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TECHNOLOGICAL INSTITUTE OF THE PHILIPPINES

363 P. CASAL ST., QUIAPO, MANILA


COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND ARCHITECTURE
CHEMICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

EXPERIMENT NO. 5: SCREENING

SUBMITTED BY:

SUBMITTED TO:

JANUARY 29, 2015


EXPERIMENT NO. 5
SCREENING
Discussion:

Screening is a method of separating particles according to size alone. In


industrial screening the solids are dropped on, or thrown against, a screening
surface. The undersize, of fines, pass through the screen opening; oversize, or
tails, do not. A single screen can make but a single separation into two fractions.
These are called unsized fractions, because although either the upper or lower limit
of the particle sizes they contain is known, the other limit is unknown. Material
passe through a series of screens of different sizes is separated into sized
fractions, i.e., fractions in which both the maximum and minimum particle sizes are
known. Screening is occasionally done wet but much more commonly dry.
Industrial screens are made from woven wire, silk or plastic cloth, metak
bars, perforated or slotted metal plates, or wires that are wedge shaped in cross
section. Various metals are used, with steel and stainless steel the most comon.
In any screening apparatus, the effectiveness is determined. This is the
product of recovery of the desired size and the rejection of the undersized size.
Let x = mass fraction of the desired material
Recovery=

P xP
F xF

Rejection=1Recovery of Undesired Material=1


Effeectiveness=Recovery Rejection=E=
P ( x F x P )
=
F ( x Px F )
E=

x P ( x Fx P )
P ( 1x P )
1
x F ( x Px F )
F ( 1x F )

P ( 1x P )
F ( 1x F )

P ( 1x P )
P xP
1
F xF
F ( 1x F )

Materials:

200 MESH Screen


500 mL Beaker
Balance
Evaporating Dish
Stirring Rod
Burner
Salt
Zeolite

Procedure:
1. Weigh 500 grams of fine particles of sand on the beam balance. Transfer it to the screen
collector available.
2. Weigh20 grams of impure sodium chloride crystal and mix it whit the sand in the
collector. Compute for the mass fraction of the salt (x F) in the mixture.
3. Pour the mixture into 200-mesh screen and then, fit the colletor under the screen.
4. With the normal vibration,screen out the sand for about one minute and then, transfer
the particles above the screen to a previously weighed beaker. Get the weight of the
product mixture.
5. Add sufficient water and stir the mixture to dissolve the salt. Decant the sand and
remove the supernatant liquid through a funnel into a previously weighed evaporating
dish.
6. Evaporate the water in the solution and cool the dish. Weigh the dish again and compute
for the mass of the salt b difference. Then obtain the mass fraction of the salt (x P) in this
product.
7. Weigh the reject particles the collector and compute for the mass fraction of the salt (x R)
in it.
8. Determine the recovery, rejection and the effectiveness of the screen.
Experminental Set-Up:

Data and Results:

Analysis and Interpretation of Data


Determining the order of reaction and the reaction constant of sodium hydroxide is the
main objective of this experiment. The pH of the samples were determined using pH meter and
the fromula used for calculating the concentration of sodium hydroxide was,
C A =antilog [pH ]
the calculated C A will then serve as the initial concentration for the next sample.
Assuming that the reaction is in first order and using the data gathered,

-19.5
0

10

20

30

-20

-20.5
Concentration

f(x) = 0.02x - 21.74


R = 0.97

-21

-21.5

-22
Time

Reaction Order: 1st


Reaction Rate Constant: 0.0247

Conclusions and Recommendations:

40

50

60

In conclusion, the concentration of the sample was directly proportional to the time. First
order reactions depends on the concentration of only one reaction. In this experiment, sodium
hydroxide was the reactant with the first order; the other reactant was in zero order.
It is recommended that the instructions to use the reactor be clearly stated as it causes
misunderstanding which in turn causes error in handling the reactor. It is also recommended that
the reactor be thouroughlt cleaned as dusts and rusts can affect the results obtained.
Questions:
1. Enumerate the different industrial screening equipment.
2. Name and discuss the factors that contribute to the effectiveness of the screen.
3. It is desired to separate a misture of sugar crystals into fractions, a coarse fraction
retained on a 8-mesh screen, and a fine fraction passing through it. Screen analysis of
feed, coarse and fine fractions show
Mass fraction of +8 particles in feed
= 0.46
Mass fraction of +8 particles in coarse fraction
= 0.88
Mass fraction of +8 particles in fine fraction
= 0.32
Calculate the overall effectiveness of the screen used for the separation purpose per 100
kg of the feed.
4. Granular feldspar is produced by benefication of high alumna river sand. After screening,
drying and magnetic separation, the recovery is only 21%. The screen analysis of this
product on a dry basis is as shown:
Using Standard Sieve
Percent
-10 + 20
1.5
-20 + 40
24.0
-40 + 60
30.0
-60 + 80
18.5
-80 + 100
12.5
-100 + 120
8.0
-120
5.5
Answers to Questions:
1. Different industrial screening equipments:
a. Staionary screens and grizzlies
b. Gyrating screens
c. Vibrating screens
d. Centrifugal sifter
2. To obtain maximum effectiveness, the capacity must be small, and large capacity is
obtainable only at the expense of a reduction in effectiveness.