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Transition from Student to Physical Therapist :

Changes in Perceptions of Professional Role and


Relationship Between Perceptions and Job
Satisfaction
Roberta M Schwertner, Dorothy Pinkston, Patricia
O'Sullivan and Betty Denton
PHYS THER. 1987; 67:695-701.

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Transition from Student to Physical Therapist


Changes in Perceptions of Professional Role and Relationship
Between Perceptions and Job Satisfaction
ROBERTA M. SCHWERTNER,
DOROTHY P1NKSTON,
PATRICIA O'SULLIVAN,
and BETTY DENTON
A longitudinal study of 15 entry-level postbaccalaureate degree graduates was
conducted to determine whether their perceptions of the professional role of the
physical therapist and of self in that role changed after employment had begun
and whether a relationship exists between these perceptions and job satisfaction.
Data were collected by mail using a semantic differential test for measuring role
perceptions and a questionnaire that included items related to job satisfaction
and to demographic data. The return rate was 93%. At the time of data collection,
the graduates had been employed for 12 to 18 months. The data on role
perceptions were compared with data previously reported by Fincher Corb et al4
that had been collected on these same subjects when they entered the physical
therapy education program and when they completed the program. Kendall's
coefficient of concordance revealed significant differences (p < .05) in three
concepts relating to the professional role of the physical therapist and in one
concept relating to self in that role. In each instance, the role perception score
was lower after 12 to 18 months of employment. Job satisfaction scores were
relatively high among the subjects. Spearman correlation coefficients calculated
between job satisfaction and role perception scores revealed a positive and
direct relationship between three role concepts and job satisfaction. Results of
this study provide information about the professional socialization process in
physical therapy.
Key Words: Education, Physical therapy, Self concept, Students.

Professional socialization is the process of "induction into


a professional role, within the context of a socializing agent."1
This process consists of three basic components. The first
component is the socializing environment, which includes the
concrete physical environment in addition to symbolic influences such as culture and social structure. The values, attitudes, expectations, and perspectives the individual brings
into this process comprise the second component. The third
component is the outcome of the socialization experience. If
the events in the socialization process are intense and meaningful enough, changes may occur in the individual's attitudes,
beliefs, and perceptions.1 What one perceives is both directly
and indirectly influenced by the environment and the length
of time exposed to the event.2

Ms. Schwertner is Center Coordinator for Clinical Education, Rotary Rehabilitation Center, Mobile, AL 36617. She was a student in the postprofessional
Master of Science program in physical therapy, The University of Alabama at
Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, when this study was completed. Address all
correspondence to 122 Booth Circle, Ocean Springs, MS 39564 (USA).
Dr. Pinkston is Professor, Division of Physical Therapy, School of Community and Allied Health, University Station, The University of Alabama at
Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294.
Dr. O'Sullivan is Associate Professor, Center for Nursing Research, The
University of Alabama at Birmingham.
Ms. Denton is Assistant Professor, Division of Physical Therapy, School of
Community and Allied Health, The University of Alabama at Birmingham.
The results of this study were presented in poster format at the Sixty-Second
Annual Conference of the American Physical Therapy Association, Chicago,
IL, June 8-12, 1986.
This article was submitted August 21, 1985; was with the authors for revision
32 weeks; and was accepted August 5, 1986. Potential Conflict of Interest: 4.

A longitudinal study of the socialization process of physical


therapy students at The University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) was begun by fellow investigators in 1981.
Fecteau3 and Fincher Corb et al4 studied student perceptions
of the professional role of the physical therapist and of self in
that role at various stages in the professional education program. In these studies, the only significant change that occurred in the perceptions the students held of the professional
role of the physical therapist or of self in that role was in the
concept of "me as clinical researcher."4 Fincher Corb et al
reported that the studentsdemonstratedless favorable perceptions relating to this concept between entrance into the program and completion of their second year. They attributed
this change to the heavy emphasis placed on the research
process at this point in the curriculum and further suggested
that the overall lack of change that occurred was attributable
to the fairly favorable and stable perceptions held by students
on entering and continuing the educational program.4
Kramer5 and others6,7 reported that professional role perceptions may change or shift when the student begins employment. Conflict between role perceptions, expectations,
and realities experienced in the work environment may result
in job dissatisfaction.8-10 The purposes of this study were 1)
to describe the changes that occurred in the subjects' perceptions of the professional role of the physical therapist and of
self in that role after employment and 2) to determine whether
a relationship exists between these role perceptions and job
satisfaction. This information can be useful for determining
whether students' initial perceptions are consistent with those

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695

developed with experience in the field,4 for developing future


academic and clinical components of the physical therapy
curricula, and for counseling students for job placement. Two
research hypotheses were proposed.
1. The perception of the professional role of the physical
therapist and of self in that role would change significantly
across three time periods: initial entry into the professional
education program, graduation from the program, and
after 12 to 18 months of employment.
2. A positive and direct relationship would exist between the
level of job satisfaction and the subjects' perception of the
professional role of the physical therapist and of self in
that role.

REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE


Professional socialization generally has been considered to
occur during the professional education process.6 Some authors argue, however, that professional socialization continues
after graduation. Olmstead and Paget compared the professional socialization process of medical students to the socialization process of the childhood and adult stages of life.6
These authors viewed medical school as an extension of
childhood socialization in that it "typically provides the student with a core of attitudes, values, and norms which have
as their content what medical professors believe doctors
'should' and 'should not' do and think in a variety of situations."6
In addition, this process occurs in an environment that
forces the medical student into a learner role that is characterized by a student-teacher relationship rather than by a peer
relationship. In essence, the student must first learn the role
of a student in which one is expected to function for four
years. The student gradually must learn the professional role
through the demands of internship, residency, and practice.
These authors concluded that because the socializing structures of the classroom and medical practice setting are quite
different, "views on professional socialization should be expanded to include more than medical school."6
Kramer, in a study of June 1965 graduates from three
California State College nursing programs, reported that role
perceptions and role models changed significantly during the
first six months of employment after graduation.5 The findings from that study suggested that nurses became more
bureaucratically oriented the longer they were employed and
that this shift was associated with a shift away from a professionally centered model to a work-centered model. Kramer
believed that discrepancies may exist between the nursing
roles learned by the student and those encountered in the
work environment.5 Mathews-Gentry reported similar findings based on feedback from recent physical therapy graduates.11 This phenomenon is termed "reality shock" and has
been defined as the phenomenon that occurs when a conflict
exists between the values and expectations developed during
the professional education process and the realities encountered in the work environment.11
Others also have reported this phenomenon in physical
therapy.9,10 Gwyer, in a study of 1972 graduates, found that
33% reported a definite conflict between "personal views of
the ideal role of a physical therapist and the roles they found
themselves in as therapists," and two thirds of the respondents
expressed the frustration of being too prepared for their practice.9 Yarbrough completed an ethnographic study of physical

therapists in a suburban community hospital and reported


that the therapists felt they were not allowed to practice as
independently as they had been prepared to function. She
stated that "young staff were disillusioned and frustrated in
their attempts to adapt to the constraints placed on their
work."10 This role conflict may result in job dissatisfaction8-9
and a high turnover rate.10
Job satisfaction may be defined as the feelings one has
toward work.12 These feelings are related to perceived expectations and values.8,12 An individual's perceptions on entering
a job, therefore, are important contributors to job satisfaction.8,9 Other factors that have been related to high levels of
job satisfaction include: opportunities for autonomy, upward
mobility,9,13 promotion,9,13,14 new learning experiences,8 positive self-esteem,13 important work that gives a feeling of
accomplishment,14 a variety of work experiences, a supportive
staff, and available resources.8
Some authors have reported differences in value systems
related to job responsibilities. Weaver and Holmes, in a study
of 631 hospital employees, reported that those at the top of
the job hierarchy valued important work that gives a feeling
of accomplishment.14 Those in the middle of the job hierarchy
were most concerned with the opportunities for promotion,
and those at the lower end valued a high income.14
Although many researchers have investigated the socialization process in professional education and levels of job
satisfaction among health care professionals, few have investigated the influence of work experience on professional socialization or the relationship between the perception of
professional roles and the level ofjob satisfaction. The purpose
of this study was to investigate these factors among physical
therapists.
METHOD
Subjects
This study was a continuation of a study conducted by
Fincher Corb et al4 and included the same 15 students as
subjects. The overall study of professional role perceptions
received approval from the UAB's Institutional Review Board
for Human Use. The subjects consisted of the 15 graduates
of the 1983 postbaccalaureate degree entry-level program for
physical therapy at UAB. All members of the graduating class
of 1983 volunteered to participate in the study, although
eventually only 14 subjects provided the requisite data.
Procedure
For the purposes of this study, three tests were used. Test I
was administered on entry into the professional program, and
Test II was conducted one day before graduation. These tests
correspond with Tests I and V, respectively, as reported by
Fincher Corb et al.4 We conducted Test III 19 months after
graduation. Because of different beginning employment dates,
the range for length of employment was from 12 to 18 months.
Two measurement tools were used for data collection: a
semantic differential test15 and the short form of the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ).16 The semantic differential test developed by Fecteau3 was used for assessing role
perceptions and perceptions of self in the role of the physical
therapist. The format and characteristics of the test have been
reported in detail by Fincher Corb et al.4
The short form of the MSQ was used to measure the overall
level of job satisfaction. Permission to use the form was
PHYSICAL THERAPY

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EDUCATION
TABLE 1
Summary of Demographic Data (N = 14)
Variable
Sex
Male
Female
Age(yr)
25-29
>29
State practiced in
In state (Alabama)
Out of state
Population8 of town practiced in
10,000-14,999
25,000-49,999
50,000-99,999
>99,999
Number of practice settings since
graduation
1
2
Employment status
Full-time salaried
Gross annual income
$21,000-$24,999
$25,000-$49,999
Professional organization member
Yes
No
a

3
11

21
79

12
2

86
14

6
8

43
57

1
1
1
10

8
8
8
76

7
7

50
50

14

100

11
3

79
21

6
8

43
57

Data Analysis

Analysis for thefirsthypothesis was performed for each of


thefiveconcepts constituting the role of the physical therapist
and for the four concepts of self in that role. The data collected
at Test III from the semantic differential test were compared
to the data recorded in Tests I and II. A Kendall's coefficient
of concordance Wwas calculated for each concept across the
three tests. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences-X
(SPSS-X) was used for analysis.17 Testing for significant difference was set at the .05 level. A post hoc analysis18 was
performed for each concept where a significant difference was
shown.
For the second hypothesis, Spearman correlation coefficients were calculated between the general job satisfaction
score, the perception score for each of the concepts, and the
demographic data. The coefficients were tested to determine
whether the relationship was significant and direct. The level
of significance was set at the .05 level. The SPSS-X computer
package17 was used for analysis.
RESULTS

One score missing.

TABLE 2
Length of Employment in Months (N = 14)

s
Median
Range

and a second mailing was conducted as necessary. Fourteen


responses were received for a return rate of 93%. One of the
14 responses was unusable for data analysis of role perceptions
because of missing Test II data. That respondent's questionnaires were usable, however, for other data analysis.

In Present
Job

Since
Graduation

11.21
6.00
14.50
14.00

17.00
0.88
17.00
2.00

TABLE 3
Type of Facility in Which Employed (N = 14)
Type

Hospital
Private practice
Rehabilitation center
Hospital and extended care

8
2
3
1

57
14
21
7

granted by the Department of Vocational Psychology Research, University of Minnesota. The short form of the MSQ
consists of 20 items representing the 20 principal scales of the
long form of the MSQ. These items are intended to measure
job reinforcers and satisfaction with these reinforcers. A general job satisfaction score can be obtained by summing across
all 20 items. This measurement tool has been demonstrated
to be valid and reliable with a median reliability coefficient
of .90 for general satisfaction. An additional benefit of the
short form of the MSQ is that the questionnaire may be
completed in 5 to 10 minutes.16
The measurement tools along with a cover letter and demographic data sheet were mailed to each subject. A telephone call was made to nonrespondents three weeks later,

Analysis of the demographic data revealed that the majority


of the subjects were women (n = 11). Most were between the
ages of 25 and 29 years, practiced in cities with a population
greater than 99,999, received an annual salary between
$21,000 and $24,999, and had practiced an average of 17
months since graduation (Tabs. 1, 2). All were full-time
salaried employees, approximately half of whom were employed in Alabama and half in other states (Tab. 1). Seventyone percent of the respondents reported that they were employed as staff physical therapists (n = 10), and 29% were
employed as directors of physical therapy (n = 3) or as a
supervisor (n = 1). The majority practiced in a hospital setting,
and the others practiced in rehabilitation centers and private
practices (Tab. 3). The group was distributed equally between
employment in one or two practice settings since graduation
(Tab. 1). The subjects reported spending most of their time
in direct patient care; some time in administration-management, supervision-coordination, teaching, and consulting;
and little, if any, time in research or screening-prevention
activities (Tab. 4). Almost half of the subjects reported membership in a professional organization (Tab. 1).
Kendall's coefficient of concordance performed on the
concepts of the professional role of the physical therapist and
of self in that role demonstrated significant differences in the
following concepts: "physical therapist as clinical researcher,"
"physical therapist as clinical instructor," "physical therapist
as professional organization member," and "me as clinical
researcher." A post hoc analysis revealed that the significant
differences occurred primarily between Tests I and III (Tabs.
5, 6). For the "physical therapist as clinical researcher" concept, we found significant differences between Tests II and III
and between Tests I and III (Tab. 5). The significant difference
in the "physical therapist as professional organization member" concept was found between Tests II and III (Tab. 5). The

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current role perceptions were less favorable for each of these


concepts across the three test times.
The mean general job satisfaction score for the group was
77.79 (s = 9.97, range = 33.00). Spearman correlation coefficients demonstrated a positive and direct relationship between job satisfaction and the concepts of "me as clinical
instructor," "physical therapist as physical therapy departTABLE 4
Distribution of Time Spent in Activities in the Role of the
Physical Therapist (N = 14)
0%
Activity

1%25%

% n

51%75%

76%100%

% n

1 7 6 43 7
Direct patient care
Administrationmanagement
5 36 7 50 2 14
Supervisioncoordination
2 14 12 86
4 29 10 71
Teaching
Consulting
9 64 5 36
Research
13 93
1 7
Screening-prevention 11 79 3 21

50

26%50%

ment head," and "physical therapist as professional organization member" (Tab. 7).

DISCUSSION
Demographic Data
The demographic data in this study closely resemble the
data presented in the American Physical Therapy Association's 1982 Active Member Profile.19 These data also are
similar to the demographic data of a sample of 1983 active
members of the APTA reported in a study by Morrow.20
These similarities suggest that the subjects who participated
in this study are characteristic of active members of the APTA.

Role Perceptions
The results of this study demonstrated that role perceptions
change after the first 12 to 18 months of employment. These
data support the theory that the professional socialization
process continues after the formal education period6 and are
consistent with other reports of changing role perceptions in
the work environment.5,7,21 Only one concept relating to self
in the professional role of the physical therapist changed. All
other changes occurred in the concepts relating to the subject's

TABLE 5
Summary of Scores of Perceptions of the Role of the Physical Therapist (N = 13) (Possible Range of Scores: 16-112)
Tests
Concepts

Phvsical therapist as staff physical therapist


rank
Median
Range
s
Physical therapist as physical therapy department head
rank
Median
Range
s
Physical therapist as clinical researchera
rank
Median
Range
s
Physical therapist as clinical instructora
rank
Median
Range
s
Physical therapist as professional organization
membera
rank
Median
Range
s
a
b

I
Beginning
of Program

II
Completion
of Program

III
During
Employment

2.19
97.50
26.00
97.38
7.97

1.92
94.00
23.00
94.14
7.40

1.88
94.00
26.00
94.21
8.37

2.08
99.00
38.00
97.88
9.25

2.42
100.00
29.00
97.86
8.92

1.50
99.00
26.00
94.86
8.56

2.31 b
94.00
34.00
92.94
8.47

2.31 b
95.50
34.00
92.71
9.89

1.38b
90.50
29.00
88.43
7.93

2.38b
100.00
22.00
98.38
6.51

2.15
97.00
34.00
96.71
10.16

1.46b
95.00
24.00
93.71
7.60

2.19
92.00
35.00
90.38
9.19

2.46b
93.00
31.00
91.36
10.08

1.35b
86.00
32.00
81.86
11.04

Kendall's coefficient of concordance W significant at the .05 level.


Significant (p < .05) pair-wise differences from post hoc analysis.

PHYSICAL THERAPY

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EDUCATION
TABLE 6
Summary of Scores of Graduates' Perceptions of Themselves in
the Role of the Physical Therapist (N = 13) (Possible Range of
Scores: 16-112)
Tests
Concepts

Me as staff physical
therapist
rank
Median
Range
s
Me as physical therapy
department head
rank
Median
Range
s
Me as clinical
researchera
rank
Median
Range
s
Me as clinical instructor
rank
Median
Range
s
a
b

III
I
II
Beginning Completion
During
of Program of Program Employment

2.38
98.00
32.00
97.56
8.35

1.96
94.00
31.00
90.57
9.56

1.65
91.00
35.00
90.86
8.74

2.38
103.00
32.00
101.73
7.62

1.92
96.00
33.00
93.93
9.89

1.69
96.50
29.00
93.21
9.63

2.69b
93.50
32.00
92.88
8.75

2.00
91.00
39.00
88.29
10.25

1.31b
85.00
53.00
80.00
16.01

2.50
99.00
18.00
98.50
5.50

1.81
96.00
31.00
93.21
10.21

1.69
92.50
30.00
91.86
8.38

Kendall's coefficient of concordance W significant at the .05 level.


Significant (p < .05) pair-wise differences from post hoc analysis.

TABLE 7
Concepts Correlated with Satisfaction (N = 14)
Concepts
Me as clinical instructor
Physical therapist as physical therapy department head
Physical therapist as professional
organization member
a

Spearman
Correlation
Coefficient

Probabilitya

.49

.04

.56

.02

.66

.01

p<.05.

perceptions of the professional role of the physical therapist.


Changes in professional role concepts but not in self-concepts
suggest either that these subjects hold favorable perceptions
of themselves in the professional role, even though their
perceptions of the role have changed, or that the changes in
the perceptions of the professional role have not been great
enough to have influenced changes in the perceptions of self
in that role.
Three of the five concepts related to the professional role
of the physical therapist demonstrated significant differences.
Changes in role perceptions after becoming employed may be
explained by Kramer5 and Eli and Shuval22 who reported that
educational programs promote professional goals and ideals
that are inconsistent with those encountered in the work

environment. That graduates are less professionally oriented


and more work oriented after becoming employed5,21 also
could help to explain this change. Moreover, attitudes toward
the professional role may be a function of the roles occupied
and tasks performed on the job.7,21,22 The two concepts relating to the professional role that remained constant were
"physical therapist as physical therapy department head" and
"physical therapist as staff physical therapist." Ten of the
subjects who were staff physical therapists and 3 who were
physical therapy department heads spent little time in teaching, no time in research, and were not professional organization members. The reinforcement on the job in the roles of
staff physical therapist and department head in addition to
the lack of reinforcement in the roles of clinical researcher,
clinical instructor, and professional organization member
may contribute to the changes in perceptions found in this
study.
Tables 5 and 6 reveal that a gradual decline in perception
scores occurred for six of the nine concepts across the three
tests. The decline in scores was most marked in each test for
the concepts "physical therapist as clinical instructor," "me
as clinical researcher," and "me as clinical instructor." The
continued decline in perception scores relating to self in the
professional role may be supportive of the hypothesis that
changes in the perceptions of the professional role have not
been great enough to have influenced changes in the perceptions of self in that role.
The more favorable perceptions held by the respondents
on entry into the physical therapy education program could
have been the result of what has been termed "anticipatory
socialization."23,24 Anticipatory socialization has been reported among medical students and nurses.23,24 The process
is considered a form of self-socialization and occurs in an
effort to prepare oneself for a professional career.23 The decline in favorable perceptions may be the result of earlier
incorrect assumptions or information23 or could be related to
inconsistencies between what was expected and what was
encountered.5 No evidence exists indicating that the perceptions of the professional role or of self in that role have
stabilized for these subjects.
Another important finding, also reported by Fincher Corb
et al,4 was that the only concept that changed significantly
during the formal education program, "me as clinical researcher," is continuing to decline. Morrow reported that
nondelegate active members of the APTA held mildly to
moderately favorable attitudes toward research in physical
therapy.20 If the attitudes of these subjects are consistent with
those of other clinicians, the APTA's striving for further
research and continued professionalization in physical therapy could be impeded unless strategies are developed to
promote more positive attitudes.20
Job Satisfaction
Significant changes occurring in the concepts relating to
the professional role of the physical therapist but not to self
in that role could be indicative of professional role ambiguity.
Brief et al24 and Speedling et al25 reported that role ambiguity
can lead to job insecurities and dissatisfaction. The subjects
in this study, however, generally appeared to be satisfied with
their jobs (mean job satisfaction score = 77.79). Job satisfaction in the presence of role ambiguity may be explained by
researchers who report that role perceptions and their perceived importance are separate entities contributing to job

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699

satisfaction.8,26 Although some researchers have studied the


influence of value systems on job satisfaction,14,27 the scope
has been limited. Further research is recommended to determine the perceived importance of each professional role and
the relationship between the value placed on each role and
job satisfaction among physical therapists.
General job satisfaction scores were similar between this
group of physical therapists and engineers, the only professional group for which normative data for the short form of
the MSQ are available for comparisons.16 Both groups demonstrated higher satisfaction scores than technically trained
workers.16 Atwood and Wolf28 and Broski and Cook13 also
reported higher levels of job satisfaction among physical therapists when compared with technically trained workers and
with other health care professionals.
A positive and direct relationship was found between job
satisfaction scores and each of the concepts of "me as clinical
instructor," "physical therapist as physical therapy department head," and "physical therapist as professional organization member." Characteristics that have been shown by
others to be related to job satisfaction include autonomy,9,13
important work,14 and higher levels of work.13,27 Although
these characteristics were not analyzed specifically in this
study, individual perception scores, job satisfaction scores,
and demographic data revealed that three of the five highest
job satisfaction scores were obtained by two respondents who
were physical therapy department heads and one who was a
supervisor and professional organization member. Two of the
three individuals with the highest job satisfaction scores also
demonstrated the highest perception scores for the concepts
"me as clinical instructor," "physical therapist as physical
therapy department head," and "physical therapist as professional organization member." These observations could indicate that the subjects who scored highest on these three
concepts experience more autonomy, tend to be professionally oriented, and participate in higher level job activities than
the other subjects.
Other demographic variables such as age, sex, and salary
were not related to job satisfaction among the subjects in this
study. Because of the restrictive range in age, sex, and salary,
a relationship between these variables and job satisfaction
would be difficult to demonstrate. Other investigators have
reported that age, sex, and salary do contribute to job satisfaction.12,28 Further research is recommended to identify
professional job characteristics that contribute to job satisfaction among physical therapists.
STUDY IMPLICATIONS
Outcomes of this study have implications for physical therapy education and initial employment of graduates. The

implications are similar to findings and suggestions reported


by Gwyer9 and Yarbrough.10
1. Physical therapy faculties should make an effort to determine the extent of consistency between the professional
goals emphasized in their education programs and those
demonstrated in the work environment.
2. Educators should teach students strategies for coping with
discrepancies and effective mechanisms for facilitating
change.
3. Clinical experiences should be expanded to allow students
more time to function in the "real" work environment and
to practice coping and changing strategies.
4. Graduates should be guided into initial employment situations that offer professional stimulation and facilitate
positive role perceptions.
5. Methods for promoting favorable role perceptions in the
clinical setting should be developed.
Future research in the area of professional socialization
would provide a more complete picture of the socialization
process of physical therapists than was obtained in this study
if data are collected over longer periods of time and if more
sensitive measurement tools are used. The following recommendations are made to help strengthen future research designs:
1. Samples of subjects should include representatives from
several different educational institutions.
2. Personal and environmental influences on the socialization
process should be analyzed.
3. Data collection should be conducted just before the educational program and continue through several years of
employment.
4. Recorded interviews should be used in addition to other
methods for collection and analysis of data. Insight into
individuals' feelings and perceptions may be gained
through facial expressions and fluctuations in voice tones.
CONCLUSIONS
The results of this longitudinal study demonstrate that the
role perceptions of 15 physical therapy graduates continued
to change after graduation and support the theory of contiaued professional socialization. The data also suggest that the
members of this group of physical therapists generally are
satisfied with their jobs even in the presence of changing role
perceptions. Finally, the results of this study demonstrate that
role perceptions may contribute to job satisfaction. This information can be useful in developing physical therapy curricula and in guiding students into their initial employment.

REFERENCES
1. Levinson DJ: Medical education and the theory of adult socialization. J
Health Soc Behav 8:253-265, 1967
2. Combs AW, Richards AC, Richards F: Perceptual Psychology: A Humanistic Approach to the Study of Persons. New York, NY, Harper & Row,
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Volume 67 / Number 5, May 1987


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701

Transition from Student to Physical Therapist :


Changes in Perceptions of Professional Role and
Relationship Between Perceptions and Job
Satisfaction
Roberta M Schwertner, Dorothy Pinkston, Patricia
O'Sullivan and Betty Denton
PHYS THER. 1987; 67:695-701.

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