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FIBERED PAVING BLOCK

1. INTRODUCTION
Book 4 Segmented concrete paving is a system of individual shaped blocks
arranged to form a continuous hardwearing surface overlay. Over the past
two decades, paving composed of segmental blocks has become a feature of
our towns and cities. It is to be found in commercial industrial and
residential areas, in the paving malls, plazas, parking areas and bus stops. It
has been successfully used for embankment walls, slope protection and
erosion control. During this period, extensive research has been carried out
on the engineering characteristics and structural performance of segmental
block paving. Existing pavements subjected to heavy bus traffic and
industrial loads have been monitored and their service life shown to be
satisfactory. The India Bureau of Standards has published specifications
relating to the quality of concrete paving blocks and required standards of
construction. The Committee of Urban Transport Authorities has published a
catalogue of designs for segmental block pavements. The engineering and
specification aspects have been satisfactorily solved, and this type of paving
has a proven performance and service record. But the aesthetic use of
segmented paving and the contribution it can make to improve our urban
landscape is only now being appreciated.

Roman road built 2000 years ago using segmented paving.


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FIBERED PAVING BLOCK

HISTORY
Although pavers made out of concrete may be a new product, the
use of paving blocks as a surfacing material is anything but new. The first
record of stone paving dates back to 4000 BC in Assyria and by 2000 BC,
flagstones were being used to pave village streets. Cobblestones were the
traditional method of stone paving, being uncut and often water-worn stones or
large pebbles about 150mm in size. Later hand-cut stone blocks were
introduced. Road-making using brick was common in Mesopotamia n 2000 BC
and clay brick paving was in use in India in 300 BC. It was the Romans who
introduced hexagonal-shaped flagstones as a surface course, so the concept of
shaped, rather than rectangular blocks, is certainly not new. Perhaps the most
famous of all Roman roads is the Appian Way, built by Roman engineers in 312
BC. The 377 kilometer road was surfaced with tight fitting paving stones that
still carries traffic between Rome and Italys south eastern port of Brindisi.
Concrete paving blocks were first manufactured in the
Netherlands in 1924. It was probably World War II that led to the growth of
concrete blocks as a paving material. Large areas of the Netherlands were
destroyed during the War and, because clay bricks were in short supply (and
what was available was being used to rebuild housing), concrete blocks were
introduced as an alternative. Subsequently, concrete block paving (cbp) became
recognized as a paving material in its own right. The research carried out by
Shackel in the late 70s and early 80s remains the most comprehensive yet
conducted into the performance of concrete block paving. A hierarchy of block
shapes was developed, the existing design curves were examined, the role of the
bedding and jointing sands was investigated in earnest, and various base and
sub-base materials were tested.

FIBERED PAVING BLOCK

APPLICATIONS OF PAVING BLOCK PA


VINGCK PAVING
Concrete pavers are a versatile paving material, which due to the
availability of many shapes, sizes and colures, has endless streetscape design
possibilities.
The use of concrete block paving can be divided into the
following categories.
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FIBERED PAVING BLOCK

ROADS

Main roads
Residential roads
Urban renewal
Intersections
Toll plazas
Pedestrian crossings
Taxi ranks
Steep slopes
Pavements (sidewalks)

COMMERCIAL PROJECTS

Car parks
Shopping centers and malls
Parks and recreation centers
Golf courses and country clubs
Zoos
Office parks
Service stations
Bus termini
Indoor areas
Places of worship

INDUSTRIAL AREAS
Factories and warehouses
Container depots
Military applications
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FIBERED PAVING BLOCK

Mines
Wastewater reduction works
Quarries
Airports and harbors

DOMESTIC PAVING

Pool surrounds
Driveways
Patios
Townhouses and cluster homes

SPECIALIZED APPLICATIONS

Cladding vertical surfaces


Storm water channels
Embankment protection under freeways
Roof decks

ROADS:

FIBERED PAVING BLOCK

The change in texture of the road surface at intersections produces an


audible change in road noise, thereby alerting drivers to the fact that they are
approaching the intersection. The surface characteristics of the blocks offer
a greater resistance to skidding in wet weather, largely due to the chamfered
joints of the blocks and the rapid dissipation of surface water. Should
remedial work be necessary, e.g. on underground services, blocks can be
removed and replaced without impairing the overall appearance of the road
pavement. The use of red blocks on roads at the approaches to the
intersection produces a distinct visual difference, thereby promoting care
and awareness among drivers.

FIBERED PAVING BLOCK

Major road construction using concrete block paving. A technically excellent


surfacing, which also provides community upliftment in the from the job
creation during the construction.

At pedestrian crossings, a designer can place a different texture or


colour from that of the street or parking area. This distinguishes pedestrian
areas from vehicular areas, providing a safe haven for the pedestrian,
especially those with physical handicaps.
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FIBERED PAVING BLOCK

COMMERCIAL PROJECTS

Car parks are typically exposed to the full rigours of sun and rain. Unlike
asphalt surfaces, concrete block paving shows little weathering or deterioration
under these circumstances and yields low maintenance costs. An imaginative
designer can overcome the drab monotony too often characteristic of parking
lots, by exploiting the wide range of colours and textures provided by concrete
pavers. Another advantage of concrete block paving is the maintenance-free
Demarcation of parking areas. Concrete block paving provides an attractive
hard-wearing surface for parks. It blends with the environment and breaks
up the harshness of conventional hard Landscaping.

FIBERED PAVING BLOCK

INDUSTRIAL AREAS

At factories and warehouses concrete block paving has the ability to


withstand concentrated heavy loads and to resist the wheel loads of off-road
vehicles such as cranes and forklifts.

At factories and warehouses, concrete block paving has the ability to


withstand concentrated heavy loads and resist the wheel loads of off-road
vehicle such as cranes and forklifts.
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FIBERED PAVING BLOCK

DOMESTIC PAVING

Concrete block paving provides functional yet very attractive pool surrounds.

Concrete block paving blends in with the landscape and increases the
attractiveness and value of townhouses and cluster homes.

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FIBERED PAVING BLOCK

SPECIALISED APPLICATIONS

Embankment protection alongside freeways. The use of concrete block


paving is a very effective and quick method of slope protection

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FIBERED PAVING BLOCK

Century City roof deck with a good detail across the expansion joint.

PATTERNS IN CONCRETE PAVING BLOCKS Concrete block pavers come in a variety of shapes and sizes . If we consider
for a moment the aesthetics of concrete block paving, three fundamental aspects
present themselves:
Shapes
Colours
Patterns
Applying just a few variables to each aspect presents a myriad of
options from which even the most discerning client may happily choose.

SHAPES

Aristocrat

Satinpave

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FIBERED PAVING BLOCK

Conleaf

Classic Cobble

Clover Tiffany

Honeystyle

Corolock, Double zig zag

Corolink

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FIBERED PAVING BLOCK

COMPARISON OF CONCRETE PAVING BLOCKS WITH


OTHER TYPE OF PAVEMENT
In certain specific areas of application, block paving, with its costeffectiveness, aesthetic qualities, ease of construction and maintenance and inservice advantages, is the paving of choice. In Table 2, a comparison with
conventional flexible and rigid pavements, based on these attributes is given. In
general, it can be said that concrete block paving excels in terms of cost and
performance in the following circumstances:
Where heavy or concentrated wheel loads are to be carried and especially where
a high frequency of turning or slewing movements is expected.
Where volume of traffic is high.
Where sub-grade conditions are poor.
Where the pavement must withstand severe in-service conditions such as
considerable temperature variations, frequent fuel, oil or lubricant spillage or
extensive, significant and substained settlement.
Where ready access to underground services is required.
Where the appearance and aesthetic qualities of the pavement are major design
considerations.

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FIBERED PAVING BLOCK

ADVANTAGES OF PEVING BLOCKS

High abrasion and skid resistance.


No damage from petroleum products.
No damage from concentrated point loads or high
Temperatures.
No damage by soap or detergents

REQUIREMENTS FOR CONCRETE PAVING BLOCKS


Properties :
Blocks should meet structural requirements for paving specified in terms of
block compressive strength and /or tensile splitting strength).
Blocks should be durable: they should be able to withstand abrasion , impact
and chemical attack .
Blocks should be of uniform dimensions to facilitate correct and easy placing
and ensure good readability .
THE MANUFACTURE OF CONCRETE PAVING BLOCKS :
Tests have shown that 25 MPa blocks are structurally adequate. Experience
indicates however that strength levels should be increased to ensure a higher
probability of durability. Block thickness is specified according to traffic and IS
1200 MJ specifies standard thicknesses of 50, 60, 80, 100 and 120mm. It is
rarely economical to manufacture the last two sizes. Also in some geographical
locations pavers that absorb too much water turn very dark.

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FIBERED PAVING BLOCK

2. SELECTION OF MATERIALS
cement :
The strength class should be 43,53 garde or higher because blocks are
required to develop good strength relatively quickly to permit early delivery
without excessive breakages.
Aggregate
general:
Natural aggregates used in the manufacture of concrete paving blocks should
meet the requirements for aggregates for concrete given in IS Aggregates from
natural sources Aggregates for concrete. Slag aggregates may also be used if
they can be shown to be physically and chemically sound. Waste materials, or
materials not in demand, are often sought after as these are generally relatively
cheap. But the use of such materials could be at the expense of quality or result
in increased costs due to the need to use higher cement contents to maintain
quality. These materials might also create compaction difficulties which could
adversely affect productivity and durability. The performance of aggregates at
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FIBERED PAVING BLOCK

the moulding stage and in the hardened block depends on the combined effects
of particlesize, grading, particle shape, and hardness.

size :
The recommended maximum nominal size of aggregate is 13,2 mm. However,
the maximum size generally used is 9,5 mm. Smaller sizes may be used to suit
circumstances or may be specifically selected to obtain a particular surface
texture. Generally, the use of coarse particles results in savings in binder
provided the mix is properly proportioned if coarse aggregate particles are too
big, or if too much coarse aggregate is used in the mix, it may be difficult to
achieve good compaction and acceptable surface texture.
Pigments:
Quality pigments are commercially available to add colour to paving blocks.
Dosage, which will depend on the colour selected and the natural colour of the
aggregate and cement being used, is generally 5%, but not more than 10%, by
mass of the cement. Experimentation may be required to determine the correct
dosage because the colour of the finished product in a dry state is influenced by
density, curing and surface texture.
DUST :
In quarrying and construction, wasted material means wasted
profit. Crusher dust is a completely natural byproduct of various
mining operations that helps manufacturers increase profits. Some
companies spend more time refining their crusher dust than others, and
the rougher versions of the dust are sometimes known as manufactured
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FIBERED PAVING BLOCK

Description
In appearance, crusher dust has a grayish or brownish tone with very
fine aggregate particles, like a soft sand. These particles, when looked at
under a microscope, are rough cubes and individually have a rough surface
texture.
Uses
Crusher dust is used primarily as filler and cement aggregate.
Construction contracts use the sand to weigh down objects or fill in cracks
in patios or other stone creations. When used in concrete, the crusher dust
mixes in with larger aggregate to help form a specific texture. The dust is
also used to make mortar and other similar materials.
Benefits
Crusher dust has many of the useful properties of the stone that it
comes from. It is very heat resistant and contains no plastic chemicals that
may be toxic to the surrounding environment over time. The chemical nature
of crusher dust is very dependable and largely alkaline which helps
manufacturers use it confidently in a variety of materials. It is also durable,
strong, and can be easily compressed into tight spaces.
JUTE FIBRE :
Jute, as a natural fibre, has inherent advantages like silky luster, high
tensile strength low extensibility, considerable heat and fire resistance and long
staple lengths. Jute can be used in many different areas, and has been receiving
increasing attention from industry. Their interests focus not only on the

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FIBERED PAVING BLOCK

traditional uses of jute, but also on the

production of other value-added

products such as, pulp and geo-texture, composite etc.

Jute fiber is being dehydrated after retting alongside a road

Jute Rope

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FIBERED PAVING BLOCK

LIME:
Lime has been used as a primary ingredient in masonry mortars for
centuries, and this important use continues to the present day in both historic
and contemporary applications. Mortars made with lime and cement exhibit
superior workability balanced with appropriate compressive strength, as well as
low water permeability and superior bond strength. Lime is a major constituent
in exterior and interior stuccos and plasters, enhancing the strength, durability,
and workability of these finishes. All of these lime applications are supported
by IS specifications and standards.
CHEMICAL ADMIXTURE:
Concrete paving blocks are manufactured from semi-dry mixtures which
possess poor flow properties even under vibration. Using a water reducing or
plasticizing admixture to improve compatibility may be cost effective.

3. MANUFACTURING EQUIPMENT

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FIBERED PAVING BLOCK

Batching equipments:
To ensure that a uniform product is obtained, weigh-batching is
recommended. For smaller projects, whole bags of cement should be used if the
sizes of batch and mixer are compatible.
Mixer :
Because a semi-dry mixture is used to mould concrete paving blocks,
effective mixing can be done with pan and trough mixers. Drum-type mixers
are unsuitable. The size of the pan mixer must be related to production so that
batches are used up within a reasonable time, i.e. before workability is reduced
by moisture loss or hydration of the cement.
Moulding machine:
Unlike bricks and blocks used for masonry, paving blocks must be dense
(fullest possible compaction to be achieved). Equipment must be capable of a
high degree of compaction and satisfactory output. A combination of vibration
and pressure is the most effective way of achieving compaction. Moulding
pressure should be 10 MPa or more. Stationary plants using the pallet system
are almost exclusively used as they are capable of providing the necessary high
levels of vibration and pressure. Hand machines and egg-layers are unlikely
to produce a satisfactory product unless cement is used.

Curing chamber :

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FIBERED PAVING BLOCK

Newly moulded blocks should be subjected to some form of curing. The form
of curing ranges from the prevention of moisture loss to the use of elevated
temperature and high humidity, e.g. steam curing.
Sieve size Cumulative mm percentage passing :
13, 2 - 100
9.5 , 90-100
4.75 , 70-85
2.36 , 50-65
0.30 ,10-25
0.15 , 5- 15
Fineness modules 3.2 , 4.2

4.MANUFACTURING PROCESS

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FIBERED PAVING BLOCK

Batching:
The different aggregate types should be stored separately and in such a way
that they are well drained. The cement except when batched by whole bags,
should be weighed to an accuracy of 1%. Aggregates should be weighed to an
accuracy of 2%. It is essential to make allowance for moisture contained in the
aggregate wt. by aggregate batching.

Mixing

After batching, the aggregates and binder are discharged separately or


simultaneously, together with pigment if required, into the mixer and
thoroughly mixed before any additional water is added. Mixes having high fines
contents may requirelonger mixing. Based on measurement of the variable
moisture content of the aggregates or visual assessment by experienced
personnel, water is added to the mixture. Uniformity is important because
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FIBERED PAVING BLOCK

differences in water content from batch to batch will result in differences in


quality. After mixing, the mixture (and topping mix if required) is stored in
hoppers ready for dispensing into the moulds.

Filling of moulds:

Most production machines operate on one of two basic principles. In the first
and more widely used system, an amount of mixture is progressively compacted
under vibration until a predetermined height has been reached. In the second
system, a gauged quantity of mixture is compacted for a set period. In both
cases, variations in density will result if the gauged quantities are not consistent
or the mixture is not uniformly distributed within the mould. These variations
are over and above those due to variations in moisture content. Filling isusually
facilitated by a period of previbration after which themoulds are topped up
with a second filling of mixture. Thermal curingNewly moulded paving blocks
are placed in an insulated chamber for a period of 24 hours. Temperature is
increased by the heat of hydration of the cement and no additional heat is
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FIBERED PAVING BLOCK

provided. The method


is therefore inexpensive. A constant temperature of
35C or more can be maintained with this system. A high humidity is provided
from moisture within the units and good curing can be achieved. After initial
curing by one of the methods described above, the pavers are sufficiently hard
for stacking, packaging, etc. Shrink-wrapping helps retain moisture for
extended hydration but might promote lime bloom.
Compaction:

The optimum period of vibration must be determined experimentally


in the plant but is usually 3 to 12 seconds. Good compaction is more difficult to
achieve in thicker blocks and those that have acute angles. For this reason
concrete pavers with a thickness greater than 80 mm are seldom manufactured.
Frequency and amplitude of vibration should be optimized for the specific
materials being used and the number of blocks being moulded per cycle .

Curing :
As with all concrete products, the quality of concrete pavers is improved by
water curing. However, it is not practicable to apply significant amounts of
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FIBERED PAVING BLOCK

water onto newly moulded pavers or subsequently to subject them to water


sprays or immersion in water. The phenomenon of efflorescence further
complicates curing in practice. Here the calcium hydroxide combines with
carbon dioxide from the atmosphere to form less soluble calcium carbonate
which is white in colour. Known as lime bloom, it is particularly noticeable on
coloured pavers. Other than for aesthetic reasons, lime bloom is not a problem
and will disappear with time by normal weathering and the action of rainwater
which is mildly acidic.

Quality control :
Control measures should be implemented to :
a) Monitor changes in materials so that timely changes can be implemented in
manufacture.
b) Routinely monitor the quality of the product for compliance with the
specification.
Measure under category :
a) include
c) Regularly monitor changes in grading and moisture content of aggregate.
d) Monitor mix consistence
e) Measure wet density of blocks (by weighing). Causes for a change in density
must be investigated. The more routine quality/compliance test under category
b) include:
f) Check on dimensions of blocks .
g) Test strength of blocks .
h) Carry out abrasion tests at an appropriate a
5.TESTING

UTM MACHINE:

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FIBERED PAVING BLOCK

6. RESULT

SR.
NO

TYPES
BLOCKS

OF SYMBOL

LOAD (KN)
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FIBERED PAVING BLOCK

N1
N2
N3
CF1
CF2
CF3

3 DAY
237.18
160.94
153.84
303.9
272.48
280.88

7 DAY
357.020
347.480
356.820
400.000
400.180
349.800

28 DAY
371.380
369.270
360.650
391.980
400.080
400.700

LF1

161.34

244.380

222.600

LF2

166.88

241.660

225.870

LF3

183.33

210.800

229.230

Cement + Lime + CLF1


243.08
324.620
Fibre
Types Of Blocks
weight (Kg.) 318.560
CLF2Average220.58

395.760

1.

Normal

2.

Cement + Fibre

3.

Lime + Fibre

4.
Sr.
No

399.080

CLF3
197.88
322.280
400.910
3 Days
7 Days
28 Days
3.443
3.349
3.526

Normal

Cement + Fibre

3.140

3Sr.
4No

Lime
Fibre
Types+ Of
Blocks
Cement + Lime + Fibre

3.118
2.990
Average load2.954
(KN)
3.209
3.204
3.080
3 Days
7 Days
28 Days
183.980
353.770
367.100

1
2
Sr.no
3
4
1.
2.

3.

4.

Normal

3.250

3.317

Cement + Fibre
285.750
383.320
TYPES
OF SYMBOL WEIGHT (Kg.)
Lime + Fibre
170.510
332.280
BLOCKS
Cement + Lime + Fibre
220.510
3 DAY
7321.820
DAY
Normal
N1
3.506
3.322
N2
3.404
3.408
N3
3.421
3.318
Cement + Fibre
CF1
3.053
3.331
CF2
3.232
3.146
CF3
3.136
3.275

397.586
398.583
28DAY
3.525
3.517
3.536
3.325
3.219
3.408

Lime + Fibre

225.900

LF1

2.977

2.952

2.856

LF2

3.153

2.875

3.120

LF3

3.226

3.035

2.994

Cement + Lime + CLF1


Fibre
CLF2

3.329

3.148

3.129

3.091

3.259

2.948

CLF3

3.207

3.195

3.163

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FIBERED PAVING BLOCK

SR.
NO

TYPES OF BLOCKS

SYMBOL

COMP.STRENGTH (N/mm 2)

3 day

Normal

Cement + fibre

3Sr. Types
Lime +
Offibre
Blocks
No
41

Cement+fibre+lime
Normal

Cement + Fibre

Lime + Fibre

Cement + Lime + Fibre

7 day

28 day

N1
10.78
16.22 23.20
N2
7.31
15.79 22.55
N3
6.99
16.21 23.14
Cf1
13.81
18.18 25.90
Cf2
12.38
18.19 25.95
Cf3
12.76
15.90 22.69
Lf1Average
7.33
14.75 15.82
weight (Kg.)
Lf2
7.58
14.48 15.65
Lf33 Days8.33
13.63
7 Days 14.64
28 Days
Clf1
8.36 11.04
16.07 11.10
22.9521.77
Clf2
10.02
10.98 20.60
12.98
17.42
24.8720.99
Clf3
8.99
10.98
7.74
14.62
15.07
10.01

10.55

20.88

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FIBERED PAVING BLOCK

COMPRESIVE STRENGTH CHART

30
25
20
Normal
Cement + Fibre

15

Lime + Fibre
Cement + Lime + Fibre

10
5
0
3 day

7 day

28 days

WEIGHT CHART
3.6
3.5
3.4
3.3
3.2

Normal

3.1

Cement + Fibre
Lime + Fibre

Cement + Lime + Fibre

2.9
2.8
2.7
2.6
3 Days

7 Days

28 Day

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FIBERED PAVING BLOCK

RATE ANALYSIS
SR. NO.

TYPES OF BLOCKS

RATE PER BLOCK

NORMAL

9.48 Rupees

CEMENT + FIBRE

9.48 Rupees

LIME + FIBRE

9.15 Rupees

CEMENT
FIBRE

LIME

+ 9.31 Rupees

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FIBERED PAVING BLOCK

7. CONCLUSION
The every type of jute fibre has been tried out in cement and
concrete , not all of them can be effectively and economically used.
From above discussion it is clear that the fibred paving blocks
are economical in cost & give high strength than normal regular paving
blocks.
First type of paving block is cement + fibre paving block. It is
same in cost as regular paving blocks & give more strength than regular
paving blocks. These blocks are used for high strength work. Likes
construction of road work, air ports etc.
The Second type of paving block is cement + lime + fibre.
These paving blocks are cheap in cost & give same strength of normal
paving block. This blocks are used in parking, footpath construction etc.
And Third type of paving block is lime + fibre. This type of
paving blocks are very cheap in cost but does not give good strength as
compare to regular paving blocks this blocks are used for low strength
construction work .likes gardens, parking, footpath, verandah etc .

8.REFRANCES

WEBSITES:

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FIBERED PAVING BLOCK

www.cma.org.za
www.jutefibre.co
www.pvb.co.in

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FIBERED PAVING BLOCK

APPENDIX 1
Mix Proportion per block
NORMAL
1) Cement-330gm.
2) Fly ash-570gm.
3) Dust-830gm.
4) Grit-730gm.
CEMENT+FIBRE
1) Cement-330gm.
2) Fly ash-570gm.
3) Dust-830gm.
4) Grit-730gm.
5) Fibre-1gm.
CEMENT+LIME+FIBRE
1) Cement-165gm.
2) Fly ash-570gm.
3) Dust-830gm.
4) Grit-730gm.
5) Fibre-1gm.
6) Lime-165gm.
LIME+FIBRE
1) Fly ash-570gm.
2) Dust-830gm.
3) Grit-730gm.
4) Fibre-1gm.
5) Lime-165gm.
APPENDIX 2
Rates (per material)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Cement - Rs.0.99
Fly ash - Rs.2.01
Dust - Rs.3.12
Grit - Rs.2.37
Fibre - Raw material
Lime - 0.82

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