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Original Title: A Wavelet-Based Algorithm for Power Quality detection in Electric Arc furnace.pdf

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M. R. Cndido, L. C. Zanetta Jr., Senior member, IEEE

present high consumption of electric power, unbalanced current

signal waveform, with distortion due to harmonics distortion and

the flicker effects; as well as sags and swells in the voltage signals.

For the analysis of the power quality problems caused by arc

furnaces, it is usually necessary to detect and classify them. With

this purpose the technique of the Wavelet Transform will be used

to non-stationary signals of an industrial plant with three arc

furnaces. The papers presented so far deal exclusively with

theoretical signals, containing only one kind of disturbance. This

paper presents an alternative to the analysis of signals with

multiple disturbances, often found in industrial electrical systems

with electric arc furnaces.

Keywords: Wavelets, harmonics, power quality, electric arc

furnances (EAF).

I.

NOMENCLATURE

RARC Equivalent resistance of the electric arc

IOP Operating current

EAF Electric arc furnace

LAF Laddle arc furnace

The

II. INTRODUCTION

to most part of the economical sectors. Among

several equipment installed in these sites, the arc furnaces

stand out for presenting concentrated and high consumption

of electric power. In the process of fusion, these devices use

the electric arc, with complex control systems, showing as the

main characteristic multiple disturbances, that happens

simultaneously. Therefore there will be load fluctuations,

unbalances and harmonics with high intensity in the voltage

and current waveform.

The power quality is affected by disturbances such as sags,

swells, flickers, etc. When these disturbances happen in a

short variation of time (milliseconds), they are difficult to be

detected, classified, and corrected through traditional

techniques, such as the Fourier Transform. The Wavelet

Transform has a characteristic of a small wave with timeconcentrated power, serving as a tool to analyse transients,

non-stationary or time-varying phenomenas, which are also

typical of electric arc furnaces.

M. R. Cndido and L. C. Zanetta Jr, are with the School of Electrical

Engineering, University of So Paulo, SP, 05508-900, Brazil (e-mail:

marrog@uol.com.br, lzanetta@pea.usp.br, respectively).

Presented at the Transmission and Distribution Conference and

Exposition. Chicago, USA on April 21-24, 2008.

There are many Wavelet analysis, that deals with the power

quality problems [7-9]. Therefore, the authors usually treat

the events with only one kind of disturbance, contained in a

certain theoretical signal. This paper presents a new technique

to the detection, classification, and correction of signals with

multiple disturbances, typical in the operation of electric arc

furnaces. This new method can be used in industrial power

systems, with many disturbance as impulse transient, RMS

variation, capacitor switching, that can happen at the same

time.

III. INDUSTRIAL ELECTRICAL SYSTEM UNDER

ANALYSIS AND THE ARC FURNACE MODEL

The Fig. 1 shows the electric diagram of three arc furnaces

from a metallurgic plant located in Brazil. The system is made

up by two furnaces: EAF1 and EAF2, used for the fusion

process and a laddle furnace: LAF for the steel smelter phase.

EAF1 will be used in order to analyze the best point of

operation and the effects over the power quality, from where

the signals were measured in the Electric Signal Analyser.

Good operation of electric furnances not involves the

production of a high-quality steel but also the manipulation of

the furnance controls in a manner to obtain maximum

continuous production, with high power quality and minimum

power cost.

Utility

138kV

S2

S1

T-044

T-045

S3

T-046

23kV

S4

S5

T-047

T-048

S6

T-049

Electric

Signal

Analyser

EAF1

36MVA

LAF

30MVA

EAF2

36MVA

was used in the computer analysis. Some power expressions

definition with statistical treatment will be used [1]-[4], to

find out the best point of operation for EAF1, which takes part

in the industrial electric system under analysis.

The Fig. 2 shows the arc furnace model for the EAF1 [23]-[11]. The EAF1 is supplied by transformer T047, with 4

taps, where the tap of 580 V (UA) was used for this analysis.

The total equivalent impedance (ZEQ = R + j X), represents

the EAF1 circuit from the supply circuit of 138 kV to the

furnace electrode. In Fig. 2, we have R = 0.0033082 m and

X = 6.4583737 m.

PCC

AF

voltage phase a

IOP

Time(ms)

ZEQ=R+jX

RARC

UA

Expressions (1) and (2) represent the formulation of the

Continuous Wavelet Transform, where x(t) represents the

signal to be decomposed [5].

calculated and plotted, to find the point of operation (PO)

with rapid melting and efficient furnance operation and also

aids in the installation, alteration, and maintenance of electric

furnances with lowest power consumption. This point occurs

for the operating current (IOP) of 36.2 kA.

For the same tap position the active, reactive, apparent

power and the current and voltage signals were measured with

an Electrical Signal Analyzer (ESA). The summary of the

minimum, average, and maximum values obtained through

measurements for the currents around 36.2 kA, are illustrated

in TABLE I.

Quantity

TABLE I

POWER VALUES FOR EAF1

Measured Values

Minimum

Average

24.717

28.64

32.741

25.86

Q (MVAr)

11.915

14.69

23.078

25.34

S (MVA)

31.712

37.047

49.601

36.20

current is constantly varying. Figure 3 shows the voltage

signal traced in of one of the phases of EAF1, obtained from

ESA.

(1)

where

a ,b (t ) =| a |

12

t b

(2)

where the asterisk denotes the complex conjugate, and a and b

R, with a 0, are the dilatation and translation parameters,

respectively.

The Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) is given by (3)

and (4), the signal to be analyzed is decomposed in several

levels of resolution or sub-bands, by using the technique of

the digital filter banks [5]- [9].

m

2

PO

P (MW)

m,n (t ) =a 0

Maximum

t nb 0 a 0m

(

)

a0m

(3)

(4)

m, n

(t ) .

signal power g(t) to the power in each of the components and

its Wavelet coefficients [18].

2

g (t ) dt =

c(l ) +

l =

j =0

k =

d j (k )

(5)

different levels of resolution and in different manners

depending on the problem of power quality to be analyzed.

The traditional treatment for identification of temporary

disturbances, is based on the point-to-point comparison of

adjacent cycles. The drawback to this technique is related to

the impossibility of detecting multiple disturbances which

occur at the same time in certain loads, for example, in the

voltage and current waveforms of electric arc furnaces.

References [5-6]-[9] present techniques for visual location

for certain disturbances. References [7-8]-[12] complement

this technique, by using the identification of the disturbance

through the difference of the level in the energy module,

between the disturbance and the ideal signal. In reference [10]

the analysis comes through the difference of the signal,

making the identification easy in disturbances which generate

drop or increase in its energy level.

In all references listed a single disturbance is used,

generated from an ideal signal waveform. In the industrial

electric systems with electric arc furnaces since there are

several superimposed failures in the voltage and current

waveform, their perfect identification and classification can

not be obtained by using the techniques presented in [5-6]-[78] and [12-15]. This way, the works listed, showed not to be

efficient for simultaneous detection of several disturbances,

thus motivating the development of a new technique for

analysis of these phenomena.

VI. DEVELOPMENT OF THE CLASSIFICATION

ALGORITHM

A. New technique for multiple disturbances.

To solve the identification and classification problem of

multiple disturbances, a new technique was implemented

through an algorithm for automatic analysis of these events,

using the software MATLAB[16]. Figure 5 shows the

complete flowchart of the algorithm for detection of multiple

disturbances, developed by using the Wavelet Transform.

Signal to be analyzed

to the real signal

through first Wavelet level

coefficient energy

signal to be analyzed

them by using the correlations

of Wavelet resolution levels.

End

Wavelet Transform.

permit create a pattern that can be identified according to its

energy curve and the level of Wavelet resolution. The whole

analysis made through the Wavelet theory is based on the

difference of the square of its coefficients [7], between the

real and ideal signals waveform. Thus, it is necessary to

generate the ideal reference waveforms.

From tabulated levels shown in Table II, it is possible to

verify the relation between several disturbances and their

respective resolution levels, used in the development of the

multiple event theory. For each disturbance, we also see the

necessity of evaluating the energy percent variation values

(E%), for perfect characterization and classification of the

event.

TABLE II

RESOLUTION WAVELET LEVEL FOR CLASSIFICATION OF

MULTIPLE DISTURBANCES

Disturbance

Resolution Wavelet Level

1

Sag

Swell

Spike

Notching

Pure Signal

requires the creation of standards classification through

computer simulations, in order to characterize the percent

variation of the energy levels, for each level detail. The ideal

reference of the signal under analysis is also automatically

determined by the technique developed.

B. Analysis of multiple disturbance in an ideal system.

The technique developed was validated by using a

theoretical signal containing several disturbances such as

sags, swells, spikes, etc. The Fig. 6 shows the exactly instant

that each failure happened, through the analysis of the first

order of Wavelet coefficient.

and classify automatically all the multiple disturbances

contained in the signal under analysis shown in Fig. 7.

C. Analysis of multiple disturbance in a real system

The analysis with real signals collected in arc furnace

EAF1 will be analyzed by applying the algorithm developed in

the technique of multiple disturbances.

Figure 8 shows the voltage waveform, obtained through

measurement in the T047 secondary, and the ideal reference

signal automatically generated.

Fig. 6. (a) Pure signal and with multiple disturbances. (b) Location of the

instants when disturbances occurred: 1) t = 9.63ms, 2) t = 17.7ms, 3) between t

= 37.24ms and t = 54.17ms, 4) between t = 66.41ms and t = 74.74ms, 6)

between t = 103.39ms and t = 120.31ms.

levels of the Wavelet Transform, for all disturbances

identified. Based on the simulation criteria, the classification

can be completed by the number of the failure corresponding

to the ascending order of the identification in all the instants

shown in Fig. 6.

Fig. 8. Record of a voltage signal obtained from EAF1 and the ideal

reference signal.

collected in EAF1, part of the voltage record was used. The

Fig. 9 illustrates instants of the detection for all the multiple

disturbances, occurred in the voltage waveform under

analysis. It is also noted that for every change in the behavior

of the real signal there is an automatic identification through

first Wavelet coefficient.

.

Fig 7. Identification of several failures through correlations among the power

levels: a) spike; b) swell; c) notching; d) sag.

Fig. 9. Identification of time failures for the voltage signal of an arc electric

furnace of the first-order Wavelet Coefficients. Location of the instants that the

disturbances occurred, in the real voltage signal: 1) between t = 9.1ms (tail), 2) t

= 11.7ms, 3) t = 37.24ms and t = 54.17ms, 4) t = 66.41ms and t = 74.74ms, 5) t

= 103.39ms and t = 120.31ms.

VIII. REFERENCES

Periodicals:

[1]

Arc Furnaces Using Various Power Definitions and Statistics Method,

IEEE Trans. Power Delivery, vol. 17, pp. 10991105, Oct. 2002.

G. C. Montanari, M. Loggini, A. Cavallini, L. Pitti, and D. Zaninelli,

Arc-furnace model for the study of flicker compensation in electrical

networks, IEEE Trans. Power Delivery, vol. 9, pp. 20262033, Oct.

1994.

[2]

[3]

[4]

[5]

Fig. 10. Power Distribution along the Wavelet Resolution Levels: (a) , (e) and

(g) - swell; (b) and (f) spike ; (c) and (d) notching; (h) sag.

difference between the energy distributions of the signal with

disturbance and the ideal reference waveform is automatically

made. Through this analysis, it is possible to classify all

multiple events present in the real signal of the EAF1, despite

of the moment that they happened, as can be seen in Fig. 10.

VII. CONCLUSION

The Wavelet Transform is a very useful tool to determine

the power quality in electrical power systems, as well as the

development of protection systems and devices against

disturbances in this systems.

In the particular case of the electrical systems with arc

furnaces the Wavelet Transform is a powerful contributor to

help the improvement in power quality indisturbance

troubleshooting that happens less than 10 ms.

The use of the theories presented nowadays, showed that it

was not possible to identify the multiple and simultaneous

disturbances presenting in the voltage and current signals, that

are characteristic of special electrical loads such as in the case

of the EAF1.

The technique developed in this paper allowed the creation

of a standard for automatically, consistently and quickly

detection and classification of multiple disturbances, using the

Wavelet Transform.

The development of application for this new method can

aiming to save electrical power consumption in electric arc

furnaces, it is possible to use it in a real-time control system,

to control de best point of the operation for EAF1.

[6]

[7]

[8]

[9]

[10]

[11]

[12]

[13]

[14]

[15]

and DC arc furnaces: a comparison on some power quality aspects, in

Proc. IEEE Power Eng. Soc. Summer Power Meeting, vol. 1, 1999, pp.

499506.

A. E. Emanuel, The Buchholz-Goodhue apparent power definition: The

practical approach for nonsinusoidal and unbalanced systems, IEEE

Trans. Power Delivery, vol. 13, pp. 344350, Apr. 1998.

Surya Santoso, Edward J. Powers, W. Mack Grady and Peter Hofmann,

Power Quality Assessment Via Wavelet Transform Analysis, IEEE

Trans. Power Delivery, vol. 11, pp. 924930, Apr. 1996.

A. M. Gaouda, M. M. A. Salama, M. R. Sultan, and A. Y. Chikhani,

Power Quality Detection and Classification Using WaveletMultiresolution Signal Decomposition, IEEE Transactions on Power

Delivery, Vol. 14, No. 4, Oct. 1999.

A. M. Gaouda, S. H. Kanoun, M. M. A. Salama, and A. Y. Chikhana,

Wavelet-Based Intelligent System For Monitoring Non-Stationary

Disturbances, IEE International Conference on Electric Utility

Deregulation and Restructuring and Power Technologies, pp. 84-89, Apr.

2000.

A. M. Gaouda, M. M. A. Salama, M. R. Sultan, and A. Y. Chikhani

Application of Multiresolution Signal Decomposition For Monitoring

Short-Duration Variations Distribution Systems IEEE Transactions on

Power Delivery, Vol. 15, No. 2, Apr. 2000.

L. Angrisani, P.Daponte and M.D Apuzzo and A. Testa, A Measurement

Method Based on the Wavelet Transform for Power Quality Analysis,

IEEE Trans. Power Delivery, vol. 13, pp. 990998, Oct. 1998.

G.T. Heydt and A.W. Galli, Transient Power Quality Problems Analyzed

Using Wavelets IEEE Trans. Power Delivery, vol. 12, pp. 908915, Apr.

1997.

Srinivas Varadan, Elham B. Makram, and Adly A. Girgis A new time

Domain voltage source model for an arc furnance using EMTP, IEEE

Trans. Power Delivery, vol. 11, pp. 16851691, Jul. 1996.

O. Poisson, P. Rioual, and M. Meunier, Detection and Measurement of

Power Quality Disturbances Using Wavelet Transform, IEEE Trans.

Power Delivery, vol. 15, pp. 10391044, Jul. 2000.

H. He and J..A. Janusz, A Self-Organizing Learning Array System for

Power Quality Classification Basead on Wavelet Transform, IEEE

Trans. Power Delivery, vol. 21, No. 1, pp. 286-295, Jan. 2006.

Carlos A. Duque, Moiss V. Ribeiro, Frederico R. Ramos and Jacques

Szczupak, Power Quality Event Detection Basead on the Divide and

Conquer Principle and Innovation Concept, IEEE Trans. Power Delivery,

vol. 20, No. 4, pp. 2361-2369, Oct.2004.

T. K. Abdel-Galil, M. Kamel, A. M. Youssef, E. F. El-Saadany and M. M.

A. Salama, Power Quality Disturbance Classification Using the Inductive

Inference Approach, IEEE Trans. Power Delivery, vol. 19, No. 4, pp.

1812-1818, Oct. 2004.

Books:

[16] Misiti, M., Y., Oppenheim, and G., Poggi, J., Wavelet toolbox for use

with MATLAB users guide, USA; The Mathworks, Inc., Version 1,

1996-1997.

IX. BIOGRAPHIES

Marcos Rogrio Cndido, received his BSc. degree from National

Telecommunication Institute (INATEL) in 1992, and the M.Sc degree from

Federal University of Itajub (UNIFEI) in 1997, both in Brazil. He is currently a

PhD. student in the Department of Electrical Engineering at the University of

So Paulo.

Luiz Cera Zanetta Jr. received his B.Sc. degree in 1974, the M.Sc. in 1984

and the Ph.D. degree in 1989 all from the University of So Paulo, Brazil. He is

currently a professor in the same institution, working on the field of electrical

system dynamics, electromagnetic transients and FACTS.

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