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Sliding Contact Bearings

SlidingContactBearings
VedatTemiz
Assistant Professor ofMachine Design

Introduction
A
Abearingisamachineelementwhichsupportanothermovingmachine
bearing is a machine element which support another moving machine
element(knownasjournal).Itpermitsarelativemotionbetweenthe
contactsurfacesofthemembers,whilecarryingtheload.
Alittleconsiderationwillshowthatduetotherelativemotionbetween
l l
d
ll h
h d
h
l
b
thecontactsurfaces,acertainamountofpoweriswastedinovercoming
frictionalresistanceandiftherubbingsurfacesareindirectcontact,there
willberapidwear.
Inordertoreducefrictionalresistanceandwearandinsomecasesto
carry away the heat generated a layer of fluid (known as lubricant) may be
carryawaytheheatgenerated,alayeroffluid(knownaslubricant)maybe
provided.
Thelubricantusedtoseparatethejournalandbearingisusuallyamineral
oilrefinedfrompetroleum,butvegetableoils,siliconoils,greasesetc.,
il fi d f
l
b
bl il ili
il
maybeused.

Classification ofBearings
g
1
1.Dependinguponthedirectionofloadtobesupported.The
Depending upon the direction of load to be supported The
bearingsunderthisgroupareclassified as:
(a)Radialbearings,and(b)Thrustbearings.
(a) Radial bearings and (b) Thrust bearings

Classification ofBearings
g
2
2.Dependinguponthenatureofcontact.Thebearingsunder
Depending upon the nature of contact The bearings under
thisgroupareclassifiedas:
(a)Slidingcontactbearings,and(b)Rollingcontactbearings.
(a) Sliding contact bearings and (b) Rolling contact bearings

TypesofSlidingContact
B i
Bearings
The
Theslidingcontactbearingsinwhichtheslidingactionisguidedina
sliding contact bearings in which the sliding action is guided in a
straightlineandcarryingradialloads,asshowninFig.(a),maybecalled
slipperorguidebearings.Suchtypeofbearingsareusuallyfoundincross
head of steam engines
headofsteamengines.
Theslidingcontactbearingsinwhichthe
slidingactionisalongthecircumference
ofacircleoranarcofacircleandcarrying
radialloadsareknownasjournalor
j
sleevebearings.Whentheangleof
contactofthebearingwiththejournalis
360 asshowninFig.(a),thenthebearing
360
as shown in Fig (a) then the bearing
iscalledafulljournalbearing.Thistype
ofbearingiscommonlyusedinindustrial
machinery to accommodate bearing loads
machinerytoaccommodatebearingloads
inanyradialdirection.

TypesofSlidingContact
B i
Bearings
Whentheangleofcontactofthebearing
withthejournalis120,asshowninFig.
(b),thenthebearingissaidtobepartial
journalbearing.Thistypeofbearinghas
lessfrictionthanfulljournalbearing,but
it can be used only where the load is
itcanbeusedonlywheretheloadis
alwaysinonedirection.
Themostcommonapplicationofthe
partial journal bearings is found in rail
partialjournalbearingsisfoundinrail
roadcaraxles.
Thefullandpartialjournalbearingsmay
b
becalledasclearancebearingsbecause
ll d
l
b i
b
thediameterofthejournalislessthan
thatofbearing.

TypesofSlidingContact
B i
Bearings
Whenapartialjournalbearinghasnoclearancei.e.thediametersofthe
journalandbearingareequal,thenthebearingiscalledafittedbearing,
as shown in Fig. (c).
asshowninFig.(c).

TypesofSlidingContact
B i
Bearings
Theslidingcontactbearings,accordingtothethicknessoflayerofthe
l b i tb t
lubricantbetweenthebearingandthejournal,mayalsobeclassifiedas
th b i
d th j
l
l b l ifi d
follows:
1.Thickfilmbearings.Thethickfilmbearingsarethoseinwhichthe
f
g
g
workingsurfacesarecompletelyseparatedfromeachotherbythe
lubricant.Suchtypeofbearingsarealsocalledashydrodynamic lubricated
bearings.
2.Thinfilmbearings.Thethinfilmbearingsarethoseinwhich,although
lubricantispresent,theworkingsurfacespartiallycontacteachother
atleast
tl t partofthetime.Suchtypeofbearingsarealsocalledboundary
t f th ti
S ht
fb i
l
ll d b
d
lubricatedbearings.
3.Zerofilmbearings.Thezerofilmbearingsarethosewhichoperate
withoutanylubricantpresent.
4.Hydrostaticorexternallypressurizedlubricatedbearings.The
hydrostatic bearings are those which can support steady loads without any
hydrostaticbearingsarethosewhichcansupportsteadyloadswithoutany
relativemotionbetweenthejournalandthebearing.Thisisachievedby
forcingexternallypressurizedlubricantbetweenthemembers.

Hydrodynamic Lubricated
B i
Bearings
Inhydrodynamic lubricatedbearings,thereisathickfilmoflubricant
betweenthejournalandthebearing.Alittleconsiderationwillshowthat
when the bearing is supplied with sufficient lubricant, a pressure is build
whenthebearingissuppliedwithsufficientlubricant,apressureisbuild
upintheclearancespacewhenthejournalisrotatingaboutanaxisthatis
eccentricwiththebearingaxis.
Theloadcanbesupportedbythisfluidpressurewithoutanyactual
Th l d
b
t d b thi fl id
ith t
t l
contactbetweenthejournalandbearing.
Theloadcarryingabilityofahydrodynamicbearingarisessimplybecausea
viscousfluidresistsbeingpushedaround.
Undertheproperconditions,thisresistancetomotionwilldevelopa
pressure distribution in the lubricant film that can support a useful load
pressuredistributioninthelubricantfilmthatcansupportausefulload.

Hydrodynamic Lubricated
B i
Bearings
The
Theloadsupportingpressureinhydrodynamic
load supporting pressure in hydrodynamic
bearings arises from either
1.theflowofaviscousfluidinaconvergingchannel
(knownaswedgefilmlubrication),or
2.theresistanceofaviscousfluidtobeingsqueezed
out from between approaching surfaces (known as
outfrombetweenapproachingsurfaces(knownas
squeezefilmlubrication).

ImportantFactorsfortheFormationofThick
Oil Film in Hydrodynamic Lubricated Bearings
OilFilminHydrodynamicLubricated
According
AccordingtoReynolds,thefollowingfactorsareessentialfor
to Reynolds the following factors are essential for
theformationofathickfilmofoilinhydrodynamiclubricated
bearings:
g
1.Acontinuoussupplyofoil.
2.Arelativemotionbetweenthetwosurfacesinadirection
approximatelytangentialtothesurfaces.
3.Theabilityofoneofthesurfacestotakeupasmallinclination
totheothersurfaceinthedirectionoftherelativemotion.
4.Thelineofactionofresultantoilpressuremustcoincidewith
thelineofactionoftheexternalloadbetweenthesurfaces.

WedgeFilmJournalBearings
g
g
Theloadcarryingabilityofawedgefilmjournalbearingresultswhenthe
journaland/orthe bearingrotatesrelativetotheload.Themostcommon
caseisthatofasteadyload,afixed(nonrotating)bearingandarotating
journal.Fig.(a)showsajournalatrestwithmetaltometal contactatAon
thelineofactionofthesupportedload.
Whenthejournalrotatesslowlyinthe anticlockwisedirection,asshownin
Fig.(b),thepointofcontactwillmovetoB,sothatthe angleAOBisthe
angle of sliding friction of the surfaces in contact at B In the absence of a
angleofslidingfrictionofthesurfacesincontactatB.Intheabsenceofa
lubricant, therewillbedrymetaltometalfriction.Ifalubricantispresent
intheclearancespaceofthebearing andjournal,thenathinabsorbed
film of the lubricant may partly separate the surface but a continuous
filmofthelubricantmaypartlyseparatethesurface,butacontinuous
fluidfilmcompletelyseparatingthesurfaceswillnotexistbecauseofslow
speed.

WedgeFilmJournalBearings
g
g
Whenthespeedofthejournalisincreased,acontinuousfluidfilmis
establishedasinFig.(c).Thecentreofthejournalhasmovedsothatthe
minimumfilmthicknessisatC.Itmaybenoted thatfromDtoCinthe
directionofmotion,thefilmiscontinuallynarrowingandhenceisa
,
y
g
converging film.Thecurvedconvergingfilmmaybeconsideredasawedge
shapedfilmofaslipperbearing wrappedaroundthejournal.Alittle
consideration will show that from C to D in the direction of rotation,as
considerationwillshowthatfromCtoDinthedirectionof
rotation as
showninFig. (c),thefilmisdivergingandcannotgiverisetoapositive
pressureor asupportingaction.

WedgeFilmJournalBearings
g
g
Fig.below showsthetwoviewsofthebearingshowninFig.(c),withthe
variationof pressureintheconvergingfilm.Actually,becauseofside
leakage,theangleofcontactonwhich pressureactsislessthan180.

SqueezeFilmJournalBearing
q
g
In
Inawedgefilmjournalbearing,thebearingcarriesa
a wedge film journal bearing the bearing carries a steady
steady
loadandthejournalrotatesrelativetothebearing.
Butincertaincases,thebearingsoscillate
But in certain cases the bearings oscillate orrotatesoslowly
or rotate so slowly
thatthewedgefilmcannotprovideasatisfactoryfilm
thickness.
Iftheloadis uniformorvaryinginmagnitudewhileactingina
constantdirection,thisbecomesathinfilmor possiblyazero
filmproblem.Butiftheloadreversesitsdirection,the
squeezefilmmaydevelop sufficientcapacitytocarrythe
dynamic loads without contact between the journal and the
dynamicloadswithoutcontactbetweenthejournalandthe
bearing.
Suchbearingsareknownassqueezefilmjournalbearing.
Such bearings are known as squeeze film journal bearing

PropertiesofSlidingContact
B i Materials
Bearing
M
i l
When
Whenthejournalandthebearingsarehavingproper
the journal and the bearings are having proper
lubricationi.e.thereisafilmofclean, noncorrosivelubricant
inbetween,separatingthetwosurfacesincontact,theonly
, p
g
,
y
requirementof thebearingmaterialisthattheyshouldhave
sufficientstrengthandrigidity.
However,theconditions underwhichbearingsmustoperate
inservicearegenerallyfarfromidealandthustheother
properties
ti asdiscussedhere
di
dh
mustbeconsideredinselecting
tb
id d i
l ti
thebestmaterial.

PropertiesofSlidingContact
B i Materials
Bearing
M
i l
1
1.Compressivestrength.Themaximumbearingpressureis
Compressive strength The maximum bearing pressure is
considerablygreaterthantheaverage pressureobtainedby
dividingtheloadtotheprojectedarea.Thereforethebearing
g
p j
g
materialshould havehighcompressivestrengthtowithstand
thismaximumpressuresoastopreventextrusionor other
permanentdeformationofthebearing.
2.Fatiguestrength.Thebearingmaterialshouldhave
sufficientfatiguestrengthsothatitcan
ffi i t f ti
t
th th t it
withstandrepeated
ith t d
t d
loadswithoutdevelopingsurfacefatiguecracks.Itisofmajor
importance in aircraftandautomotiveengines
importancein
aircraft and automotive engines

PropertiesofSlidingContact
B i Materials
Bearing
M
i l
3
3.Comformability.Itistheabilityofthebearingmaterialto
Comformability It is the ability of the bearing material to
accommodateshaftdeflections andbearinginaccuraciesby
p
plasticdeformation(orcreep)withoutexcessivewearand
(
p)
heating.
4.Embeddability.Itistheabilityofbearingmaterialto
accommodate(orembed)smallparticles ofdust,gritetc.,
withoutscoringthematerialofthejournal.
5.Bondability.Manyhighcapacitybearingsaremadeby
bondingoneormorethinlayersofa bearingmaterialtoa
high strength steel shell Thus the strength of the bond i e
highstrengthsteelshell.Thus,thestrengthofthebondi.e.
bondability isan importantconsiderationinselectingbearing
material.

PropertiesofSlidingContact
B i Materials
Bearing
M
i l
6.Corrosionresistance.Thebearingmaterial
g
shouldnotcorrode
awayundertheactionoflubricatin oil.Thispropertyisof
particularimportanceininternal combustionengineswherethe
sameoilisusedto lubricatethecylinderwallsandbearings.Inthe
cylinder, thelubricatingoilcomesintocontactwithhotcylinder
walls and may oxidise andcollectcarbondepositsfrom
wallsandmayoxidise
and collect carbon deposits from thewalls.
the walls
7.Thermalconductivity.Thebearingmaterial shouldbeofhigh
thermal conductivity so as to permit therapidremovaloftheheat
thermalconductivitysoastopermit
the rapid removal of the heat
generatedbyfriction.
8.Thermalexpansion.Thebearingmaterial
p
g
shouldbeoflow
coefficientofthermalexpansion,so thatwhenthebearing
operatesoverawiderangeof temperature,thereisnoundue
changeintheclearance.

Properties
p
ofmetallicbearingg materials

MaterialsusedforSliding
C t tB i
ContactBearings
1
1.Babbit
Babbit metal.Thetinbaseandleadbasebabbits
metal The tin base and lead base babbits arewidely
are widely
usedasabearingmaterial, becausetheysatisfymost
requirementsforgeneralapplications.Thebabbits
q
g
pp
are
recommendedwhere themaximumbearingpressure(on
projectedarea)isnotover7to14N/mm2.Whenappliedin
automobiles,thebabbit isgenerallyusedasathinlayer,0.05
mmto0.15mmthick,bondedtoan insertorsteelshell.The
composition of the babbit metalsisasfollows:
compositionofthebabbit
metals is as follows :
Tinbasebabbits :Tin90%;Copper4.5%;Antimony5%;Lead
0 5%
0.5%.
Leadbasebabbits :Lead84%;Tin6%;Anitmony 9.5%;
pp
Copper0.5%.

MaterialsusedforSliding
C t tB i
ContactBearings
3.Castiron.Thecastironbearingsareusuallyusedwithsteel
journals.Suchtypeofbearings arefairlysuccessfulwhere
l b
lubricationisadequateandthepressureislimitedto3.5
d
d h
l
d
N/mm2 andspeed to40metres perminute.
4.Silver.Thesilverandsilverleadbearingsaremostlyusedin
aircraft engines where the fatiguestrengthisthemost
aircraftengineswherethe
fatigue strength is the most
importantconsideration.

MaterialsusedforSliding
C t tB i
ContactBearings
5.Nonmetallicbearings.Thevariousnonmetallicbearings
aremadeofcarbongraphite,rubber,woodandplastics.The
carbongraphitebearingsareselflubricating,dimensionally
b
h b
lf l b
d
ll
stableovera widerangeofoperatingconditions,chemically
inert and can operate at higher temperatures than other
inertandcanoperateathighertemperaturesthan
other
bearings.Suchtypeofbearingsareusedinfoodprocessing
andotherequipmentwhere
q p
contaminationbyoilorgrease
y
g
mustbeprohibited.Thesebearingsarealsousedin
applicationswhere theshaftspeedistoolowtomaintaina
h d d
hydrodynamicoilfilm.
i il fil

MaterialsusedforSliding
C t tB i
ContactBearings
Thesoftrubberbearingsareusedwithwaterorotherlow
viscositylubricants,particularly wheresandorotherlarge
particlesarepresent.Inadditiontothehighdegreeof
l
dd
h h hd
f
embeddability and comformability,therubberbearingsare
excellent for absorbing shock loads and vibrations The rubber
excellentforabsorbingshockloadsandvibrations.The
rubber
bearingsareusedmainlyonmarinepropellershafts,hydraulic
turbinesandpumps.
p p
Thewoodbearingsareusedinmanyapplicationswherelow
cost,cleanliness,inattentionto lubricationandantiseizingare
important.

MaterialsusedforSliding
C t tB i
ContactBearings
ThecommonlyusedplasticmaterialforbearingsisNylonandTeflon.These
materialshave manycharacteristicsdesirableinbearingmaterialsandboth
can be used dry i e as a zero film bearing TheNylonisstronger,harderand
canbeuseddryi.e.asazerofilmbearing.
The Nylon is stronger harder and
moreresistanttoabrasivewear.Itisusedforapplicationsinwhich these
propertiesareimportante.g.elevatorbearings,camsintelephonedialsetc.
TheTeflonisrapidly replacingNylonasawearsurfaceorlinearforjournal
andotherslidingbearingsbecauseofthe
g
g
followingproperties:
gp p
1. Ithaslowercoefficientoffriction,about0.04(dry)ascomparedto0.15
forNylon.
2.
2 Itcanbeusedathighertemperaturesuptoabout315Cascomparedto
It
b
d t hi h t
t
t b t 315C
dt
120CforNylon.
3. Itisdimensionallystablebecauseitdoesnotabsorbmoisture,and
y
4. Itispracticallychemicallyinert.

PropertiesofLubricants
p
1.Viscosity.Itisthemeasureofdegreeoffluidityofaliquid.It
p y
p p y y
ofwhichanoilisabletoform,,
isaphysicalpropertybyvirtue
retainandofferresistancetoshearingabufferfilmunder
heatand pressure.Thegreatertheheatandpressure,the
greaterviscosityisrequiredofalubricanttoprevent thinning
andsqueezingoutofthefilm.
Thefundamentalmeaningofviscositymaybeunderstoodby
Th f d
t l
i
f i
it
b
d t db
consideringaflatplatemoving underaforcePparalleltoa
stationary plate the two plates being separated by a thin film
stationaryplate,thetwoplatesbeingseparatedbyathinfilm
ofafluid lubricantofthicknessh,asshowninFig.

PropertiesofLubricants
p
Theparticlesofthelubricantadherestronglytothe movingandstationary
plates.Themotionisaccompaniedbyalinearsliporshearbetweenthe
particles throughouttheentireheight(h)ofthefilmthickness.IfAisthe
areaoftheplateincontactwiththe lubricant,thentheunitshearstressis
givenby
AccordingtoNewton'slawofviscousflow,themagnitudeofthisshearstressvaries
directly withthevelocitygradient(dV/dy).Itisassumedthat
with the velocity gradient (dV/dy) It is assumed that
(a)thelubricantcompletelyfillsthespacebetweenthetwosurfaces,
(b)thevelocityofthelubricantateachsurfaceissameasthatofthesurface,and
( )
fl
f th l b i t
di l t th
l it f th l t i
li ibl
(c)anyflowofthelubricantperpendiculartothevelocityoftheplateisnegligible.

whereZisaconstantof
proportionality
p
p
y andisknownas
absoluteviscosity(orsimply
viscosity)ofthe lubricant.

PropertiesofLubricants
p
Whenthethicknessofthefluidlubricantissmallwhichisthecasefor
bearings,thenthevelocity gradientisverynearlyconstantasshowninFig.

WhenisinN/m2,hisinmetres andVisinm/s,thentheunitofabsoluteviscosityis
givenby
However,thecommonpractice
,
p
istoexpresstheabsolute
viscosityinmassunits,suchthat

PropertiesofLubricants
p
Theviscocity ofthelubricantismeasuredbySaybolt universalviscometer.
Itdeterminesthe timerequiredforastandardvolumeofoilatacertain
temperaturetoflowunderacertainhead throughatubeofstandard
diameterandlength.ThetimesodeterminedinsecondsistheSaybolt
universalviscosity.InordertoconvertSaybolt
y
y
universalviscosityin
y
secondstoabsoluteviscosity(in kg/ms),thefollowingformulamaybe
used:

Z=Absoluteviscosityattemperaturetinkg/ms,and
S Saybolt universalviscosityinseconds.
S=Saybolt
universal viscosity in seconds

PropertiesofLubricants
p
2.Oiliness.Itisajointpropertyofthelubricantandthebearing
surfacesincontact.Itisa measureofthelubricatingqualities
underboundaryconditionswherebasemetaltometalis
prevented onlybyabsorbedfilm.Thereisnoabsolutemeasureof
oiliness.
ili

PropertiesofLubricants
p
3
3.Density.Thispropertyhasnorelationtolubricatingvaluebutis
Density This property has no relation to lubricating value but is
usefulinchangingthe kinematicviscositytoabsoluteviscosity.
Mathematically
Absoluteviscosity= Kinematicviscosity(inm2/s)
where=Densityofthelubricatingoil.
Thedensityofmostoftheoilsat15.5Cvariesfrom860to950
kg/m3 (theaveragevaluemay betakenas900kg/m3 ).The
densityatanyothertemperature(t)maybeobtainedfromthe
following relation,i.e.
t=15.5 0.000657.t
where15.5 =Densityofoilat15.5 C.

PropertiesofLubricants
p
4
4.Viscosityindex.Thetermviscosityindexisusedtodenotethe
Viscosity index The term viscosity index is used to denote the
degreeofvariationofviscosity withtemperature.
5.Flashpoint.Itisthelowesttemperatureatwhichanoilgivesoff
p
p
g
sufficientvapour tosupport amomentaryflashwithoutactually
settingfiretotheoilwhenaflameisbroughtwithin6mmatthe
surfaceoftheoil.
6.Firepoint.Itisthetemperatureatwhichanoilgivesoff
sufficientvapour toburnit continuouslywhenignited.
7.Pourpointorfreezingpoint.Itisthetemperatureatwhichan
oilwillceasetoflowwhen
l ll
fl
h cooled.
l d

TermsusedinHydrodynamic
J
JournalBearings
lB i
A
AhydrodynamicjournalbearingisshowninFig.,inwhichOis
hydrodynamic journal bearing is shown in Fig in which O is
thecentreofthejournal andOisthecentreofthebearing.

D=Diameterofthebearing,
d = Diameter of the journal
d=Diameterofthejournal,
and
l = Length of the bearing
l=Lengthofthebearing.

TermsusedinHydrodynamic
J
JournalBearings
lB i
1
1.Diametral
Diametral clearance.Itthedifferencebetweenthe
clearance It the difference between the
diametersofthebearingandthejournal.Mathematically,
diametral clearance,,
c=D d
Note:Thediametral
oe
e d a e a cclearance(c)ina
ea a ce (c) a
bearingshouldbesmall enoughto
producethenecessaryvelocitygradient,
so that the pressure built up will support
sothatthepressurebuiltupwillsupport
theload.Alsothe smallclearancehasthe
advantageofdecreasingsideleakage.
However the allowance must be made for
However,theallowancemustbemadefor
manufacturingtolerancesinthejournal
andbushing.Acommonlyusedclearance
inindustrialmachinesis0.025mm
d
l
h
percmofjournaldiameter.

TermsusedinHydrodynamic
J
JournalBearings
lB i
2
2.Radialclearance.Itisthedifferencebetweentheradiiof
Radial clearance It is the difference between the radii of
thebearingandthejournal. Mathematically,radialclearance,

3.Diametral
3
Diametral clearanceratio.Itisthe
clearance ratio It is the
ratioofthediametral clearancetothe
diameterofthe journal.
j
Mathematically,diametral clearance
ratio

TermsusedinHydrodynamic
J
JournalBearings
lB i
4
4.Eccentricity.Itistheradialdistancebetweenthecentre(O)
Eccentricity It is the radial distance between the centre (O)
ofthebearingandthedisplaced centre(O)ofthebearing
underload.Itisdenotedbye.
y
5.Minimumoilfilmthickness.Itistheminimumdistance
betweenthebearingandthejournal, undercomplete
lubricationcondition.Itisdenotedbyh0 andoccursattheline
ofcentres asshownin Fig.
Itsvaluemaybeassumedasc/4.

TermsusedinHydrodynamic
J
JournalBearings
lB i
6.Attitudeoreccentricityratio.Itistheratioofthe
y
eccentricitytotheradialclearance.
Mathematically,attitudeoreccentricityratio,

7.Shortandlongbearing.Iftheratioof
the length to the diameterofthejournal
diameter of the journal
thelengthtothe
(i.e.l/d)islessthan1,thenthebearing
is saidtobeshortbearing.Ontheother
hand,ifl/d isgreaterthan 1,thenthe
bearingisknownaslongbearing

TermsusedinHydrodynamic
J
JournalBearings
lB i
Notes:1.Whenthelengthofthejournal(l)isequaltothe
g
j
( )
q
diameterof thejournal(d),thenthebearingiscalledsquare
bearing.
2. Becauseofthesideleakageofthelubricantfromthe
bearing, thepressureinthefilmisatmosphericattheendsof
th b i Th averagepressurewillbehigherforalong
thebearing.The
ill b hi h f
l
bearingthanforashortor squarebearing.Therefore,from
the stand point of side leakage a bearing withalargel/d
thestandpointofsideleakage,abearing
with a large l/d ratio
ratio
ispreferable.However,spacerequirements, manufacturing,
tolerancesandshaftdeflectionsarebettermetwithashort
bearing.Thevalueofl/d maybetakenas1to2forgeneral
industrial machinery.Incrankshaftbearings,thel/dratiois
f
frequentlylessthan1.
tl l
th 1

BearingCharacteristicNumberand
Bearing Modulus for Journal Bearings
BearingModulusforJournalBearings
The
Thecoefficientoffrictionindesignofbearingsisofgreatimportance,
coefficient of friction in design of bearings is of great importance
becauseitaffordsa meansfordeterminingthelossofpowerdueto
bearingfriction.Ithasbeenshownbyexperiments thatthecoefficientof
friction for a full lubricated journal bearing is a function of three variables
frictionforafulllubricatedjournalbearingisafunctionofthreevariables,
i.e.

Thereforethecoefficientoffrictionmay
be expressed as
beexpressedas

=Coefficientoffriction,
C ffi i t f f i ti
=Afunctionalrelationship,
Z =Absoluteviscosityofthe
lubricant in kg / m s
lubricant,inkg/ms,
N =Speedofthejournalinr.p.m.,

p =Bearingpressureontheprojectedbearing
gp
p j
g
areainN/mm2,
=Loadonthejournal l d
d=Diameterofthejournal,
l=Lengthofthebearing,and
c =Diametral clearance.

BearingCharacteristicNumberand
Bearing Modulus for Journal Bearings
BearingModulusforJournalBearings

ThefactorZN/pistermedasbearingcharacteristicnumberandisa
dimensionlessnumber.
weseethattheminimumamountoffriction
p
valueof
occursatAandatthispointthe
ZN/p isknownasbearingmoduluswhichis
denotedbyK.Thebearingshouldnotbe
operatedatthisvalueofbearingmodulus,
p
g
because aslightdecreaseinspeedorslight
increasein pressurewillbreaktheoilfilm
andmakethejournal tooperatewithmetal
tometalcontact.Thiswill resultinhigh
friction,wearandheating.Inorder to
preventsuchconditions,thebearingshould
be designedforavalueofZN/patleast
threetimes theminimumvalueofbearing
modulus(K).

CoefficientofFrictionfor
J
JournalBearings
lB i
Coefficientoffriction,
C ffi i t f f i ti
(whenZisinkg/ms
andpisinN/mm2)
whereZ,N,p,dandchaveusualmeaningsasdiscussedinpreviousslides,
and
k=Factortocorrectforendleakage.Itdependsupontheratiooflength
tothediameterofthebearing(i.e.l/d).
g(
/ )
=0.002forl/dratiosof0.75to2.8.
TheoperatingvaluesofZN/pshouldbecomparedwithvaluesgiveninTables
in the following slides toensure
inthe
to ensure safemarginbetweenoperatingconditions
safe margin between operating conditions
andthepointoffilmbreakdown

Design
Design
valuesfor
journal
bearings

Design
Design
valuesfor
journal
bearings

CriticalPressure oftheJournal
B i
Bearing
The
Thepressureatwhichtheoilfilmbreaksdownsothatmetal
pressure at which the oil film breaks down so that metal
tometalcontactbegins,isknown ascriticalpressureorthe
minimumoperatingpressureofthebearing.Itmaybe
p
gp
g
y
obtainedbythe followingempiricalrelation,i.e.
Criticalpressureorminimumoperatingpressure,

(whenZisinkg/ms)

Sommerfeld Number
The
TheSommerfeld
Sommerfeld numberisalsoadimensionlessparameter
number is also a dimensionless parameter
usedextensivelyinthedesignof journalbearings.
Mathematically,
y,

Fordesignpurposes,itsvalueistakenasfollows:

(whenZisinkg/msandpisinN/mm2)

HeatGeneratedinaJournal
B i
Bearing
The
Theheatgeneratedinabearingisduetothefluidfrictionand
heat generated in a bearing is due to the fluid friction and
frictionofthepartshaving relativemotion.Mathematically,
heatgeneratedinabearing,
g
g,

=Coefficientoffriction,
W=LoadonthebearinginN,
=PressureonthebearinginN/mm2 Projectedareaofthebearing inmm2 =p(l d),
bb
l
/
V=Rubbingvelocityinm/s
disinmetres,
N=Speedofthejournalinr.p.m.
N = Speed of the journal in r p m

HeatGeneratedinaJournal
B i
Bearing
After
Afterthethermalequilibriumhasbeenreached,heatwillbedissipatedat
the thermal equilibrium has been reached heat will be dissipated at
theoutersurfaceof thebearingatthesamerateatwhichitisgenerated
intheoilfilm.Theamountofheatdissipatedwill dependuponthe
temperature difference size and mass of the radiating surface and on the
temperaturedifference,sizeandmassoftheradiatingsurfaceandonthe
amountof airflowingaroundthebearing.
However,fortheconvenienceinbearingdesign,theactualheat
dissipatingareamaybeexpressedintermsoftheprojectedareaofthe
journal.
H t di i t d b th b i
Heatdissipatedbythebearing,
C=HeatdissipationcoefficientinW/m2/C,
A=Projectedareaofthebearinginm2=l d,
tb =TemperatureofthebearingsurfaceinC,and
ta =TemperatureofthesurroundingairinC.

HeatGeneratedinaJournal
B i
Bearing
The
TheaveragevaluesofC(inW/m2/
average values of C (in W/m2/C)
C), forjournalbearingsmaybetakenas
for journal bearings may be taken as
follows:
Forunventilatedbearings(Stillair)
=140to420W/m2/C
Forwellventilatedbearings
=490to1400W/m
490 to 1400 W/m2//C
C
Ithasbeenshownbyexperimentsthatthetemperatureofthebearing(tb)is
approximately mid
way between the temperature of the oil film (t0))andthe
and the
midwaybetweenthetemperatureoftheoilfilm(t
temperatureoftheoutsideair(ta).In otherwords,

HeatGeneratedinaJournal
B i
Bearing
Notes
Notes:1.
: 1 Forwelldesignedbearing,thetemperatureoftheoilfilmshouldnotbe
For well designed bearing the temperature of the oil film should not be
morethan60C,otherwisethe viscosityoftheoildecreasesrapidlyandthe
operationofthebearingisfoundtosuffer.Thetemperatureofthe oilfilmis
often called as the operating temperature of the bearing
oftencalledastheoperatingtemperatureofthebearing.
2.Incasethetemperatureoftheoilfilmishigher,thenthebearingiscooledby
circulatingwaterthrough coilsbuiltinthebearing.
3.Themassoftheoiltoremovetheheatgeneratedatthebearingmaybe
obtainedbyequatingtheheat generatedtotheheattakenawaybytheoil.We
know that the heat taken away by the oil
knowthattheheattakenawaybytheoil,

Qt=m.S.t

J/sorwatts

wherem=Massoftheoilinkg/s,
where m = Mass of the oil in kg / s
S=Specificheatoftheoil.Itsvaluemaybetakenas1840to2100J/kg/C,
t=DifferencebetweenoutletandinlettemperatureoftheoilinC.

DesignProcedure forJournal
B i
Bearing
The
Thefollowingproceduremaybeadoptedindesigningjournalbearings,
following procedure may be adopted in designing journal bearings
whenthebearingload, thediameterandthespeedoftheshaftareknown.
1.Determinethebearinglengthbychoosingaratioof l/dfromrelated
Table.
bl
2. Checkthebearingpressure,p=W/l.d fromrelated Table forprobable
satisfactoryvalue.
y
3. AssumealubricantfromTable26.2anditsoperating temperature(t0).
Thistemperatureshouldbebetween 26.5Cand60Cwith82Casa
maximum for high temperatureinstallationssuchassteamturbines.
maximumforhigh
temperature installations such as steam turbines
4. DeterminetheoperatingvalueofZN/pforthe assumedbearing
temperatureandcheckthisvaluewith correspondingvaluesinrelated Table
,todetermineth possibilityofmaintainingfluidfilmoperation.
5. Assumeaclearanceratioc/dfromrelated Table.

DesignProcedure forJournal
B i
Bearing
6
6. Determinethecoefficientoffriction()byusingthe
Determine the coefficient of friction () by using the relation
relation
asdiscussedinprevious slides.
7.
7 Determinetheheatgeneratedbyusingtherelationas
Determine the heat generated by using the relation as
discussedinprevious slides.
8.Determinetheheatdissipatedbyusingtherelationas
p
y
g
discussedinprevious slides.
9. Determinethethermalequilibriumtoseethattheheat
dissipatedbecomesat leastequalto theheatgenerated.In
casetheheatgeneratedismorethantheheatdissipatedthen
eitherthe
i h h bearingisredesignedoritisartificiallycooledby
b i i d i d i i
ifi i ll
l db
water.

SolidJournalBearingg
A
Asolidbearing,asshowninFig.below,isthesimplestformofjournal
solid bearing as shown in Fig below is the simplest form of journal
bearing.Itissimplya blockofcastironwithaholeforashaftproviding
runningfit.Thelowerportionoftheblockis extendedtoformabaseplate
or sole with two holes to receive bolts for fastening it to the frame An oil
orsolewithtwoholestoreceiveboltsforfasteningittotheframe.An
oil
holeisdrilledatthetopforlubrication.Themaindisadvantagesofthis
bearingare
1.Thereisnoprovisionforadjustmentincaseofwear,and
2.Theshaftmustbepassedintothebearingaxially,i.e.endwise.
Sincethereisnoprovisionforwear
adjustment, therefore this type of bearing
adjustment,thereforethistypeofbearing
isusedwhenthe shaftspeedisnotvery
highandtheshaftcarrieslightloadsonly.

BushedBearingg
A
Abushedbearing,asshowninFig.below,isanimprovedsolidbearingin
bushed bearing as shown in Fig below is an improved solid bearing in
whichabushofbrass orgunmetalisprovided.Theoutsideofthebushisa
drivingfitintheholeofthecastingwhereasthe insideisarunningfitfor
the shaft When the bush gets worn out it can be easily replaced In small
theshaft.Whenthebushgetswornout,itcanbeeasilyreplaced.Insmall
bearings,thefrictionalforceitselfholdsthebushinposition,butforshafts
transmittinghighpower, grubscrewsareusedforthepreventionof
rotationandslidingofthebush.
d ld
f h b h

SplitBearingorPlummerBlock
p
g
Asplitbearingisusedforshafts
A
splitbearing is used for shafts
runningathighspeedsandcarrying
heavyloads.Asplit bearing,as
showninFig.,consistsofacastiron
h
i Fi
it f
ti
base(alsocalledblockorpedestal),
gunmetal orphosphorbronze
brasses,bushesorstepsmadein
twohalvesandacastironcap.The
twohalves ofthebrassesareheld
togetherbyacaporcoverbymeans
ofmildsteelboltsandnuts.
Sometimes thinshimsare introducedbetweenthecapandthebaseto
providean adjustment forwear.Whenthe bottomwearsout,oneortwo
shimsareremovedandthenthecapistightenedbymeansofbolts.

Design
g considerations
Thebrassesareprovidedwithcollarsorflangesoneithersideinorderto
preventitsaxial movement.Topreventitsrotationalongwiththeshaft,
thefollowingfourmethodsareusuallyusedin practice.
1.Thesungs areprovidedatthesidesasshowninFig.(a).
2.Asungisprovidedatthetop,whichfitsinsidethecapasshowninFig.
2 A sung is provided at the top which fits inside the cap as shown in Fig
(b).Theoil holeisdrilledthroughthesung.
3.Thestepsaremaderectangularontheoutsideandtheyaremadetofit
insideacorresponding
d
d hole,asshowninFig.(c).
h l
h
( )
4.Thestepsaremadeoctagonalontheoutsideandtheyaremadetofit
insideacorresponding
p
g hole,asshowninFig.(d).
,
g ( )

DesignofBearingCapsand
B lt
Bolts
Whenasplitbearingisused,thebearingcapistightenedonthetop.The
l di
loadisusuallycarried
ll
i d bythebearingandnotthecap,butinsomecases
b h b i
d
h
b i
e.g.splitconnectingrodendsindoubleactingsteam engines,a
considerableloadcomesonthecapofthebearing.Therefore,thecapand
theholding downboltsmustbedesignedforfullload.
Thecapisgenerallyregardedasasimplysupported beam,supportedby
holding down bolts and loaded at the centre as shown in Fig below
holdingdownboltsandloadedatthecentreasshowninFig.below.
Bendingstress
W=Loadsupportedatthecentre,
a =Distancebetweencentres ofholdingdown
bolts,
l=Lengthofthebearing,and
t=Thicknessofthecap
Note: Whenanoilholeisprovidedinthecap,then
thediameteroftheholeshouldbesubtractedfrom
thelength ofthebearing.

DesignofBearingCapsand
B lt
Bolts
Thecapofthebearingshouldalsobeinvestigatedforthestiffness.We
k
knowthatforasimply
h f
i l supportedbeamloadedatthecentre,the
db
l d d
h
h
deflection,

Thedeflectionofthecapshouldbe
e de ect o o t e cap s ou d be
limitedtoabout0.025mm.

DesignofBearingCapsand
B lt
Bolts
Inordertodesigntheholdingdownbolts,theloadoneachboltistaken
33% hi h h
33%higherthanthe
h normalloadoneachbolt.Inotherwords,loadon
ll d
hb l I
h
d l d
eachboltistaken 4.W/3.n wherenisthenumberof boltsusedforholding
downthecap.
Letdc=Corediameterofthebolt,and
t =Tensilestressforthematerialofthebolt.

Fromthisexpression,thecorediameter
(dc)maybecalculated.Afterfindingthe
)
b
l l d Af fi di
h
corediameter, thesizeoftheboltisfixed.

OilGrooves
The
Theoilgroovesarecutintotheplain
oil grooves are cut into the plain bearingsurfacestoassistinthe
bearing surfaces to assist in the
distribution oftheoilbetweentherubbingsurfaces.It preventssqueezing
oftheoilfilmfrom heavilyloadedlowspeedjournalsand bearings.
Thetendencytosqueezeoutoilis
h
d
l greaterinlowspeedthaninhighspeed
l
d h
h h
d
bearings,becausetheoilhasgreaterwedging actionathighspeeds.Atlow
speeds,the journalrestsuponagivenareaofoilfilmforalongerperiodof
time,tendingtosqueezeouttheoil overtheareaofgreatestpressure.
Thegroovesfunctionasoilreservoirswhichholdsanddistributes theoil
especiallyduringstartingoratverylowspeeds.
p
y
g
g
y
p
Theoilgroovesarecutatrightanglestothe lineoftheload.The
circumferentialanddiagonalgroovesshouldbeavoided,ifpossible.The
effectiveness of the oil grooves is greatly enhanced if the edges of grooves
effectivenessoftheoilgroovesisgreatlyenhancediftheedgesofgrooves
arechamfered.Theshallow andnarrowgrooveswithchamferededges
distributestheoilmoreevenly.Achamferededgeshould alwaysbe
providedatthepartinglineofthebearing.
id d
h
i li
f h b i

ThrustBearings
g
A
Athrustbearingisusedtoguideorsupporttheshaftwhichissubjectedto
thrust bearing is used to guide or support the shaft which is subjected to
aloadalongtheaxis oftheshaft.Suchtypeofbearingsaremainlyusedin
turbinesandpropellershafts.Thethrustbearings areofthefollowingtwo
types :
types:
1.Footsteporpivotbearings,and
2.Collar bearings.
g
Inafootsteporpivotbearing,theloaded shaftisverticalandtheendof
theshaftrestswithin thebearing.Incaseofcollarbearing,theshaft
continues through the bearing
continuesthroughthebearing.
Theshaftmaybe verticalorhorizontalwithsinglecollarormany collars.
Weshallnowdiscussthedesignaspects ofthesebearingsinthefollowing
articles.

FootsteporPivotBearings
p
g
A
Asimpletypeoffootstepbearing,suitable
simple type of footstep bearing suitable foraslowrunningandlightly
for a slow running and lightly
loadedshaft,isshown inFig.Iftheshaftisnotofsteel,itsend mustbe
fittedwithasteelface.Theshaftisguidedinagunmetalbush,pressed
into the pedestal and preventedfromturningbymeansofapin.
intothepedestaland
prevented from turning by means of a pin

FootsteporPivotBearings
p
g
Sincethewearisproportionaltothevelocityoftherubbingsurface,which(i.e.
rubbingvelocity) increaseswiththedistancefromtheaxis(i.e.radius)ofthe
bearing,thereforethewearwillbedifferent atdifferentradii.Duetothiswear,the
distributionofpressureoverthebearingsurfaceisnot uniform.Itmaybenoted
thatthewearismaximumattheouterradiusandzeroatthecentre.Inorder to
compensateforendwear,thefollowingtwomethodsareemployed.
1.Theshaftiscounterboredattheend,asshowninFig.(a).
2.Theshaftissupportedonapileofdiscs.Itisusualpracticetoprovidealternate
2 The shaft is supported on a pile of discs It is usual practice to provide alternate
discsof differentmaterialssuchassteelandbronze,asshowninFig. (b),sothat
thenextdisccomes intoplay,ifonediscseizesduetoimproperlubrication.

FootsteporPivotBearings
p
g
Itmaybenotedthatafootstepbearingisdifficulttolubricateastheoilisbeing
thrownoutwards fromthecentrebycentrifugalforce.
Indesigning,itisassumedthatthepressureisuniformlydistributedthroughout
thebearing surface.
Let

FootsteporPivotBearings
p
g
Whenthepressureinuniformlydistributedoverthebearingarea,then
e
e p essu e u o y d s bu ed o e e bea g a ea, e

andthetotalfrictionaltorque,

Powerlostinfriction,

FootsteporPivotBearings
p
g
Notes:1.Whenthecounterboringoftheshaftisconsidered,thenthebearing
o es
e
e cou e bo g o e s a s co s de ed, e
e bea g
pressure,

a d e o a c o a o que,
andthetotalfrictionaltorque,

FootsteporPivotBearings
p
g
Notes
Notes:2.Theallowablebearingpressure(p)forthefootstepbearingsmaybe
: 2 The allowable bearing pressure (p) for the footstep bearings may be
takenasfollows:
(a)Forrubbingspeeds(V)from15to60m/min,thebearingpressureshouldbe
suchthatp.V.42,when pisinN/mm2 andVinm/min.
(b)Forrubbingspeedsover60m/min.,thepressureshouldnotexceed0.7
N/mm2.
(c)Forintermittentservice,thebearingpressuremaybetakenas10.5N/mm2.
(d)Forveryslowspeeds,thebearingpressuremaybetakenashighas14N/mm2.
3.Thecoefficientoffriction
forthefootstepbearingmay
betakenas0.015.

CollarBearings
g
Inacollar bearing,theshaftcontinuesthroughthebearing.The shaftmay
be vertical or horizontal, with single collarormanycollars.Asimple
beverticalorhorizontal,withsingle
collar or many collars. A simple
multicollar bearingforhorizontalshaftisshowninFig.below.
Thecollarsareeitherintegralpartsoftheshaftor rigidlyfastenedtoit.
Th
Theouterdiameterofthe
t di
t
f th collarisusuallytakenas1.4to1.8timesthe
ll i
ll t k
1 4 t 1 8 ti
th
inner diameterofthecollar(i.e.diameteroftheshaft).
Thethicknessofthecollariskeptasonesixth diameteroftheshaftand
clearancebetween collarsasonethirddiameteroftheshaft.In designing
collarbearings,itisassumedthatthe pressureisuniformlydistributed
over the bearing surface.
overthebearing

CollarBearings
g
Whenthepressureisuniformlydistributedoverthebearingsurface,then
bearing pressure,
bearingpressure,
Powerlostinfriction,
andthetotalfrictionaltorque,

Notes:1.Thecoefficientoffrictionforthecollarbearingsmaybetakenas0.03to0.05.
2. Thebearingpressureforasinglecollarandwatercooledmulticollaredbearingsmaybe
takensameas forfootstepbearings.