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Steel is widely used in many shapes to act as reinforcing material (Mild steel, High

tension steel etc.) in R.C.C. structures I-sections, T-sections, L-sections and


channel sections are commonly used in the construction of Industrial buildings,
Railways bridges, over head tanks, towers. Etc.
Steel is an alloy of iron and carbon. Pure iron is very soft.
Advatages of steel as structural material:1. Steel member have strength per unit weight. A steel member of small section
which has little weight can withstand heavy loads.
2. Being light steel member can be conveniently handled.
3. The properties of steel mostly donot change with time, which makes steel
most suitable material for structure.
4. Properly maintained steel structure has long life.
5. Steel being ductile material, doesnot fail suddenly.
Disadvantages:1. Steel structure needs fire proof treatment which increases cost.
2. When in exposed condition it can be subjected to corrosion. Painting from
time to time is very necessary.
Mechanical properties of steel:The important mechanical properties of steel are:i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.
vi.
vii.
viii.
ix.

Elasticity
Plasticity
Ductility
Malleability
Fatigue
Brittleness
Hardness
Elastic toughness
Creep

1. Elasticity : The steel is said to be perfectly elastic if the deformation


produced in it disappears completely on the removal of applied load such a
property possessed by a metal is known as elasticity.
2. Plasticity: When a metal shows that it has gained permanent deformation
without rupture with comparatively less load is called state of plasticity.
3. Ductility: When a metal can be drawn out to a similar section under the
action of tensile force is called a ductile metal. This property of metal is
known as ductility.
4. Brittleness: It is lackness of ductility. The metal breaks into pieces without
visible deformation under the action of impact or tensile load.
5. Malleability: When a metal can be rolled or hammered into thin sheets,the
property of the metal is called it is malleable and the related significant term
malleability.
6. Hardness: The property of material by virtue of which it can resist abrasion
scratching wear by harder bodies as known as hardness.
7. Creep:- The continuous deformation of material under a constant load at
high temperature is known as creep.
Types of Steel: In general there one two types of steel:i.

Mild steel

ii. High steel

In case of mild steel the percentage of carbon ranges from 0.15% to 0.30% where
in high tensile steel the percentage of carbon varies from 0.8% to 1.5%
Following are some common rolled steel sections which have been standardized by
Bureau of Indian Standards.
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.

I-section
Channel section
Angle section
Tee- Section
Plates

vi.
Flats
vii. Square bars
viii. Round bars

1. I-section, generally known as beam section or rolled steel joints, have been
classified into five categories.
a. ISJB : Indian Standard Junior beams
b. ISLB : Indian Standard Light Beams
c. ISMB : Indian Standard Medium Weight Beams.
d. ISWB : Indian Standard Wide Flange Beams.
e. ISHB : Indian Standard heavy weight beams.
2. Channels sections: Channel section have been classified into the following
three categories
a. ISJC : Indian Standard Junior Channels.
b. ISLC : Indian Standard Light Channels.
c. ISMC : Indian Standard Medium Channels.
3. Angle Section: There are three categories of angle section as per ISI
a. ISA : Indian Standard equal angles
b. ISA : Indian standard unequal angles.
c. ISBA : Indian Standard Bulb Angles.
Structural steel connection
Introduction:
The following one the connection of joint
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.
vi.
vii.
viii.
ix.

Beam and column


Beam with beam
Column with column
Column with base
Bracket with column
Steel truss member through gusset plate.
Battening and lacing in columns
Flange and web connections in plate griddles
Splicing for continuity of member.

Important riveted connection for different structural members


1. Slab base: A steel column having concrete slab as base. The element are
i.
Base plate
ii.
Steel I-section
iii. Cleat angles web of I-section and cleat.
2. Gusset Base: When I-section column is connected with base with gusset
plate in between flange of column and flange cleat angles.
Rivet
A rivet is made up of a round bar of steel or wrought iron, one end of which is
formed into rivet head. The other part is known the stem or shank. Rivets are
manufactured in different lengths to suit different purposes. Size of rivet is
expressed by the diameter of the shank.
Types of Rivets:Rivets are classified as:i.

Shop rivets: For fabrication when rivets are driven in the fabricating shop
are known as shop rivets. Shop rivets are stronger than the field rivet and

ii.

are therefore more economical and give better result.


Field rivets: Rivets driven in the field i.e. at site during the errection of
structure are called field rivets. These are driven by hand operated

iii.

pneumatic riveting hammer.


Hot driven rivet: In this case a properly heated rivet is inserted in a hole
in the connections to be riveted and then, pressure is applied in order to

iv.

force the heated metal to expand in the hole and to form the driven head.
Cold driven rivet: In this case, the rivets are not heated at all but are
driven or squeezed to fill the holes and form heads by application of large
pressure.

Rivets are also classified according to the shape of their heads.


i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.
vi.

Snap head
Pan head
Pan head with tapered head
Flat counter sun heat
Round counter sunk head
Flat head

Riveting process: The process of joining two or more than two parts by means of
rivet by giving the final shape of rivet head on both sides to act as a prominent
fastener is known as riveting.
Important term used in riveting:Pitch (P):- The pitch of rivet is the center to center distance between consecutive
rivets.
Gauge Line:- Gauge lines is the line of rivets which is parallel to the direction of
stress.
Gauge distance (g):- The normal distance between two adjacent gauge lines is
called the gauge distance.
Nominal diameter:- The nominal diameter of the rivet is the diameter of the cold
rivet before driving (d)
Gross diameter :- The gross diameter of the rivet is the diameter of the rivet after
driving and the diameter of the rivet hole is adopted as the gross diameter after
rivet.
Diameter of the rivet hole:- The diameter of the rivet hole is made larger than the
diameter of the rivet by 1.0mm for rivet diameter 12 to 14 mm and 2mm from 18
to 22mm and by 3.0mm.

Edge distance:- It is the distance of the edge of the member or the cober plates
from the center of the extreme rivet hole.
Lap:- It is the distance normal to the joint between the edges of the overlapping
plates in a lap joint or between the joint and the end of the cover plates in a built
joint.
Specification for riveted connection
1. Assumption: It is assume that
a. The distribution of shear stress across the rivet cross section in uniform.
b. Direct force is uniformly distributed among a group of rivets.
c. Rivet fills the hole completely.
Types of riveted joints:Riveted jointed are classified as
1. Lap joints
2. Butt joints
i.
Lap joints: A lap joints is connection in which the member joined lap or
overlap each other. The joint may have one or more row of rivets. In the
case of lap joint the lines forces are eccentric which develop bending
stresses and therefore have the tendency to deform the bending of the
plates and the rivet tends to weaken the joint.
Lap joints are further classified as to the number of rivets used.
i.
ii.

Single riveted lap joint


Double riveted lap joint

Single riveted lap joint: A lap joint having only one row of rivets are called single
rivet.

Double riveted lap joint: A lap joint having the rows of rivets is called as double
riveted lap joint.
Butt joint: A butt joint is one in which the end of th member that join come
together or butt against each other.
Butt joints are two types
Single cover butt joint.
Double cover butt joint.
Single cover butt joint: In this case cover plate is provided on one side of main
plates. It has pull p as eccentric with respect to cover plate and hence tend to
deform to bending.
Double cover butt joint: In this case cover plates are provided on either sides of the
main plates. There is no possibility of the development of bending stress and
deformation of this joint.
a.
b.
c.
d.

Double cover single riveted joint.


Double cover double riveted but joint.
Double cover zig zag riveted but joint.
Diamond riveted but joint.

Failure of riveted joint:


The joint may fail in any of the following ways
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.
vi.

Shear failure of rivets


Shear failure of plates
Tearing failure of plates
Bearing failure of plates.
Bearing failure of rivets.
Splitting failure of plates at the edges

1. Shear failure of rivets: When a rivet connecting two plates in tension is


subjected to shear stress. If the rivet is weak, the shear failure of rivet will
occur.
2. Shear failure of plates: A plate may fail in shear this will happen when the
edge distance provided is inadequate edge distance is pecified.
3. Tearing failure of plates: Failure may be due to the tearing of a plate or a
number of plates between the rivet holes. Due to drilling of rivet holes the
strength of plate in tension is reduced and consequently the plates may tear
off.
4. Bearing failure of plates rivets: Failure of the joint the joint may be there due
to the crushing of the plate or of the rivet due to the mutual pressure on the
cylindrical surface of the rivet and the plate around the rivet this type of
failure is called failure bearing.
5. Splitting failure of plate: Splitting failure of plate may occur because of in
sufficient edge distance in the riveted joint cracking of plate.
Efficiency of joint: It is defined as the percentage ratio of strength of riveted joint
to the strength of solid plate
Efficiency of riveted joint (n) = Least strength of riveted joint/strength of soild
platex100
Number of rivets: Number of rivet can be determine after calculating rivet value
Hence no. of rivets = Load/rivet value
= next whole number

Bolted and welded connection

The structural member generally consist of structural section which are joined
together the most common types of structural steel connection are riveted
connection bolted connection and welded connection. In bolted connection nuts
and bolts are used.
Advantages of bolted connection
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.

Bolting is cold process


Bolting operation is quicker
There is no noise in bolting operation
For making the connection less man power is required.

Disadvantages
i.
ii.

Strength of joint is reduced if they get loosened due to vibration.


The dia of the hole is kept more than diameter of bolt. The extra
clearance does not get filed up.

Bolt: A bolt is a metal pin with a head formed at one end and shank threaded at the
other end to receive a nut
Types of bolt:Structural bolt are classified as given below:i.

According to shape of head.


Square bolt

ii.

iii.

ii. Hexagonal Bolt

According to pitch
Standard pitch bolt
Coarse pitch bolt
Five pitch bolt
According to material
Ordinary structure bolt
High strength steel bolt

iv.

According to tyoe of shank


Unfinished or black bolt
Turned bolt

Specification for bolted joints:1. Clearance for holes for fasteners bolts may be located in standard size, over
size, short or long slotted hole.
a. Standard clearance hole:- Except where fitted bolt, bolt in low clearance
or oversize holes are specified the diameter of standard clearance holes
for fasteners
b. Over size hole:- Holes of size larger than the standard clearance holes
may be used in slip resistant connection and hole down bolted connection
only where specified provide the over size holes in the outter is covered
by a cover plate.
Minimum spacing:- the distance between center of fasteners shall not be less than
2.5 times the nominal diameter of the fastener.
Maximum Spacing:- The distance between the centres of any two adjacent fastener
shall not exceed 32 or 300mm which every class.
Edge distance:- The edge distance is the distance at right angles to the direction of
stress from the center of a hole to the adjacent edge.
End distance:- The end distance is the distance in the direction of stress from the
centre of a hole to the end of the element.
Welded joints:- Welding join two parts together permanently and they cant be
separated without breaking riveted joints, welding provide good mechanical
strength to the joined part.

Welded connections:- When two member are joined together permanently by


welding the connection is called a welded connection.
Welding:- The process of making a permanent connection between two metal parts
by heating them to molten state along with additional metal known as filler is
called welding.
Advantages:i.

Welded joints affect a saving on the total weight of gusset plates are

ii.

rarely required this reduces the cost after structure.


The welding process doesnot involve driving holes as in the case of
riveted tension member deduction have to mode for the one lost due to

iii.

punching of holes.
Welded structure are stiffer, lighter, cheaper and none efficient as

iv.

compare to riveted structures.


The process of welding is quicker than riveting.

Disadvantage
1. Welding require skilled labour and suppression.
2. As there is uneven heating and colling the welded member are likely to get
wrapped at the welded surface.
3. The process of welding may set up several internal stress in the vicinity of
the welds.
4. Testing a welding joint is difficult.
Types of weld:There are two types of weld:1. Butt welds
2. Fillet welds

1. Butt weld: This type of weld is used when the member to be connected butt
against each other. Various types of butt joints are named depending upon
shape of groove made for welding.
i.
Plane or require weld
ii.
Single V-butt weld.
iii. Double V-butt weld.
iv.
Single u-butt weld.
v.
Double V-butt weld.
vi.
Single J-butt weld.
vii. Double J-butt weld.
viii. Single bevel butt weld.
ix.
Double bevel butt weld.
Types of bolted joints: There are two types of bolted joint.
i.
ii.

Lab joint
Butt joint

1. Lap joint:- The members to be connected are overlapped and connected


together lap joint can be single bolted or double bolted. In a lap joint
eccentricity is developed as the center of gravity of load in one member is
away from the center of gravity of load in other member create couple and
the joint can fail in bending. This failure can be avoided by providing two
bolts per joint
2. Butt joint:- The butt joint is used to connect the structural member placed in
line i.e. there is no lap which eliminates the eccentricity as developed in lap
joint.
Cover plate is provided on both sides of joint cover plate provided on one
side is called single cover butt joint and if provided on both sides is called
double cover butt joint.

Failure of bolted joint:The failure of bolted joint Is due to failure of the bolt and the failure of connected
members.
1. Shear failure of bolts:- When the connected member slip due to the forces
applied shear stress develop the nominal shear capacity of the bolt being
exceeded than the maximum shear capacity of bolt.
2. Bearing failure of the bolts:- When slip takes palce and the material of the
connected member is weaker then it gets crushed to the near by bolt or the
edge distance towards load gets effected.
3. Tearing failure of plates:- The failure occurs when the strength of the bolt is
more than the plate. The plate gets tear.
Strength of bolt joint:The strength of bolting joint bearing type connections should be taken as least of
strength value in shearing, bearing of joint.
Fillet weld:- When two members overlap and are join by welding is called a fillet
weld. It is also known as lap weld. A fillet weld is a weld of approximately
triangular cross section joining two surfaces approximately at right angles to each
other in lap joint.
Types of fillet weld
i.
ii.
iii.

Side fillet weld


End fillet weld.
Diagonal fillet weld.

Technical term used in the design of fillet weld:-

a. Size of fillet weld:- The size of normal fillet weld specified as minimum leg
length or a convex or minor fitted weld.
b. Effective throat thickness:- It is the perpendicular distance from the root of
fillet weld to the line of joining it toes.
Tension member
Introduction:- Tension member is defined as a structural member subjected to
tensile force tension member is also called as tie member or simply a tie.
Types of tension member :Single rolled steel structural members and plates:- The angle section structural
shapes like angle and tee section are normally used as tension member and the
angle section are considerable more rigid than the roads and bars. Single angle
section are widely used as tension members in plate girder etc.
Double angle section:- Used extensively in roof trusses may be connected to gusset
plate on the same or opposite faces. In placing the gusset plate in between the two
angles.
T-section: tee section as a substitute for double angles on both sides of gusset plate.
Compression member
A member ina structure which is subjected to compression is known as
compression member.
Classification of compression member
Struts: A strut is defined as structural member subjected to compression in a
direction parallel to its longitudinal axis.

Columns: a column is defined as a structural member subjected to compressive


force in direction parallel to its longitudinal axis.
Booms: Compression member of a crane are called boom.
Single angle section
1. This is the most common and simple type of compression members used in
roof trusses. It is also used as bracing in plate girder.
2. Both equal and unequal angles can be used.
3. The angle section are considered to be uneconomical because they provide
very small value of radius of gyration about minor principle axis.
4. Single angle sections provide more eccentricity than double angle sections
because only one leg is attached to the gusset plate.
5. The single angle section are commonly used in the single plane trusses.
6. Single angle section one not suitable for compression member of long
lengths.
Double angle section
1. Double angle section canbe used as struts by placing them either on the
same side or on both sides of the gusset plate.
2. Both unequal and equal angle section can be used as a strut.
3. Doubles angle should be so arranged that they give maximum moment of
inertia.
Some common terms used in design of struts
1. Radius of gyration (r):- The radius of gyration of a section is a geometrical
property of the section and is denoted by r.
2. Slenderness ratio:- The slenderness ratio of a compression member is
defined as ratio of effective length of compression member to its least radius
of gyration

Angle struts:- The compression members consisting of angle section are of two
types
Case I : Continuous member:- The compression members which are continuous
over a number of joints are known as continuous member. The top chord members
of truss girder and principal after of a roof trusses are examples of continuous
members.
Continuous member may be single angle or double angle struts and may be
connected by one or more rivets, bolts or welding.
i.

Effective length:- The effective length of continuous compression


member is adopted as depending upon degree of end restraining

ii.

conditions.
Permissible axial compressive stress

Common section of compression members:1. Single angle section: They are the simplest type of compression member
used in roof trusses and as bracing in plate girder. Angle section can be equal
or unequal. The angle are uneconomical section as these give very small
radii of gyration about minor principal axis moreover bending is caused due
to eccentricity as only one leg is attached to gusset plate.
2. Double angle section:- The angle section can be used as struts by placing
these either on the same side of a gusset plate or on both sides of a gusset
plate angle section may be equal or unequal. But these should be arranged to
get the maximum value of least moment of inertia.
Types of section
The following are different forms of section used as compressive members:-

1. Single angle section:- These can be used as light load struts in roof trusses
unequal angle section have only one leg is attached to gusset plate.
2. Double angle secton:- The angle section can be used as struts by fixing them
either on the same sides of gusset plate or on both sides of gusset plate.
Double angle section may be equal or unequal.
3. I-section: I-section can be used as a column and H-beams are more suitable
as these provide minimum difference in two radii of gyrations. To get
stronger section additional plates can be attached on both flang of H-beams.
4. Channel section:- Single ISMC and ISLC are suitable as columns for light
loads. Double ISJC, ISLC and ISMC can serve as good columns when laced
or battened and these can supports moderate loads.

Roof trusses
The roof truses may be defined as the framed structures in which separate straight
member are so arranged and connected at their ends that the members from tringles
which lie in the same plane.
Advantages of roof truss:- Following are the advantages of roof truss.
1. The roof trusses are provided at places which requires sloping roofs. The
2.
3.
4.
5.

sloping roofs are necessary where rainfall and snowfall is more.


The roof trusses are suitable for relatively light loads and large spans.
The roof trusses have the advantage of permitting variety of roof shapes.
It is economical for spans more than 6 meters.
Dead load of structure reduces.

Components of a roof trusses


The member of a trusses are broadly classified as main members and secondary
members. The main members are the structural member which are responsible for

carrying and distributing the applied load and provide stability to truss. The
secondary member are the structural member which are provided for stability and
restraining the main members from buckling or similar modes of failure.
Various parts of steel roof truss are
1. Top chord members: Top chord is defined as the uppermost line of members
extending from one support to the other and passing through the peak point
of truss are called top chord of a roof truss. This is the main member of a
truss and is helpful in carrying loads and distributing it further to other
members.
2. Bottom chord members: The bottom chord is defined as the lower most line
of members of truss extending from one support to other. The bottom chord
is also known as the lower chord of the roof truss. In simply supported
trusses member in the bottom chord are subjected to tension but in case of
cantilever trusses the lower chord members will be in compression.
3. Web members:- Members connecting the top and bottom chord members are
called web members. Web members can be vertically or diagonal. These
members are considered as secondary members which are helpful in
providing stability and restraining the main member from buckling.
Various terms used in steel roofs trusses
1. Span: The span of a roof truss is defined as the distance between center to
center of supports. The span of a roof truss is decided by the dimesnions of
area to be kept free of columns.
2. Rise : The rise of roof truss is defined as the distance from the highest point
to the line joining supports. It is vertical distance between bottom chord to
the peak of the truss.
3. Pitch:- The ratio of the rise to the fall span is called the pitch.

4. Slope: The slope of a symmetrical truss is defined as ratio of rise to half the
span. It is the tangent of the angle between top and bottom chord of the roof
truss. The slope provided must be sufficient to drain of the rain water must
be sufficient to drain of the rain water without leakage at the joint of
covering material.
5. Purlins: The purlins are the structural members subjected to transverse loads
and rest on the top chord of roof trusses. The purlins support the sheathing
covering or roofing material
6. Rafter: The rafters are beams and rest on purnils. Rafter support the
galvanized iron and asbestos cement sheets. These are called common rafters
so as to distinguish them from principal rafter.
7. Sheathing: The sheathing are covering of boards or reinforced concrete. The
sheathing one supported on purlins or rafters. The sheathing provide support
for the roof covering.
8. Panel:- The panel is defined as a distance between two adjacent joints in a
principle rafter of a roof truss. It may also be defined as the distance between
two adjacent purlins.
Types of roof trusses:The various types of roof trusses are
1. King post truss:- King post truss is a wooden truss. It can also be built of a
combination of wood and steel. It is suitable for spans upto 8m.
2. Queen post truss: It is also a wooden truss and it is suitable for spans upto
10m.
3. Howe truss:- this truss is made up of combination of wood and steel. The
vertical members one tension members made of combination of wood and
steel.
4. Fink for French roof truss: These type of truss are suitable for spans upto
10m. these are made up of steel. They are very economical from of roof

truss. The length of compression member one small in these type of trusses.
Fink trusses one also known as French roof trusses.
Spacing of roof trusses:For a roof structure the most economical spacing of trusses depend upon number of
factors. The economical spacing of the trusses are defined as the spacing that
makes the overall cost of trusses, purlins roof covering column etc.
Pitch of roof truss: The ratio of the rise to the full span is called as pitch. It is also
sometimes expressed as the angle between upper and lower chords. The value of
pitch depends upon
a.
b.
c.
d.

Climatic conditions
Light and ventilation required
Nature of the load on the trusses
Roofing material selected.

Columns
A column is defined as vertical structural member subjected to compressive force
in a direction parallel to its longitudinal axis.
Classification of columns
A column may be classified as long medium or a short column depending upon the
mode of its failure.
1. Long column : It is that column which fails mostly due to buckling or side
bending. Its failure is because the length of the column is so proportioned to
the lateral dimensions that slenderness ratio of member increases and hence
chances of buckling also increases.

2. Medium column: A column in which failure occurs both due to direct stress
and buckling.
3. Short column: In short columns, the length of the column is so proportional
to the lateral dimension that the failure of the lateral dimesion that the failure
of the column purely due to crushing.
Buckling of columns
The outward bending of column is called buckling commences is called buckling
load.
Effective length of column: the length of column which participates in buckling is
called effective length of the column.
Types of column bases:
The column are supported on the column bases. The column bases are used to
transfer the load from the column to base and further distribute it uniformly on the
concrete foundation blocks. Column bases are the important and integral part of the
structure and should be designed with utmost core and skill.
The column bases can be of two types:1. Slab base:- The slab base consist of cleat angles and base plate. The ends of
the column one machined for bearing over the whole one. This type of base
suitable for carrying load of less intensity. The column end is connected to
base plate by welding or by means of rivet cleat angles. In slab base no
gusset plates are required in order to secure the horizontal movement of
plate, four rag bolts are provided in the four corners of the plate and are
embedded in the concrete base.

2. Gusseted base:- In the gusseted base, gusset plates angles and cleat angles
are used on either side of the column. This types of gusseted base is suitable
for heavy loading. The load coming over the column is transmitted to the
base plate through the gusset plates attached to the flange of the column by
means of angles also known as gusset angles.
Framed connection: A steel structure is a frame work of assembly of different
structural members. To provide a proper load path for the effective transmission of
load from the super structure to the foundation, the beams are connected to beam
or columns. Beams can either be connected to column by rivets or welds.
Beam to column connection:The beam to column connections are classified into the following two categories
1. Framed connections:- When a beam is connected to a column by placing two
angles on two sides of the web of a beam is called a framed connection. The
framed connection is normally connect beam to beam.
2. Seated connections:- When a beam is connected to sranchion with the help
of an angle at the bottom of the beam. It is called seated connection. This
connection is commonly used in beam and column.

Beams
A beam is defined as structural member usually straight and subjected to transverse
loads normal to its axis. These transverse loads induce shear and bending moments
in the beams.
1. Floor beams:- This is the main beam supporting the joint this may be a
transverse beam supporting a bridge floor.

2. Lintel :- Beam spaning over the door openings and windows are called
lintels.
3. Purlins: This is a roof beam supported by the purlins.
4. Spandrel beam:- It is a beam at the outermost wall of the building supporting
the floor and the wall upto the floor.
5. Plate Girder:- It is a beam used to cover long spans of steel railway bridges.
Assumptions in the theory of simple bending following assumption have been
made in the theory of simple bending
1. The section of the beam is symmetrical about vertical axis so that the
bending takes place in a vertical plane.
2. The beam is assumed to act in simple bending which means that
a. The load supporting reactions and the longitudinal axis of the beam lie in
the same plane before and after bending.
b. The cross section of the beam does not twist during bending.
c. The beam material is stressed within its elastic limit and hence oblys
hookes law.
d. A plane cross section of beam which is plane before bending will remain
plane after bending.
e. There is no resultant pull or push across the transverse section of the
beam.
Moment of inertia: Moment of inertia of a structural section is an important
property which is useful in the design of structural members. moment of inertia
may be defined as the algebraic sum of moment of areas of small elements
constituting the section about axis passing through the centre of gravity of section.
Bending moment :- Bending moment at any section of the beam is equal to the
algebraic sum of moment of all the vertical forces about that section.
Shear force:- Shear force at any section of the beam can be defined as the algebraic
sum of all the vertical forces acting on the beam on either side of section.

Bending stresses: due to external loading on beams, the shear force and bending
moments are developed at all the sections of the beam. Due to the shear force and
bending moment, the beam undergo certain deformation.
Section modulus:- It is defined as the ratio of moment of inertia of a section to
distance of theremost edge of the section from the neutral axis, therefore we can
represent section modulus.
Laterally supported beam
The laterally supported beam are also called laterally restrained beams when lateral
deflection of the compression flang of a beam is prevented by providing effective
lateral support then the beam is known as laterally supported. In the laterally
restrained beams, the value of allowable bending empressive stress remains
unchanged and no reduction is made in its value. Therefore bending stress in
compression is consideration equal to bending stress in tension.
Fabrication and erection of steel structure
It is the process of preparing components ready for assembly at site. Steel work is
fabrication in afactory into components of various shape and sizes.
Following steps are followed in fabrication of steel structure
1. Based on design drawings, shop drawing are prepared after taking into
account the codal provisions and permissible clearances.
2. Quantities are calculated from drawings and accordingly the materials are
arranged sometimes templates are prepared for repetition work.
3. Best fit to keep minimum wastage in generated manually or through
computer aided programs.
4. Cutting and welding facilities should be provided for use.
5. Material is cut to required sizes and dimensions checks are applied.

6. The prepared members frames are sent for sand blasting, priming coat, paint
applications.
7. The material are stored or transported depending upon requirements.
Erection: Erecrtion is the process of assembling the fabricated components on site
with careful planning. The errection work can be completed relatively faster. Once
the pieces have been fabricated they are transported to site and connected together
to make the framework which forms the skeleton of the building. To take full
advantage of benefit of speed of construction which steel work offers. It is
necessary to order material sufficiently in advance and prepare the site to receive
the steel frames well in time.
The following precautions are exercised while erection of steel frames:
1. The proper layout and sequence of erection is planned and drawn along with
handling lifting equipments, machinery and proper manpower as per the
requirement of end product.
2. After every fixing checks are applied. The elements in general have not to be
forced fit and corrections have to be made if found misfit.
3. The erection sequence must match the stability of structure and balance has
to be made at every step.
Typical erection steps of multistory building including following work sequence:
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.

Pile/Raft footing with provision of foundation bolts.


Fixing of base members on foundation bolts with leveling nuts.
Erection of tower cranes.
Erection of vertical members with columns supports.
Joining of horizontal and diagonal members at floor levels.
Erection may be done for all the storeys as required.
Simultaneously glazing, fixing of G.I. Sheets must be done.

Erection of columns at site

Following points be kept in mind for the erection of columns at site:1. Each column has to be correctly positioned in plan or cline but side by side
it is also necessary to check the correct level and orientation.
2. Generally rolled steel I-section are used as columns sometimes built up
columns are used.
3. They must be checked for vertically with the help of plumb.
Case II :- Discontinuous member

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