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easy to design a water treatment plant softner

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Step1 :- Get the water analysis. See that all analysis is ions are given as ppm CaCO3. You can

not add mg/l as ions and ppm as CaCO3. All ions should be in the same unit.

If not in the same unit ,first convert all ions to ppm CaCO3 and then feed in the analysis shown

below

Water Analysis

Cations as CaCO3

Ca

Mg

Na

K

Fe

Anions as CaCO3

HCO3

190

CO3

0

OH

0

Cl

60

SO4

30

NO3

5

Total cation

280

Total anion

280

Total Hardness as CaCO3( Ca+Mg) 110 SiO2

10

%N a/TC

0.5 CO2

5

T.AlkalinityasCaCO3(HCO3+CO3+OH)

190

EMA as CaCO3 (Cl+SO4+NO3)

95

%alkalinity/TC

67.85714

%weak acids/T.A

5.357143

%Cl

21.42857

%SiO2/TA

1.785714

85

25

140

30

Step 2 :- Decide on a Hardness leakage in the effluent and select the regeneration level

Step3 :- From the regeneration level select the Exchange capacity from the graph or Table .

Using correction factor you get the actual operation capacity

Step 4 :- Calculate the OBR required . OBR output between regeneration is Service flow rate

*time the unit runs. There are many instances when OBR is given by the customer but the flow

rate is not known then OBR/time gives the flow (M3/Hr) If you know the flow feed in the flow

and service cycle duration otherwise feed the OBR .

Step 5 :-Calculate Resin Quantity

Resin quantity = Hardness load (ppm CaCO3)*OBR/ Operating capacity

Step3 :- Decide on thevolumetric flow rate (M3/Hr)

Hourly flow rate

10 M3/Hr

Service Cycle hours

24 hours

Total OBR between Regeneration

240 M3

Step4:- calculate resin quantity

Resin quantity

471.43 liters

Resin quantity

0.471 M3

10

12

120

235.71

0.236

Area = Volume/Height ( height is here is the Bed Depth )

Since we know the volume of resin and we select 1.2 M as bed depth

(Bed depth according to Resin manufacturer calculation should be between 750 mm to

2000mm .But for all practical purpose bed depth is kept between 1 to 1.5. for residential purpose

smaller bed depth may be used)

Area = D2/4 Where =3.14 Therefore /4 =3.14/4=0.785.

Area=0.785D2. Or D2 = sqrt (Area/0.785).

Step5 :- Calculating Softener Dimension

Bed depth

1 Meter

Area

0.47

Diameter

0.800 M

Diameter

800 mm

Area

0.5024 M2

Actual Bed depth

0.94 M

1

0.24

0.500

500.0

0.19625

1.201

M

mm

M2

M

Salt quantity in Kgs = Resin volume in M3 * regeneration Level gm/L

Step 6:_Calculating salt quantity

Regeneration Level

Salt required

160 gm/L

75.43 Kgs

160

37.71

Check linear velocity. The value should be in the range of 10 25 M3/hr/M2. A slightly lower

value can be tolerated if the water is clear and slightly more if small increase in the hardness

leakage in the effluent can be tolerated

Linear Velocity = Flow /Area

If the Linear velocity is very high, reduce flow . For a flow of 10 M3/Hr and hardness load of

110 ppm CaCO3 the linear velocity is very for a OBR of 120 M3 and service Cycle of 12

Hours .Increase service cycle this will reduce the flow rate.

There are many instances where the Linear velocity is taken as a starting point for calculation

( Click Here)

Taking the limit of 25 M3/Hr /M2 as Maximum velocity we can calculate the actual number of

regeneration per Day.

Linear Velocity = Flow /Area

Number of regeneration per day = Derived Linear velocity /Maximum Linear velocity

Say calculated linear velocity is 20 then

Number of regeneration per day =20/25 =0.8 i.e.1

Now let us consider that calculated linear velocity is 60

Number of regeneration per day =58/25 =2.32 i.e.2

Similarly if calculated linear velocity is 75 than

Number of regeneration per day =78/25 =3 .12 i.e.3

Actual Flow = (Actual Linear Velocity /N)* Actual area

Step 9 Check space velocity

Space velocity = Actual flowM3/Hr / calculated amount of resin in M3

Step10

Finding the correct OBR = OBR per Day in M3/Number of regeneration

Linear Velocity

19.90

Number of regeneration

1

Flow per Hour

9.4

Actual Linear velocity

18.71

Space Velocity

19.94

Step 8 :- find OBR per regeneration

240

M3/Hr

Per day

M3/Hr

M3/Hr/M2

M3/Hr/M3

M3

50.96

2

6

30.57

25.45

60

M3/Hr

Per day

M3/Hr

M3/Hr/M2

M3/Hr/M3

M3

At 3M3/hr/M3 the regenrant flow in M3/hr is resin Quantity X Velocity.

Flow in M3/hr = 3 X M3 of resin

Volume in M3

Time = ------------------Flow in M3/hr

There are times when the regenrant contact time is assumed to be 30 minutes minimum and

chemical injection flow rate is calculated on this basis.

Volume in M3

Volume in M3

3

Regenrant flow (M /hr) = --------------------------- = --------------------------.

Time in hours

0.5 Hours

Step12:- Calculate Rinse timing :- Fast rinse in normally recommended between 12 16

M3/hr/M3 velocity. Let us be conservative and use 12 M3/hr/M3 for calculation purpose which is

normally taken by all designers.

Fast Rinse flow = 12 X Resin Qty

Volume of water per M3 of Resin

Fast Rinse period (minutes) = -------------------------------------------Rinse Flow

3

Rinse volume is considered to be 5M /M3 of resin. (5 bed volumes)

In this case = 5 X 1.071 = 5.355.

5* Resin Volume

Final Rinse period = ----------------------- X 60 = Time in Minutes

Rinse Flow rate

Step13 :- There are many instances when Slow rinse is done after Chemical injection . This is

done to flush out the excess chemical. The flow rate is same as that of injection flow rate.

Parameters

Diameter of Vessel

Diameter of vessel

Area of Vessel

Bed Depth

Unit HOS

Resin Volume

Salt required

Hardness in influent

Output between Regeneration(OBR)

Minimum Treatment Flow

Maximum Treatment flow

Normal flow M3/Hr

Period between regeneration

Regeneration flow

Slow Rinse

Fast Rinse

Minimum pressure

Maximum pressure

Backwash Flow

Backwash period

Unit

Meter

mm

Sq. meter M2.

Meter

Meter

Cubic Meter

(M3)

Kgs

As CaCO3

M3

M3/Hr

M3/Hr

M3/Hr

Hours

M3/Hr

M3/Hr

M3/Hr

Kg/cm2

Kg/cm2

M3/Hr

minutes

Values

Note

1 There is no Backwash if the unit is upflow.

2 The direction of salt injection is from top to bottom in upflow units.

3 Minimum injection is taken as 30 minutes and regeneration flow rate is calculated on this

basis. Check Step no 11.

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