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Purpose

The purpose of this experiment is to apply the concepts of Bernoullis Law


and to check what factors that contributes to errors. Bernoulli equation
shows that changes in velocity along a horizontal streamline cause a
change in static pressure and the total pressure. We must also consider
the factors that have to be fulfilled in order for the equation to comply.
Lastly, this experiment also allows us to conduct pressure measurements
with varying cross sectional areas.
Equipment
1. Mobile rolling frame with bench top
2. Radial fan 0.55kW
3. Switch box and drawer for small parts
4. Air intake pipe with throttle valve and thermometer
5. Rectifier
6. Removable nozzle
7. Funnel for air inlet
8. Off-air pipe
9. Fixture for 16 fold water pressure gauge
10.
Water tank reservoir
Procedure
1. Radial fan is switched on while the measurement section of the Pitot
tube from the top of the tube.
2. The height in the first tube is recorded to measure the total pressure
3. The height in the second tube is recorded to measure the static
pressure
4. Dynamic Pressure is calculated by taking difference of total pressure
and static pressure.
5. The flow speed, denoted V is calculated being the function of the
cross section area of flow gland of the venturi sharp side.
6. Adjust the pitot tube so that it goes down 10mm.
7. Repeat step 2-6.
8. Radial fan is switched off.

Data & Results


Measuremen Length
t section
of the
from top y
duct
(mm)
L (mm)
00
10
20
60
30
55
40
50
50
45
60
40
70
40
80
40
90
40
100
40
110
41
120
42
130
43
140
45
150
46
160
48
170
49
180
51
190
52
200
54
210
55
220
57
230
58
240
60
250
61
Table 1: Length of duct

Measuremen

Ptotal

Height of water column


in pitot tube measuring
total pressure y1 (mm)

Height of water column


in pitot tube measuring
static pressure y2
(mm)
3.8
14.0
3.5
15.9
3.3
18.2
3.2
19.8
3.0
20.6
3.0
21.0
3.1
21.1
3.1
21.0
3.2
20.3
3.3
19.7
3.4
19.0
3.4
18.3
3.5
17.6
3.6
17.0
3.6
16.6
3.7
16.0
3.8
15.5
3.8
15.1
3.8
14.7
3.9
14.3
3.9
13.9
4.0
13.7
4.0
13.3
4.1
13.0
and heights of water column for static and total
pressure measurements

Pstatics

Pdynamic

Cross

Velocity

Flow

t section
from top y
(mm)
00
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
120
130
140
150
160
170
180
190
200
210
220
230

(Pa)

(Pa)

(Pa)

of air flow
V (m/s)

0.1186

sectional
area A (103
m2)
3.00

0.4473

rate Q
(10-3
m3/s)
1.3419

4.258
8
4.262
3
4.264
6
4.265
8
4.268
1
4.268
1
4.267
0
4.267
0
4.265
8
4.264
6
4.263
5
4.263
5
4.262
3
4.261
1
4.261
1
4.260
0
4.258
8
4.258
8
4.258
8
4.257
7
4.257
7
4.256

4.140
2
4.118
1
4.091
3
4.072
7
4.063
4
4.058
8
4.057
6
4.058
8
4.066
9
4.073
9
4.082
0
4.090
2
4.098
3
4.105
3
4.110
0
4.116
9
4.122
7
4.127
4
4.132
1
4.136
7
4.141
4
4.143

0.1442

2.75

0.4932

1.3563

0.1733

2.50

0.5407

1.3518

0.1931

2.25

0.5708

1.2843

0.2047

2.00

0.5877

1.1754

0.2093

2.00

0.5942

1.1884

0.2094

2.00

0.5944

1.1888

0.2082

2.00

0.5927

1.1854

0.1989

2.00

0.5793

1.1586

0.1907

2.05

0.5672

1.1628

0.1815

2.10

0.5534

1.1621

0.1733

2.15

0.5407

1.1625

0.1640

2.25

0.5260

1.1835

0.1558

2.30

0.5127

1.1792

0.1511

2.40

0.5049

1.2118

0.1431

2.45

0.4913

1.2037

0.1361

2.55

0.4792

1.2220

0.1314

2.60

0.4708

1.2241

0.1267

2.70

0.4623

1.2482

0.1210

2.75

0.4518

1.2425

0.1163

2.85

0.4429

1.2623

0.1128

2.90

0.4362

1.2650

5
7
240
4.256 4.148 0.1082
3.00
0.4272
1.2816
5
3
250
4.255 4.151 0.1035
3.05
0.4179
1.2716
3
8
Table 2: Results for total pressure, static pressure, dynamic pressure,
cross sectional area, velocity of air flow and flow rate of air
Data Analysis

The pipe is connected to the pitot tube to measure the


pressure. The total length of the pitot tube is 370.0mm in
length which filled with air and water at the bottom.

To obtain the pressure, equation below is used:


P air gh

(Pa)

where h=z y
h:height of air
z:total length
y:height of water
The cross sectional area of air flow is:
A WxL

(x10-3 m2)

Velocity of air flow can be obtained by this formula:


V

2 Pdynamic

air

(m/s)

Flow rate of air:


Q V A

(m3/s)

Calculation
Given,
Density of fluid = Density of Water, water = 1 kg/m3
Density of air, air = 1.1855 kg/m3
Width of the duct, W= 50mm

Using the data measurement section from top, y=20mm;


We obtain:
Length of duct, L=60mm;
Height of water column in pitot tube measuring total pressure, y1=
3.8mm
Height of water column in pitot tube measuring static pressure,
y2=14.0mm
Ptotal=airgh
=air x g x (z-y1)
=1.1855 kg/m3 x 9.81 m/s2 x (370.0-3.8mm) x (1m/1000mm)
=4.2588 kg/ms2
=4.2588 Pa
Pstatic=airgh
=air x g x (z-y1)
=1.1855 kg/m3 x 9.81 m/s2 x (370.0-14.0mm) x (1m/1000mm)
=4.1402 kg/ms2
=4.1402 Pa
From theory, the pressure difference between total and static pressures is
the dynamic pressure.
P Ptotal Pstatic Pdynamic

Pdynamic = 4.2588 - 4.1402 = 0.1186Pa


Cross sectional area of air flow,
A=WxL
A = (50mm) (1m/1000mm) x (60mm) (1m/1000mm)
= 0.00300 m2
= 3.00 10-3 m2
2
Rearrange the equation Pdynamic 1 , we get V

2(0.1186 )
0.4473m / s
1.1855

Flow rate,
Q=VxA
=(0.4473m/s) x (3.00 10-3 m2)
=1.3419 x10-3 m3/s

2 Pdynamic

air

Conclusion
P

1.

1
V 2 gz const
2

Equation above is the well-known Bernoullis Equation. What are the


restrictions/assumptions in using it?
i.

Steady flow

ii.

Frictionless flow

iii.

No shaft work

iv.

Incompressible flow

v.

No heat transfer

vi.

Flow along a streamline

Define the following terms:


2. i. Streamline:
A curve that is everywhere tangent to the instantaneous local
velocity vector. For steady flow, the streamlines are constant
in time and fluid particles move along the streamlines.
Streamline comes directly from the mathematical aspects, not
from experimentally.
The equation for a streamline:
where dr is the magnitude of d
magnitude of
ii.

and V is the speed,m the

Piezometric head
In a piezometer tube, the liquid rises to a column height that
is proportional to the pressure being measured.
It expresses the energy per unit weight of the fluid, due to:
- the elevation, z, of the point above the datum level
- the fluid's pressure head, p/rg.
The piezometric then is defined as:

Brief principle of Pitot-static probe to determine the fluid speed:


3. Pitot-static probe is a combination of static pressure holes and
stagnation pressure hole; a slender double tube with aligned flow

and connected to differential meter for pressure. It measures both


total pressures through a hole in front while the static pressure in
the moving stream with the hole on the side. The dynamic pressure
can be calculated by taking the difference of the static pressure and
the total pressure. Thus from the dynamic pressure, the velocity of
flow can be computed.
Discussions
Wee Tiat Dong ME11711
In this Bernoulli experiment, we use pitot tube to measure the
pressure of the flow. We use venturi which has a narrow cross sectional
area from 60mm to 100mm. During the air entering this narrow cross
sectional area, its velocity is increase and reaches the maximum value at
80mm before decrease. From the data we obtain and calculated and also
from graph, we notice that when the cross sectional area getting smaller,
the velocity will become greater. This is because the flow rate of air is
constant that is the inlet and exit will have the same amount of air, so in
order to maintain the value, the velocity must increase. From the graph
pressure versus measurement section from top, y , we see that the static
and dynamic pressure will have mirror-imaged graph which means the
static pressure is increase while the dynamic pressure is decrease and
vice versa. This is very logical because in order to get the total pressure
which should be the same (error has occur), this two pressure must
collaborate with each others.
Parallax error might occur during the experiment is carried out. This
error might occur when we want to measure the water level. In order to
minimize this, our eyes should be parallel to the reading. Another error
which might be occurring is the flow of air might not be the same or
constant. We only assume the flow is steady, but we did not know it. So
the reading might be a bit inaccurate. Streamline also important, hence
streamline should not be disturbed. So, we must make sure that the tube
did not shake a lot, if not, the reading will be inaccurate. Compressible
and incompressible fluid might affect the reading also. In order to
standardize it, we use water as the fluid that we going to measure the
height.

Tan Fok Hon ME9761


The experiment is carried out to test the Bernoullis equation, which
is an approximate relation between pressure, velocity, and elevation, and
is valid in regions of steady, incompressible flow where net frictional
forces are negligible. In this experiment, we assume that the flow is

steady, a streamline flow, and no frictional lost. The air flow is directed to
a venturi, which is narrow in the middle in term of cross sectional area for
the air to flow. The narrow cross sectional area is constant from 60mm to
100mm. According to Bernoullis equation, the velocity of the air is faster
in the narrow cross sectional area. This is the affect of steady flow, in
order to maintain the constant flow rate throughout the whole flow area,
the speed of the air have to be increased in for small cross sectional area
in the venturi. And as the cross sectional area increases at the end of the
venturi, the air speed is decreased due to the affect of diffusion. From the
graph that is plotted, we can see that the dynamic pressure is inversely
proportional to the static pressure, this is due to the Bernoullis equation
of maintaining the same total pressure.
Errors also can be obviously pointed out in the result of the
experiment. Some of the error may include the human parallax error,
when we measuring the water level of the pitot tube, and also the point of
measuring pressure inside the venturi. This can be resolve by taking
average values after few measurements taken. Other than that, the flow
of the air also is not in streamline, only we are assuming that it is. The
steady state of the air flow may be affected by the frictional contact of the
wall of the venturi and the air when the venturi is narrowing in the middle,
thus cause erroneous in proving the theory.

Muhammad Izzat Bin Nor Hisham PE10220


In the experiment, we assume that it is a steady state flow,
frictionless flow, we use incompressible flow, there is no shaft work, no
heat transfer and the fluid is flowing along a streamline. In the
experiment, we can see that as the cross section area increases, the
velocity decreases. The basic trend in the experiment is as the velocity
increases the dynamic pressure also increases as the static pressure
decreases. Total pressure represents submission of static and dynamic
pressure. So with increasing any one of the pressure, the other one will
decrease. In the experiment we see that the total pressure differs at every
section but the difference is quite low with the difference between the
highest and lowest pressure is just 0.0128.
Parallax error may occur during the experiment as the eyes of the
reader are not at the same level with the line of measurement. In order to
have more accurate reading we can use paper to take the reading or take
a few readings and find the average reading. Another error is the air may
not be steady as we assume it is. The reason is the air flow in the tube
may be turbulent when the area is changing. That is why the total

pressure we get differs even though it differs very low. The total pressure
should be constant.

Yasser Putra Rifemi ME 11095


This experiment is done to apply the Bernoulli equation. First thing
that we must do is to make some assumptions:
1. Incompressible flow (satisfied because gas is compressible).
2. Frictionless flow (hardly satisfied; friction will always occur even
though it's very small).
3. Steady flow (it could have steady flow eventhough the age of the
machine should also be put into consideration. Don't measure it
right after it's swithced on or because it's not steady yet).
4. No heat transfer (this could be satisfied because the temperature
maintained unchanged as best as possible).
5. No shaft work (satisfied because there are no other machinery are
involved).
According to Bernoulli, an increase in velocity will directly affect the
pressures, which will decreases. This can be seen easily from the table
and the graph that we got. The reason being is Bernoulli stated that the
sum of kinetic, potential, and flow energies of the fluid will be constant.
Errors did occur even though it's small. One of the factors is the
assumptions that we made; assumptions will always lead to errors
because it doesn't represent the real conditions that will happen. Second
is parallax error, since the reading is done manually so human error can
contributes big difference to the result. The last factor is the pitot tube
wasn't exactly straight (parallel to the streamline).
To avoid errors, we have to make sure that the reader's eye is
parallel to the measurement apparatus to get a perfect reading. The pitot
tube must also be straight to get the best result.