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# Softener Calculation

Step1 :- Get the water analysis. See that all analysis is ions are given as ppm CaCO3. You can
not add mg/l as ions and ppm as CaCO3. All ions should be in the same unit.
If not in the same unit ,first convert all ions to ppm CaCO3 and then feed in the analysis shown
below
Water Analysis
Cations as CaCO3
Ca
Mg
Na
K
Fe

Anions as CaCO3
HCO3
190
CO3
0
OH
0
Cl
60
SO4
30
NO3
5
Total cation
280
Total anion
280
Total Hardness as CaCO3( Ca+Mg) 110 SiO2
10
%N a/TC
0.5 CO2
5
T.AlkalinityasCaCO3(HCO3+CO3+OH)
190
EMA as CaCO3 (Cl+SO4+NO3)
95
%alkalinity/TC
67.85714
%weak acids/T.A
5.357143
%Cl
21.42857
%SiO2/TA
1.785714
85
25
140
30

Step 2 :- Decide on a Hardness leakage in the effluent and select the regeneration level
Step3 :- From the regeneration level select the Exchange capacity from the graph or Table .
Using correction factor you get the actual operation capacity
Step 4 :- Calculate the OBR required . OBR output between regeneration is Service flow rate
*time the unit runs. There are many instances when OBR is given by the customer but the flow
rate is not known then OBR/time gives the flow (M3/Hr) If you know the flow feed in the flow
and service cycle duration otherwise feed the OBR .
Step 5 :-Calculate Resin Quantity
Resin quantity = Hardness load (ppm CaCO3)*OBR/ Operating capacity
Step3 :- Decide on thevolumetric flow rate (M3/Hr)
Hourly flow rate
10 M3/Hr
Service Cycle hours
24 hours
Total OBR between Regeneration
240 M3
Step4:- calculate resin quantity
Resin quantity
471.43 liters
Resin quantity
0.471 M3

10
12
120
235.71
0.236

## Step6:- Finding the Area and diameter of the softener unit

Area = Volume/Height ( height is here is the Bed Depth )
Since we know the volume of resin and we select 1.2 M as bed depth
(Bed depth according to Resin manufacturer calculation should be between 750 mm to
2000mm .But for all practical purpose bed depth is kept between 1 to 1.5. for residential purpose
smaller bed depth may be used)

## Area = Volume of Resin / Bed depth

Area = D2/4 Where =3.14 Therefore /4 =3.14/4=0.785.
Area=0.785D2. Or D2 = sqrt (Area/0.785).
Step5 :- Calculating Softener Dimension
Bed depth
1 Meter
Area
0.47
Diameter
0.800 M
Diameter
800 mm
Area
0.5024 M2
Actual Bed depth
0.94 M

1
0.24
0.500
500.0
0.19625
1.201

M
mm
M2
M

## Step 7 :- Calculate the Salt Quantity required for Regeneration

Salt quantity in Kgs = Resin volume in M3 * regeneration Level gm/L
Step 6:_Calculating salt quantity
Regeneration Level
Salt required

160 gm/L
75.43 Kgs

160
37.71

## Step 8 :- Check linear and space Velocity

Check linear velocity. The value should be in the range of 10 25 M3/hr/M2. A slightly lower
value can be tolerated if the water is clear and slightly more if small increase in the hardness
leakage in the effluent can be tolerated
Linear Velocity = Flow /Area
If the Linear velocity is very high, reduce flow . For a flow of 10 M3/Hr and hardness load of
110 ppm CaCO3 the linear velocity is very for a OBR of 120 M3 and service Cycle of 12
Hours .Increase service cycle this will reduce the flow rate.
There are many instances where the Linear velocity is taken as a starting point for calculation
Taking the limit of 25 M3/Hr /M2 as Maximum velocity we can calculate the actual number of
regeneration per Day.
Linear Velocity = Flow /Area
Number of regeneration per day = Derived Linear velocity /Maximum Linear velocity
Say calculated linear velocity is 20 then
Number of regeneration per day =20/25 =0.8 i.e.1
Now let us consider that calculated linear velocity is 60
Number of regeneration per day =58/25 =2.32 i.e.2
Similarly if calculated linear velocity is 75 than
Number of regeneration per day =78/25 =3 .12 i.e.3
Actual Flow = (Actual Linear Velocity /N)* Actual area
Step 9 Check space velocity
Space velocity = Actual flowM3/Hr / calculated amount of resin in M3
Step10
Finding the correct OBR = OBR per Day in M3/Number of regeneration

## Step 7:- Check Linear and Space velocity

Linear Velocity
19.90
Number of regeneration
1
Flow per Hour
9.4
Actual Linear velocity
18.71
Space Velocity
19.94
Step 8 :- find OBR per regeneration
240

M3/Hr
Per day
M3/Hr
M3/Hr/M2
M3/Hr/M3
M3

50.96
2
6
30.57
25.45
60

M3/Hr
Per day
M3/Hr
M3/Hr/M2
M3/Hr/M3
M3

## Step 11 :- Calculate regenrant flow time and flow .

At 3M3/hr/M3 the regenrant flow in M3/hr is resin Quantity X Velocity.
Flow in M3/hr = 3 X M3 of resin
Volume in M3
Time = ------------------Flow in M3/hr
There are times when the regenrant contact time is assumed to be 30 minutes minimum and
chemical injection flow rate is calculated on this basis.
Volume in M3
Volume in M3
3
Regenrant flow (M /hr) = --------------------------- = --------------------------.
Time in hours
0.5 Hours
Step12:- Calculate Rinse timing :- Fast rinse in normally recommended between 12 16
M3/hr/M3 velocity. Let us be conservative and use 12 M3/hr/M3 for calculation purpose which is
normally taken by all designers.
Fast Rinse flow = 12 X Resin Qty
Volume of water per M3 of Resin
Fast Rinse period (minutes) = -------------------------------------------Rinse Flow
3
Rinse volume is considered to be 5M /M3 of resin. (5 bed volumes)
In this case = 5 X 1.071 = 5.355.
5* Resin Volume
Final Rinse period = ----------------------- X 60 = Time in Minutes
Rinse Flow rate
Step13 :- There are many instances when Slow rinse is done after Chemical injection . This is
done to flush out the excess chemical. The flow rate is same as that of injection flow rate.

## TECHNICAL DATA SHEET

Parameters
Diameter of Vessel
Diameter of vessel
Area of Vessel
Bed Depth
Unit HOS
Resin Volume
Salt required
Hardness in influent
Output between Regeneration(OBR)
Minimum Treatment Flow
Maximum Treatment flow
Normal flow M3/Hr
Period between regeneration
Regeneration flow
Slow Rinse
Fast Rinse
Minimum pressure
Maximum pressure
Backwash Flow
Backwash period

Unit
Meter
mm
Sq. meter M2.
Meter
Meter
Cubic Meter
(M3)
Kgs
As CaCO3
M3
M3/Hr
M3/Hr
M3/Hr
Hours
M3/Hr
M3/Hr
M3/Hr
Kg/cm2
Kg/cm2
M3/Hr
minutes

Values

Note
1 There is no Backwash if the unit is upflow.
2 The direction of salt injection is from top to bottom in upflow units.
3 Minimum injection is taken as 30 minutes and regeneration flow rate is calculated on this
basis. Check Step no 11.