Jui, Load Characteristics Analysis of ac and dc


Arc Furnaces Using Various Power Definitions and Statistics Method,
IEEE Trans. Power Delivery, vol. 17, pp. 10991105, Oct. 2002.
G. C. Montanari, M. Loggini, A. Cavallini, L. Pitti, and D. Zaninelli,
Arc-furnace model for the study of flicker compensation in electrical
networks, IEEE Trans. Power Delivery, vol. 9, pp. 20262033, Oct.
1994.

[2]

Papers from Conference Proceedings (Published):


[3]

[4]

[5]

Fig. 10. Power Distribution along the Wavelet Resolution Levels: (a) , (e) and
(g) - swell; (b) and (f) spike ; (c) and (d) notching; (h) sag.

For each disturbance detected, the calculation of the


difference between the energy distributions of the signal with
disturbance and the ideal reference waveform is automatically
made. Through this analysis, it is possible to classify all
multiple events present in the real signal of the EAF1, despite
of the moment that they happened, as can be seen in Fig. 10.
VII. CONCLUSION
The Wavelet Transform is a very useful tool to determine
the power quality in electrical power systems, as well as the
development of protection systems and devices against
disturbances in this systems.
In the particular case of the electrical systems with arc
furnaces the Wavelet Transform is a powerful contributor to
help the improvement in power quality indisturbance
troubleshooting that happens less than 10 ms.
The use of the theories presented nowadays, showed that it
was not possible to identify the multiple and simultaneous
disturbances presenting in the voltage and current signals, that
are characteristic of special electrical loads such as in the case
of the EAF1.
The technique developed in this paper allowed the creation
of a standard for automatically, consistently and quickly
detection and classification of multiple disturbances, using the
Wavelet Transform.
The development of application for this new method can
aiming to save electrical power consumption in electric arc
furnaces, it is possible to use it in a real-time control system,
to control de best point of the operation for EAF1.

[6]

[7]

[8]

[9]

[10]

[11]

[12]

[13]

[14]

[15]

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Books:
[16] Misiti, M., Y., Oppenheim, and G., Poggi, J., Wavelet toolbox for use
with MATLAB users guide, USA; The Mathworks, Inc., Version 1,
1996-1997.

IX. BIOGRAPHIES
Marcos Rogrio Cndido, received his BSc. degree from National
Telecommunication Institute (INATEL) in 1992, and the M.Sc degree from
Federal University of Itajub (UNIFEI) in 1997, both in Brazil. He is currently a
PhD. student in the Department of Electrical Engineering at the University of
So Paulo.
Luiz Cera Zanetta Jr. received his B.Sc. degree in 1974, the M.Sc. in 1984
and the Ph.D. degree in 1989 all from the University of So Paulo, Brazil. He is
currently a professor in the same institution, working on the field of electrical
system dynamics, electromagnetic transients and FACTS.