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Torsion in Closed Sections

ACADEMIC DISCUSSIONS of torsion in closed sections can be found in most textbooks on elasticity; however, there is a notable lack of literature containing an engineering approach to this subject. This may be due to the fact that, until recently, pipes were the only closed sections commonly used in engineered structures. With the increased use of welding, and with developments such as "orthotropic" steel bridge decks, closed sections will undoubtedly be encountered more frequently in engineering practice. This paper will discuss the analysis of torsion in closed sections from an engineering point of view. Emphasis is placed on the physical significance of equations, rather than exact theoretical proofs. It is hoped that this treatment will lead to a better understanding of the engineering aspects of the subject. The advantage of a closed section under torsional loading is illustrated by a comparison of the bridge deck ribs in Fig. 1. An eccentric load P exerts a force larger than P on the right hand rib in Fig. 1a. In the case of a closed rib (Fig. 1b), the force may be replaced by load P at the centroid of the section plus a couple Pe. The load P is equally divided between the sides of the closed member, permitting savings in material. The torsion must be resisted by the rib but, as will be shown later, it is absorbed without the introduction of additional longitudinal stresses and hardly interferes with the moment- resistant capacity of the rib. Fig. 1. Bridge sections

Siev

is

Senior

Lecturer,

Technion-Israel

Institute

of

Technology, Haifa, Israel, on leave with Severud Associates, New York, N. Y.

AISC ENGINEERING JOURNAL

46

TORSION IN OPEN SECTIONS OF NARROW RECTANGLES

Most structural steel open sections can be considered to be made up of combinations of narrow rectangular "building blocks". The torsional characteristics of a rectangular element are normally given by the following equations:

bt

3

K =

3

(1)

t ==

3 M

p

bt

2

==

M

p

t

K

(2)

where

q =

M

p

GK

(3)

 K = torsional resistance constant (torsional rigidity) t = torsional shear stress M p = primary torsional resisting moment (St. Venant) q = angle of twist per unit length G = modulus of elasticity in shear Fig. 2. Shear distribution in a narrow rectangular section Fig. 3. Comparison of two rectangular sections with one double length

 © 2003 by American Institute of Steel Construction, Inc. All rights reserved. This publication or any part thereof must not be reproduced in any form without the written permission of the publisher. Fig. 4. Examples of sections consisting of narrow rectangles

Since torsional rigidity of a rectangular element is a linear function of its width, it is evident that the rectangular section 2b × t in Fig. 3a can be considered to have the same rigidity as the assumed combination of two rectangles b × t in Fig. 3b. The distribution of torsional shear in a single rectangular section is compared with the distribution of stresses in two rectangular elements of equivalent total width in Figs. 3a and 3b. The central region of each rectangle is stress-free in the y-direction, but contains stresses in the x-direction. There is negligible difference between the sum of the internal force couples, resulting from shear stresses near the edges of the rectangles, whether the section is a single element or is made up of component parts. The shear forces acting in the y- direction at the adjacent faces of the two-part section are self-neutralizing. The unit shear stresses acting in the x- direction as a couple in the two-part section will not be effective in the corners of the rectangles; thus, there will be a very slight reduction in torsional moment capacity from that provided by the single element section. The larger the b/t ratio, the smaller the difference in torsional moment capacity between sections represented by Figs. 3a and 3b. In considering most standard rolled steel sections as combinations of rectangular elements, the b/t ratio is sufficiently large to make valid the assumption of equal moment capacity. As for twist, the edges CD and EF in Fig. 3b remain straight under pure torsional loading, and the two rectangles in combination can be assumed to deform the same as the single, wider rectangle in Fig. 3a. The angle q will be the same, since K will be the same in each case. The same method of combining narrow rectangular elements is applicable to other shapes, such as angles, WF- beams, channels, etc. (see Fig. 4). The torsional rigidity of the shape can be considered to be approximately the sum of the torsional rigidities of the individual components. If the thickness of all the rectangles in a shape is the same, the total rigidity is that of a rectangle of total developed length. The same concept applies to curved sections, such as the slotted ring of Fig. 4f, but the shape does not provide any greater torsional strength than shapes such as Figs. 4a through 4e, assuming equal thickness and equal developed length.

47 Fig. 5. Warping of open sections

WARPING

Analysis of sections such as the WF, I, channel and open polygon shows that twisting is accompanied by displacements in the z-direction, and the section does not remain plane under torsional loading unless restrained (see Fig. 5). This kind of deformation is called warping. In the case of the open polygon (Fig. 5b), warping causes relative movement between edges A and G. This movement is prevented in the closed section (Fig. 6a) by shear induced between A and G, which is transmitted along the whole perimeter. By isolating one rectangular element of the polygon (Fig. 6b), it is seen that the vertical shear is accompanied, as is always the case, by an equal horizontal counterpart. The longitudinal shear stresses are in equilibrium, but the transverse shear stresses are additive along the perimeter of the polygon, and combine to counteract part of the external torque. Figure 7 shows that the resistance of a closed section to external torque may be assumed to consist of two parts. For example, the deformation of plate AB in Figs. 7c and 7d can be arbitrarily considered as two effects: 1) twisting of the element about the longitudinal axis, and 2) shear deformation in the plane of the plate. The twisting effect is an angular displacement of line A¢¢B¢¢ with respect to line AB, and results in shear stresses as shown in Fig. 7e. The shear deformation in Fig. 7d is a deformation of the plate in its own plane with the points A and B shifting to the right along A¢¢B¢¢, thereby transforming the rectangle into a parallelogram. This deformation is caused by pure shear in the plates as was shown in Fig. 6. The stresses due to pure shear in the closed section are shown in Fig. 7f. The actual stress distribution shown in Fig. 7g is then the sum of the two components:

twisting and pure shear stress. Essentially only the shear

JANUARY/1966

 © 2003 by American Institute of Steel Construction, Inc. All rights reserved. This publication or any part thereof must not be reproduced in any form without the written permission of the publisher. Fig. 6. Shear and deformation of closed sections Fig. 7. Deformation and stresses of closed section

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stresses due to twisting of each element, the smaller of the two components, resist pure shear in open sections. The ratio of the two components is influenced by the geometry of the section. Even without mathematical analysis, it is obvious that the thinner the plate (compared with its other dimensions), the smaller will be the stresses due to twisting compared to the stresses due to restrained warping. Moreover, the distance, e, between the stress resultants in Fig. 7e is much smaller than in Fig. 7f. The role of pure torsional or twisting stresses in resisting torque can be considered to be negligible in the case of closed sections. The advantage of closed sections over open sections, in which twisting is a major factor, is clear. For simplicity, the analysis in this paper will be based on the assumption that the torque is absorbed by shear forces

uniformly distributed over the thickness of the plate as in Fig.

6.

CHARACTERISTICS OF CLOSED SECTIONS UNDER TORSION

From the foregoing, it may be concluded that:

a. Pure torsion M p induces only shear stresses, unaccompanied by tension or compression stresses.

b. Shear forces acting on edges of component elements are equal. (This follows from elementary conditions of equilibrium.)

c. Shear force per unit length is uniform throughout the polygon. (Note the reference to force per unit length rather than unit stress. This follows from equilibrium conditions with regard to interaction of each plate with adjacent elements (Fig. 6b)).

d. Unit shear force is not applicable to plates projecting from a closed section (such as the cantilevers in Fig.

1b).

e. The resultant of the shear forces acting on the perimeter of a closed cross-section is zero in the x- and y-directions, so that only a moment remains.

Analysis —The capacity of a closed section can now be calculated by considering any point 0 as a reference point (Fig. 8). For the nth plate element with length a n , the shear force is v an , and the moment about 0 is

(4)

M n,0 = va n e n Fig. 8. Torque capacity of closed section polygon is sum of its sections

48

 © 2003 by American Institute of Steel Construction, Inc. All rights reserved. This publication or any part thereof must not be reproduced in any form without the written permission of the publisher.

Now, a n e n is double the area of triangle ABO. Thus the contribution of each section is v, multiplied by the double area of the corresponding triangle between the section edges and point 0. The overall capacity of the section is

(5)

where A polygon is the area of the polygon. Specifically, the center lines of the plates should be taken as the sides of the polygon. This is correct for a stress distribution as in Fig. 7f. According to the actual distribution (Fig. 7g), the stress resultant is slightly off center, but the deviation is negligible. As the plates are not necessarily of the same thickness, the stresses will also vary between them. The stress t n in the nth plate will be

(6)

M t = 2tA polygon

t n

=

v

n

t

n

and substitution in Equation (5) yields

(7)

which is a convenient form for comparison with a narrow rectangular section. Substituting K from Equation (1) in Equation (2), and bearing in mind that

(8)

the torque for a narrow rectangular section can be formulated by analogy to Equation (7):

(9)

The difference between Equations (7) and (9) lies not so much in the coefficients (2 against 1/3) as in the character of A. For the hollow section, A is the area bounded by the plate, whereas for the narrow rectangular section, it is that of the material. The former exceeds the latter many times, hence the vast superiority of the closed section to resist torsion is evident.

M t = 2ttA polygon

A = bt

M t = 1/3 ttA polygon

Warping of Closed Sections —It has already been shown that shear stresses develop in closed sections and that there can be no relative displacement of the edges of the theoretical plate elements. Warping is reduced considerably as a result, and is often completely eliminated as will be explained later. The stresses in a closed section under torsion are, to a certain degree, similar to those involved in warping torsion. In both cases the external forces are resisted by shear forces uniformly distributed over the thickness of the plate, with larger lever arms between stress resultants. The presence of warping torsion in open sections, however, depends on compatibility between load distribution and end conditions (Fig. 9). In closed sections normal stresses are not essential

49 Fig. 9. Warping stresses of a cantilevered open section Fig. 10. When flexural stiffness of flanges is high compared with torsional stiffness, flanges act as horizontal beams

since the transverse shear is balanced by a longitudinal internal counterpart (Fig. 6b). Continuing this analogy, the ratio of pure torsion stresses to warping stresses in open sections can be determined. Evidently, the higher the ratio EC w /GK, the greater the role of the warping stresses as against those of pure torsion. If the flexural stiffness of the flanges in the planes of the flanges is very high, the lateral beam deflection is very small, and twist is limited, even though the torsional stiffness is very low (Fig. 10). This is analogous with accepted practice in fully continuous structures where the strong elements take a larger share of the acting forces. The rigidity of a plate in a closed- section is extremely high, since the pure shear forces cause no bending. Relative slip at edges between adjacent plate elements is prevented, but the original planar condition of the edges is not necessarily preserved. The edges between adjacent plates remain straight as shown in Fig. 6c in cross-sections of uniform thickness. Now, let us assume that the end-polygon remains planar i.e., no warping, and consider the necessary conditions (Fig. 11). For small angles of twist

where

u n

=

=

f =

e n

u n = e n tan f = e n f

(10)

displacement of the end of the nth plate in its plane distance from center of twist

total angle of twist

JANUARY/1966

 © 2003 by American Institute of Steel Construction, Inc. All rights reserved. This publication or any part thereof must not be reproduced in any form without the written permission of the publisher. Fig. 11. Geometric conditions for warp-free torsion of closed section Fig. 12. Graphical solution for center of twist

As the plate is further removed from the center of twist, the larger will be the displacement at its end. On the other hand

(11)

where g is the shearing strain, actually an angle. Equating the right-hand side of Equation (10) to that of Equation (11), we have

u n = l tan g = lg n

g n

e

= f

n l

 e n f = lg n (12) = q = constant for all plates (13)

This implies that the ratio of shear strain to distance from twist center is equal for all plates, and those nearer the twist center should have a smaller shear strain. The latter is given by

g n

=

t

n v

=

G t G

n

(14)

Substituting in Equation 13 and rearranging:

e t

n

n

lv

= f G

= constant

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(15)

50

If this relationship does not exist, then line AB, which was in

a plane perpendicular to the axis, will be warped out of the

plane after the deformation. It may be concluded that to avoid warping the plates nearer the center of twist should be thicker, and those further removed should be thinner. In this case, the center of twist can be found graphically (Fig. 12). Imaginary forces proportional to plate thickness and directed towards the center are assumed to act at the edge of each plate. A line in the direction of the resultant is drawn through each corner. The sum of the moments of the two

forces t n1 and t n about any point P on the line of the resultant

is zero

and

e n1 t n1 + e n t n = 0

e

n

-

1

t

n

-

1

=

e t

n

n

(16)

(17)

Equation (15) is thus satisfied for any point on the line of the resultant with respect to the adjoining plates, and if all resultants meet in a single point O, this point is the center of twist and Equation (15) is satisfied for all plates. In this case there will be no twist. However, in all other cases, the plates must undergo a certain rotation, so that the overall displacement of one end relative to the other, is in accordance with the geometrical conditions specified before. This rotation causes the warping W. Analysis of the warping is based on the condition of no slip between plates (Fig. 13). If the displacement of point A in the z-direction is denoted by W A , that of point B is

(18)

and that of point C is that above plus the contribution due to the section BC:

W C = W B + (b 2 - g 2 ) a 2 = W A ± (b 1 - g 1 )a 1 + (b 2 - g 2 ) a 2 , etc.

W B = W A + (b 1 g 1 )a 1

(19)

In short, the longitudinal displacement of each joint is the sum of the terms of Equation (18) from point A Fig. 13. Geometric relations when plate undergoes shear strain and rotation

 © 2003 by American Institute of Steel Construction, Inc. All rights reserved. This publication or any part thereof must not be reproduced in any form without the written permission of the publisher.

to that in question. Each term may be positive (for b > g) or negative (b < g), and thus the longitudinal displacement of each consecutive point may increase or decrease. The sequence concludes again with point A, in accordance with the non-slip condition:

W A + Â(b n g n )a n = W A

or

Â(b n g n )a n = 0

where the summation symbol covers all plates forming the closed section. The value of b n is obtainable from the geometrical condition, using Equation (10) and rewriting Equation (11) as

(20)

(21)

Substituting u n from Equation (10) and transforming, b n is obtained as:

b n = e n f/l = e n q

(22)

u n = l tan b n = lb n

where q is the angle of twist per unit length, unknown for the time being. Substitution of b n and g n in Equation (20) yields an equation for the unknown q:

Â

Ê

Á e q

n

-

v

ˆ

˜ a

n

= 0

 Ë Rearranging, q and since q is obtained as q

t

n

G ¯

=

v

G

Â

Âe a

n

n

a

n

t

n

Â e n a n = 2A polygon

=

v

Â

a

n

2

GA

polygon

t

n

(23)

(24)

(25)

(26)

q may now be substituted in Equation (22) to yield b n , and further substitution of b n in Equations (18) and (19) yields the warping.

Closed Sections with Partitions —Consideration of bending in the plates, or buckling, often necessitates recourse to partitioned closed sections (Fig. 14). The latter are statically indeterminate, since any of those shown in Fig. 15 in solid lines are essentially capable of absorbing torsion, and the overall torsional capacity is the sum of the component capacities. The only condition for equilibrium is that the shear force v per unit length be the same for any junction of two plates (Fig. 16a), and that for any junction of three plates (Fig. 16b):

v 1 = v 2 + v 3

(27)

51 Fig. 14. Partitioned closed sections Fig. 15. Parts of section capable of absorbing torsion Fig. 16. Condition of equilibrium at junctions of plates

The direction of the arrow is considered positive. Only in

plastic design should these conditions be satisfied, and as many sections as possible should be assumed to yield. In elastic analysis, the deformations should be taken into account, and equations based on non-slip in the rectangles of Fig. 15 should be formulated. These equations are similar to Equation (23), except that v may vary along the perimeter

according to Equation (26), whereby

Â

Ê

Á e q

Ë

n

-

v

n

ˆ

˜ a

t

n

G ¯

n

=

0

(28)

The equations need be written only for part of the rectangles, the rest being satisfied automatically. Judicious choice of the rectangles, however, may reduce the number of unknowns (and equations) and simplify computations.

Need for Stiffeners —In the preceding discussion, only shear stresses were mentioned. Stiffeners should, however, be provided in two cases. First, when the shear stresses may cause buckling of the plate, where the design should then be the same as that of webs in pure shear. Second, when the manner of application of the external torque is such that transverse shear force is not applied to each plate element, and the section is incapable of producing this distribution

JANUARY/1966

 © 2003 by American Institute of Steel Construction, Inc. All rights reserved. This publication or any part thereof must not be reproduced in any form without the written permission of the publisher. Fig. 17. Sections without stiffeners are unstable in pure torsion Fig. 18. Sections without stiffeners absorb torsion by bending

as, for example, when no interior diaphragms are present. Two examples of this category are shown in Figs. 17 and 18. If the edge between plates A and B is assumed to be a hinge, only capable of transmitting shear between the plates and forces are applied through simple supports only, then pure torsion is ruled out. For equilibrium of the system shown in Fig. 17, the shear must be distributed between the plates by some kind of stiffness at the edges. If external forces act only at the edges, no intermediate stiffeners are needed. Obviously, if the plates are stiff enough, the shear is transmitted to plates A and C by transverse bending in the vicinity of the ends. The mode of failure shown in Fig. 17c is ruled out in this case. The system shown in Fig. 18 is slightly different. Under the same conditions torsion will result in a couple, inducing moments in plates B and D. Each of the latter act as a simply-supported beam, while A and C act as flanges reducing the stresses in B and D. Shears and stresses as

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shown in Fig. 18, are as in hipped-plate structures. Equilibrium without stiffeners is possible in this case, but shear stresses are higher and longitudinal stresses are also present; the latter combined with longitudinal stresses due to other loads reduces the capacity of the system. If possible, diaphragms should be inserted at both ends, and at the section where torsion is applied. Whenever external torsion is distributed throughout the span, or likely to arise at any point (as in bridges), a set of stiffeners should be specified. The resulting stress distribution for torsion applied between stiffeners is as shown in Fig. 18. These stresses may be considered as acting on a secondary system, while the main system acts in pure shear as shown before. Fig. 19. Hollow square section for Example A

NUMERICAL EXAMPLES

Example A

Given: Torque of 50 kip-ft acting on a hollow square structural section, 8 × 8 in., wall thickness ¼ in., G = 12 × 10 6 psi. See Fig. 19.

Required: Shear stress t, and angle of twist q.

Solution: For simplicity, the section is assumed perfectly rectangular, disregarding the rounded corners.

A polygon = 7.75 × 7.75 = 60 in. 2

Equation (7) rearranged: M
50
¥ 12
t =
t =
= 20 ksi
2 tA
2
¥
1
¥
60
polygon
4

Since the section is symmetrical, the center of twist can be found according to the procedure shown in Fig. 12 and there is no warping. The angle of twist is obtainable with the aid of Equations (13) and (14):

52

q

=

 g = t = 20 000 , e Ge 12 ¥ 10 6 ¥ 3 7 8

=

0 43

.

¥

10

3

in.

-

1

 © 2003 by American Institute of Steel Construction, Inc. All rights reserved. This publication or any part thereof must not be reproduced in any form without the written permission of the publisher.

Example B

Given: Same torque and section as in Example A, except that the section is slotted (open, as in Fig. 5b).

Required: Shear stress.

Solution: The section perimeter is

b = 4 × 7.75 = 31 in.

By Equations (1) and (2)

t

=

3

M

3

¥

50

¥

12

=

bt

2

31

¥

0 25

.

2

= 930 ksi

The stresses are far above the yield point. If a closed section (without a slot) is used, instead of a slotted section, the bar is 46.5 times stronger.

Example C

Given: Slotted section, as above.

Required: Moment that will produce the angle of twist q =

found in Example A, and the

× corresponding stresses.

0.43

10 3

in. 1

Solution:

By Equation (1)

K =

bt

3

31

¥

0 25

.

3

=

3

From Equation (3), transposed,

0 43

3

M

p =

q

GK

=

.

¥

10

- 3

¥

12

¥

10

6

¥

= 0162

.

in. 3

0162

835 lb-in. = 0.063 kip-ft

=

.

t

=

3

M

3

¥

0835

.

=

bt

2

31

¥

0 25

.

2

=

13

.

ksi

This, in conjunction with Example A, yields the exact stresses for unslotted sections instead of the approximate ones. For q = 0.43 × 10 3 in 3 , the actual moment is the sum of the moments in the two examples

M actual = 50 + 0.069 = 50.069 kip-ft

The shear distribution is as in Fig. 7g. For the external face:

t = 20 + 1.3 = 21.3 ksi

For the internal face:

t = 20 – 1.3 = 18.7 ksi

The calculated increase in moment capacity is negligible. The variation in stress is greater with a thicker plate for sections of the same overall dimensions. In plastic design, this variation may be disregarded, since the whole thickness is under yield stress at failure.

53 Fig. 20. Hollow rectangular section for Example D

Example D

Given: A torque of 50 kip-ft acts on a hollow rectangular section 12 × 4 with ¼ in. wall thickness (Fig. 20). Warping is ruled out because of end condition.

Required: Shear stresses r, angle of twist q, and warping at the corners.

Solution:

A polygon = 11.75 × 3.75 = 44.2 in. 2 50
¥ 12
t
=
= 27 2
.
ksi
2
¥
1
¥
44 2
.
4

Note that the material is the same as in Example A, but the

stresses are considerably higher.

The angle of twist is obtainable with the aid of Equation (25). As the plate is of constant thickness, Equation (25) reduces to

q

=

27 2

.

q

2

¥

12

¥

10

3

¥

44 2

.

=

t

2GA

polygon

Â

a n

2

(

¥ ¥

1175 .

+

3 . 75

)

0 795

.

=

¥

10

-

3

in.

- 1

The twist is almost double that of a square section of the same area and moment. Substituting Equation (22) in Equations (18) and (19),

W B

=

W

A

+

Á e q

Ë

Ê , and so on for C and D

t

ˆ

˜

a

-

n

G

¯

n

Assuming tentatively that W A = 0,

W B =

Ê

Á

Ë

W C = -

1875

.

¥

8 . 95

¥

0 795

.

¥

10

- 3

+

Ê

Á

Ë

10

- 3

5875 .

-

¥

27 2

.

ˆ

˜ ¥

¯

12

= -

¥

.

10

8 95

3

¥

10

11 75

.

-

3

in.

0 . 795

¥

10

3

-

27 2

.

12

¥

10

3

ˆ

˜ ¥

¯

3 75

.

=

0

JANUARY/1966

 © 2003 by American Institute of Steel Construction, Inc. All rights reserved. This publication or any part thereof must not be reproduced in any form without the written permission of the publisher.

and

W D = W B = –8.95 × 10 3 in.

The resulting longitudinal stresses are shown schematically in Fig. 20b. Coplanarity of all four corners indicates tension at A and C, and compression in B and D. These stresses are in equilibrium and their distribution is only affected in the vicinity of the edge. Calculation of these stresses is outside the scope of this paper. Fig. 21. Section for Example E

Example E

Given: A torque of 500 kip-ft acting on a multiple closed bridge section, dimensions and geometry as in Fig. 21.

Required: Shear stresses in plates, and angle of twist (neglecting the contribution of the top cantilevers and ribs).

Solution: The unknowns are v 1, v 2 and q. For section 1-2-6-5 the shear in line 2-6 is v 1 v 2, and for section 2-3-7-6 it is v 2 v 1. This takes care of the condition for equilibrium expressed in Equation (26). The joint action of the three quadrilaterals is given by:

where

M

t =

2

v

1

¥

2

A

polygon 1 2

-

-

A polygon 1 2

-

-

5

-

6

A polygon 2 3 6

-

-

=

- 7

5

-

6

+

v

2

¥

2

A

polygon 2 3

-

10

+

7

2

¥ 6

=

51 ft

2

= 10 ¥ 6 = 60 ft

2

so that the first equation is:

500 = 204v 1 + 120v 2 kip-ft

-

6

-

7

and their mutual compatibility (non-slip) is given by:

2 qG =

1

S

v a

n

n

A

polygon

t

n

The second equation is:

2 qG =

12 È

Í

Î

51

v

1

Ê 10

Á

Ë

+

6

¥

8

+

7

¥

2

+

.

67

¥

8 ˆ

˜ -

¯

1

5

1

5

v

2

6

¥

8 ˘

5

˙

˚

AISC ENGINEERING JOURNAL

and the third equation is: 12 È
Ê 10
6
¥ 8
10
2 qG =
+
2
+
2
v
Í v
Á
¥
2 ˆ ˜ -
2
60
Ë
1 5
1 2
¯
Î
respectively.
v
=
1
v
=
1.56 kip/ft
1.53 kip/ft
2
q
=
3.08 × 10 –7 in. –1
v
1
t
= = 013
.
ksi
1
-
2
1
¥
12
v
-
v
1
2
t
= ~ 0
2
- 0
5
¥
12
8
v
1
t
= = 0 26
.
ksi
5
- 6
1
¥
12
2

6

¥

5 ˘

8

˙

˚

If loading is increased beyond the elastic limit, plate 5-6 will yield first, and then plate 6-7, and v 1 will equal v 2 .

54

NOMENCLATURE

a

a

b Length of a rectangular element

e

e

l

l n

n Subscript denoting nth plate element

t

t n

u

v

v

Width of a rectangular element Width of rectangular element for nth plate

n

n

Eccentricity; distance between stress resultants Distance from center of twist

Length of a rectangular element Length of rectangular element for nth plate

Thickness of a rectangular element Thickness of rectangular element for nth plate Displacement of end of nth plate in its plane

Shear force per unit length Shear force per unit length for nth plate Area of a polygon Warping resistance constant

n

n

A polygon

C w

E Modulus of elasticity

G Modulus of elasticity in shear

K

M p

M t

P

W

w A, w B, w C

EC w /GK

b

b n

g Shearing strain; angle of rotation

q Angle of twist per unit length

r Torsional shear stress

f Total angle of twist

Torsional resistance constant Primary or pure torsional resisting moment Total torsional resisting moment

Concentrated load Warping Displacement of points A, B and C Ratio of warping rigidity to torsional rigidity

Angle of rotation Angle of rotation of nth plate

 © 2003 by American Institute of Steel Construction, Inc. All rights reserved. This publication or any part thereof must not be reproduced in any form without the written permission of the publisher.

From the Journal of the Structural Division of ASCE

Papers which may be of particular interest to Professional Members of AISC

Volume 91, No. ST3, June, 1965

Role of Strain Hardening in Plastic Design

by Maxwell G. Lay and Paul D. Smith

ABSTRACT: The collapse mechanism theory of plastic design requires that hinges form at the maximum moment locations in a loaded beam. Rotation occurs at these hinges until the structure under consideration becomes a mechanism. The behavior variations between this mathematical idealization and a real structure are studied. Previous plastic design studies have implied or stated that a rigid-plastic or an elasto-plastic stress-strain diagram is adequate for plastic design purposes. However, the paper illustrates the importance of the material possessing a strain-hardening as well as a plastic range. It is shown that a collapse mechanism cannot form in a beam that is composed of a purely elasto-plastic material. The real behavior of inelastic beams with strain-hardening capabilities is studied. As particular cases the fixed-ended beam and the Stussi beam are examined. It is shown that Stussi's results are explained and predicted by considering strain-hardening and local buckling.

Bolted Bridge Behavior During Erection and Service

by Eugene Chesson, Jr.

ABSTRACT: Measurements were made of the movements at connections of a 310-ft railway bridge over a period of 3½ years. The study was intiated during shop-assembly of a truss and was ended after 3 years of service loading. As might be expected, substantial relative movements of the bridge joints occurred during erection with the addition of dead load, bracing and floor systems. The effects of the measured movements on changes in camber are examined and compared with level readings taken during the 3 years of traffic. In essence, no service movements were found; no evidence of a marked change in camber was found. These findings suggest that a properly designed structure with properly installed high-strength bolts will not slip under normal service loadings.

Analysis of Deflections in Elastic-Plastic Frames

by Niels C. Lind

ABSTRACT: A method is proposed to compute deflections throughout an elastic-plastic plane frame. It is related to the Williot- Mohr analysis for trusses. After the force analysis, all frame joints are pinned and member ends allowed to rotate. Continuity is then restored where required by movement of the pinned mechanism in beam and sway modes. The method is extended to statically indeterminate frames with force analysis by relaxation. Examples illustrate the application. The method is simple in concept and is suitable for practical use. The influence of the spread of the plastic hinges is explored in an appendix and found to be unimportant under normal circumstances with concentrated loads.

Shear Strength of High-Strength Bolts by James J. Wallaert and John W. Fisher

ABSTRACT: Double shear tests of single 7/8-in. and 1-in. high- strength bolts are reported. Altogether, ninety-six A325 bolts were tested in A7 steel jigs or in A440 steel jigs. Eighty-four A354BC, A354BD, and A490 bolts were tested in jigs made of A440 or constructional alloy steel. The effect of a number of variables on the shear strength and deformation at ultimate load was studied. The study showed that bolts tested in tension jigs had shear strengths 10 percent lower than bolts tested in compression jigs. Initial preload, faying surface condition, and type of connected material had no significant influence on shear strength. The shear resistance of a bolt was directly reflected by the available shear area. Also, it was found that the ultimate shear stress was approximately 73 percent of the tensile strength for A325 bolts tested in compression jigs and approximately 68 percent when these bolts were tested in tension jigs. For A354BC, A354BD, and A490 bolts, the corresponding values were 69 percent and 62 percent.

Volume 91, No. ST4, August, 1965

Misalinement in Bolted Joints by Desi D. Vasarhelyi and William N. Chang

ABSTRACT: The effect of various misalinement patterns on functional characteristics of the bolted joints has been investigated. The results have also been compared with findings of previous research. The conclusions indicate that unsymmetrical misalinement might cause definite readjustments in the behavior of the joints while in the process of loading. Major characteristics, such as ultimate load and joint efficiency, are not significantly changed. Because the readjustments require plastic deformations, the present results apply only to steels with sufficient range of plastic deformability.

Plastic Behavior of Tubular Beam Columns by Timothy J. Dwyer and Theodore V. Galambos

ABSTRACT: The elastic and plastic behavior of ASTM A-36 tubular beam columns is studied. Experimental results for three tests of tubular beam columns are presented. These tests show that the tubular section is appreciably stronger than a similar wide flange section. This is especially apparent when the beam column is subjected to a relatively large axial load. A theoretical investigation of the tubular shape of a beam column is also conducted. Theoretical moment-axial load-curvature ratio curves are derived for the tubular section with no residual stresses. Values of curvature are numerically integrated to obtain the theoretical beam column buckling load. These data are compared to current analysis equations for beam columns.

These Journals are available from ASCE (345 E. 47th St. N. Y. 17) at a list price of \$3.00 each (ASCE members and public and school libraries are entitled to a 50% discount). Reprints of individual papers cost 50¢ each (public and school libraries, 25¢; ASCE members, gratis). Please remit with your order.

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JANUARY/1966

 © 2003 by American Institute of Steel Construction, Inc. All rights reserved. This publication or any part thereof must not be reproduced in any form without the written permission of the publisher.

Studies of the Ductility of Steel Structures by Theodore V. Galambos and Maxwell G. Lay

ABSTRACT: Part of the energy of an ultimate loading or of a severe earthquake shock is usually absorbed by the inelastic deformation of

the structural frame. In order to assess the inelastic deformability of

a steel frame and its ability to absorb energy, it is necessary to know

the load-deformation behavior of its various components. The inelastic load-deformation response of beams, beam-columns, and beam-and-column subassemblages that are subjected to static unidirectional loading is examined. The relevant response criterion for a member is the end moment-end rotation relationship. It is shown, both from experimental and theoretical considerations, that the inelastic load-deformation behavior of many steel frames and frame components can be predicted and that, therefore, the energy absorption capacity of these frames can be assessed. Thus, the basis exists for a rational statical analysis and guidelines are provided for future dynamic studies.

On Composite Beams by William R. Spillers

ABSTRACT: Numerical calculations are presented to describe the behavior of a composite beam in which the concrete slab does not predominate and the neutral axis of the transformed section is well into the steel section. The general behavior of such a beam is examined and some inadequacies of the present code illustrated.

Torsional-Flexural Buckling of Thin-Walled Members

by Alexander Chajes and George Winter

ABSTRACT: A simple method of calculating the elastic, torsional- flexural buckling load of centrally-loaded, thin-walled columns with singly-symmetrical sections is presented. The method is based on the use of an interaction equation. Curves for determining the parameters necessary to use the interaction equation are given. Because buckling of singly-symmetrical sections can occur either in simple bending or in simultaneous bending and twisting, a set of curves for determining which of these modes is critical for any shape and length is also presented. By the use of effective lengths for bending and warping, the theory, originally limited to hinged and fixed ends, is extended to include members with elastic end restraints as well. Based on various experimental results, the linear theory is shown to predict satisfactorily the carrying capacity of actual columns that buckle elastically.

Volume 91, No. ST5, October, 1965

Structural Subassemblages Prevented from Sway

by Victor Levi, George C. Driscoll, Jr., and Le-Wu Lu

ABSTRACT: A method for analyzing nonsway beam-and-column subassemblages, which are parts of a braced multistory frame, is

presented. The type of subassemblage studied consists essentially of

a column fraimed at its ends to beams of known properties. When

subjected to load, the beams will deform with the column and thus provide restraint at the ends of the column. The method can be used to study both the elastic and inelastic behavior of subassemblages provided the material properties are known. Application of the method to the analysis of beam-columns continuous over several supports is also illustrated.

Criteria for Designing Bearing-Type Bolted Joints

by John W. Fisher and Lynn S. Beedle

ABSTRACT: The current (1965) criteria for proportioning bearing- type bolted joints are reviewed. The concepts of "balanced design" are examined and existing test results of bolted A7 and A440 steel connections fastened with A325 bolts are analyzed and compared

AISC ENGINEERING JOURNAL

56

with theoretical results. The examination of the currently used design concept showed that: (1) The concept of balanced design leads to inconsistent allowable bolt stresses for different plate materials; (2) the high-strength bolt behaves similarly under shear in a compact joint regardless of the type of connected material; and (3) the balanced design concept has no meaning in long joints because the bolts unbutton before the plate material can attain its full strength. A more logical design philosophy is suggested and possible design guides are outlined. The criterion is based on the shear strength of the bolt in various steel joints and is applicable to both the A325 and A490 high-strength bolts.

High-Strength Bolts Subjected to Tension and Shear

by Eugene Chesson, Jr., Norberto L. Faustino, and William H. Munse

ABSTRACT: This study was aimed at defining the strength and behavior characteristics of single, high-strength structural bolts under static loadings of tension and shear. A total of 115 bolts were tested and the results were analyzed with consideration being given to such factors as location of the shear plane of loading, proportion of tension and shear loads, length of grip, bolt type and diameter, and type of material bolted. The results were compared with design equations now (1965) used in the United States.

Analysis of Bolted Butt Joints

by John W. Fisher and John L. Rumpf

ABSTRACT: A general theoretical solution for the load partition in double-lap butt joints is developed. The solution is applicable to both the elastic and inelastic regions of bearing-type connections. The solution was aided by the development of analytical expressions for the stress-strain relationship of plates with holes and for the shear-deformation relationship of high-strength bolts. A digital computer program was developed to make the solution practical. The theoretical solution was compared with test results of large bolted connections and showed good agreement with the greatest difference between test and theory of approximately 4%. The solution is used to study the influence of varying the relative proportions of the bolt shear area and the net tensile area. This study showed that an increase in net plate area increased the average shear strength of the fasteners in the longer joints. Supplemental tests are shown to verify this behavior.

Plastic Analysis and Design of Non-Prismatic Members

by Bruce G. Rogers and William H. Munse, Jr.

ABSTRACT: A general method of plastic analysis and a procedure for the proportioning of non-prismatic members composed of symmetrical sections and subjected to proportional loadings has been developed. Plastic hinges are classified in terms of their location in order to facilitate the analysis. By using approximate hinge locations and repeated iterations, the actual hinge locations may be determined and the collapse load evaluated. The plastic design of a non-prismatic member consisting of a web and two flange plates involves several parameters which have been related. Design charts have been prepared that will enable a haunch of minimum weight to be selected for any specified loading.

Buckling Strength of Circular Tubes

by Charles G. Schilling

ABSTRACT: Structural design information on the buckling strength of circular steel tubes is presented. Column buckling and local buckling under axial compression, bending, torsion, transverse shear, and combinations of these loadings are covered. The effect of manufacturing and fabrication methods on the magnitude of geometric imperfections in the tubes, and hence on buckling strength, is examined.

 © 2003 by American Institute of Steel Construction, Inc. All rights reserved. This publication or any part thereof must not be reproduced in any form without the written permission of the publisher.