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Jeff Zhang, Michael Ramanathan

Case Studies on Pipeline Depressurisation


for Offshore LNG Development
AOG Perth
20th February, 2014

Experience that Delivers


Experience that Delivers

Agenda
Offshore Pipeline Depressurisation
Importance of Pipeline Depressurisation
Pipeline Depressurisation Modelling Approaches
Case Studies
Liquids Dominated System
Gas Dominated System

Conclusions and Recommendations

Offshore Pipeline Depressurisation


Reduction of pressure in offshore pipeline systems
Operation Shutdown
Hydrate Management
Maintenance

Why is Pipeline Depressurisation


Important?
System integrity and operability
Subsea pipelines
Topsides facilities limited space / weight
Potential risks
Low temperature occurrence
Liquid surge management

Pipeline Depressurisation
Modelling Approaches
Standard
Predefined constant composition
Look-up table with fluid physical properties
Widely used for design purpose
Inadequate for depressurisation scenarios
Compositional Tracking
Track fluid composition variation
Calculate in-situ fluid properties
Accurate but time consuming
Robust Design
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Schedule &
Budget

Case Studies
Liquids Dominated System Depressurisation
Depressurisation (Final state: Single phase - above bubble point)
Depressurisation (Final state: Multiphase - below bubble point)

Gas Dominated System Depressurisation


Inlet Side Depressurisation
Outlet Side Depressurisation

Case Study
Liquids Dominated System
Outlet topsides

Inlet topsides
Depressurisation
valve

Depressurisation
valve

Single phase
liquid system

Inlet
Riser

Inlet Riser base


Subsea pipeline system

Liquid Dominated System


Temperature Profile (Single Phase)
Minimum Temperature Profile during Depressurisation (Single Phase)
40
39
38
37

Temperature (C)

Compositional

Standard

36
35
34
33
32
31
30
50

55

60

65

70

75

80

Relative Pipeline Length (%)


7

85

90

95

100

Liquid Dominated System


Temperature Profile (Multi Phase)
Minimum Temperature Profile during Depressurisation (Multi phase)
40
39
38

Temperature (C)

37

Compositional

Standard

36
35
34
33
32
31
30
50

55

60

65

70

75

80

Relative Pipeline Length (%)


8

85

90

95

100

Liquids Dominated System


Accumulated Volumes

Variable

Unit

Single Phase
Depressurisation

Multi Phase
Depressurisation

Standard

High
Fidelity

Standard

High
Fidelity

Gas
Accumulated Volume

m3

N/A

N/A

2531

26725

Condensate
Accumulated Volume

m3

206

232

3928

10808

Water
Accumulated Volume

m3

12

16

170

661

Total Liquid
Accumulated Volume

m3

218

248

4098

11469

Liquid Dominated System


Summary
Standard vs. Compositional Tracking
Minimum Temperature: Insignificantly different
Liquid Surge Volumes: Critically different

The standard approach can be used in scenarios where


the system remains in single phase after depressurisation.
The compositional tracking approach should be used in
scenarios where the system reverts to multiphase during/
after depressurisation.

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Case Study
Gas Dominated System
Outlet topsides

Inlet topsides
Depressurisation
valve

Depressurisation
valve

Multiphase
WGC system

Inlet
Riser

Outlet
Riser

Inlet Riser base


Subsea pipeline system

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Gas Dominated System Initial Liquid Holdup Profile


Initial Liquid Gas
Holdup
Dominated
Profile (Compositional
System Bathymetry
vs. Standard)
Schematics
with Bathymetry
1

Bathymetry

0.9

Riser-Pipeline
Interface

0.8

Shallow
Water
Compositional

Liquid Holdup (-)

0.7

Standard

0.6

Bathymetry
0.5
0.4
0.3

Deep
0.2
Water
0.1
0
0%

10%

20%

30%

40%

50%

60%

Relative Pipeline Length (%)


12

70%

80%

90%

100%

Gas Dominated System


Liquid Accumulated Volume

Variable

Unit

Inlet Side
Depressurisation

Outlet Side
Depressurisation

Standard

High
Fidelity

Standard

High
Fidelity

Liquid Hydrocarbon
Accumulated Volume

m3

533

481

46

108

Liquid Water
Accumulated Volume

m3

38

42

Ratio of Total Liquid


Accumulated Volume
to Pipeline Inventory

65

58

12

1. Jeff Zhang, Ian Kopperman. Modelling of Topsides Repressurisation for Wet Gas Condensate
Systems for Development of Dry Tree Well Start-up Strategies, 16th International Conference
13 on Multiphase Production System, Cannes, France 12-14 June 2013.

Gas Dominated System Minimum Fluid Temperature

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Minimum
Fluid Temperature
Location

Unit

Subsea Pipeline

Inlet Side
Depressurisation

Outlet Side
Depressurisation

Standard

High
Fidelity

Standard

High
Fidelity

-5

Inlet Riser

-13

-3

-4

-4

Topsides
Immediately
Downstream of Valve

-78

-74

-66

-59

Minimum Temperature Profile


(Inlet Side Depressurisation)
Minimum Fluid Temperature Profile during Inlet Side Depressurisation
25
20

Inlet Topsides Riser Interface

Standard
Riser-Pipeline
Interface

15

Fluid Temperature (C)

Compositional

10
5
0
-5
-10
-15
-20
0%

1%

2%

3%

4%

5%

6%

Relative Pipeline Length (%)


15

7%

8%

9%

10%

Minimum Temperature Profile


(Outlet Side Depressurisation)
Minimum Fluid Temperature Profile during Outlet Side Depressurisation
25

Inlet Topsides Riser Interface

20

Standard
Riser-Pipeline
Interface

15

Fluid Temperature (C)

Compositional

10
5
0
-5
-10
-15
-20
0%

1%

2%

3%

4%

5%

6%

Relative Pipeline Length (%)


16

7%

8%

9%

10%

Gas Dominated System


Depressurisation - Summary
Standard vs. Compositional Tracking
Liquid Surge Volumes: Insignificantly different
Low Temperatures: Critically different

The standard approach can be used as the first-pass


assessment to reduce analysis timescales.
The compositional tracking approach presents cost-saving
opportunities for project engineering design.

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Comparison - Benefits of
Compositional Tracking Approach
Item
Critical
Scenarios

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Liquid Dominated
System

Gas Dominated
System

Multiphase depressurisation deepwater depressurisation


mobilising bulk liquids
across fluid bubble point

Outcomes

Significantly higher
liquid surge volume

Significantly warmer
minimum temperature

Impacts on
Design

Increased engineering
safeguarding to reduce
system integrity and
downtime risks

Cost saving opportunities on


material selections and
engineering safeguarding

Conclusions and Recommendations


Pipeline depressurisation can impact the design and/or
operation requirements for offshore LNG development .
Compositional tracking approach gives more reasonable
and accurate predictions.
It is onerous to be applied as a standard design approach
within project schedule and budget constraints.
It is recommended as verification exercises to ensure a
robust and optimal engineering design.

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Thanks for Listening


Any Questions?

Dr. Jeff Zhang & Michael Ramanathan


Wood Group Kenny Pty Ltd
432 Murray Street
Perth, Western Australia
jeff.zhang@woodgroupkenny.com
Vaithianathan.Ramanathan@woodgroupkenny.com
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